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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Sport Biomechanics
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Dec 2007
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Sep 2007
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Jun 2007
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Mar 2007
Selecting the target year
A Study on Stride-to-stride Variability by Treadmill Walking
Choi, Jin-Seung ; Kang, Dong-Won ; Tack, Gye-Rae ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 1~8
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.4.001
The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference in the stride-to-stride variability between two treadmill conditions; traditional treadmill and special treadmill whose speed can be adjusted automatically by subject's walking speed. Eight male subjects (25.1 years, 172.7 cm, 66.6 kg) were participated in treadmill walking experiment. First, preferred walking speed (PWS) of each subject was determined. Second, each subject performed walking experiment with fixed PWS condition and with free PWS condition for 10 minutes. 3D motion capture system (Motion analysis Corp., USA) with 6 cameras was used to collect motion data with sampling frequency of 120Hz. Temporal and spatial variables for stride-to-stride variability were calculated. Coefficient of variance (CV) which quantifies the amount of variability and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) which explains the structure (self-similarity) of the variability were used for analysis. Results showed that the amount of variability during free PWS condition was greater than that of fixed PWS condition. DFA results showed that there was a statistical difference between two treadmill conditions for the variables of step length, stance time, and double support time. From these results, it is possible that traditional treadmill study might give incorrect conclusion about gait variability study. Further study is necessary to clarify these matters by considering the number of subjects, experimental time, and gait variables for the study of stride-to-stride variability.
Effects of 12-week Aquatic Exercise on Gait in the Falls Experienced Elderly Women
Kim, Chang-Bum ; Shin, Jun-Yong ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 9~16
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.4.009
The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of after aquatic exercise on gait in the Falls Experienced elderly. There were one group : Fall Experienced Elderly Women(n=8). They were tested on their gait (Elapse time of each phase, Stance time of limb, Stride length, Velocity of segment). we took video and analyzed their movement using Ariel Performance Analysis System and compared gait parameters. For data analysis, mean and standard deviation scores were calculated, and correspondence sample t-test and pearson's correlation analysis were used. First, after exercise is short than before exercise on Elapse time of each phase, fall-experience subjects showed meaningful total time. Second, after exercise is short than before exercise on Stance time of limb and Stride length, fall-experience subjects showed meaningful Stride length. Third, after exercise is fast than before exercise on Velocity of segment.
A Comparative Analysis of Kinematics and Kinetics on Forehand Drive in Squash
Jin, Young-Wan ; Park, Yang-Hee ; Park, Jae-Young ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 17~25
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.4.017
The purpose of the study is to give basic data for the improvement of the skill and to show an exemplary position for squash club members or trainers thru a comparative analysis on the kinematics and kinetics variables on the forehand drive motion in playing squash. The objects of the research are divided into two sections, skilled group(n=8) and unskilled group(n=8). The skilled group is composed of professional players currently working and unskilled group is career of six month, both of lives in B city. In this research, to gather the data 3D motion analysis and test result analysis using force platform was used. The variables are duration, position, segment velocity, segment acceleration and etc. in using force platform. The results are as follows: 1. The duration per phase of the skilled is 0.18sec P1(DS) while that of unskilled is 0.32sec. in P2(FT), the duration of the skilled is 0.29sec, that of unskilled is 0.34sec. Average of the duration of the skilled is 0.48sec, while the unskilled, 0.66sec. 2. Regarding positional movements per event, the unskilled has a relatively higher position in center of gravity, shoulder joint, elbow joint compared with that of the skilled. Generally speaking, positions of the unskilled is higher than the skilled. 3. In segment velocity per event, R-shank, R-upper arm, R-forearm and racket. The skilled is faster than the unskilled. we found a big dig difference in shank. 4. In acceleration per event, there was a big difference in upper-arm and fore-arm of the impact. 5. The skilled group on the force platform shows relatively stable and regular changes while the unskilled shows unstable from the touch down to initial 20% the force value of central support period after the impact moment decreases rapidly and the center of gravity is not moved well. 6. The maximum force value of the skilled is 1019.7N. it is found 19.86% of the total duration. That of the unskilled is 639.2N, it is found 20.67% of total duration.
