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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Sport Biomechanics
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Dec 2007
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Sep 2007
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Jun 2007
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Mar 2007
Selecting the target year
The Comparative Analysis of EMG Depending on Variations of Speed in Forward Walking and Backward Walking
Cho, Kyu-Kwon ; Kim, You-Sin ; Cho, Sang-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 1~10
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.3.001
The purpose of this study was to examine the differences of lower limbs muscle activities depending on three walking speeds of 2.5km/h, 5.0km/h and 7.5km/h during forward walking and backward walking making 14 students the subjects of this study. To achieve this aim, surface electrodes for factor analysis of EMG were adhered to rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius medial head of right lower limbs. The conclusions through this study are as follows. 1) The muscle activity of rectus femoris was higher in backward walking group than in forward walking group and it was the highest at 7.5km/h walking speed. 2) The muscle activity of biceps femoris was higher in forward walking group than in backward walking group. It was the lowest at 5.0km/h walking speed and the highest at 7.5km/h walking speed. 3) The muscle activity of tibialis anterior was higher in backward walking group than in forward walking group. It was the lowest at 5.0km/h walking speed and the highest at 7.5km/h walking speed. 4) The muscle activity of gastrocnemius medial head was higher in backward walking group than in forward walking group except P2. It was the lowest at 5.0km/h walking speed and the highest at 7.5km/h walking speed.
The Kinematic Analysis and the Study of Muscle Activities during Backhand Drive in Squash
Cho, Kyu-Kwon ; Kim, You-Sin ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 11~21
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.3.011
The purpose of this study was to examine the differences of kinematics and muscle activities depending on the changes of angle approaching balls during backhand drive in squash. The results are as follows. Stride time took the longest at AD2 and step lengths were the biggest at AD1 of left foot contact and right foot contact and AD2 of impact and follow-through. The center of gravity and the speed of racket head were the highest at AD3 and at AD2. Angle of shoulder joint were the biggest at AD1 of left foot contact, right foot contact and impact and AD3 of follow-through. Angle of elbow joint were the biggest at AD3 of left foot contact, right foot contact and follow-through and AD2 of impact. Angle of pelvis joint were the biggest at AD2 of left foot contact, AD1 of right foot contact and AD3 of impact and follow-through. Angle of knee joint were the biggest at AD2 of left foot contact, AD1 of right foot contact and AD3 of impact and follow-through. Angle of ankle joint were the biggest at AD1 of left foot contact and AD3 of right foot contact, impact and follow-through. According to the analysis results of triceps brachii, latissimus dorsi, brachioradialis muscle and flexor carpi ulnaris muscle activities were high at AD1 of all phases. Analysis results of vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius medial muscle activities were high at AD2 of phase1 and phase3. Those of vastus lateralis, vastus medialis and tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius medial were high at AD3 of Phase 2 and AD1 of phase2.
A Comparison of Sex-based Differences in Knee Neuromuscular Biomechanical Factors during Basketball Rebound Jump
Lim, Bee-Oh ; Park, Yong-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 23~29
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.3.023
The purpose of this study were to investigate the differences between female and male basketball players in knee neuromuscular biomechanical factors during basketball rebound jump. Twelve high school female (
) and twelve male (
) basketball players rebound jumped for maximal vertical height to sufficiently stress the anterior cruciate ligament. Kinematic and ground reaction data were collected and combined with inverse dynamics to estimate the knee extensor and abductor torque. The EMG data from the biceps femoris and rectus femoris was used to estimate the ratio of quadriceps muscle activity. Female athletes showed more reduced knee flexion at foot contact, more increased knee abduction, extensor and abductor knee joint torque at foot contact, and quadriceps ratio at stance phase than those of male athletes. In conclusion, Female athletes showed differences in knee neuromuscular biomechanical factors than male athletes during basketball rebound jump.
