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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Sport Biomechanics
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 4 - Dec 2014
Volume 24, Issue 3 - Sep 2014
Volume 24, Issue 2 - Jun 2014
Volume 24, Issue 1 - Mar 2014
Selecting the target year
Kinematic Comparisons between Yang-1 and Yang-2 Vaults in Men's Artistic Gymnastics
Park, Cheol-Hee ; Kim, Young-Kwan ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 24, issue 4, 2014, Pages 317~327
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2014.24.4.317
As a single subject study, it was purposed to investigate kinematic differences between Yang Hak Seon vault (i.e., handspring forward and salto forward straight with triple twist, Yang-1 vault hereafter) and Tsukahara
twist with salto forward straight (Yang-2 vault hereafter) in gymnastics. Yang Hak-Seon (23 years, 160 cm, and 52 kg) voluntarily participated in this study. Motion capture system, consisting of fourteen cameras, were used to measure Yang-2 vault with the sampling rate of 200 Hz. Twenty six reflective markers were placed on major anatomical points of 15 body segments. Successful two trials of Yang-2 vault were collected and analyzed for the comparison. Compared Yang-1 results were based on the previous study of Park and Song (2012). Results indicated superior linear kinematics of Yang-1 vault to those of Yang-2 vault before the touchdown of vault table. However, Yang-2 vault revealed superior angular kinematics to Yang 1 vault showing more trunk twist angle (a triple and a half twist) and its faster angular velocity during the airborne. The Yang 2 vault could has advantage of increasing angular motion than Yang 1 vault as a result of a half turn off the springboard onto the vault table and a sequential touchdown of the hands.
Kinematic Analysis of The Rider Postural Alignments According to The Fitting of Stirrups Lengths during Horse Walk of High Level Rider
Ryew, Che-Cheong ; Hyun, Seung-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 24, issue 4, 2014, Pages 329~338
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2014.24.4.329
The purpose of this study was to analyze of the rider postural alignments according to the fitting of stirrups lengths during walk of high level riders. Participants selected as subject were consisted of horse riders of high level (age:
, body weight:
, low extremity length:
) and walk with 3 types of stirrup lengths(ratio of low extremity 68.04%, 73.25%, 78.48%). The variables analyzed were consisted of the displacement of Y axis (center of mass, head, thigh, shank and foot), FR angle, LR angle, dynamic postural stability index (DPSI), coefficient of variation (CV%), and distance (X axis) of low extremity limb between right and left. The displacement of Y axis in COM, thigh, shank, foot limbs were not statistically significant, but movements of head showed greater distance of B type and C type than that of A type during 1 stride of walk. The FR and LR angle in trunk of horse rider, dynamic postural stability index and, coefficient of variation didn't show significant difference statistically according to the fitting of stirrup lengths. Also the distance (X axis) of low extremity in thigh and shank didn't show significant difference statistically in between right and left, but right and left foot showed greater distance in C type than that of B and A types during walk in horse back riding. The hip and ankle joint angle not statistically significant according to stirrups lengths, But knee joint angle showed more extended according to the increase of stirrups lengths during stance and swing phase in walk.
Kinetic Analysis of the Lower Body Joints on Golf Swing
Chang, Jae-Kwan ; Ryu, Jae-Kyun ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 24, issue 4, 2014, Pages 339~347
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2014.24.4.339
The purpose of this study was to investigate joint torques of lower body segments on professional golfers. Three dimensional swing analysis was conducted on the seven subjects. Each subject was asked to swing with 45 inches of Callaway driver, where two force plates (9286AA, Kistler, Switzerland) were built, with his normal speed and tempo. The resultant joint moments of the lower extremities were computed using the kinematic variables of the segments, anthropometric measures and the ground reaction force data by inverse dynamics method. Based on the results of this study, the following conclusions were drawn; It was found that the left ankle joint torque at 3rd phase was increased toward extension on the X-axis and abduction on the Y-axis. The left knee joint torque was alternated from flexion to extension direction in order to lower down the body weight at the beginning of the downswing. The lumbar joint torque was alternated from flexion to extension in order to speed up the upper body rotation which could increase the club head speed ultimately.