Age-Related Change of Upper Body Contribution to Walking Speed
Bae, Yeoung-Sang ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 27~36
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.4.027
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the upper body in order to increase a propulsive force in the old`s walking. The subjects were each 10 males, the latter term of the aged and former term of the aged. There were three walking speeds of slow(about 5km/h), medium(about 6km/h), and maximum speed(about 7km/h). The subjects walking 11m were filmed the 5m section (from 3m to 8m) by 2-video cameras using three dimensional cinematography. And we computed different mechanical quantities and especially computed the relative momentum in order to achieve this study`s aim. In this study, we was able to acquire some knowledge. The step length and step frequency increased in proportion to the walking speed, and the faster walking speed, the shorter ratio of supporting time( both legs supporting time/one step length time). When it was one leg support phase, the torso was indicated to generate the momentum in order to produce the propulsive force of walking. The upper and lower body had a cooperative relation for walking such as keeping step rate with the arms to legs and maintaining the body balance. The opposition phase for upward-and-downward direction of the torso and arms in walking was functioned to prevent the increase rapidly toward vertical direction of the center of gravity. The arms had contributed to coordinate the tempo of legs and the posture maintenance of the upper body. And by absorbing the relative momentum from the upper torso with arms to the lower torso, it had the rhythmical movement on upward-and-downward direction reducing the vertical reaction force. On account of the relations of absorption and generation of the propulsive force and the production of vertical impulse in the lower torso when walking by maximum speed, it was showed that the function of lower torso was come up as important problem for the mechanical posture stability and propulsive force coordination.
A Study on the Application of Character Animation for Motion Analysis Using Motion Capture Data
Son, Won-Il ; Jin, Young-Wan ; Kang, Sang-Hack ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 37~44
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.4.037
This study compared the Character Studio of 3ds Max and OpenGL to find an adequate modeling method of character animation to be used in motion analysis in the area of motor mechanics. The subject was one male golfer. We obtained the positional coordinates of marks needed by photographing the subject's golf swing motions. Because the method based on the Character Studio used meticulously designed character meshes, it enabled high.level animation but it took a long time in applying physique and demanded the repeated adjustment of each motion data. With the method based on OpenGL, a character completed once could be usable to almost every testee and desired program control was available, but because each character had to be created by making a computer program, it was hard to make characters delicately. Because the method using the Character Studio is actively studied not only in motor mechanics but also in many research areas, it is expected to be more usable in the near future. On the contrary, the method based on OpenGL is easily applicable and allows the convenient use of other mechanical data.
Isokinetic Performance and Shoulder Mobility in Pro League Woman Volleyball Players
Lee, Byoung-Kwon ; Han, Dong-Wook ; Kang, Kyung-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 45~55
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.4.045
We investigated the biomechanics and characteristics of shoulder rotator muscles for professional woman volleyball players. The purpose of this study was to analyze the isokinetic peak torque and range of motion for shoulder joint rotation. We measured the strength and ROM of the internal rotation(IR) and external rotation(ER) of shoulders joint for nine professional woman Volleyball players and nine University students with Biodex and Simi-motion. 1. We measured peak torques for the shoulder joint rotator at angular velocities of 60/s and 180/s. It was found that the peak torques were significantly different between the two groups and also between the hands used. 2. At angular velocity of 60/s, IR/ER ratio of the shoulder joint was significantly different depending on the groups and the hands in use. There was a significant difference for 'Dominant side' at angular velocity of 180/s, but no significant difference for 'Non-dominant side' and the controls group. 3. Regarding the ROM of rotation of the shoulder joint group, IR was significantly different between the groups and the hands in use. 4. IR/ER ratio of the shoulder joint for Dominant side was quite different between the groups.
Analysis of the Vertical GRF Variables during Landing from Vertical Jump Blocking in Volleyball
Youm, Chang-Hong ; Park, Young-Hoon ; Seo, Kook-Woong ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 57~64
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.4.057
The purpose of this study was to investigate comparative analysis of the vertical ground reaction force variables during landing from vertical jump blocking in volleyball through GRF analysis system. The subjects participated in this study were 6 male university volleyball player and 6 male acted as a control group. The results are as follows: 1. The skilled group was longer than the unskilled group in flight time during vertical jump blocking. 2. The skilled group was faster than the unskilled group in tFz2 during landing from vertical jump blocking. 3. The skilled group was higher than the unskilled group in Fz2 during landing from vertical jump blocking. 4. The skilled group was higher than the unskilled group in Fz2LR during landing from vertical jump blocking. 5. The skilled group was higher than the unskilled group in impulse during landing from vertical jump blocking. Consequently, during landing from vertical jump, the landing strategy of the skilled group was found as a form of a stiff landing. Therefore, this landing strategy will be required to strengthen of hip and knee extensors and ankle plantar flexors for injury prevention.