The Kinematic Analysis of Horizontal Velocity and Records from Start to Finish of the Elite Women 100m Hurdler
Lee, Jung-Ho ; Ryu, Jae-Kyun ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 31~39
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.3.031
The purpose of this study was to observe the kinematic pattern of elite women 100m hurdler race from start to finish and analyze how the change of horizontal velocity makes an influence on the athletes' performance. The analysis was based on the performance of Korean elite 100m hurdler A and international elite hurdlers B and C. Following results were drawn from the analyzation of elite 100m hurdlers' technical characteristics; During the race, hurdler A made more than 8 m/s of horizontal velocity at the 3rd, 4th, 6th, and the 7th hurdle. The horizontal velocity peaked at the 4th hurdle with 8.23 m/s. On the other hand, hurdler B and hurdler C maintained more than 8 m/s of horizontal velocity from the 2nd hurdle through the 10th hurdle. Hurdler B's fastest horizontal velocity was 8.67 m/s from the 6th to the 7th hurdle and hurdler C's fastest horizontal velocity was 8.85 m/s from the 5th to the 8th hurdle. From the start line to the 3rd hurdle, the times achieved by hurdlers A, B, and C were 4.90 sec, 4.65 sec, and 4.52 sec. In the middle of the race, which is from the 4th hurdle to the 7th hurdle, hurdlers A, B, and C ran in 9.10 sec, 8.60 sec, and 8.38 sec. And the latter part of the race to the 10th hurdle, the times hurdlers A, B, and C hit were 12.32 sec, 11.66 sec, and 11.32 sec. To the finish line, it took 1.15 sec for hurdler A, 1.1 sec for B, and 1.06 sec for C. Hence, to set the record of sub-13 sec, hurdler A should improve her acceleration from the start line to the 1st hurdle with the speed more than 5.4 m/s and should maintain more than 8 m/s of horizontal velocity from the 2nd hurdle through the 10th hurdle. In addition, hurdler A should improve her speed endurance to minimize the deceleration of horizontal velocity from the 4th hurdle to the final hurdle. If hurdler A could shorten 0.05 sec of time in each hurdle section, she would be able to set the record under 13 seconds.
Kinematical Analysis of Up-Down Motion in Ski Simulator
Nam, Chang-Hyun ; Woo, Byung-Hoon ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 41~49
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.3.041
This study was to investigate the kinematical analysis using ski simulator. Twelve people(six skilled, six unskilled) participated in the experiment. Each phase of motion time was slight differences between the skilled group and the unskilled group but not significant difference in statistics. In displacement of vertical on COG(Center of Gravity), left and right down motion showed significant difference between group. In velocity of horizontal on COG, both left and right down motion showed significant difference between group, and up motion of between down motion showed significant difference. In displacement of angle on ankle, knee, hip joint almost showed significant difference between group. Almost in body position was lower skilled group than unskilled group.
Kinematic Analysis of the Putter Head and Body Alignments during Short and Long Putts
Park, Tae-Jin ; Youm, Chang-Hong ; Park, Young-Hoon ; Sun, Sheng ; Seo, Kuk-Woong ; Seo, Kook-Eun ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 51~60
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.3.051
The purpose of this study was to kinematically analyze the differences between short(2.17 m) and long(10.94 m) putting stroke motions. Thirteen male professional golfers were participated in this study. Experiment was conducted on the artificial grass mat in the gymnasium. Kinematic data were collected by the 60 Hz Kwon3D motion analysis system. Differences were compared by SPSS paired t-test and one-way ANOVA. Duncan was used for post-hoc test and a=.05. The results were as follows: 1. Ground projected trajectory of the putter head were statistically straight during both short and long putts. 2. There was no consistent alignment tendency among shoulder, hip, and stance alignments. However stance alignment was consistent between short and long putts. Thus it is assumed that professional golfers align their body based on their stance alignment. 3. During putting, shoulder rotated not only up and down but also right and left. 4. Left and right elbow distance was maintained during all phases of the putts for both short and long putts. 5. Inter foot distance of long putting was longer than that of short putting.
