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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Sport Biomechanics
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Dec 2007
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Sep 2007
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Jun 2007
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Mar 2007
Selecting the target year
Biomechanical Analysis of the Elderly Gait with a Walking Assistive Device
Yoon, Suk-Hoon ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 2, 2007, Pages 1~9
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.2.001
Walking is not only an essential component of the human mobility, but also is a good exercise. Inability to walk freely can reduce an individual`s quality of life and independence substantially. Being a relatively low impact activity, walking is particularly good for the elderly and research has shown that regular walking in the elderly reduces the chance of fall-related injuries and mental diseases as well. In spite of the documented benefits of regular walking, it is still difficult to walk without the aid of assistive devices for the frail elderly who have lower extremity problems. Assistive walking devices(AWD), such as crutches, canes, hiking-poles, T-Poles and walkers, are often prescribed to the elderly to make their walking be safe and efficient. Many researchers have demonstrated the effects of AWDs such as reducing lower extremity loading, improved dynamic/gait stability, yet, no study has been done for gait pattern when the elderly gait with AWDs. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine whether T-Poles, one of the AWDs, change the elderly gait pattern. Eight community-dwelling female elderly participated in this study. Laboratory kinematics during walking with T-Poles(PW) and with out T-Poles(NPW) was assessed. PW showed significant increase in step width, stride length, gait velocity and decrease in swing time. No significances were found in lower body joint angles but meaningful trend and pattern were found. Maybe the reason was due to the participants. Our participants were healthy enough so that the effect of T-Poles was minimum. PW also showed typical gait phases which are no single support phase during a gait cycle. It indicates that walking with T-Poles may guarantee safe and confident walking to the frail elderly.
A Kinematic Analysis on Propulsion of COG by Types of Fin-kick in SCUBA Diving
Ryew, Che-Cheong ; Oh, Hyun-Soo ; Kim, Jin-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 2, 2007, Pages 11~21
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.2.011
The study was undertaken to present the quantitative materials available in underwater industries, underwater rehabilitation & physical training through comparison & analysis of effects contributing to propulsion of COG by types of fin-kick in underwater activities. For this 3D cinematography was performed for the skilled subjective and conclusions obtained on the basis of analysis of kinematic variables were as follows. In temporal variable the delay in the order of flutter>side>dolphin kick in elapsed time by total & phase resulted in longer sliding phase by larger fin kick of extension & flexion of both leg and thus more contributed in propulsion of COG. than those of the otherwise. In linear variable the contribution ratio to the result of propulsion of COG in both propulsive(mean
in Y axis) and sliding phases(mean
in Y axis)was shown to be order of flutter>dolphin>side fin kick. the maximum velocity of COG in Y direction was showed in both propulsive and sliding phases, and the contribution ratio to the propulsion of COG was in the order of flutter
dolphin>side fin kick. In angular variable the Significant difference in angle of leg joint by types of fin kick in both leg was showed but no routine order. The Significant difference in angular velocity of leg joint by types of fin kick in both leg was showed in the order of flutter>dolphin
side fin kick in propulsive but no in sliding phase. The Fluid resistance by tilting angle of trunk in both propulsive and sliding phase was decreased in the order of flutter>dolphin
side fin kick and tilting angle of trunk of the skilled was smaller than that of the unskilled in difference of maximum mean 7.97degree and minium mean 2.06degree. In summary of the above, It will desirable fin kick type because of more contribution to COG propulsion by the velocity & displacement in Y-axis and less fluid resistance by tilting angle of trunk and larger angular velocity in the case of more delayed in elapsed time of propulsive phase than that of the otherwise.
An Analysis of 500m Inline Skate Starting Motions
Park, Ki-Beom ; Lee, Joong-Sook ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 2, 2007, Pages 23~29
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.2.023
The purpose of this study was to examine if there are kinematic variables differences between national representative players (NRP) and non national representative players (NNRP) during 500 m inline skate starting motion. Four NRP and six NNRP were recruited for the study. Each subject executed starting motion five times on a
start way in a gymnasium. Kinematic variables were analyzed by the three-dimensional motion analysis system (60Hz). It was hypothesized that there are difference in elapsed time and center of mass acceleration in starting phase between groups since starting phase has been considered important in sprinting. The results showed that the NRP had significantly shorter starting phase time than that of NNRP. 1) An elapsed time in phase P1 of NRP was shorter than that of NNRP, and excellent players have early started their first stroke. 2) Both NRP and NNRP have started at the same spot, and displacement of the center of gravity in starting posture of NRP group was at the front compared to NNRP group. 3) Average step lengths of NRP were longer than those of NNRP, and a step change of NRP was stabler compared to that of NNRP. 4) In a speed change of the center of gravity NRP showed comparatively high speed from P1 to P4.