Evaluation of Consistency on Kinematic Factors in Women Javelin Throw
Hong, Soon-Mo ; Lee, Young-Sun ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 65~71
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.4.065
The purpose of this study was to investigate variability of kinematic factors affecting the record in women's javelin throwing. For this study, 8 female-javelin thrower participated in this experiment. The three digital video cameras (Sony, 120x) were used to record motions. Kwon3D 2.1 was used to process data and they were analyzed with Excell for factors. The sampling rate of a camera was 60Hz and shutter speed of a camera was 1/1000sec. The coordinate data were filtered using a fourth-order Butterworth low pass filtering with an estimated optimum cut-off frequency of 6Hz. The results were as follows: 1. From cross step to landing of delivery, the average velocities of CoM of non-dominant athletes were greater than dominant athletes and those of CoM of non-dominant athletes less than dominant athletes, but at release dominant athletes had a lower average velocity and a variability than non-dominant athletes. 2. From cross step to landing of delivery, the average throwing velocities and variabilities of a javelin of dominant athletes were greater than dominant athletes, but at release, dominant athletes had a higher velocity than dominant athletes and had a equal variability. 3. At every events, a forward or backward angles and variabilities of non-dominant athletes were greater than dominant athletes. 4. From cross step to landing of delivery, dominant athletes' elbow average angles were greater than non-dominant athletes and the variabilities of latter less than non-dominant athletes, but at release dominant athletes' variabilities were smaller than non-dominant athletes. 5. At landing of delivery, dominant athletes' knee average angles and variabilities of a supporting foot were a greater than non-dominant athletes, and at release, dominant athletes' knee average angles was a greater but variabilities less than non-dominant athletes. In conclusion, the dominant threw javelins fast while having stable postures and the range of elbow's angle large.
Interjoint and Intersegmental Coordination Pattern of Dwichagi in Taekwondo
Lee, Ok-Jin ; Choi, Ji-Young ; Kim, Seung-Jae ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 73~82
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.4.073
The purpose of this study was to qualitatively analyze coordination pattern of joints and segments during Dwichagi in Taekwondo and present a point of difference as compared with the previous study on Dolryeochagi in Taekwondo. By the utilization of three-dimensional cinematography, the angles of individual joints and segments of six male Taekwondo experts during Dwichagi were calculated by using Euler's angle. The used coordination variables were angle vs. angle plots between adjacent joints and segments and angle vs. angular velocity plots of individual joints and segments, respectively. It was observed during Dwichagi that in-phase coordination and spring-like rotational control mechanism of the lower and upper trunk were transferred into straight spring-like control mechanism of lower leg passing through flexion-extension and the fixation of degree-of-freedom of lower trunk and hip joint alternatively. This comparative study that coordination variables were used seems to be more useful research direction to deeply understand basic control mechanisms of Taekwondo kicking techniques when compared with the previous studies that defined Dwichagi as a thrust movement pattern merely based on biomechanical variables of a kicking leg.