Influence of Muscle Architecture on Force Enhancement Following Muscle Lengthening
Lee, Hae-Dong ; Lee, Jung-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 61~68
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.3.061
When an active muscle is stretched, its steady-state isometric force following stretch is greater than that of a purely isometric contraction as the corresponding muscle length, referred to as force enhancement (FE). The purpose of this study was to investigate possible effects of muscle architecture on the FE. While subject performed maximal isometric dorsiflexion (REF) and isometric-stretch-isometric dorsiflexion (ECC) contractions, ankle joint angle and dorsiflexion torque using a dynamometer and electromyography of the tibialis anterior and the medical gastrocnemius muscles were measure. Simultaneously, real-time ultrasound images of the tibialis anterior were acquired. Regardless of the speed of stretch of the ECC contractions. the torques produced during the isometric phase following stretch (
FE) for the ECC contractions with
/s stretch speeds, respectively) were greater than those of the REF contractions (
). Moreover, the amount of FE was found to be stretch speed dependent. Angles of pennation (
) during the isometric phase following stretch were the same for the REF (
) and the ECC (
(LF)). During the same phase, muscle thicknesses were the same (
for the REF and the ECC contractions, respectively). For a large limb muscle, the tibialis anterior muscle, a similar amount of force enhancement was observed as did for other human skeletal muscles. Architectural variables, pennation angle and thickness, were not systematically different between the REF and ECC contractions when FE occurred. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that muscle architecture may have little influence on the production of FE.
A Comparison of Ground Reaction Force of High School Swimmers in Accordance with Starting Motions
Kim, Kew-Wan ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 69~80
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.3.069
The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference of ground reaction forces of swimming athletes during their starting motion and to find out the most effective starting motions which were used in swimming athletes. The subjects were 9 male and 8 female high school swimming athletes who were athletic career over 7 years and used three starting motions in competition. The ground reaction forces were measured from each athletes performing three starting motion each of the open grap starting motion, closed grap starting motion and track starting motion. For the measurement, the force platform of AMTI company was utilized, and the analysis on measured ground reaction forces were used of Biosoft(Ver. 1.0). The items measured were stance time, Fz max deceleration force and Fz max deceleration force time, Fz mid stance force and Fz mid stance force time, Fz max acceleration force and Fz max acceleration force time, Torque maximum and Torque maximum time, Torque average, Excursion along Y axis of center of pressure of foot, Excursion along X axis of center of pressure of foot, Length of center of pressure of foot, Average velocity of center of pressure of foot. The data measured by the closed grap starting motion, open grap starting motion and track starting motion were analyzed by one-way repeated ANOVA. The results were as follows ; 1. The Fz max deceleration force time, Fz mid stance force, Fz max acceleration force, Torque maximum and Torque maximum time, Excursion along Y axis of center of pressure of foot, Average velocity of center of pressure of foot were significantly fast and large in the closed grap starting motion then open grap starting motion and track starting motion. 2. The Excursion along Y axis of center of pressure of foot was significantly long in the closed grap starting motion then open grap starting motion and track starting motion.
A Critical Review of Foot Orthoses in Normal and Diseased Foot
Kim, Seung-Jae ; Kim, Jang-Hwan ; Tack, Gye-Rae ; Bae, Sang-Woo ; Park, Yeong-Ki ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 81~94
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.3.081
The purpose of this study was to critically review biomechanical studies on foot orthoses (FO) in normal and diseased foot and provide beneficial information obtained from researches until now and future researching focus. The search was performed by Medline and Embase database including studies published in English from January 1980 to April 2007. The searching terms were foot orthoses, foot orthotics, insoles and shoe insert. 57 studies including 54 journal articles and 3 abstracts were finally selected under the conditions of having clinical trials, FO, control condition, movement, scientific measuring system. The reviewed studies were divided into 10 categories according to subject characteristics; healthy normal, excessive pronation or flexible flat foot, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, medial knee osteoarthritis, forefoot varus, plantar fasciitis, patellofemoral syndrome, cavus foot and finite element model. In summary, first, soft and semirigid FOs with some degree of cushioning showed much higher comfort and efficacy than rigid FO. Second, no big differences between prefabricated and custom FO were shown. Third, the full length's FO was preferable to the half length's FO or simple arch supports. Fourth, the wearing of FO combining medial arch supports and metatarsal dome made positive roles to enhance comfort and functionality and redistribute plantar pressure under the foot. Fifth, for patients with knee-related diseases lateral wedges were preferable. Sixth, measuring systems were properly applied according to the types of foot diseases.