Changes of Ground Reaction Forces by the Change of Club Length in Golf Swing
Sung, Rak-Joon ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 2, 2007, Pages 31~40
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.2.031
Proper weight shifting is essential for a successful shot in golf swing and this could be described by means of the ground forces between the feet and ground. It is assumed that the ground forces would different according to the club used because the length and swing weight of each club is different. But, in present, it is not clear what changes are made by the change of clubs and this affect the swing motion. Therefore this study focused on the investigation of the changes of the ground forces and ground reaction forces (GRF) by the change of club length. The subjects were three professional male golfers. Four swings (driver, iron 3, iron 5, and iron 7) for each subject were taken by two high speed video cameras and two AMTI force platforms were used to measure the GRF simultaneously. Kwon GRF 2.0 and Mathcad 13 software were used to post processing the data. Changes of the three major component of GRF (Vertical, lateral, anterior-posterior force) at 10 predefined events were analyzed including the maximum. Major findings of this study were as follows. 1. Vertical forces; - There were no significant changes until the top of backswing. - Maximum was occurred at the club horizontal position in the downswing for both feet. The shorter club produced more maximum forces than longer ones in the left foot, but reverse were true for the right foot. - Maximum forces at impact shows the same patterns. 2. Lateral forces; Maximum was occurred at the club horizontal position for both feet, but there were no lateral forces because the direction of two forces was different. Maximum force pattern by different clubs was same as the vertical component. 3. Anterior-posterior forces; - This component made a counter-clock wise moment about a vertical axis located between two foot until the club vertical position was reached during the backswing, and reverse moment were produced when the club reached horizontal at the downswing. - Also this component made a forward moment about a horizontal axis located in the CG during the fore half of the downswing, and a reverse moment until the club reached vertical at the follow through phase. Maximum was occurred at the club vertical in the downswing for both feet. The longer club produced more maximum forces than shorter ones for both feet.
The Effects of Task-oriented Training on Kinetic Factors and Muscle Activities of CVA Patients
Park, Seung-Kyu ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 2, 2007, Pages 41~50
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.2.041
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Task-oriented training on the balance, lapse time and MVC(Maximum Voluntary Contraction) of CVA(cerebral vascular accident) patients. The active balance equipment was used to measure of the static balance, lapse time and task-oriented training. The EMG technique was used to record muscle activitie of affected side of gluteus medius and vastus medialis. The raw EMG data were filtered with band pass filter (60Hz) to remove artifacts and then low pass filtered (20Hz) to find the linear envelope which resemble muscle tension curve. The experiment had been conducted at the department of physical therapy in J hospital in M city during 8weeks. The thirty patients experienced the stroke were participated: training group (15), control group (15). They were ambulatory with or without an assistive device. They were assessed on central perturbation(mm) in the static balance, lapse time(s) and MVC test(mV). The data were analyzed using repeated measured ANOVA. The results were as follows: After Task-oriented training, central perturbation and lapse time was significantly differences in both groups(p<.001), and MVC in gluteus medius were no significant differences in both groups, but vastus medialis was significant differences in both groups (p<.001).
The Biomechanical Comparison of Running Shoes According to the Difference of Insole
Jin, Young-Wan ; Shin, Sung-Hwon ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 2, 2007, Pages 51~59
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.2.051
These studies show that I applied to functional insole (a specific A company) for minimizing shocks and sprain people`s ankle arising from running. How to an effect on human body which studied a kinematics and kinetics from 10 college students during experiments. This study imposes several conditions by barefoot, normal running shoes and put functional insole shoes ran under average
/sec by motion analysis and ground reaction force that used to specific A company. First of all, motion analysis was caused by achilles tendon angle, angle of the lower leg, angle of the knee, initial sole angle and barefoot angle. The result of comparative analysis can be summarized as below. Motion analysis showed that statically approximates other results from achilles tendon angle (p<.01), initial ankle angle(p<.05), initial sole angle(p<.001) and barefoot angle(p<.001). Ground reaction force also showed that statically approximates other results from impact peak timing (p<.001), Maximum loading rate(p<.001), Maximum loading rate timing (p<.001) and impulse of first 20 percent (p<.001). Above experiment values known that there was statically difference between Motion analysis and Ground reaction force under absorbing of the functional insole shoes which was not have an effect on our body for kinetics and kinematics.