The Analysis of Differences in Pulmonary Functions, Jerk Cost, and Ground Reaction Force Depending on Professional and Amateur Dancers in Korea Dance
Park, Yang-Sun ; Kim, Mee-Yea ; Lee, Sung-Ro ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 24, issue 4, 2014, Pages 349~357
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2014.24.4.349
The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in the performance of dancing motions depending on the level of skill by investigating pulmonary functions, ground reaction force, and jerk cost. The subjects of this study were 12 professional dancers (career: 16 yrs) and 12 amateur dancers (career: 9 yrs) who had similar physical conditions. We selected four motion phases which included the diagonal line motion, the deep flexion motion, the breath motion, and the turn motion with one leg after a small step walking motion, with Goodguri Jangdan. In the experiment, 6 infrared cameras were installed in order to analyze the value of the jerk costs and the force plate form. Finally, we measured the pulmonary functions of the subjects. For data analysis, independent t-tests according to each event, were carried out in the data processing. According to the results of FVC % Predicted, the professional dancers showed greater lung capacities than the amateur dancers, indicating that the level of dancing skill influences lung capacity. Based on the result of the balance test, the professional dancers used more vertical power than did the amateur dancers when performing maximal flexion motion. The professional dancers used a propulsive force of pushing their body forward by keeping the center of body higher while the amateur dancers used a braking power by keeping their bodies backward. When performing medial-lateral movements, the amateur dancers were less stable than the professional dancers. There were no differences in values of jerk costs between the amateur dancers and the professional dancers.
Variability of GRF Components between Increased Running Times during Prolonged Run
Ryu, Ji-Seon ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 24, issue 4, 2014, Pages 359~365
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2014.24.4.359
A study was conducted to investigate the possible effects of fatigue which was resulted from increased running time on the stability during a prolonged run. The purposes of this study were twofold: first, to determine the discrete and non-linear variability of GRF (ground reaction force) components between running times to know the body stability, and second, to determine the pattern between discrete and non-linear variability. Nineteens healthy young adult males served in this study as subjects who ran at their preferred running speed. GRF data for twenty strides were collected at 5, 65, and 125 minutes during run. Variance coefficient and Lyapunov Exponent techniques on the GRF data were used to calculate variability index for each of the running time conditions. There were no difference between discrete variabilities of three components of GRF, but non-linear variability of the Fz component of GRF was decreased by increasing running time (p<.01). No relationship was found between discrete and non-linear variability.
Effects of Rhythmic Hop on Response Times and Kicking Velocities of Taekwondo Kicks
Kim, Young-Kwan ; Kim, Yoon-Hyuk ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 24, issue 4, 2014, Pages 367~373
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2014.24.4.367
Most athletes execute rhythmic hop as a preparatory motion in Taekwondo sparring. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of rhythmic hop on the response times and kicking velocities of Taekwondo kicks. Twelve male elite Taekwondo athletes performed a roundhouse kick and a back kick as fast as possible immediately after seeing an external stimulus in rhythmic hop and in no hop, respectively. The three-dimensional marker data of the whole body were measured at sampling rate of 200 Hz. Paired t-tests were used to compare dependent measures between hop and no hop conditions. Results indicated that the rhythmic hop did not affect response time statistically but improved the kicking velocity significantly than no hop did. Different instants of detecting an external stimulus in rhythmic hop for the back kick showed significantly different response times. Conclusively, rhythmic hop is recommendable for the purpose of kicking velocity, but not for the purpose of response time. Athletes should be careful in executing rhythmic hop as their preparatory motions for the back kick, since the response time could be shortened or lengthened according to the instant of detecting an external stimulus.