The Study of Muscle Activity for the Upper Extremity over Morto-Seoinage(Two-handed shoulder throw) in Judo
Kim, Ji-Tae ; Cho, Young-Je ; Lee, Deck-Young ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 95~103
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.3.095
The purpose of this study is Muscle Activity for the Upper Extremity and Morto-Seoinage(Two-handed shoulder throw) according to performance levels and elite judo players (G1) and non-elite judo players, namely university players (G2). To achieve this purpose, three players in G1 whose main special skill was Morote-Seoinage and three university judo players(G2) were selected as comparative group. After analysing this study, conclusions were derived as follows. 1. Muscle activity of musculi membri superious to group of Kuzushi to Tsukuri was the highest in left biceps brachii and right biceps brachii in order. On the other hand, G2 was the highest in left biceps brachii and left flexer carpi randialis in order. 2. Intergral electromyogram of according to the phase showed right triceps 1P of left flexer carpi radialis. G1 and G2 of showed left biceps brachii was the highest in 1P and 2P. As a result, extra training of left flexer carpi radialis and left biceps brachii is needed.
The Biomecanical Analysis of Taekwondo Footwear
Jin, Young-Wan ; Kawk, Yi-Sub ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 105~114
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.3.105
The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanical difference of barefoot and two types taekwondo footwear. which will provide scientific data to coaches and players, to further prevent injuries and to improve each players skills. How to an effect on human body which studied a kinematics and kinetics from 8 college students during experiments. This study imposes several conditions by barefoot and two types of taekwondo footwear ran under average
/sec by motion analysis, ground reaction force and electromyography that used to specific A company. First of all, motion analysis was caused by achilles tendon angle, angle of the lower leg, angle of the knee. The result of comparative analysis can be summarized as below. Motion analysis showed that statically approximates other results from achilles tendon angle (p<.01), initial ankle angle(p<.05), initial sole angle(p<.001) and barefoot angle(p<.001). Ground reaction force also showed that statically approximates other results from impact peak timing (p.001), Maximum loading rate(p<.001), Maximum loading rate timing (p<.001) and impulse of first 20 percent (p<.001). showed that averagely was distinguished from other factors, and did not show about that.
Analysis of Upper Limb Joint Angle of Tennis Forehand Stroke
Kang, Young-Teak ; Seo, Kuk-Woong ; Sun, Sheng ; Lee, Joong-Sook ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 115~124
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.3.115
The purpose of this study was to analyze the kinematics variables of upper limb joint during forehand stroke by swings patterns. Eight high school tennis players were chosen for the study, who have never been injured for last six months, in Busan. They performed horizontal swing and vertical swing that it was done each five consecutive trial in the condition of square, semi-open and open stance. It was filmed by 6 video camera and used with 3-dimensional motion analyzer system. The following kinematic variables were analyzed in relation to angle of joint(shoulder, elbow and wrist joint). The conclusion were as follow: 1. The angle of right shoulder joint represented all event that both swing were shown similar pattern in swing type and stance pattern. 2. All event in the angle of elbow joint had consistent with that except E2, horizontal and vertical swings in square stance. 3. All event in the angle of wrist joint was show to similar pattern except E2, horizontal and vertical swing in open stance.