Three Dimension Angle Change of the Trunk to the Muscular Endurance during a Prolonged Running
Kim, Tae-Sam ; Lee, Yeon-Jong ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 2, 2007, Pages 61~73
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.2.061
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the muscular endurance on the kinematic factors during a prolonged run. Subjects, 12 males, who were divided into three groups(lower group, general group, and in higher group) after measuring the lower limb`s muscular endurance previously. They were asked toe run on the treadmill at 7.4km/h of speed. To analyze the kinematics parameters of the trunk during running, the ProReflex MCU Camera(Qualisys, Sweden) were used. All parameters were sampled from 5 minute, 40 minute, and 60 minute moments during running. An ANOVA with Repeated Measure was used to test the statistic significance between and within groups for all parameters determined with SPSS 11.0. Significance was defined as p<.05. The conclusions were as follows; There was significantly difference within(lapse of running time) groups in the take-off and minimum knee angle event of swing phase of the trunk flexion and extension. In conclusion, the muscular endurance affected on movement of the trunk during a prolonged run. In addition, it showed that there was significant difference in the energy consumption by lapse of running time. Therefore, it seems to be relationships between the muscular endurance and running efficiency.
In According to Walking Time The Character of the Ground Reaction Force in Elderly OA(Osteo-Arthritis) Female Patient
Lee, Jung-Ho ; Seo, Jung-Suk ; Eun, Seon-Deok ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 2, 2007, Pages 75~82
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.2.075
The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare the effect of gait time on the gait patterns in elderly female OA and non-OA patients. The intensity of the subjects joint pain was surveyed by using WOMAC. Twelve subjects participated in this study. Measurements were taken for every the 10 minutes for 30 minutes after walking by a force plate. The following variables were recorded; double stance support time, Fx, Fy, Fx_time, Fz and so on. From the investigation of these variables the following was observed and concluded. The Fz values for the OA group was 1.01BW at the start and after 30 minutes was 1.04BW on the other hand the non-OA group`s Fz1 was 1.08BW and 1.10BW. There was no significant difference calculated between the two groups and at the start and end of the experiment about all the variables. Therefore, it is concluded that there was no negative effect caused by walking for the 30 minutes and that it was an effective way of strengthen both respiratory and muscle function.
The Study of the Control Mechanism of Heel-rise Posture in Dance Major Student and Non-dance Majors
Jung, Mi-Ra ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 2, 2007, Pages 83~91
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.2.083
This experiment studied the change in a human`s control of his or her static posture by analyzing the stabilogram diffusion and, by using the said study, evaluated the control ability of different groups with different experiences. The postures had a rising requirement of heel-rise according to three conditions: heel-toe, ball, toe; the groups were divided into dance major student and non-dance majors. The results of the critical points according to posture did not show a direct relation with the change in postures that had a rising requirement of heel-rise. The diffusion coefficient(D) had greater stochastic activity for short-term regions that utilize open-loop controls without feedback than for long-term regions that used closed-loop controls with feedback to maintain balance. The directional results of the body undergoing disturbance showed that A/P direction`s diffusion coefficient (D) was larger than that of M/L direction. Both feet`s planar diffusion coefficients were a linear combination of the diffusion coefficients calculated for the x and y axis. In studying the different abilities to control posture between a dance major student and a non-dance majors, a comparison of open-loop control`s diffusion coefficient(D) was effective, and dance major student had superior control ability to that of non-dance majors.
Analysis of the Research Trend of Artistic Gymnastics on the Sports Biomechanics
Han, Yoon-Soo ; Kwon, Oh-Seok ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 2, 2007, Pages 93~101
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.2.093
The purpose of this study was to analyze the research trends of artistic gymnastics on the kinetics. This study analyzed the 76 published papers in the Journal of Korean Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation & Dance and Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics between 1995 and 2006. Papers were split into two groups for analysis, 1995-1999 and 2000-2006, and classified according to research methods, areas, and main topics. Conclusions are as follow. First, method of research were kinematical research(80.3%), kinetic(17.1%), and EMG research(2.6%). Second, areas of research were hi-bar(31.6%), vault(23.7%), parallel bars(21.1%), floor exercise(13.2%), rings(3.9%), balance beam(3.9%), uneven bars(2.6%). Last, main topic of research were focused on vault Tsukahara skill(13.9%), hi-bar flight skill(11.4%), parallel bars support skill(10.1%), hi-bar dismount skill(8.9%), floor exercise salto skill(8.9%).
