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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Sport Biomechanics
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 5 - Dec 2011
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Dec 2011
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Sep 2011
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Jun 2011
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Mar 2011
Selecting the target year
Influence of Anticipation on Landing Patterns during Side-Cutting Maneuver in Female Collegiate Soccer Players
Park, Eun-Jung ; Lee, Jung-Ho ; Ryue, Jae-Jin ; Sohn, Ji-Hoon ; Lee, Ki-Kwang ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 21, issue 4, 2011, Pages 391~395
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2011.21.4.391
To investigate the anticipatory effect on landing patterns during side-cutting maneuver, thirteen healthy female elite college soccer players participated in this study. Three-dimensional knee kinematics, effective mass and correlation between both these were measured and analyzed using a motion analysis and force plates. Each testing session included anticipated tasks,
side-cutting tasks (AC), followed by a set of unexpected side-cutting (UC) in a random order. Knee flexion/extension, valgus/varus and internal/external rotation angles and effect mass were compared by using paired t-test. Also, correlation analysis was performed to identify the relationship between knee angles and effective mass. Effective mass during UC was greater than that during AC. Effective mass and maximum knee flexion angle were positively correlated during AC and not during UC. Based on the relationship between effective mass and knee flexion angle in AC, shock absorption can be controlled by knee joint flexion in pre-predicted movement condition. However, effective mass can not be controlled by knee flexion in UC condition. The unexpected load affects were more irregular on the knee joint, which may be one of the injury mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in female soccer players.
The Immediate Effects of Five-Toed Shoes on Foot Structure
Yi, Kyung-Ock ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 21, issue 4, 2011, Pages 397~403
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2011.21.4.397
The purpose of this study is to analyze the immediate effects of five toed shoes on foot structure. Subjects consisted of 26 college-aged women with pes planus. X-ray analysis of student feet were performed both barefooted and with five toed shoes. Dependent variables were hallux valgus angle, calcaneal inclination angle, 1st metatarsal declination angle, and intermetartarsal angle. Independent t-test was used for statistical analysis along with SAS. Overall, there were statistically significant changes of test subject's dependent variables when wearing five toed shoes. Specifically, the hallux valgus angle decreased, the calcaneal inclination angle and 1st metatarsal inclination angle increased, and intermetatasal angles both increased and decreased, shifting towards normal range. In every case the dependent variables shifted towards a more normal range while subjects wore five toed shoes. This study only examined the immediate corrective effects of five toed shoes on foot structure, but long-term studies are needed to understand the prolonged effects of five toed shoes on foot structure.
Kinematics and Grip Forces of Professionals, Amateurs and Novices during Golf Putting
Choi, Jin-Seung ; Kim, Hyung-Sik ; Kang, Dong-Won ; Kim, Han-Su ; Oh, Ho-Sang ; Seo, Jeong-Woo ; Yi, Jeong-Han ; Lim, Young-Tae ; Tack, Gye-Rae ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 21, issue 4, 2011, Pages 405~410
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2011.21.4.405
The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in kinematic variables and grip forces among professionals(PG), amateurs(AG), and novice group(NG) during golf putting. The participants consisted of 3 groups based on their playing ability: 8 professional golfers (handicap<5), 8 amateurs (handicap<18) and 8 novice. Each subject attempted 2.1m putts from the hole. 3D motion analysis system(Motion analysis Corp., USA) with 6 high speed cameras and grip force measurement system(Kim et al., 2007) were used to acquired kinematic and force data, respectively. To compare differences among groups, joint angles of upper limbs, trajectory and smoothness by jerk cost function(JC) of putter head and grip forces were used in this study. Results showed that there were significant differences among groups in most of variables such as joint angles, trajectory & smoothness of putter head, and distribution of grip force in both hands. In brief, we confirmed that putting stroke in PG was more accurate and smooth than that in other groups, especially NG, due to their well-controlled upper limbs and keeping grip forces constant in both hands. It can be concluded that due to skilled levels, fundamental differences of putting movement could be identified and these differences might be helpful for improving one's putting skills.
