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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Sport Biomechanics
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Dec 2015
Volume 25, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Jun 2015
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Mar 2015
Selecting the target year
The Kinetic Analysis of the Approach and Take-off Motion between Performance in Woman's High Jump
Kim, Young-Suk ; Ryu, Jae-Kyun ; Jang, Jae-Kwan ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 25, issue 1, 2015, Pages 1~10
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2015.25.1.001
Objective : The purpose of this study was to find some kinetic variable's relationships between personal records and low records in female high jump. Methods : Collected data of the subjects(N=8, ages:
, low record:
) were used for the last three strides and take-off phase. Five video cameras set in 30frames/s were used for recording. After digitizing motion, the Direct Linear Transformation(DLT) technique was employed to obtain 3-D position coordinates. The kinematic and kinetic factors of distance, velocity, angle, impulse, jerk variables were calculated. A paired t-test was applied for the difference of variables between personal records and lower records and for correlation with performances and variables. The significance level was accepted at p<.05. Results : There was no relationship between pattern of stride and performance. However, rate of change of velocity was related with cental of mass height(CMH) at peak point(PP). Knee, hip, backward lean, foot plant, approach and take off angle showed no difference between best record and low record. Vertical impulse momentum also showed no difference between performances. Conclusion : According to a t-test result, there were significant differences in CMH at PP and jerk at touch down between best record and low record.
Analyze the Correlation between Variable Factors, Kinematic Factors(x-factor, x-factor stretch) and Club Impact Factors, Affecting the Total Length of the Ball During a Pro-Golfer's Driver Swing
Park, Hye-Lim ; So, Jae-Moo ; Kim, Jai-Jeong ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 25, issue 1, 2015, Pages 11~19
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2015.25.1.011
Objective : The purpose of this study was to analyze the correlation between physical factors (X-factor, X-factor stretch) and club factors (club speed, ball speed, club path, smash factor, vertical launch angle, spin rate, flight time, total length) during impact and it affect on the total distance of the ball during a golf driver swing. Background : There were not enough studies that analyzed the correlation between physical factors(X-factor, X-factor stretch) and club factors(club speed, ball speed, club path, smash factor, launch angle, spin rate, flight time, total length) during a purpose swing to increase total distance. Method : For this study, 9 right handed professional male golfers (KPGA) were chosen. The test subject group used their own drivers and each took a total of 10 swings. These swings consisted of 5 purpose swings to increase total distance and 5 normal swings. Results : The purpose swing to increase total distance showed larger physical factors(X-factor, X-factor stretch) compared to a normal swing however the results were not statistically significant. Total distance increased during a purpose swing as a result of ball and club speed. Conclusion : The results showed that club factors, ball speed and club speed contributed the most in affecting the total distance of the ball during a purpose swing.
Analysis on Differences in Muscle Activities Depending on Distance Changes and Success or Failure in Connection with Golf Approach Swings
Lee, Kyung-Ill ; You, Moon-Seok ; Hong, Wan-Ki ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 25, issue 1, 2015, Pages 21~28
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2015.25.1.021
Objectives : The purpose of this study was to compare differences in muscle activities according to distance changes, and success or failure in relation to approaches during a round of golf in order to obtain basic data on golf swings. Methods : To achieve our research goal, we asked eight professional golfers playing for the Korea Professional Golfers' Association (height:
, career duration:
) to perform approach swings at distances of 30, 50, and 70 m. Results : No differences were observed in the muscle activity of the extensor carpi radialis that were caused by the distance changes. In addition, we found that the wrist extensors seemed unaffected by the increase in approach distance. Also, we found that the powers of the approach shots were driven by efficient movements rather than by the strength of the arms. We confirmed that when the distance of the approach increased, the golfers should perform their back-swing tops and follow-through right from the right to the left pelvic limb. To achieve successful approach swings despite distance changes, golfers should first work on the activity of the erector spinae to prepare for rotatory power in the P1 section. Moreover, golfers should increase the activity of the erector spinae on the left when they need to deal with the distance improvements in the P2 and P3 sections. Conclusion : In the light of the discussion above, we may infer that despite approach distance changes during a round of golf, ideal swings can be realized by consistent activities of the wrist extensor muscles and improved performances of the pelvic limb muscles. Furthermore, this study suggests that golfers should improve the consistency of muscle activities in all the other body parts to achieve the ideal swing.
The Biomechanical Properties of the Shock Absorption Phase during Drop Landing According to Landing Types
Park, Gu-Tae ; Yoo, Kyoung-Seok ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 25, issue 1, 2015, Pages 29~37
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2015.25.1.029
Objective : The purpose of this study was to investigate the biomechanical properties of shock absorption strategy and postural stability during the drop landing for each types. Methods : The motions were captured with Vicon Motion Capture System, with the fourteen infra-red cameras (100Hz) and synchronized with GRF(ground reaction force) data(1000Hz). Ten male soccer players performed a drop landing with single-leg and bi-legs on the 30cm height box. Dependent variables were the CoM trajectory and the Joint Moment. Statistical computations were performed using the paired t-test and ANOVA with Turkey HSD as post-hoc. Results : The dominant leg was confirmed to show a significant difference between the left leg and right leg as the inverted pendulum model during Drop Landing(Phase 1 & Phase 2). One-leg drop landing type had the higher CoM displacement, the peak of joint moment with the shock absorption than Bi-leg landing type. As a lower extremity joint kinetics analysis, the knee joint showed a function of shock absorption in the anterior-posterior, and the hip joint showed a function of the stability and shock absorption in the medial-lateral directions. Conclusion : These findings indicate that the instant equilibrium of posture balance(phase 1) was assessed by the passive phase as Class 1 leverage on the effect of the stability of shock absorption(phase 2) assessed by the active phase on the effect of Class 2 leverage. Application : This study shows that the cause of musculo-skeletal injuries estimated to be focused on the passive phase of landing and this findings could help the prevention of lower damage from loads involving landing related to the game of sports.