Kinematic Analysis of Rising from a Chair in Healthy and Stroke Subjects
Yu, Yeon-Joo ; Lim, Bee-Oh ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 2, 2007, Pages 103~112
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.2.103
The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinematic characteristics during rising from a chair. Six stroke patients and three healthy subjects participated in the study. Three dimensional kinematic analysis was used to get the duration, center of mass, and lower extremity angle. The stroke patients performed longer duration(0.28sec) than the healthy subjects in rising from a chair. The stroke subjects stayed longer time than the healthy subjects did in phase 2(From the initiation of knee extension to the reversal of trunk flexion to trunk extension)(t
Effect of Different Heel Plates on Muscle Activities During the Squat
Chae, Woen-Sik ; Jeong, Hyeun-Kyeong ; Jang, Jae-Ik ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 2, 2007, Pages 113~121
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.2.113
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of three different plates(
)under heels on the lower limb muscles and erector spinae during squat exercise. Ten high school korean traditional wrestling players(age:
, weight of barbell:
) performed squat exercise using three different tilting plates under heels at a cadence of 40beats/sec with 80% one repetition maximum load. Surface electrodes were placed on the participants` left and right erector spinae, and rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, tibialis anterior, biceps femoris, medial gastrocnemius, and lateral gastrocnemius in the right lower extremity. One S-VHS camcorder(Panasonic AG456, 60fields/s) was placed 10m to the side of the participant. To synchronize the video and EMG data, a synchronization unit was used for this study. Average and Peak IEMG values were determined for each participant. For each variable, a one-way analysis of variance was used to determine whether there were significant differences among three different tilting plates under heels. When a significant difference was found in plates type, post hoc analyses were performed using the Tukey procedure. A confidence level of p<.05 was used to determine statistical significance. As a result of this study, maximum nEMG values of the tibialis anterior in
plates was significantly higher than the corresponding values for the other plates during the knee extension. This increased activation in the tibialis anterior muscle indicates an increase in displacement of center of gravity of body. It is very likely that additional muscle activation are needed to stop the forward and backward movement. The results also showed that muscular activities of quadriceps femoris and erector spinae were decreased with increasing angle of plates. This suggests that increasing angle of plate may help to sustain the balance and posture of squat exercise. It is considered that very few significant differences were found among three different plates(
) since elite players with much experience in squat exercise, were chosen as a participant of this study. In order to obtain meaningful results regarding the tilting angle of heel plates in squat exercise, kinetic and 3D kinematic analysis will be needed in the future study.
The Effect of 12 week Isotonic Exercise to Change Stabilization Ratio of Elderly Female Low Back Pain Patients
Han, Gil-Soo ; So, Jae-Moo ; Moon, Hun-Kee ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 2, 2007, Pages 123~130
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.2.123
This study is that the elderly female patients having low back pain(34 people) show a change of stabilization ratio after isotonic rehabilitation of 4 types(before exercise, after 4weeks, 8weeks, 12weeks). Under the cover of lumbar extension machine, isometric extension strength and stabilization ratio is measured and analyzed at some flexion angles(the degree of
). The conclusion is as follows. 1. The maximum lumbar extension strength at a range of 7 angles have an increase of 73.92% in case of 12weeks isotonic exercise(p<.001). 2. After 12weeks exercise, the lumbar flexion angle maximum extension strength, have an higher increase than 54% on the average at all angles(p<.001). These statistically show a meaningful increase of muscular strength. 3. After 12weeks isotonic exercise, the lumbar stabilization ratio have a decrease of 50.27% at a statistically meaningful level(p<.001). In case of 12weeks exercise comparing with 8weeks, the stabilization ratio decrease at the level of 1.85 versus 1. This figure is similar to that of a normal person. In view of this study, 12weeks exercise for the elderly female patients having low back pain has much influence on the change of lumbar stabilization ratio and this is the scientifically verified result of a long term exercise.