Effect of Balance before and after Impact on the Velocity and Angle of Golf Club during Driver Swing
Ryu, Ji-Seon ; Kim, Tae-Sam ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 21, issue 4, 2011, Pages 411~420
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2011.21.4.411
The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether correlations exist between balance and impact velocity, angular position, and maximum velocity of a club during drive swing. Twelve skilled golfers were recruited in this study. They were asked to perform ten swing trials and two trials were selected for analysis. Balance parameters were calculated via the force platform while kinematic variables were determined by using the Qualisys system. The results of the present study demonstrated that the average of COP velocity was faster in the medio-lateral direction rather than the anterio-posterior direction. Also, left foot's COP velocity and free torque were greater than the right foot's before impact. The range of the right foot's COP in the anterio-posterior direction before impact were correlated with the club velocity and angular position at impact. There was a negative correlation between the left foot's COP velocity before the impact and the velocity at impact. Additionally, the range and RMS of the left foot's free torque affected on the club angular position at impact and the maximum velocity at release, respectively. Finally, a negative correlation existed between the range of the right foot's free torque after the impact and club's maximum velocity at release.
Racket Head and COM of Velocity of Kinematic Analysis of Two-Handed Backhand Stroke Between Male and Female Tennis Player
Na, Doo-Ri ; Kang, Young-Taek ; Park, Tae-Jin ; Seo, Kook-Eun ; Kim, Yong-Jae ; Lee, Kyung-Soon ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 21, issue 4, 2011, Pages 421~427
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2011.21.4.421
The purpose of this study was to analyze the difference between male and female tennis players' two-handed backhand stroke and to provide basic data which helps precise and efficient instruction for the sake of precise postures, enhanced performances and skills. 5 male and 5 female university players were recruited as subjects, and the mean difference between the kinematic variables such as the time from backswing to impact and total swing time, racket head velocity, change of the center of body gravity in two-handed backhand stroke through three-dimensional motion analysis. The test data was analyzed by t-test, and the alpha level of
=.05 was set for all tests of significance. The findings of the study were as follows; First, there was no difference in the time from backswing to impact and total time of
Comparative Study of Biomechanical Left and Right Elbow Joint Extension Movements After Wheel Axle Application
Kim, Sung-Joo ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 21, issue 4, 2011, Pages 429~436
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2011.21.4.429
In this study, we have experimented with 9 players at the national delegate level. Although there were some differences in the average effects of 3 types of one-two straight movements after the application of wheel axle, there were no statistical differences in the case of surface reacting forces, electromyograms, and impact forces. When the right fist was impacted using the one-two straight movements and the wheel axle was applied with 3 segmentations, high impact forces were obtained for the pronation in the following order-72.01
(type 2), 70.93
(type 3), and 58.19
(type 1). Higher values of the surface reacting force were found for type 1 that did not exhibit pronation in the left foot, whereas in the case of the vertical direction of the right foot, type 2 with pronation exhibited higher values and impact forces. In the right electromyogram, high impact forces due to the activation of the muscular electric potential were obtained for lumbar erector (LE) spinae and triceps brachii (TB) with type 1; LE spina, latissimus dosi (LD), and upper trapezius (UT) with type 2; and brachioradialis (BR), UT, and rectus abdominal (RA) with type 3. Due to pronation and complex motions of the 3 pronation segmentations, the efficiency was higher for impacts due to one-two straight movements.
The Effect on the Lower Limbs Joint as the Landing Height and Floor Pattern
Kim, Eun-Kyong ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 21, issue 4, 2011, Pages 437~447
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2011.21.4.437
In this study, the lower limbs joints were analyzed for features based on the biomechanical characteristics of landing techniques according to height and landing on the ground type (flats and downhill). In order to achieve the objectives of the study, changes were analyzed in detail contents such as the height and form of the first landing on the ground at different angles of joints, torso and legs, torso and legs of the difference in the range of angular motion of the joint, the maximum angular difference between joints, the lower limbs joints difference between the maximum moment and the difference between COM changes. The subjects in this study do not last six months did not experience joint injuries 10 males in 20 aged were tested. Experimental tools to analyze were the recording and video equipment. Samsung's SCH-650A model camera was used six units, and the 2 GRF-based AMTI were used BP400800 model. 6-unit-camera synchronized with LED (photo cell) and Line Lock system were used. the output from the camera and the ground reaction force based on the data to synchronize A/D Syc. box was used. To calculate the coordinates of three-dimensional space,
(X, Y, Z axis) to the size of the control points attached to the framework of 36 markers were used, and 29 where the body was taken by attaching a marker to the surface. Two kinds of land condition, 40cm and 60cm in height, and ground conditions in the form of two kinds of flat and downhill slopes (
) of the landing operation was performed and each subject's 3 mean two-way RM ANOVA in SPSS 18.0 was used and this time, all the significant level was set at a=.05. Consequently, analyzing the landing technique as land form and land on the ground, the changes of external environmental factors, and the lower limbs joints' function in the evaluation were significantly different from the slopes. Landing of the slop plane were more load on the joints than landing of plane. Especially, knee extensor moment compared to the two kinds of landing, slopes plane were approximately two times higher than flat plane, and it was statistical significance. Most of all not so much range of motion and angular velocity of the shock to reduce stress was important. In the further research, front landing as well as various direction of motion of kinetic, kinetic factors and EMG variables on lower limbs joints of the study in terms of injury-prevention-approach is going to be needed.