The Effect Analysis of Postural Stability on the Inter-Segmental Spine Motion according to Types of Trunk Models in Drop Landing
Yoo, Kyoung-Seok ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 24, issue 4, 2014, Pages 375~383
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2014.24.4.375
The purpose of this study was to assess the inter-segmental trunk motion during which multi-segmental movements of the spinal column was designed to interpret the effect of segmentation on the total measured spine motion. Also it analyzed the relative motion at three types of the spine models in drop landing. A secondary goal was to determine the intrinsic algorithmic errors of spine motion and the usefulness of such an approach as a tool to assess spinal motions. College students in the soccer team were selected the ten males with no history of spine symptoms or injuries. Each subject was given a fifteen minute adaptation period of drop landing on the 30cm height box. Inter-segmental spine motion were collected Vicon Motion Capture System (250 Hz) and synchronized with GRF data (1000 Hz). The result shows that Model III has a more increased range of motion (ROM) than Model I and Model II. And the Lagrange energy has significant difference of at E3 and E4 (p<.05). This study can be concluded that there are differences in the three models of algorithm during the phase of load absorption. Especially, Model III shows proper spine motion for the inter-segmental joint motion with the interaction effects using the seven segments. Model III shows more proper observed values about dynamic equilibrium than Model I & Model II. The findings have shown that the dynamic stability strategy of Model III toward multi-directional spinal motion supports for better function of the inter-segmental motor-control than the Model I and Model II.
Effects of Landing Tasks on the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Risk Factors in Female Basketball Players
Lee, Gye-San ; Lim, Bee-Oh ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 24, issue 4, 2014, Pages 385~390
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2014.24.4.385
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of landing tasks on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk factors in female basketball players. Fifteen female basketball players performed a drop landing and a drop landing with a vertical jump on the 40 cm height box. Three-dimensional motion analysis system and ground reaction force system was used for calculate the ACL injury risk factors. Paired samples t-test with Bonfferoni correction were performed. The drop landing with a vertical jump had the higher knee flexion angle, peak knee varus moment, trunk flexion angle than a drop landing. However, the drop landing had the higher trunk rotation angle than a drop landing with a vertical jump. These results indicate that seemingly minor variations between drop landing and drop landing with a vertical jump may influence the ACL injury risk factors. Caution should be used when comparing studies using different landing tasks.
Evaluation for Symmetry Ability of One Leg Standing Pose before and after Yoga Training
Yoo, Sil ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 24, issue 4, 2014, Pages 391~397
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2014.24.4.391
The purpose of this work is to biomechanically study the effect of the one leg standing pose in yoga.. The work have been done through the evaluation for the left and right symmetry ability of one leg standing pose in the before and after yoga training for the 14 female yoga subject group (height:
) participated in this experiment. The motions of one leg standing pose were captured with Vicon system and the parameters were calculated with Visual-3D and Ground reaction force system. The results were as followed; - Front and backward COPsd did not show the significant difference, compared the before training with the after. - Left and right COPsd showed the significant difference (p<0.05), compared the before training with the after. - COP distance showed the significant difference (p<0.01), compared the before training with the after. - The asymmetry index of front and backward COPsd did not show the significant difference, compared the before training with the after. - The asymmetry index of left and right COPsd did not show the significant difference, compared the before training with the after. - The asymmetry index of COP distance showed the significant difference (p<0.01), compared the before training with the after. Therefore, the yoga training demonstrated the stable improvement in the one leg standing pose of inferior feet and the positive effect to the left and right symmetry ability.