Analysis of Low-leg Activation and Movement of Soccer Players during Kicking Action by Applying Kinesiotaping
Kim, Yong-Jae ; Mo, An-Na ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 2, 2007, Pages 131~143
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.2.131
In this study, we are concluded like this : 5 men who are soccer player of P university in B city measure the Electromyography with an angle of motion according to kinesiotaping`s application when practicing in-step kick. When exercising in-step kick, the change of realization of muscle load of lower limbs enhence Gastrocnemius Lateralis and Vastus Medialis in the section of backswing, and improve Tibialis Anterior, Vastus Medialis, Rectus Femoris prior to impact after back-swing. Before impact, it mainly impoved Tibialis Anterior, Vastus Medialis, Rectus Femoris. After impact, it generally improved Gastrocnemius Lateralis, Vastus Medialis. Average integral electromyography value, it was such a small difference(; the difference of the value in Tibialis Anterior, Rectus Femoris, Vastus Medialis) that we can`t compare case of after taping than before. In Electromyography, in case of after taping was considerably decreased at Gastrocnemius Lateralis, there was statistically significant difference between before and after. It was a little increased, after taping than before at Knee angle. And degree was a little decreased at Ankle angle. But, It`s so delicate difference, there was not statistically significant difference between before and after.
The Kinematic Analysis of the Upper Extremity during Backhand Stroke in Squash
An, Yong-Hwan ; Ryu, Ji-Seon ; Ryu, Ho-Young ; Soo, Jae-Moo ; Lim, Young-Tae ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 2, 2007, Pages 145~156
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.2.145
The purposes of this study were to investigate kinematic parameters of racket head and upper extremities during squash back hand stroke and to provide quantitative data to the players. Five Korean elite male players were used as subjects in this study. To find out the swing motion of the players, the land-markers were attached to the segments of upper limb and 3-D motion analysis was performed. Orientation angles were also computed for angular movement of each segment. The results were as follows. 1) the average time of the back hand swing (downswing + follow-through) was 0.39s (0.24 s + 0.15 s). 2) for each event, the average racket velocity at impact was 11.17m/s and the velocity at the end of swing was 8.03m/s, which was the fastest swing speed after impact. Also, for each phase, 5.10m/s was found in down swing but 7.68m/s was found in follow-through. Racket swing speed was fastest after the impact but the swing speed was reduced in the follow-through phase. 3) in records of average of joints angle, shoulder angle was defined as the relative angle to the body. 1.04rad was found at end of back swing, 1.75rad at impact and it changes to 2.35 rad at the end of swing. Elbow angle was defined as the relative angle of forearm to upper arm. 1.73rad was found at top of backswing, 2.79rad at impact, and the angle was changed to 2.55rad at end of swing. Wrist angle was defined as the relative angle of hand to forearm. 2.48rad was found at top of backswing, 2.86rad at impact, and the angle changes to 1.96rad at end of swing. As a result, if the ball is to fly in the fastest speed, the body has to move in the order of trunk, shoulder, elbow and wrist (from proximal segment to distal segment). Thus, the flexibility of the wrist can be very important factor to increase ball speed as the last action of strong impact. In conclusion, the movement in order of the shoulder, elbow and the wrist decided the racket head speed and the standard deviations were increased as the motion was transferred from proximal to the distal segment due to the personal difference of swing arc. In particular, the use of wrist (snap) may change the output dramatically. Therefore, it was concluded that the flexible wrist movement in squash was very important factor to determine the direction and spin of the ball.
Kinematical Analysis of the Back Somersault in Floor Exercise
Chung, Nam-Ju ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 2, 2007, Pages 157~166
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.2.157
This study was to compare the major kinematic factors between the success and failure group on performing the back somersault motion in floor exercise. Three gymnasts(height :
, age :
, body weight :
) were participated in this study. The kinematic data was recorded at 60Hz with four digital video camera. Two successful motions and failure motions for each subject were selected for three dimensional analysis. 1. Success Trail It was appear that success trail was larger than failure group in projection velocity, but success trail was smaller than failure trail in projection angle. Also it was appear that success trail was longer than failure group in the time required. Hand segment velocity and maximum velocity in success trail were larger than those in failure trail, and this result was increasing the projection velocity and finally increasing the vertical height of center of mass. At the take-off(event 2), flection amount of hip and knee joint angle was contributed to the optimal condition for the take-off and at the peak point, hip and knee joint angle was maximum flexed for reducing the moment of inertia. Also in this point, upper extremities of success trail extended more than those of failure trail. in this base, success trail in upward phase(p3) 2. Failure Trail It was appear that failure trail was smaller than success trail in projection velocity, but failure trail was larger than success trail in projection angle. Also it was appear that failure trail was more short than success trail in the time required. Hand segment velocity and maximum velocity in failure trail were smaller than those in success trail, and this result was reducing the projection velocity and finally reducing the vertical high of center of mass. At the take-off(event 2), flection amount of hip and knee joint angle wasn`t contributed to the optimal condition for the take-off and at the peak point, hip and knee joint angle wasn`t maximum flexed for reducing the moment of inertia. Also in this point, upper extremities of failure trail didn`t extended more than those of success trail.