Comparisons Among Functional Methods of Axis of Rotation Suitable for Describing Human Joint Motion
Kim, Jin-Uk ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 21, issue 4, 2011, Pages 449~458
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2011.21.4.449
There are many functional methods for estimating the mean axis of rotation of a joint. However, it is still a controversial issue which method is superior. The purpose of this study was to compare functional methods for estimated axes of rotation from synthetic data. The comparison was made in terms of suitabilities on describing humans in sports. For a more practical situation, the axis error as well as measurement and marker movement error were applied to generated data. Simulations having 1000 times of 80 rotational displacements were performed. The functional methods used in the study were two transformation methods, two fitting methods, and one more transformation method called M. The M method is a combination of S
derk & Wedin(1993) and Mardia & Jupp(2000). Another factor of the study was angular velocity with levels of .01, .025, .05, .5 and 1 rad/s. The method M resulted in unbiased, stable, and consistent axis of rotation vectors in all levels of angular velocity except .01 rad/s. Therefore, the method M had the highest validity and reliability of all the methods. The fitting methods were very sensitive in small angular velocities and stable only in the velocities of more than .5 rad/s. The most suitable method for analyzing human motion by using marker photogrammetry is M.
Analysis of Obstacle Gait Using Spatio-Temporal and Foot Pressure Variables in Children with Autism
Kim, Mi-Young ; Choi, Bum-Kwon ; Lim, Bee-Oh ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 21, issue 4, 2011, Pages 459~466
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2011.21.4.459
The purpose of this study was to analyze of obstacle gait using spatio-temporal and foot pressure variables in children with autism. Fifteen children with autism and fifteen age-matched controls participated in the study. Spatio-temporal and foot pressure variables was investigated using GAITRite pressure sensor system. Each footprint was divided into 12 equal trapezoids and after that the hindfoot, midfoot and forefoot analysis was developed. Independent t-test was applied to compare the gait variables between the groups. The results showed that the autism group were significantly decreased in velocity, cadence, cycle and swing time compared to the control group. The autism group were significantly increased in step width and toe out angle compared to the control group. The autism group were significantly increased at midfoot and forefoot of lateral part of footprint and forefoot of medial part of footprint in the peak time compared to the control group. The autism group were significantly increased at midfoot and hindfoot in
, at midfoot in active area, and at hindfoot in peak pressure compared to the control group. In conclusion, the children with autism showed abnormal obstacle gait characteristics due to muscle hypotonia, muscle rigidity, akinesia, bradykinesia and postural control impairments.
Tibial Rotation Influences Muscle Activity and Motion of Lower Extremity during The Stair Ascent
Kang, Jeong-Il ; Lee, Yu-Kyung ; Park, Seung-Kyu ; Lee, Joon-Hee ; Yang, Dae-Jung ; Choi, Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 21, issue 4, 2011, Pages 467~477
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2011.21.4.467
This study was performed to investigate the effects of tibial rotation while going up stair on muscle activity of vastus medialis oblique and vastus lateralis, and on patellar displacement. The subjects included 30 people (male: 15; female: 15) who were randomly assigned to the tibial internal-rotation, neutral-rotation, and external-rotation groups. The subjects went up the stair while performing the assigned rotations, and the rotation of the hip and the displacement of the patella were measured using a 3D motion analyzer. In addition, the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of the vastus medialis oblique and vastus lateralis were measured using surface electromyogram. On the tibial internal rotation, the hip rotation significantly appeared in the same direction and so did on the tibial neutral and external rotations(p<.001). Although the MVIC of the vastus medialis oblique and vastus lateralis did not significantly differ by tibial rotation during the stair ascent, the MVIC of the vastus medialis oblique was higher than that of the vastus lateralis during the internal and neutral rotations (p<.05). In addition, during the stair ascent, the displacement of the patella was more significant during the tibial external rotation than during the tibial internal and neutral rotations(p<.001). Thus, patients with patellofemoral pain are required to be considered the effects of tibial rotation for their rehabilitation.