Ball Velocity Changes Depending on the Different Linear Momentum of Putter Head during the Putting Strokes
Park, Jin ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 83~88
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.4.083
The purpose of this study was to investigate the ball velocity changes depending on the different linear momentum of putter head. For this study, two different moving conditions(25cm free fall and 35cm free fall) of putter head were set. And two different types of ground conditions were used which are artificial grass green(
) and glass green(
). Movements of putter head and ball were recorded with 2 HD video cameras(60 Hz, 1/500s shutter speed). Small size control object(
) was used in this study. Ball and putter head velocities were calculated by the First Central Difference Method(Hamill & Knutzen, 1995). Linear momentum of ball and putter head were calculated with mass and its velocities. Before impact, the velocity of the putter head of 35cm free fall was about 30% greater than that of the putter head of 25cm free fall. Linear momentum of putter head of 35cm free fall was about 0.355-0.364kg m/s and 25cm free fall was 0.251 kg m/s. After impact, putter head lost its linear momentum about 14-19% and adjusting time of putter head after impact would be 0.1 second. After 0.1 second, putter moved the route same as before impact. Maximum ball velocities were appeared 0.08s-0.10s after impact no matter what the ground conditions are. Ball velocities struck by 35cm free fall were 30 % faster than 25cm free fall. Linear momentum of ball struck by putter head was greater than that of expected amount because the moving ball has translational energy and rotational energy. Future study must treat three things. One is ball must struck by the different putters with different materials. Another is two-piece ball and three-piece ball should be used for the same condition studies. The other is height of center of rotation of club should be changed. In this study, the height of center of rotation of club head is 71cm from the ground. But recently many golfers used the long putter. Therefore next study should apply the different height of center of rotation of club head.
The Effect of Trunk Motion and Knee Joint Moment during Deep Stand to Sit and Sit to Stand According to the Trunk Weight Increase
Kwon, Moon-Seok ; Kim, Sang-Kyu ; Shin, Seong-Hyoo ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 89~98
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.4.089
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the trunk motion and knee joint moment during deep stand to sit and sit to stand according to the trunk weight increase. These experimental subjects were 9 males, who had no skeletal muscular disease. They were performed a SATS(stand to sit), STS(sit to stand) according to the trunk weight increase. Trunk weight increase were classified into 4 bearing trunk weight of 0%, 8%, 16%, 24% of the subject' weight. 1-way(4) RM ANOVA is applied to get the difference of trunk displacement movements and knee joint moments according to he trunk weight increase. significant level of each experiment is set as
=.05. 1. Significant difference was classified into 3 bearing trunk weight of 0%, 16%, 24% in maximum forward backward displacement of trunk COM(center of mass). Significant difference was classified into 4 bearing trunk weight of 0%, 8%, 16%, 24% in maximum upward downward displacement of trunk COM during the SATS, STS. 2. Significant difference was classified into 4 bearing trunk weight of 0%, 8%, 16%, 24% in maximum extension knee joint moment. Significant difference was classified into 2 bearing trunk weight of 0%, 16% in maximum internal rotation knee joint moment during the SATS, STS. Therefore we expect that biomechanical model of this study will used to study for mechanical characteristics of obese people.
Evaluation of the Elderly Gait Stability Using the Center of Mass and Center of Pressure Inclination Angles
Yoon, Suk-Hoon ; Kim, Tae-Sam ; Lee, Jae-Hun ; Ryu, Ji-Seon ; Kwon, Young-Hoo ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 99~106
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.4.099
The gait instability in the elderly has been associated with age-related deterioration in physical strength and reducing the potential for elderly falls requires regular exercise. In 2005, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control(NCIPC) reported that most elderly falls occur during activities in daily living(ADL). To better reveal biomechanic mechanisms underlying age-related degeneration in gait stability, and to enhance the assessment of falls risk, an accurate quantification of a person's balance maintenance during locomotion is needed. Instantaneous orientation of the line connecting COP and COM can characterize whole body position with respect to the supporting foot during gait and the angle between this line and the vertical line passing through the COP known as a good assessment to detect the elderly gait instability. Therefore the purpose of this study was to investigate a 6-month walking exercise effects in reducing elderly fall risk factors by using COP-COM inclination angles. Twenty-two community-dwelling elderly participated this study. The participants performed a walking exercise(3 times/week, 1 hour/visit) for 6 months. Laboratory kinematics during walking was assessed at months 0, 3 and 6. Significant increased in gait velocity was found among periods(p=.011,
in 0-, 3-, and 6-month, respectively). Also, significant differences in anterior and posteriror inclination angles were found among the periods(p<.05; posterior inclination angles:
; anterior inclination angles:
in 0month, 3month, & 6month, respectively). These findings provide evidence of significant reduced fall risk factors of community-living older adults associated with a systematic walking program.