Kinematical Analysis of Tippelt Motion in Parallel Bars
Back, Hun-Sik ; Kim, Min-Soo ; Moon, Byoung-Yong ; Back, Jin-Ho ; Yoon, Chang-Sun ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 2, 2007, Pages 167~176
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.2.167
The purpose of this study was to offer suitable model for performing Tippelt motion and data for training Tippelt motion through the quantitative kinematical analysis of Tippelt motion in parallel bars. The results of analysing kinematic variations through three-dimensional reflection analysis of three members of the national team as the objects of the study were shown as follows. 1. It seemed that the shoulder-joints which are stretched as much as possible affects the whole Tippelt motion while one is swinging downward. The time of process of the center of mass for the body reaching to the maximum flection point should be quick and body`s moving from the vertical phase to the front direction should be controled as much as possible. 2. While one is swinging upward, the stability of flying motion could be made certain by the control of body`s rapid moving to the front direction and stretching shoulder-joints and hip-joint to reverse direction. 3. While one is flying upward, the body should be erected quickly and lessening the angle of the hip-joint affects the elevation of flight. When the powerful counter turn motion is performed, the stable motion could be made. As a result of this study, It seems that sudden fall and the maximum stretch of shoulder-joints is important during performing Tippelt motion in parallel bars. Also, it concludes that the maximum bending of hip-joints at the starting point of upward swing, sudden stretch to the reverse direction of shoulder-joints and hip-joints when one is leaving bars, control of body`s moving to the front direction, and lessening the angle of hip-joints at the flying phase is important.
Kinematical Differences of the Male Professional Golfers` 30 Yard Chip Shot and Pitch Shot Motion
Pyun, Eun-Kyung ; Park, Young-Hoon ; Youm, Chang-Hong ; Sun, Sheng ; Seo, Kuk-Woong ; Seo, Kook-Eun ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 2, 2007, Pages 177~185
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.2.177
Even though there were no clear definitions of the short game and short game distance, short game capability is crucial for a good golf score. Generally, chip shot and pitch shot are regarded as two principal components of the short game. Chip shot is a short, low trajectory shot played to the green or from trouble back into play. Pitch shot is a high trajectory shot of short length. Biomechanical studies were conducted usually to analyze full swing and putting motions. The purpose of the study was to reveal the kinematical differences between professional golfers` 30 yard
chip shot and
pitch shot motions. Fifteen male professional golfers were recruited for the study. Kinematical data were collected by the 60 Hz three-dimensional motion analysis system. Statistical comparisons were made by paired t-test, ANOVA, and Duncan of the SPSS 12.0K with the
value of .05. Results show that both the left hand and the ball were placed left of the center of the left and right foot at address. The left hand position of the chip shot was significantly left side of that of the pitch shot. But the ball position of the pitch shot was significantly right side of that of the chip shot. All body segments aligned to the left of the target line, open, at address. Except shoulder, there were no significant pelvis, knee, and feet alignment differences between chip shot and pitch shot. These differences at address seem for the ball height control. Pitch shot swing motions(the shoulder and pelvis rotation and the club head travel distance) were significantly bigger than those of the chip shot. Club head velocity of the pitch shot was significantly faster than that of the chip shot at the moment of impact. This was for the same shot length control with different lofted clubs. Swing motion differences seem mainly caused by the same shot length control with different ball height control.
A Kinetic Analysis of the Side Propulsion Task with Preparatory Motions
Kim, Yong-Woon ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 2, 2007, Pages 187~196
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.2.187
The purpose of this study was to find the most effective movement pattern from three different types of preparatory movement(squat, countermovement and hopping) in sideward responsive propulsion task, which had the time constraint to complete the performance. 7 healthy subjects participated in left and right side movement task by an external signal, which required the subject to perform the task as fast as possible. Mechanical output and joint kinetics focusing on the lower extremities were analyzed. The results were as follows. In spite of the shortest duration in propulsive phase, the hopping condition showed no difference with other conditions in the work output done and take-off velocity. It resulted from the greatest power output generated during the propulsive phase. A significant difference was found for joint moment and joint power according to the movement conditions. The joint moment and joint power for the countermovement and hopping conditions were larger than those in the squat condition. This was speculated to be due to the extra power that could be generated by the pre-stretch of muscle in preparation for the propulsion. The hopping condition which had substantially more pre-stretch load in the preparatory eccentric phase produced considerably more power than countermovement condition in the propulsive concentric phase. Furthermore during the hopping a large amount of joint moment and joint power could be produced in a shorter time. Therefore it was deemed that the hopping movement is an effective type of preparatory movement which takes much more advantage of the pre-stretch than any other movement.
