Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Sport Biomechanics
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Dec 2012
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Sep 2012
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Jun 2012
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Mar 2012
Selecting the target year
Kinematic Analysis of Baseball Throw after 15 Weeks of Class
Chun, Young-Jin ; Shin, In-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 22, issue 1, 2012, Pages 1~7
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2012.22.1.001
The purpose of this study was to investigate the pattern change of throwing in baseball after 15 weeks of participation in baseball class, by examining ball speed, trunk and upper body angles. The comparison was with 6 university students that haven't had any experience in baseball. 8 infra red cameras and 2 force platforms were used to collect the data. First, there was an increase in the speed of the ball after the class. Second, there was no significant difference in the allocated phases during the throw before and after class. Third, the release point was lower and more in front. Forth, there was an increase in the knee flexion at the left foot landing and release point. Finally, there was an increase in the maximum shoulder external rotation and pelvis angle. It is recommended that the coordination between the segments should be investigated to improve our understanding of the learning of throwing in future research.
Comparative Analysis on Muscle Function and EMG of Trunk and Lower Extremity in Short and Long Distance Athlete
Jung, Jae-Hu ; Kim, Jung-Tae ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 22, issue 1, 2012, Pages 9~16
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2012.22.1.009
The purpose of this study was to compare and analyze muscle function and EMG of the trunk and the lower extremity in short and long distance athletes and in order to determine difference in peak torque per unit weight, muscle power per unit weight, endurance ratio, and %MVIC classified by muscle. For that purpose, isokinetic muscle function tests for waist, knee, and ankle joints and EMG measurements for the trunk and the lower extremity muscle with running motion were conducted for 7 short and long distance high school athletes respectively. The study over muscle function of waist, knee, and ankle joints indicates that peak torque per unit weight of short distance athletes is higher than that of long distance athletes in extension and flexion of waist joint, plantar flexion of right ankle joint, and dorsi flexion of left ankle joint. In case of the muscle power per unit weight of short distance athletes is also higher than long distance athletes in waist, knee, and ankle joints. No difference in endurance ratio of waist, knee, and ankle joints between the two groups was founded. The results of the test over EMG of the trunk and the lower extremity show that %MVIC of erector spinae, rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, and tibialis anterior is higher than that of long distance athletes in support phase. The above results proved to be the same in flight phase except for %MVIC of medial gastrocnemius. In other words, %MVIC of medial gastrocnemius for short distance athletes turned out to be higher than that of long distance athletes in flight phase.
Analysis of GRF & Plantar Foot Pressure of Stepping Foot on Skilled & Unskilled Player's in the Soccer Instep Shoot
Kim, Dong-Seop ; Lee, Joong-Sook ; Jang, Young-Min ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 22, issue 1, 2012, Pages 17~24
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2012.22.1.017
This study is for providing fundamental data of sport biomechanics in GRF & plantar pressure of stepping foot of skilled & unskilled players' at the soccer instep shooting moments. Wearing Pedar-x of Novel, the study has drawn the following conclusion after measuring and analyzing the impact on the GRF and plantar pressure of stepping foot at the instep shooting moments. First, maximum vertical GRF showed higher in the skilled group than in the unskilled group. The results showed significantly different. This study reached the conclusion that the players in the skilled group performed faster and stronger stepping foot motions that the ones in the unskilled(p<.01). Second, since the plantar pressure of the skilled group appeared significantly higher than that of the unskilled, it has brought us to the conclusion that the skilled group performed faster and stronger stepping foot motions than the unskilled group (p<.05). Third, at the moment of instep kicking, the skilled group's average maximum plantar foot pressure of stepping foot was higher than the unskilled. Though the difference was not statistically significant, it can be concluded that the skilled group performed faster and stronger stepping foot motions than the unskilled group(p>.05). Fourth, for the COP moving route of stepping foot while instep kicking, the skilled people performed accurate and strong shooting motions directly toward the target direction with stable postures, no matter how it's left, right, front or back.
The Effects of Landing Height on the Lower Extremity Injury Mechanism during a Counter Movement Jump
Cho, Joon-Haeng ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 22, issue 1, 2012, Pages 25~34
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2012.22.1.025
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of landing height on the lower extremity during a counter movement jump. Fourteen healthy male subjects (age:
kg) participated in this study. Each subject randomly performed three single-leg jumps after s single-leg drop landing (counter movement jump) on a force platform from a 20 cm and 30 cm platform. Paired t-test (SPSS 18.0; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) was performed to determine the difference in kinematics and kinetics according to the height. All significance levels were set at p<.05. The results were as follows. First, ankle and knee joint angles in the sagittal plane increased in response to increasing landing height. Second, ankle and knee joint angles in the frontal plane increased in response to increasing landing height. Third, there were no significant differences in the moment of each segment in the sagittal plane for the jumping height increment. Fourth, ankle eversion moment and knee valgus moment decreased but hip abduction moment increased for the jumping height increment. Fifth, Ankle and knee joint powers increased. In percentage contribution, the ankle joint increased but the knee and hip joints decreased at a greater height. Lastly, as jumping height increased, the power generation at the ankle joint increased. Our findings indicate that the height increment affect on the landing mechanism the might augment loads at the ankle and knee joints.