A Study on Grip Force and Angular Kinematics during Golf Putting Stroke
Choi, Jin-Seung ; Kim, Hyung-Sik ; Lim, Young-Tae ; Yi, Jeong-Han ; Tack, Gye-Rae ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 125~131
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.3.125
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the difference in grip force and angular kinematic variables between elite (handicap
) and novice golfers. Three-dimensional motion analysis system with synchronized grip force measurement system was used. The participants consisted of two groups based on their playing ability: 10 elite golfers and 10 novice golfers. Each subject performed 5 putting strokes at the distance of 1, 3, and 5m with randomly selected order. During entire putting phase, elite group showed relatively constant grip force but novice group showed continuously increasing grip force pattern. There existed a clear difference in the trajectory of shoulder line between two groups. As for novice group the rotational center did not converge into one point, for elite group the rotational center converged into precise single point. And there was a clear difference pattern in anterior-posterior directional movement at shoulder between two groups. These difference might be helpful for improving consistent putting skills.
The Comparison of Characteristics of Trunk Motion between Energy Walking and Normal Walking
Shin, Je-Min ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 133~145
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.3.133
The purpose of this paper was to compare of difference between energy walking and normal walking. Subjects were selected 8 male undergraduates. The kinematic variables of a pelvis and a thorax were analysed at the take off and contact with 3d cinematography. In addition to the variables, the phase plot angle was calculated in order to definite characteristics in the phase space. The pelvic angle and angular velocity showed significant differences in the flexion/extension between two walking patterns. The pelvic angle and angular velocity were increasing when walking speed was increasing and magnitude of the variables of energy walking was larger than corresponding values for normal walking. On the other hand, the thoracic angle demonstrated significant differences in the flexion/extension and rotation between two walking patterns. The angles of energy walking were smaller in the flexion/extension and were larger in the rotation than the angle of normal walking. The kinematic characteristics of energy walking were also showed clearly significant differences in the range of motion and the relative angle of the trunk. The angle of phase plot only showed demonstrated a significant difference in the rotation at contact between the two walking patterns.
Leg Muscle Activity from the Perturbation of the Support during Gait
Shin, In-Sik ; Chun, Young-Jin ; Seo, Jung-Seok ; Choi, Chi-Sun ; Nam, Ki-Jung ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 147~154
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.3.147
This study's purpose is to investigate the effects on leg muscle activity caused by perturbation, using a trapdoor system during the support phase of gait for healthy adults (n = 6, height
). The trapdoor had the functional ability of causing inversion or eversion. The release time for the trapdoor was specified for two times, 0.3 and 0.5 seconds after heel contact. While altering these variables, EMG was recorded for the leg muscles (rectus femoris, biceps femoris, vastus lateralis, tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, soleus). The following conclusions were derived. The steptime was longer for the 0.5s eversion than 0.3s inversion condition. So in order to regain stability after the perturbation the unsupporting leg reached forward rapidly. This quick reflex can be observed through the center of pressure (COP) and its rapid change in direction. The gastrocnemius was activated throughout the total experiment. There was a low amount of activity recorded in the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis and tibialis anterior except for the condition of inversion 0.3s. For most of the conditions, the highest average EMG peak values were recorded during the condition of inversion 0.3s. The iEMG patterns were similar for the conditions of inversion 0.3s and eversion 0.3s. To cope with the rapid change in these conditions, the biceps femoris was activated. During the experiment except for the condition of normal gait, the activity of the soleus and gastrocnemius was relatively high. Therefore, to prevent injury from perturbation of the lower leg strengthening of the soleus and gastrocnemius is required. Likewise to prevent injury to the thigh strengthening for the biceps femoris.