The Kinetic and EMG Analysis about Supporting Leg of Uke in Judo
Park, Jong-Yul ; Kim, Tae-Wan ; Choi, In-Ae ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 2, 2007, Pages 197~205
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.2.197
The purpose of this study is to analyze the muscle activations and Ground Reaction Force(GRF) in university judo players, and provide the guide of training in Judo. Using surface electrode electromyography(EMG), we evaluated muscle activity in 5 university judo players during the Judo Uke Movements. Surface electrodes were used to record the level of muscle activity in the Tibialis Anterior, Rectus Femoris, Elector Spinae, Gluteus Maximus, Gastrocnemius muscles during the Uke. These signals were compared with %RVC(Reference voluntary contraction) which was normalized by IEMG(Integrated EMG). The Uke was divided into four phases : Kuzushi-1, Kuzushi-2, Tsukuri, Kake. The results can be summarized as follows: 1. The effective Uke Movements needs to short time in the Kake Phase 2. The Analysis of Electromyography of Uke Movements in Supporting Leg; TA(Tibialis anterior) had Higher %RVC in the Kuzushi Phase, RF(Rectus Femoris) had Higher %RVC in the Tsukuri Phase, GM(Gluteus Maximus) had Higher %RVC in the Kake Phase 3. The ground reaction force for Z(vertical) direction was showed increase tendency in Kuzushi phase, Tsukuri phase and decrease tendency in Kake phase.
A Biomechanical Analysis of Judo`s Kuzushi(balance-breaking) Motion
Kim, Sung-Sup ; Kim, Eui-Hwan ; Kim, Tae-Whan ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 2, 2007, Pages 207~216
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.2.207
The purpose of this study was to biomechanical analysis Judo`s Kuzushi throwing motion in order to increase the effectiveness of Nage-waja(throwing technique). The Tori was a Judo player with 18 years experience(4th degree) while the Uke was a player with 2 years experience(1st degree). The kinematic data was captured using the Vicon motion system (7 cameras) and the kinetics were recorded by force plates(2 AMTI). The following were the results; While leaning to the front the subject`s trunk`s angle was
, the lower limbs angle was
, knee angle was
and the vertical reaction of the left leg was 325.42N(BW 0.34) and the right leg was 233.7N(BW 0.47). While leaning back the subject`s trunk`s angle was
, the lower limbs angle was
, knee angle was
and the vertical reaction of the left leg was 299.53N(BW 0.43) and the right leg was 441.7N(BW 0.64). While leaning to the left the subject`s trunk`s angle was
, the lower limbs angle was
, knee angle was
and the vertical reaction of the left leg was 711N(BW 1.03) and the right leg was 9.2N(BW 0.01). While leaning to the right the subject`s trunk`s angle was
, the lower limbs angle was
, knee angle was
and the vertical reaction of the left leg was 13.2N(BW 0.02) and the right leg was 694.7N(BW 1.01). While leaning to the left front corner the subject`s trunk`s angle was
(left), the lower limbs angle was
(left), knee angle was
(left), and the vertical reaction of the left leg was 547.4N(BW 0.8) and the right leg was 117.8N(BW 0.17). While leaning to the right front corner the subject`s trunk`s angle was
(right), the lower limbs angle was
, (front) and
(right), knee angle was
(right), and the vertical reaction of the left leg was 53N(BW 0.08) and the right leg was 622.4N(BW 09). While leaning to the left rear corner the subject`s trunk`s angle was
(left), the lower limbs angle was
, (back) and
(left), knee angle was
(left), and the vertical reaction of the left leg was 698.2N(BW 1.02) and the right leg was 49.6N(BW 0.07). While leaning to the right rear corner the subject`s trunk`s angle was
(right), the lower limbs angle was
(right), knee angle was
(right), and the vertical reaction of the left leg was 7.2N(BW 0.01) and the right leg was 749.4N(BW 1.09). It was observed that during the Judo motion Kuzushii the range of the COM varied from
. It was concluded that the upper body leaned further than the lower body as there was knee extension. There was high left leg reaction forces while leaning to the left and likewise for the right side. It was therefore deduced that the Kuzushi was a more effective throwing technique for the left side.