Changes in the Biomechanical Properties of Ankle Plantarflexors Following 8-week Resistance Training with or without Whole-Body Vibration in Older Women
Han, Bo-Ram ; Lee, Dae-Yeon ; Jeong, Si-Woo ; Lee, Hae-Dong ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 24, issue 4, 2014, Pages 399~415
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2014.24.4.399
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance training with and without whole-body vibration(WBV) on the biomechanical properties of the plantarflexor in the elderly women (>60 yrs., n=35). Thirty-five volunteers were randomly assigned to a resistance training with WBV group (RVT, n=14), a resistance training without WBV (RT, n=11), and a non-training control group (CON, n=10). The RVT and the RT groups participated in the training sessions three times a week for 8 weeks, followed by a 4-week detraining period. The CON group was instructed to refrain from any type of resistance training. To assess strength and activation of the plantarflexor muscles, maximum isometric ankle plantarflexion torque and muscle activation of the triceps surae muscles were measured using dynamometry, twitch interpolation technique and electromyography at four different ankle joint angles. Also, the lower extremity function was assessed by vertical jumping. The measurements were performed prior to, 2 and 8 weeks after the training and after a 4-week detraining period. Following the 8-week training sessions, an increase in the isometric plantarflexion strength was found to be greater for the RVT compared with the RT group (p<.05). Muscle inhibition was significantly decreased after training than before training only for the RVT (p<.05). Following the detraining period, a decrease in isometric plantarflexors strength and a increases in muscle inhibition were significantly less in the RVT compared with the RT group. In conclusion, the exercise with WBV is a feasible training modality for the elderly and seems to have a boosting effect when used with conventional resistance training.
Saddle Height Determination by Effectiveness of Pedal Reaction Force during Cycle Pedaling
Bae, Jae-Hyuk ; Seo, Jeong-Woo ; Kang, Dong-Won ; Choi, Jin-Seung ; Tack, Gye-Rae ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 24, issue 4, 2014, Pages 417~423
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2014.24.4.417
The purpose of this study was to compare two saddle height determination methods by the effectiveness of pedal reaction force. Ten male subjects (age:
) participated in three minutes, 60 rpm cycle pedaling tests with the same load and cadence. Subject's saddle height was determined by
knee flexion angle (K25) when the pedal crank was at the 6 o'clock position (knee angle method) and 97% (T97), 100% (T100), 103% (T103) of trochanter height (trochanteric method). The RF (resultant force), EF (effective force), and IE (index of effectiveness) were compared by measuring 3D motion and 3-axis pedal reaction force data during 4 pedaling phases (phase1:
). Results showed that there were significant differences in EF at phase1 between T97 and K25, in EF at phase4 between T100 and T103, in IE at total phase between T97 and K25, between T100 and T103, in IE at phase1 & phase2 between T97 and K25. There was higher IE in the K25 than any other saddle heights, which means that K25 was better pedaling effectiveness than the trochanteric method. Therefore it was suggested the saddle height as 103.7% of trochanter height that converted from K25.
Disabled Alpine Ski Athlete's Kinematic Characteristic Changes by Computer Aided Design Based Mono Ski Bucket: A Case Study
Koo, Dohoon ; Eun, Seondeok ; Hyun, Boram ; Kweon, Hyosun ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 24, issue 4, 2014, Pages 425~433
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2014.24.4.425
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of CAD (Computer Aided Design) based alpine mono-ski bucket design on disabled ski athletes' kinematic characteristics. Two national team ski athletes with LW11 disabilities (Locomotion Winter Classification) category for sit ski participated in both pre and post experiment. Both of the subjects performed 3 trials of carved turn on a ski slope under two conditions. Where, subject "A" performed pre experiment with personal bucket and post experiment with the newly developed CAD based bucket whereas, Subject "B" as control subject performed both pre and post experiment with his personal bucket. For the experiment, 24 Infrared cameras were positioned on the ski slope which covered the path of the ski turn. Also, motion capture suit with reflective markers were worn by both subjects. In the result, decrement in medial/lateral displacement of COM, anterior/posterior displacement of COM, flexion/extension angle of trunk as well as velocity losing rate of COM was observed in subject "A" when using the newly developed CAD based bucket. In contrast, no larger effect on performance was observed when using personal buckets. In conclusion, the findings obtained from the study indicated effectiveness of newly developed CAD based bucket by reducing excessive movement of hip and trunk which is an important factor to perform an effective turn.