Effects of Running Speed on the Foot Segments Motion at the Stance Phase
Ryu, Ji-Seon ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 22, issue 1, 2012, Pages 35~42
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2012.22.1.035
The aim of the present study was to investigate effect of running speed conditions on the kinematic pattern of the metatarsus, mid-foot, calcaneus. Twenty-two healthy young adults were made to run on treadmill at three different running speeds(normal speed, 9.2; slow speed, 7.4; fast speed, 11.1km/hr.) and the trajectories of the 10 reflective markers for each subject were recorded by an eight-camera motion capture system at 200 Hz. Three-dimensional angles for the foot segment in the support phase during running were calculated according to Euler's technique. Results showed that running speed did not affect the peak of the dorsi/plantar flexion, inversion/eversion, and adduction/abduction or their range of motion for each foot segment. However, when the running speed was fast, significant differences were found in the peak of the plantar flexion, eversion, and adduction and ROM(range of motion) of the dorsi/plantar flexion, inversion/eversion, and adduction/abduction between the foot segments, metatarsus, mid-foot, and calcaneus. It was proposed that the foot segment should be analyzed from a multi-segment system point of view on the basis of anatomical reference during locomotion.
A Biomechanical Analysis of Lower Extremity Segment dur ing the Fouette en dehors Performed by Ballet Dancers
Lee, Jin ; Oh, Cheong-Hwan ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 22, issue 1, 2012, Pages 43~53
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2012.22.1.043
The purpose of this study was to quantitatively examine the biomechanical variables of Fouette turns for expert and beginner ballet dancers and to determine the difference in the variables between the two groups. sixteen female ballet dancers participated in this study. They were divided into an expert group(age,
kg) and a beginner group(age,
kg) depending on their ballet experience. Descriptive data were expressed as mean
standard deviation (SD) for all variables including the duration, displacement of the center of the body, velocity of the center of the body, angle of the body segments, angular velocity of the body segments, ground reaction force, lower extremity torque, muscle activity, body weight, age, and body mass. An independence t-test was conducted to determine how the following variables differed between the beginners and experts: duration, displacement of the center of the body, velocity of the center of the body, angle of the body segments, angular velocity of the body segments, ground reaction force, lower extremity torque, and muscle activity. All comparisons were made at the p<0.05 significance level. The results show that the experts scored high on the biomechanical variables, although all the variables were not significant. Significant differences were found in the angle of body segments, angular velocity of the body segments, lower extremity torque, and muscle activity(p<0.05). The findings of this study demonstrate that the experts have the required skill to make an improved Fouette turn. The findings may also help ballet dancers to learn and understand the Fouette turn.
Comparisons between Skilled and Less-Skilled Players' Balance in Hakdariseogi
Ryu, Ji-Seon ; Yoo, Si-Hyun ; Park, Sang-Kyoon ; Yoon, Suk-Hoon ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 22, issue 1, 2012, Pages 55~63
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2012.22.1.055
The purpose of this study was to investigate the balance differences between skilled players and less-skilled players during Hakdariseogi motion of Keumgang Poomsae in Taekwondo. To achieve the study goal, total of 10 Taekwondo athletes; 5 skilled players(S, body mass:
yrs) and 5 less-skilled players(LS, body mass:
yrs) participated in this study. A three-dimensional motion analysis with 8 infrared cameras and one force plate whose sampling frequency as 30 Hz and 300 Hz, respectively, were performed. Participants' motion were divided into three phases which were preparation phase(P1), performing phase(P2) and maintaining phase(P3). The range and velocities of COP, the range and RMS of ground reaction torque and displacement between COM and center of BOS of each phase were computed. In this study, at P1 and P3 which were double and single stance, respectively, the range and M-L velocities of COP revealed significantly higher in LS compared with those of S(p<.05). At P2 which was single stance, LS indicated significantly higher in range of COP and ground reaction torque, and M-L velocities of COP than those of S(p<.05). The significantly shorter displacement between COM and center of BOS, however, was found in LS compared with that of S(p<.05). The results from our study indicated that S revealed more stable performance and a better posture control ability during performing Hakdariseogi motion.