Is Male Professional Golfers` 10.94 m Putting Motion a Pendulum Motion? From a Point of View of the Location of the Center of Putter Head Rotation
Park, Young-Hoon ; Youm, Chang-Hong ; Seo, Kuk-Woong ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 2, 2007, Pages 217~226
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.2.217
Putting score counts about 43 % of the golf score. The dominant idea of the putting motion to amateur golfers as well as to many professional golfers is a pendulum-like motion. If a golfer`s putting stroke motion is a pendulum-like motion, the putting motion should be straight-back-and-through, the same backswing, downswing, and follow through length and period, and a swing with a fixed hinge joint. If the putting motions of the human are different from the pendulum motion, there could be confusion in understanding and teaching golf putting. The purpose of this study was to examine the center of rotation(COR) of the putter head to reveal whether professional golfers really putt like a pendulum. Thirteen male professional golfers were recruited for the study. Each golfers executed 10.94 m putts six times on an artificial grass mat. Putter head position data were collected through a 60 Hz three-dimensional motion analysis system and low pass filtered with cut-off frequency of 6 Hz. COR of the putter head was mathematically acquired. Each golfer`s last five putting motions were considered. The results show that the COR of the putter head was neither fixed nor located inside of the golfer. The medio-lateral directional component of the COR of the putter head fluctuated in the range of 10 cm during downswing and follow through. The anterior-posterior directional component of the COR of the putter head was fixed from the beginning of the downswing through impact. Just after impact, however, it moved to the target up to 60 cm. The superior-inferior directional component of COR of the putter head moved in a superior direction with the beginning of the downswing and showed peak height just prior to impact. During the follow through, it moved back in an inferior direction. The height-normalized peak value of the COR of the putter head was
height. Technically speaking, male professional golfers` 10.94 m putting motion is not a pendulum-like motion. The dominating idea of a pendulum-like motion in putting might come from the image of the flawless, smooth motion of a pendulum.
Kinematic Factors Influencing on the Precision of Short Approach Shoots in Golf
Kim, Ho-Mook ; Woo, Sang-Yeon ; Jung, Seung-Eun ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 2, 2007, Pages 227~237
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.2.227
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of precision that kinematics had when short approach shots were taken. In this study, the subjects chosen were 5 skilled and 5 unskilled subjects, who were allowed to shoot 10 rounds of shots at target distances of 1m, 2m, 4m, and 8m. Three dimensional analysis was used as methods to obtain kinematics of each shots. In order to verify the statistical significance of the kinematic factors followed by the results of different skills and target distances, we used the two-way repeated ANOVA. The study was experimented within the level of p<.05. The results obtained were as follows: 1) the difference of shots of the forward and backward variations were larger than those of the left and right variations, the unskilled subjects` shot distances greatly got larger than that of the skilled subjects as the distance of the target increased, 2) not being affected by the target distance variations, the skilled subjects` rate of down-swing was shorter than the back-swing on short approach shots, 3) the skilled subjects` center of body weight tended to move more naturally towards the target when doing the down-swing to finish than that of the unskilled subjects on short approach shots, 4) the skilled subjects` right hand angle of cocking were narrower and tended to be kept much more consistent than that of the unskilled subjects on short approach shots, 5) the unskilled subjects when doing their back-swings, their right hips swayed towards the back, their trunk-flexion angles were shown to be lower than that of the skilled subjects on short approach shots, 6) the skilled subjects`body weight tended to move more naturally towards the left foot when doing the down-swing to finish than that of the unskilled subjects on short approach shots.
EMG Power Spectrum Analysis of Wearing Roller Shoes on Muscle Fatigue in the Lower Extremity during Walking
Kim, Youn-Joung ; Yoon, Chang-Jin ; Chae, Won-Sik ; Lee, Min-Hyung ; Kim, Hun-Soo ; Jung, Mi-Ra ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 2, 2007, Pages 239~245
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.2.239
The purpose of this study was to compare the electromyography signal`s power spectrum mean and median tendencies appearing in the lower extremity during walking while wearing roller shoes. 9 male subjects volunteered who have no experience riding inline-skate or roller-skate, and have no record of musculoskeletal disorder. Subjects walked on treadmill twice for an hour (Once a week, one trial with the roller on and the other without roller, Walking velocity