The Effects of Knee Brace on the Knee Muscular Neuro-Biomechanical Variables during the Rebound in Female Highschool Basketball Players
Han, Ki-Hoon ; Lim, Bee-Oh ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 107~113
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.4.107
The purpose of this study were to investigate the effects of knee brace on the knee muscular neuro-biomechanical variables during the rebound in female highschool basketball players. Twelve high school female (
) basketball players rebound jumped for maximal vertical height to sufficiently stress the anterior cruciate ligament with and without knee brace. Kinematic data were collected to estimate the knee flexion, abduction angles and jump height. The EMG data from the biceps femoris and rectus femoris was used to estimate the ratio of quadriceps muscle activity. Female athletes with knee brace showed more reduced the knee abduction angle and the ratio of quadriceps muscle activity at foot contact phase than without knee brace. In conclusion, Female athletes with brace reduced knee anterior cruciate ligament loads.
Number of Trials for the Reliable Golf Swing Ground Reaction Force Data Collection and Its Characteristics
Park, Young-Hoon ; Youm, Chang-Hong ; Seo, Kuk-Woong ; Seo, Kook-Eun ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 115~125
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.4.115
Grould Reaction force(GRF) is important in human movements and GRF measurements are one of the most frequently used tool in biomechanical studies. In the studies of the golf swing motion, people refer to GRF as weight transfer. A successful golf swing motion requires many segments activation sequences which are controled by the nerve system. Due to the inter- and intra-individual variability of the human movement and the movement strategies, reliability of the measurements are important in human movement studies. Previous golf researches were based on group studies and certain events' values were analyzed. The purposes of this study were to determine the number of trials for the reliable golf swing GRF data collection, to reveal the variability level of the meaningful components of the golf swing GRF, and to classify the types of the golf swing GRF patterns. Twenty three male professional golfers(
) signed an informed consent form prior to participation in this study. GRFs of driver swings were collected with Kistler 9285 force platform and 9865A amplifier, and calculated by the KwonGRF program(Visol, Korea). Sampling frequency was 1080 Hz. GRF data were trimmed from 1.5 s prior to the impact to 0.5 s after the impact. The number of trials for the reliable GRF collection was determined when the change in floating mean overs the 25 % of the standard deviation of that variable. Variabilities of the variables were determined by the coefficient of variation(CV) of 10 %. The types of GRF patterns were determined by visual inspection of the peak GRF shapes. The minimum number of trials for the reliable golf swing GRF data collection was five. Ten-trial seems more conservative. The value of the peak GRF was more reliable than the value of the impact GRF. The CV of the peak GRF and impact GRF were 7.4 %, 15.2 %, respectively. Because of the +/- sigh of the peak GRF appearance time, it was impossible to calculate CV of the peak GRF appearance time. Golf swing GRF patterns were classified as sing peak type, double peak type, and plateau peak type. This classification suggests the presence of the different golf swing weight transfer strategies.
The Effects of Elastic Resistance and Pilates Exercise on EMG in Baseball Pitcher
Park, Il-Bong ; Kim, Jung-Tae ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 127~139
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.4.127
The purpose of this study was to examine the pitching ability of baseball player by analysing the effect of elastic resistance exercise and pilates exercise on EMG. Five out of currently active highschool baseball player performed 5 times a week of elastic resistance exercise and pilates for 8 weeks, each for 100 minutes. They demonstrated significant increase in EMG after 8 weeks of exercise. Especially, in extensor carpi radialis brevis and flexor carpi radialis of fore arm, they demonstrated significant increase of inning figure after exercise. These results suggested that elastic resistance exercise and pilates exercise can improve pitching ability of baseball player according to inning.
Lower Extremity Muscle Activity on the Obstacle Gait in Older Parkinson Diseases
Lim, Bee-Oh ; Kim, Mi-Young ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 141~148
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.4.141
Falls associated with tripping over an obstacle can be dangerous, yet little is known about the strategies used for stepping over obstacles in older Parkinson disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the lower extremity muscle activity on the obstacle gait according to obstacle height in older Parkinson diseases. The obstacle gait of 7 older Parkinson disease was examined during a 5.0 m approach to, and while stepping over, obstacles of 0, 25, 52, and 152mm. Seven pairs of surface electrodes(Noraxon MyoResearch, USA) were attached to the right-hand side of the body to monitor the adductor longus(AL), gluteus medius(GME), gluteus maximus(GMA), biceps femoris(BF), rectus femoris(RF), gastrocnemius(GA), tibialis anterior(TA). Electromyography data were filtered using a 10Hz to 350 Hz Butterworth band-pass digital filter and normalized to the maximum value in the analyzed phases. A one-way ANOVA for repeated measures was employed for selected electromyography variables to analyze the differences of the height of four obstacles. The results showed significant differences between 0.0mm and 25, 52, and 152mm obstacle height in TA and GA activities during the second phase(swing phase). But the more increase obstacle height, the more not increase the muscle activities. This means that the Parkinson disease stepping over obstacle inefficiency. To prevent and reduce the frequency of falls, elderly Parkinson disease maintained and improved their balance, muscular strength, neuromuscular control and mobility.