Effect of Rehabilitation Exercise on Lumbar Muscle Function and Pain Relife for the Middle-Aged Women with Low Back Pain
Han, Gil-Soo ; Lee, Kwang-Soo ; Kim, Young-Soon ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 155~164
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.3.155
This study is aimed at determining the effects of rehabilitation training on lumbar extension strength and relief of back pain in middle-aged women of low back pain. Twenty-nine subjects(total 29 people; CLBP 16, HLD 13) were trained twice per week for eight weeks and completed a maximum isometric test at various flexion angle(the degree of
) by lumbar extension machine. The result showed that. 1. Patient group of CLBP were increased the maximum lumbar extension strength at a range of 7 flexion angles after rehabilitation rather than no rehabilitation(on the average 60.75%). The operated patient group in HLD also showed an increase of 56.55%. In view of these cases, all of two groups showed a significant increase of muscle strength(p<.05). But there is no difference between pre-exercise and post-exercise groups. 2. Patient group of CLBP were increased higher rate than 41% for maximum lumbar extension strength(91.79% at
, 79.41% at
, 65.89% at
) at all angles after 8 weeks training. Both groups indicated a significant increase(p<.05) of lumbar extension strength at all degrees. There is no difference between pre-exercise and post-exercise groups. 3. Relief of back pain in Patient group of CLBP showed a decrease of average 105.2% and patient group of HLD indicated a decrease of average 64.57% two groups showed a significant reduction (p<.05, p<.05). But in case of a decrease of pain, CLBP group got 3.44 points and HLD group got 4.77 points. In view of these results, two groups showed remarkable reduction of back pain, however HLD group had residual pain relatively.
The Effects of Velocity of Propulsion on the Degree of Hardship Performance during a Figure Skating
Yoo, Kyoung-Seok ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 165~172
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.3.165
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the result of hardship performance of the propulsion speed on the flying carmel spins during a Figure Skating. The subjects were five the korea national representative players. Kinematic variables were analyzed 5frame of the excursion phase by the three-dimensional motion analysis system(60Hz). The obtained conclusion were as follows: In this study, during the propulsion classify two groups as "type I" the acceleration patterns S3, S4 and "type II" the uniform velocity group S1, S2, S5. The results of percentage comparative analysis between type I and type II can be summarized as below: the height of jump(24%), the height of COM(25%), the maximum speed of Roundhouse Kick(21%), the judging technical score(18%), the flight time(13%), the velocity of spins(4%), the distance of flight(-6%) Analysis of the results on performance variables, the velocity pattern of the type I showed comparatively excellence than that of type II.
The Plantar Pressure Comparison between the Curved Rear Balance Shoes and Normal Shoes
Kim, Youn-Joung ; Chae, Woen-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 173~180
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.3.173
The purpose of study was to compare plantar pressure during walking wearing the curved rear balance and normal shoes. Twelve university students(height:
) who have no known musculoskeletal disorders were recruited as the subjects. Plantar foot pressures were evaluated using the Tekscan's pressure measurement systems while subjects walked upright position wearing the curved rear balance and normal shoes in random order at a speed of 1.3 m/s. The contacting dimension, the mean plantar pressure, and the peak plantar pressure were determined for each trial. For each dependent variable, paired t-test was performed to test if significant difference existed between shoe conditions (p<.05). As a result, the curved rear balanced shoes showed as large as 38 up to 50 % of area at the rear side of feet than the normal shoes when measuring the contact area with upright position. In the distribution of average pressure, the curved rear balanced shoes displayed fairly low pressure compared to other normal shoes in general except for one area, which is M2, and especially, the measured pressures at the both rear (M1) and middle (M5) side of feet were low and statically significant. The contact area of the curved rear balanced shoes when walking was significantly larger at the rear (M1) and fore (M6, M7) side of feet. When considering pressure distribution at walking, low pressure was detected at the rear side of feet with the curved rear balanced shoes and at the fore side of feet for other normal shoes. The results showed that the contacting dimension of the curved rear balance shoes that acts between shoes and feet was higher than the corresponding value for the normal shoes in general; therefore it would reduce the pressure to the feet by allowing the each sole of the foot on the ground evenly.