Effect of Saddle to Pedal Length in Kayak Ergometer on Rowing Motion and EMG Activation in Elite Kayak Players
Ryue, Jae-Jin ; Nam, Ki-Jung ; Lee, Chong-Hoon ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 22, issue 1, 2012, Pages 65~73
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2012.22.1.065
The purpose of this study was to identify the saddle to pedal length contributing to successful performance in kayak using a kayak ergometer. Ten male elite kayak players participated in this study. players were tested on the kayak ergometer which was varied saddle to pedal length by the knee flexion angle(90deg; 120deg; 150deg) to measure stroke frequency, paddling amplitude, joint angle, RoM and angular velocity, foot pressure and force, iEMG using the 3D motion system, foot pressure system and EMG wireless system. At a results, rowing at 120deg on knee flexion angle showed higher stroke frequency and paddling amplitude than other knee flexion angles. RoM at upper extremity showed not significant difference between knee flexion angles. But there were significant differences in thorax and pelvis rotation RoM, knee flexion-extension RoM in each condition. In addition, foot pressure, force and iEMG were significantly different in knee flexion angles. Study showed that changed of saddle to pedal length affected rowing performance kinds of stroke frequency, paddling amplitude. The most important thing, increased range of motion in pelvic and thorax has occurred by force that generated foot-bar to seat. Not only that, but it seems to be attributed to a technical adaptation developed to maximum rowing performance.
Golf Club Fitting Using Robot Machine Data
Park, Sung-Jin ; Jun, Jai-Hong ; Park, Young-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 22, issue 1, 2012, Pages 75~82
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2012.22.1.075
The purpose of this study was to suggest the proper shaft and head fitting methods of the golf club to increase the flight distance of the golf ball. Rotations per minute of the golf ball(RPM), ratio of Ball speed to club head speed(T-Ratio) and launch angle right after impact(LA), which are directly related to ball flight distance, were measured using Spectra with shutter speed of 1/1000sec at the constant head speed of 95mph which was controlled by robot golf swing machine. In order to investigate the effect of club shaft to the 3 selected variables, 10 shafts were used to make ten test clubs with one controlled club head which is the most commonly used by golf players. To measure the effect of the club head to the 3 selected variables, 6 golf club heads which are most commonly used by golfers were selected to make 6 test clubs with a controlled shaft which is one of the best known by players. The shafts and the heads were identified by statistical analysis to increase or decrease the RPM, T-ratio and LA. A proper fitting method of the selected shafts and the club head was suggested to increase the ball flight distance in golf.
Kinematic Analysis on the Stabilization & Correction Effects of Riding Posture According to Rider's Skill Levels in Horse Back Riding
Ryew, Che-Cheong ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 22, issue 1, 2012, Pages 83~94
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2012.22.1.083
The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of posture correction & stabilization according to horse rider's(n=10) skill levels of novice(0wk), mid-skill(12wk) & skill(24wk) in walk & trot. First, Mean posture of 3 times experiments; Anterior & posterior leaning posture of trunk showed rather unstable according to progress of the stages of TD1, TO, TD2 phase, and also shoulder & elbow angle, which effects to the distance from bit to rein, showed unstable riding posture. There was close relationship between shoulder and elbow Angle in walk and hip, knee & ankle angle in trot. Second, Posture correction & stabilization according to riding skill levels; Anterior & posterior leaning posture of trunk did not show significant difference statistically but showed approaching tendency to trunk's vertical line and showed significant difference(p<.05) according to improvement of skill levels in walk & trot horse riding. Hip angle showed significant difference according to progress of the stages of TD1, TO, TD2 phase(p<.05) and showed tendency maintaining the larger thigh flexion according to improvement of skill levels in walk & trot. Knee angle showed more stable posture by maintaining the larger flexion between thigh and shank according to improvement of skill levels in walk & trot(p<.05). Ankle angle also showed tendency maintaining the larger plantar flexion of foot according to improvement of skill levels in walk & trot. When considering the above, regular horse riding program could be useful in posture correction & stabilization according to improvement of skill levels of novice(0wk), mid-skill(12wk) & skill(24wk) in walk & trot.
The Kinematic Analysis about Double Poling Technique of National Cross-Country Skiers at Start & Finish Phases
Choi, Seul-Bi ; Ryu, Jae-Kyun ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 22, issue 1, 2012, Pages 95~104
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2012.22.1.095
The purpose of this study targeted to national cross-country skiers representatives was to implement hypothetical experiment on their patterns of the movements and analysis on kinematic variables occurred while double polling was conducted between starting and finishing phase of 56 meters. Furthermore, it aimed to provide a set of quantitative data to illustrate how to improve one's skill and performance of sprint. In our experiments, we conducted 3-dimension analysis of cycle characteristics, joint angle(hip, knee and elbow), and pole angle. The results showed that at the starting phase, the players did not show a significant difference in attributes of time and distance. In heat 1 where elbow angle and polling starts, the pole angle was noticeably high in heat 1. At the finishing phase, there was a considerable distinction with a high frequency in performing a short polling time and high speed in heat 3. The players showed large extension between the flexion and of the hip angle which indicates high contribution given from the movement of lower body(hip, knee).