Comparison of Kinematic Variables of the Elite Woman's 100m Hurdler
Ryu, Jae-Kyun ; Chang, Jae-Kwan ; Yeo, Hong-Chul ; Lim, Jung-Woo ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 149~156
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.4.149
The purpose of this study was to compare the world class women's hurdlers with kinematic variables Lee Yeon-Kyoung's in the 100m hurdle. Among korea elite female hurdler, Lee Yeon-Kyoung was participated as a subject. Eight JVC video cameras(GR-HD1KR) were used to film the performance of Lee Yeon-Kyoung at a frame rate of 60fields/s. The real-life three-dimensional coordinate data of digitized body landmarks were smoothed using a fourth order Butterworth low pass recursive digital filter with an estimated optimum cutoff frequency of 7.4Hz. After analyzing and comparing Lee Yeon Kyung's kinematic variables with the world top class hurdlers in the woman's 100m hurdle run, the following conclusions were obtained. 1. Lee should be able to increase the speed with over 5.4m/s from start to first hurdle and then maintain the speed range from 8.33m/s to 8.67m/s until 10th hurdle. Lee should have to maintain the speed with 8.51m/s from 10th hurdle to finish line. 2. Lee has to reach her maximum running speed at 5th hurdle and then has to shorten running time with 0.5sec between hurdles. 3. Lee should be able to run around 2.5sec from start to frist hurdle and then maintain under 1.00sec following phases. Lee should be able to maintain under 1.10sec from 10th hurdle to finish line. 4. Lee needs to control a consistent takeoff and landing distance pattern, Lee needs to lower the height of the center of gravity of the body with 0.33m when she clears the hurdles.
The Kinematic Analysis and Comparison of Foreign and Domestic 100m Elite Woman's Hurdling Techniques
Ryu, Jae-Kyun ; Yeo, Hong-Chul ; Chang, Jae-Kwan ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 157~167
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.4.157
The purpose of this study was to analyze kinematic techniques in the woman's 100m hurdle. In order to find the kinematic parameters, a 3-D video system for kinematic analysis-kwon3d 3.1(Kwon3D Motion Analysis Program Version 3.1)-was used. Eight JVC video cameras(GR-HD1KR) were used to film the performance of Lee Yeon-Kyoung at a frame rate of 60fields/s. The kinematic characteristics from the first hurdle to last hurdle were analyzed at the clearing hurdle spots such as distance, velocities, heights and angles. The real-life three-dimensional coordinates of 20 body landmarks during each phases were collected using a Direct Linear Transformation procedure. After analyzing the kinematic variables in the 100m hurdle run, the following conclusion were obtained; Lee Yeon-Kyoung had to maintain constant stride lengths between hurdles and increase takeoff distance before clearance and shorter landing distance after clearance. She also had to hit the correct takeoff point in front of the hurdle and extend the lead leg at the moment of landing in order to minimize the loss of velocity. She had to sprint between hurdles as fast as possible over 8m/s and run powerful first stride and shortened third stride preparing for the following hurdle clearances.