The Effects of Gel-type Insole on Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis during Gait
Eun, Seon-Deok ; Yu, Yeon-Joo ; Shin, Hak-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 181~188
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.3.181
The purpose of this study was to investigate the biomechanical effects of wearing different type of insole shoes on gait characteristics in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Seven patients with knee osteoarthritis (Grade 3 & 4 by Kellgren & Lawrence) were participated in the study. They wore two different type of shoes (with Gel-type Insole: GIS, with Normal insole: NIS) during gait. Three dimensional cinematography and Ground Reaction Force(GRF) data were used to get the maximal value of horizontal distance between the center of pressure in GRF and knee joint center, GRF in mediolateral direction, peak value of GRF in frontal plane, vertical compressive force and adduction moment in knee joint. The results were as follows: The maximal value of horizontal distance between the center of pressure in GRF and knee joint center was smaller in GIS than NIS. The peak value of GRF in mediolateral direction was found in 30% of gait cycle, five subjects wearing GIS showed lower value of peak GRF in mediolateral direction than wearing NIS. The peak value of GRF in frontal plane and vertical compressive force in knee joint did not show any difference between GIS and NIS. The adduction moment in GIS decreased in the late stance of gait and the mean value of the adduction moment in GIS smaller than that in NIS. GIS may help to move quickly knee joint center to the center of pressure in GRF, therefore it may prevent increasing the adduction moment in knee joint.
The Effects of Shoes with Rolling Feature on the Foot Reaction Force and Pronation
Shin, Hak-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 189~195
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.3.189
The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of shoes with curved out-sole on the pressure, reaction force(sum of pressure) on foot and relations between the rolling speeds and pronation of foot. The foot pressure, reaction force and pressure center on the foot surface of shoe were measured with NOVEL padar system, and 3 type shoes were used to compare the position and speed of pressure center and the foot reaction force, which were s(target) shoe with soft cushions in middle part of out-sole and curved out-sole, m shoes with two type- soft, hard, hardness out-sole and curved out-sole and n shoes with flat out-sole. The subjects were 13 female university students, had weared the 3 type shoes for 6 weeks on two-weeks shifts for adaptation before experiment and put on 3-type shoes repeatedly and randomly and walked on treadmill with 3.5km/h and 80 steps/min. The data were captured with 30Hz and readjusted with 5kgf threshold reaction force. The results can be summarized as follow. 1. There were no difference in maximum reaction force on initial contact period and total foot impact, but statistical difference in maximum reaction force on takeoff period : s, m, n in ascending order. 2. There were some difference in rolling speeds for support periods. At initial contact, the rolling speed of s shoes was fastest but at periods between first and second maximum reaction force, that of m shoes fastest. 3. There was a negative relation between rolling speeds and the length of lever arm on initial reaction force related to pronation. It seems shoes with various curved shapes and hardness could make effects on the rolling features and the rolling speed also have some relationships with walking efficiency, absortion of impact and pronation.
Evaluation on Motion Features of the World's Second Archer during Back-Tension in Archery
Yi, Jae-Hun ; Hah, Chong-Ku ; Ryu, Ji-Seon ; Kim, Ki-Chan ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 197~207
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.3.197
It has been reported that Back-Tension played a significant role in archery (Lee & Bondit, 2005; Kim, 2007) but there are a few researches related Back-Tension in Korea recently. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate archery back tension technique for the second ranked archer in the World and to find ways to improve performance. A subject(height: 185cm, mass: 82kg, years: 21yrs, careers: 12yrs) who is a number of national team and the second ranked archer in the World authorized by FITA (Federation Internationale de Trial Arc) was perticipated in this experiment. When shooting 60 shots(
), shooting motions were recorded with 7 infrared cameras and 2 ultrahigh-speed cameras. A QTM and an Auto Track were used to acquire raw data. The sampling rates of both cameras were 200 Hz. and 1000 Hz. respectively and data were filtered using a fourth order Butterworth low pass filtering with a cutoff-frequency of 30Hz. The parameters were calculated with Matlab6.5 and analyzed with SPSS11.0. After Pearson's correlations between 8 parameters were analyzed, 5 parameters from 13parameters that affected records were analyzed with multiple regression analysis (Enter order: x1, x2, x3, x4, x5). The results were as follows: 1. Comparing between parameters according to scores, the patterns of horizontal and vertical angular velocity(av.) of scapular relative angle was different between 8 score and 9 or 10 scores. 2. The correlations of parameters that affected records were a horizontal av.(x1, p=.032<.05) and a vertical av.(x3, p=.033<.05) of scapular from release to delivery in KB back-tension (anchoring-delivery). 3. The decision coefficients(R2) of above two parameters and three parameters selected by experts that may affect record, that is, an absolute trunk angle(x4) from in KKC back-tension (anchoring-release) and a horizontal relative scapular angle(x2) and an absolute trunk angle(x5) from release to delivery in KB back-tension were 7.7%(x1), 0.1%(x2), 8.5%(x3), 0.7%(x4) and 0.9%(x5) in sequence. 4. The multiple regression equation was a y= -1.16E-2 x1 + 0.109 x2 + 3.437E-2 x3 + 6.139E-2 x4 + 0.117 x5 + 3.420 In conclusion, a total contribution was low, that is, R2(17.9%) suggested that on the one hand, Lim's motion may not depend on a certain factor because his postural factors affected shooting motion are some stable on the other hand, unknown factors may exist(e.g. psychological, physiological factors etc.). Further study of EMG patterns of muscles and anatomic consideration related to shoulder girdle and scapular bones may help to identify mechanism of Back-Tension.