Characteristics for Gait of the Induced Equinus in Normal Subjects
Woo, Byung-Hoon ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 24, issue 4, 2014, Pages 435~443
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2014.24.4.435
The purposes of this study was to investigate the physical compensation for gait on induced equinus in normal subjects. Ten subjects were participate in the experiment (age:
). The study method adopted 3D analysis with six cameras and ground reaction force with two force-plate. Induced equinus were classify as gait pattern on unilateral and bilateral equinus. The results were as follows; In displacement of COM, medio-lateral and anterior-posterior COM were no significant, but in vertical COM, unilateral equinus gait was higher than bilateral equinus gait. In displacement hip joint, left hip joint was more extended in FC1 and FC2 during unilateral equinus gait. In displacement knee joint, left knee joint was more extended in FC2, right knee joint was more extended in all event during unilateral equinus gait. In trunk tilt, unilateral equinus gait was more forward tilt in TO1 and TO2. ROM of each joint was no significant. In Displacement of pelvic tilt angle, X axis of unilateral equinus gait was more increase than bilateral equinus gait at FC2, TO2 and MS2. Y axis of unilateral equinus gait was more increase than bilateral equinus gait at MS1, FC2 and MS2. Z axis was no significant in both equinus gait. In GRF, right Fx and Fy were no significant in both equinus gait, Fz was more bigger vertical force in bilateral equinus gait. Left Fx was more bigger internal force in unilateral equinus gait, Fy and Fz were no significant in both equinus gait.
Analysis of the Gait Characteristics and Interaction among Bilateral Lower Extremity Joints According to Shoe'S Heel Heights in Young Women
Hyun, Seung-Hyun ; Ryew, Che-Cheong ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 24, issue 4, 2014, Pages 445~453
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2014.24.4.445
The purpose of this study was to analyze the gait characteristics and interaction between lower extremity joints according to shoe's heel heights in young women. Participants were selected as subject consisted of young and healthy women (age:
, body weight:
) and walked with 3 types of shoe's high-heel (0, 5, 9 cm). The variables analyzed consisted of the displacement of Y axis in center of mass ([COM]; (position, velocity), front rear(FR) and left right(LR) angle of trunk, lower extremity joint angle (hip, knee, ankle) and asymmetric index (AI%). The displacement of Y axis in COM position showed the greater movement according to increase of shoe's heel heights, but velocity of COM showed the decrease according to increase of shoe's heel heights during gait. The hip and knee angle didn't show significant difference statistically according to increase of shoe's heel height, but left hip and knee showed more extended posture than those of right hip and knee angle. Also ankle angle didn't show significant difference statistically, but 9 cm heel showed more plantarflexion than those of 5 cm and 0 cm. The asymmetric index (AI%) showed more asymmetric 9 cm heel than those of 0 cm and 5 cm. The FR and LR angle in trunk tilting didn't show significant difference statistically according to the increase of shoe's heel height during gait in young women.
Biomechanical Analysis of Soccer Shoes According to the Difference of Stud
Jin, Young-Wan ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 24, issue 4, 2014, Pages 455~461
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2014.24.4.455
The purposes of this study were to reveal the kinematic and kinetic difference of hard ground soccer shoe, firm ground soccer shoe and soft ground soccer shoe. Soccer players were shoes of varying stud designs with some preferring the bladed studs while others opting for the conventional studded stud. Statistics were used one way-ANOVA and Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference Method. Seven healthy college soccer players were attended a test. All parameters were recorded using the Zebris system. Spatio-temporal variables were no significant difference. Lateral symmetry was statistically significant differences (p<.05). Vertical GRF parameters were no significant difference. Medial midfoot pressure, lateral midfoot pressure and central forefoot pressure were statistically significant differences (p<.05). This study demonstrates that playing surface significantly affects difference soccer shoes during soccer game. Furthermore, epidemiological investigation is warranted to determine the effects of playing surfaces on sport specific injury mechanisms.