Coordination Pattern of Upper Limb of Sweep Shot Movement in Ice Hockey
Choi, Ji-Young ; Lee, Eui-Lin ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 169~179
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.4.169
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between the segments of the body and to qualitatively analyze coordination pattern of joints and segments during Sweep Shot movement in Ice Hockey, by utilizing coordination variables was angle vs. angle plots. By the utilization the three dimensional anatomical angle cinematography, the angles of individual joint and segment according to sweep shot in ice hockey. The subjects of this study were five professional ice hockey players. The reflective makers were attached on anatomical boundary line of body. For the movement analysis three dimensional cinematographical method(APAS) was used and for the calculation of the kinematic variables a self developed program was used with the LabVIEW 6.1 graphical programming(Johnson, 1999) program. By using Eular's equations the three dimensional anatomical Cardan angles of the joint and ice hockey stick were defined. The three dimensional anatomical angular displacement and coordination pattern of trunk and Upper limb(shoulder-elbow, elbow-wrist linked system) showed important role of sweep shot in ice hockey. As the result of this paper, for the successful movement of sweep shot in ice hockey, it is most important role of coordination pattern of trunk-shoulder, shoulder-elbow and elbow-wrist. specially turnk movememt as a proximal segment. Coordination pattern of Upper Limb(upperarm-forearm-hand) of Sweep Shot movement in Ice Hockey that utilizes coordination variables seems to be one of useful research direction to understand basic control mechanisms of Ice hockey sweep shooting linked system skill. this study result showed flexion-extension, adduction-abduction and internal-external rotation of trunk are important role of power and shooting direction coordination pattern of upper Limb of Sweep Shot movement in Ice Hockey.
The Analysis of the Muscle Fatigue for the Lower Limbs Muscle during the Level and Downhill Running
Moon, Gon-Sung ; Lee, Eui-Lin ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 181~190
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.4.181
The purpose of this study was to analyze the muscle fatigue for lower limbs during the level and downhill running. The subjects were 6 males of twenties who have no experience to get the injury in the lower limbs and required to run on the level and downhill which was -7% grade treadmill at 8.3km/h. EMG signal was gained by ME3000P8 Measurement Unit and computed the Median Frequency(MF) with the power spectrum analysis in the Megawin software. Rectus femoris(RF), Vastus lateralis(VL), Gluteus medius(GLU), Biceps Femoris(BF), gastrocnemius medial head(GM), gastrocnemius lateral head(GL), Tibialis anterior(TA) were selected. The result of this study were as follows: The MF of RF decreased in the downhill running than level running in length of time but, the MF of VL was opposite. The MF of BF decreased in the level and downhill running, but, the MF of BF decreased much in the level than downhill running. The MF of GLU decreased much in the downhill running but, almost no change in the level running. The MF of TA decreased in the level running than downhill running. The MF of GL decreased in the level running but, the MF of GM decreased in the downhill running in length of time. This study analyzed the muscle fatigue of the lower limbs with the median frequency on the basis of an assumption that the impact force for the flexion and extension of the joint and the body mass may be much in the eccentric contraction such as the downhill running than level running. RF and GM showed the muscle fatigue in the downhill running than level running. BF and GL showed the muscle fatigue in the level running than downhill running.
Analyses of GRF & Insole Foot-Pressure Distribution: Gait Patterns and Types of Trekking Boots
Park, Seung-Bum ; Lee, Joong-Sook ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 191~200
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.4.191
The purpose of this study was to analyze the foot-pressure distribution of trekking boots for assessing their functionality. Subjects participated in this study included 10 university male students who had no injury experience in lower limbs and a normal gait pattern. The size of all subjects was 270mm. Five models of trekking boots, most popular in Korea (A, B, C, D & E company), were selected for the test. Using the PEDAR-X system and PEDAR-X insoles, 5 different walking stages were analyzed for the foot-pressure distribution: (a) straight gait; (b)
turn gait; (c)
uphill gait; and (d)
downhill gait. Results of the foot-pressure distribution and functionality on each stage were as follow; 1. Straight gait - In case of Max ground reaction force, mean plantar pressure and Max plantar pressure, there was not a distinct tendency; however, products manufactured by E and A company showed relatively lower pressure distribution. 2.
turn gait - In Max ground reaction force, mean plantar pressure and Max plantar pressure, there wasn't a distinct tendency; however, products manufactured by E and A company showed relatively lower pressure distribution. Results also revealed that the products manufactured by E and A company were superior to those by other companies in terms of functionality. 3.
uphill gait - In Max ground reaction force, mean plantar pressure and Max plantar pressure, there wasn't a distinct tendency; however, products manufactured by E and C company showed relatively lower pressure distribution. Results also revealed that the products manufactured by E and C company were superior to those by other companies in terms of functionality. 4.
downhill gait - In Max ground reaction force, Mean plantar pressure and Max plantar pressure, there wasn't a distinct tendency; however, products manufactured by E company showed relatively lower pressure distribution. Results also revealed that the products manufactured by E company were superior to those by other companies in terms of functionality. Overall, five pairs of trekking shoes selected in this study showed the excellent performance in several conditions. The findings above may provide us with the important criteria for choosing trekking boots.