The Effects of the Height and the Quality of the Material of Popular Heel-up Insole on the Mean Plantar Foot Pressure during Walking
Lee, Joong-Sook ; Kim, Doo-Hwan ; Jung, Bu-Won ; Han, Dong-Wook ; Park, Don-Mog ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 21, issue 4, 2011, Pages 479~486
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2011.21.4.479
This study determined the effects of the height and the quality of the material of popular heel-up insole on mean plantar foot pressure during walking. Seven healthy college students who are studying at S university in Busan were as participants in this study. After sufficiently explaining about the research to the subjects before the experiment, mean plantar foot pressures were examined using F-Scan Pressure Measure System 5.23 for the gait with shoes inserted insole and the data were compared among the height and the quality of material of insoles. In the result, there was a difference significantly in the mean plantar foot pressure followed the height of insoles both left and right. Especially, mean plantar foot pressure in left indicated significantly lower in 3 cm and 5 cm insoles than in 0 cm and 1 cm insoles. Also mean plantar foot pressure in right showed significantly lower in 3 cm and 5 cm insoles than in 0 cm, and indicated significantly lower in 5 cm insoles than in 1 cm and 3 cm insoles. The mean plantar foot pressure followed the quality of the material of insoles were different significantly. In left, the mean plantar foot pressure of urethane poly-acetyl insole was lower significantly than urethane poly-acetyl inserted air insole, power-gel insole and jelly insole. And the mean plantar foot pressure of urethane poly-acetyl insole was lower significantly than power-gel insole and jelly insole in right. We showed that 3 cm and 5 cm insoles in the height of insoles and Urethane poly-acetyl insole in the quality of material were suitable to reduce a fatigue which is felt in plantar foot during the walking.
Evaluation for Biomechanical Effects of Metatarsal Pad and Insole on Gait
Choi, Jung-Kyu ; Park, In-Sik ; Lee, Hong-Jae ; Won, Yong-Gwan ; Kim, Jung-Ja ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 21, issue 4, 2011, Pages 487~494
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2011.21.4.487
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of metatarsal pad (MP) compared with barefoot and MP with using different insoles on gait. 15 healthy females who had no history of injury in the lower extremity with an average age of 22.7 year(SD=1.35), height of 160 cm(SD=3.4), weight of 48.8 kg(SD=5.52) and average foot size of 232.5 mm(SD=6.8) participated in this study as the subjects. The subjects walked on a treadmill under four different experimental conditions: 1) walking with barefoot, 2) walking wearing MP 3) walking wearing a soft insole with MP(SIMP), 4) walking wearing a rigid insole with MP(HIMP). During walking, foot pressure data such as force, contacting area, peak pressure, and mean pressure was collected using Pedar-X System(Novel Gmbh, Germany) and EMG activity of lower limb muscles such as tibialis anterior(TA), lateral gastrocnemius(LG), rectus femoris(RF), and musculus biceps femoris(MBF) was gathered using Delsys EMG Work System(Delsys, USA). Collected data was then analyzed using paired t-test in order to investigate the effects of each of experimental conditions. As a result of the analysis, when MP and HIMP were equipped, overall contacting area was increased while the force, peak pressure and the mean pressure were decreased. Especially, when the SIMP was equipped, every data were significantly decreased. In case of EMG, wearing MP, SIMP and HIMP made three muscles(TA, LG, RF)'s activity decrease. A result of the analysis will be able to apply for manufacturing functional shoes, diabetes shoes, senior shoes and lower extremity orthosis. Significance of the study due to a metatarsal pad and the insole is to analyze the changes in muscle strength.
Single Gyroscope Sensor Module System for Gait Event Detection
Kang, Dong-Won ; Choi, Jin-Seung ; Kim, Han-Su ; Oh, Ho-Sang ; Seo, Jeong-Woo ; Tack, Gye-Rae ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 21, issue 4, 2011, Pages 495~501
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2011.21.4.495
The purpose of this study was to develop the inertial sensor module system to detect gait event using single angular rate sensor(gyroscope), and evaluate the accuracy of this system. This sensor module is attached at the heel and gait events such as heel strike, foot flat, heel off, toe off are detected by using proposed automatic event detection algorithm. The developed algorithm detect characteristics of pitch data of the gyroscope to find gait event. To evaluate the accuracy of system, 3D motion capture system was used and synchronized with sensor module system for comparison of gait event timings. In experiment, 6 subjects performed 5 trials level walking with 3 different conditions such as slow, preferred and fast. Results showed that gait event timings by sensor module system are similar to that by kinematic data, because maximum absolute errors were under 37.4msec regardless of gait velocity. Therefore, this system can be used to detect gait events. Although this system has advantages of small, light weight, long-term monitoring and high accuracy, it is necessary to improve the system to get other gait information such as gait velocity, stride length, step width and joint angles.