The Effects of Hiking Poles-using on Gait and Muscle Activity
Seo, Jung-Suk ; Kim, Yong-Woon ; Yoon, Te-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 209~215
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.3.209
The purpose of this study was to investigate gait factor and muscle activity depending on hiking poles-using. Eight healthy men volunteered for this experiment. Each of them performed down-hill walking with hiking poles-using and without poles at speed of 3.5km/h for 45 minutes on a treadmill. The treadmill was set 25% down-hill inclination. Kinematic data collected in 60Hz were recorded and analyzed by using 2D motion capture system to measure step time and step length so on. And the lower extremity muscle activities were simultaneously recorded in 1500Hz and assessed by using EMG. The statistical analysis was the paired t-test with repeated measures to compare between hiking poles-using and without poles. The level of statistical significance for all tests was .05. The results of this study were following : Step time was showed statistically different according to pole conditions. That is, the case of poles-using was longer than without poles in step time. Also, step length was showed statistically different between two conditions. Step length about trials with poles was longer than trials without poles. In the muscle activity, the case of all muscles was not showed statistical significance about pole conditions. However, in most muscles IEMG, there were some decreasing-trend relatively when hiking polesusing.
Enslaving Effects on Finger Pressing Speed
Woo, Byung-Hoon ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 217~224
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.3.217
This study was to investigate the effects of enslaving on finger-tip force of other fingers on finger pressing speed. We hypothesized that the effects depend on finger pressing speed, and the fingers proximity and are larger for fingers that are closer to each other. Six healthy, right-handed subjects(age:
) participated in the experiment. Each finger showed no significant on task finger speed. In the tasks with two neighboring fingers (e.g. middle and ring finger tasks), the index and middle fingers showed larger forces than the other neighboring fingers. During the index and little finger tasks, the enslaving force magnitude decreased with distance to the task finger (i.e. index finger enslaving force was the smallest during the little finger task).
Effects of Manual Wheelchairs` Transmission on the Propulsion Motion
Shin, Eung-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 225~232
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.3.225
This work intends to investigate the effects of shift characteristics on the propulsion performance of a manual wheelchair with an automatic transmission. A planetary gear train is employed to generate a two-stage shift automatically, based on the distance traveled from rest. Motion analysis has been performed for measuring kinematic properties of the arm and then the inverse dynamics has been applied for estimating joint forces/torques. Then, a parametric study has been performed to find a set of the shift ratios and the shift intervals for optimizing propulsion performance. Results show that the propulsion performance is closely related to the shift condition. It is found that a short shift interval is desirable for a short distance propulsion. However, an optimum shift interval for a long distance propulsion is inversely proportional to the shift ratio approximately. Consequently, the automatic transmission can greatly lower the joint loadings by the speed reduction, which eventually contribute to prevent joint injuries of wheelchair users.