A Biomechanical Analysis of Four Different Taekwondo Body Punch Types in Horseback-Riding Stance
Kang, Sung-Chul ; Kim, Eui-Hwan ; Shin, Hyun-Moo ; Kim, Sung-Sup ; Kim, Tae-Whan ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 201~208
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.4.201
The purpose of this study is to compare 4 different body punch types(type 1: a punch using a shoulder, type 2: a punch using a waist, type 3: a punch using lower extremities, and type 4: a punch with elbows by your side at chest level) in horseback-riding stance and establish suitable teaching theory and method, which would be a useful reference to Taekwondo instructors on the spot(in Taekwondo dojangs all around Korea). Five exhibition players from Korean national Taekwondo exhibition team participated in this study. Each participant was asked to perform the four different types of punches and their kinematic and kinetic data were recorded with 7 vicon cameras(125Hz) and two force plates(AMTI, 1200Hz). We analyzed displacement, time, resultant center of body mass trajectory, velocity, trunk angular velocity, and ground reaction force(GRF) from each body segment in body punch and the result. I performed 1-way ANOVA(RM) for average values of each player after standardization and statistical significance was set as p<.05. was as the following ; First, they showed a tendency to take the body punch posture with the biggest motion at a shoulder and on descending order a waist and a knee. Second, a mean time for each body punch on ascending order 0.46sec. for type 2, 0.49sec for type 3, 0.50sec. for type 4, and 0.56sec. for type 1. Third, a mean resultant center of body mass trajectory for each body punch the longest 4.07cm for type 3 and the shortest 2.458cm for type 1. Fourth, a mean of maximal velocity of a fist strike was the fastest 5.99m/s for type 3, 5.93m/s for type 4, 5.67m/s for type 2, and 5.01m/s for type 1 on the descending order. Fifth, a mean of maximal trunk angular velocity of the fastest 495.6deg./sec. for type 4 and 337.7deg./sec. for type 1 on the descending order. Sixth, strongest value was type 3, 2 for anterior-posterior ground reaction force(left -54.89N, right 60.58N), type 4 for medial-lateral GRF(left 83.59N, right -80.12N), and type 3 for vertical GRF(left 341.79N, right 426.11N).
Comparative Analysis of Biomechanic Variables between Backlift and Leglift Type
Kim, Eui-Hwan ; Kim, Tae-Whan ; Kim, Sung-Sup ; Chung, Chea-Wook ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 209~219
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2007.17.4.209
The purpose of this study was to analyze biomechanical mechanism (posture, moment of back joint, EMG) when athletes (Judo, Ssirum) and lay people lifted a load according to two different lift methods; backlift and leglift. The number of subjects was 12; 8 athletes (4 for Judo, 4 for Ssirum) and 4 lay people. We recorded a lift motion in backlift and leglift using 7 real time infrared cameras (vicon) and analyzed EMG pattern of major muscles for a lift (lattisimus dorsi, erector spinae, biceps femoris). In a backlift Judo players showed a biggest range of back flexion and extension motion and lay people flexed more than other groups at phase 2 in which an interaction between groups and events was statistically significant (p=.024). In a leglift Ssirum players more flexed their back in a barbell lift and there was a statistical significance (p=.021) between groups and events. For moment of back joints, 1) in a backlift a larger loading on back joints in all three groups at phase 2 when lifting down a barbell, 2) in a leglift a larger loading on back joints when lifting down a barbell in two athlete groups but a larger loading when lifting up a barbell in lay people group, and all groups did not show any statistical significance. For EMG, right lattisimus dorsi muscle in a backlift was statistical significant (p=.006) in an interaction between groups and phase but left lattisimus dorsi muscle was insignicant, and there was not any significance in a leglift. Generally atheletes (Judo and Ssirum) used more their muscles of lower extremity in lifting up and down and lay people did more their ones of upper extremity.