The Effect of Badminton Shoe Forefoot Flexibility during the Under Clear Quick Lunge from a Jump Smashing
Yi, Jae-Hoon ; Sohn, Jee-Hoon ; Ryue, Jae-Jin ; Lee, Ki-Kwang ; Lee, Jung-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 22, issue 1, 2012, Pages 105~111
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2012.22.1.111
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect that difference in forefoot of shoe flexibility during the quick lunge from a jump smashing on the lower limbs and the plantar pressure distribution. For this 10 elite badminton players with over 10 years experience and right handed participated. Two kinds of badminton shoes were selected and tested mechanical testing for the forefoot flexibility. Motion analysis, ground reaction forces and plantar pressure distribution were recorded. It was required to conduct lunge movement after jumping smashing as possible as high. Photo sensor was located in 3 meter away from standing position and its height was 40 cm. Subjects were conducted to return original position after touching the sensor as under clear movement as possible as fast. Forefoot stiffness had an effect on shoe peak bending degree and peak bending angular velocity in propulsion phase. Forefoot flexibility had an effect on ankle plantar flexion and knee flexion moment. It appears that joint power on lower limb and peak plantar pressure were not influenced by the flexibility of shoes.
Effects of Forefoot Rocker Shoes with Metatarsal Bar on Lower Extremity Muscle Activity and Plantar Pressure Distribution
Park, In-Sik ; Jung, Ji-Yong ; Jeon, Keun-Hwan ; Won, Yong-Gwan ; Kim, Jung-Ja ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 22, issue 1, 2012, Pages 113~121
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2012.22.1.113
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of forefoot rocker shoes equipped with a metatarsal bar on lower extremity muscle activity and plantar pressure distribution. Ten healthy women in the age of twenties were participated in this study as the subjects. All subjects walked on a treadmill(Gait Trainer, BIODEX, USA) wearing normal shoes and metatarsal bar shoes, during which the plantar pressure distribution and muscle activity were measured. Using Pedar-X system(Novel Gmbh, Germany), the plantar pressure was measured for six regions of the foot: forefoot, midfoot, rearfoot, 1st metatarsal, 2-3th metatarsal, and 4-5th metatarsal, and for each sub-region, 4 features such as maximum force, contact area, peak pressure, and mean pressure were analyzed based on the plantar pressure. EMG(Electromyography) activity was measured by attaching surface electrodes to the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius medial head, and magnitude of muscle contraction was analyzed in IEMG(Integrated EMG) value. The results show that the maximum force, contact area, peak pressure, and mean pressure in the midfoot all increased while maximum force, peak pressure, contact area, mean pressure in the 1st metatarsal and 2-3th metatarsal all decreased when wearing functional shoes. Also, muscle activities in the four muscles were all decreased when wearing the functional shoes. This paper suggests that forfoot rocker shoes equipped with a metatarsal bar can help disperse the high pressure and absorb the shock to the foot as well as give positive influence on gait pattern and postural stability by reducing muscle fatigue during walking.
Simple Camera-based Evaluation System for Lower Limb Alignment during Pedalling
Oh, Ho-Sang ; Choi, Jin-Seung ; Kang, Dong-Won ; Seo, Jeong-Woo ; Bae, Jae-Hyuk ; Tack, Gye-Rae ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 22, issue 1, 2012, Pages 123~129
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2012.22.1.123
Simple camera-based system for evaluation of lower limb alignment as a part of an automated cycling fitting system was developed and verified in this study. Developed imaging system can evaluate lower limb alignment quantitatively during pedaling using a general camcorder and single marker attached on the knee. Threshold-based marker detection algorithm was proposed in this study. Experiment was carried out to compare the trajectory data from marker detection algorithm of the developed imaging system with the trajectory data from 3-D motion capture system. Results showed that average error between trajectories was 2.33 mm (0.92 %) in the vertical direction and 0.62 mm (1.86 %) in the medio-lateral direction. There existed significant correlation between two measured values (r=0.9996 in the vertical direction and r=0.9975 in the medio-lateral direction). It can be concluded that developed imaging system be applied to evaluate lower limb alignment which is an important factor for dynamic bicycle fitting.