The Velocity Conversion Coefficient and Consistency for the Optimal Phase Ratio on the Performance of the Women's Triple Jump
Ryu, Jae-Kyun ; Chang, Jae-Kwan ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 25, issue 1, 2015, Pages 39~47
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2015.25.1.039
Objective : The purpose of this study was to investigate the velocity conversion coefficient and invariance for the optimal phase ratio on the performance of the women's triple jump. Methods : Three-dimensional kinematic data were obtained from the three finalists of the women's triple jumper competition at the 2011 Daegu IAAF World Championships. Computer simulations were performed using the biomechanical model of the triple jump to optimize the phase ratio for the longest actual distance for all athletes with altered velocity conversion coefficients. Results : Top elite triple jumpers showed better technical consistency at the phase ratio. Also, no consistent relationship was observed between the loss in horizontal velocity and the gain in vertical velocity across supporting the three phase. In addition, regardless of the magnitude A1, all athletes were optimized with jump-dominated technique. Finally, as the magnitude of A1 increased, the athletes showed better performance. The obtained overall distance jumped showed the longest actual distance when the optimal phase ratio was transferred from hop-dominated to jump-dominated(the step ratio was 30%~31%), and when the optimal phase ratio was transferred from balanced to jump-dominated(the step ratio was 27%~29%). Conclusion : Future studies need to be conducted in order to explore the active landing motion and the inclination angle of the body with the velocity conversion coefficient simultaneously at each supporting phase.
Analysis on Differences in Dynamic Stability of Lower Extremity Caused by Unbalance of Hamstring/Quadriceps Ratio During Drop-landing
Hong, Wan-Ki ; Kim, Min ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 25, issue 1, 2015, Pages 49~56
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2015.25.1.049
Objectives : The purpose of this study was to present quantitative data and basic references to decrease the accident risk of soccer instructors. Methods : To obtain data, we conducted an investigation on how H/Q ratio affects the dynamic stability of the lower extremity at the time of drop landing. The study targeted 13 soccer players from C University who have not had any injuries or wounds in the lower extremity joints and in any other parts of their bodies over the last 6 months. By using CMIS (USA), the players were divided into two groups according to H/Q ratios higher and lower than 69%, respectively. The subjects in each group were instructed to perform a drop landing. Results : The H/Q ratio did not affect the maximal flexion angle of the knee joints at the time of drop landing. In addition the dominant group with a relatively high H/Q ratio was observed to have increased time to reduce shock and to efficiently absorb the ground reaction force during drop landing. Also, the dominant group with a relatively high H/Q ratio utilized the strong performances of the antagonistic muscles around the hamstrings and the controlled rotatory powers of the thighs that were applied to the tibias supported by the ground. Finally, H/Q ratio, load factors, and mean and maximum EMG were significantly negatively related, whereas GRFx showed a positive relationship. In fact, these factors all affected the impact of the load from the H/Q ratio to the knee joints. Conclusion : From these findings it can be concluded that unbalanced H/Q ratio can be considered as a predictor of knee joint injury at the time of drop landing.
Kinematic Variables Comparison of Setter Toss Motion on Volleyball According to Toss Types
Chung, Nam-Ju ; Kim, Jae-Pil ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 25, issue 1, 2015, Pages 57~64
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2015.25.1.057
Purpose : The purpose of this study was to analyze setter toss motion kinematically according to toss types. Method : Dependent variables were elapsed time, vertical displacement of the body center, the projected speed of the ball, and differences of the joint angle to the target for four setters positioning. Result : There was no significant difference in the time but the ball contact time was shorter when the toss distance of P3 was longer. There was significant difference in the vertical displacement of COM (p<.05). The vertical displacement of COM showed that the vertical movement gradually decreased when the quick distance was longer. The vertical displacement of COM was difference (p<.05), also there was difference of the ball speed (p<.001) at the Release point(E4). There was significant difference in the knee joint angle at a certain moment among the Release(E4) and Landing point(E5)(p<.05). The hip joint was significant difference among the Apex(E2), Ball Touch(E3), Release(E4), and the Landing point(E5) on the surface(E2, E3, E4 p<.05; E5 p<.005). The shoulder angle was significant difference among the Ball Touch(E3), Release(E4) and the Landing point(E5) on the surface(E3, E4 p<.05; E5 p<.001). The elbow was significant difference in the Apex(E2) (p<.05). The wrist was significant difference in the Release(E4) (p<.05). Conclusion : If we find the clue to expect the direction of the setter's ball, we have to fine the clues in the Apex(E2) that hip join and elbow, Ball Touch(E3) that hip joint and shoulder joint, Release(E4) that wrist, elbow, hip joint, and knee joint.
Difference in Core Stability and Muscle Balance of the Pilates Teaser Motion According to Kinds of the Ground and Skills
Shin, Yun-Kyung ; Yi, Kyung-Ock ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 25, issue 1, 2015, Pages 65~76
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2015.25.1.065
Objective : The purpose of this study was to analyse the differences in core stability and muscle balance of the pilates Teaser motion according to the surfaces and skills. Methods : There were 10 subjects in this study with 5 being skilled and 5 that were not skilled. The independent variables were surfaces (high elastic & aluminum) and skills (skilled & unskilled). Dependent variables were core stability and muscle balance. Core stability was measured by Force Platform (9872, Switzerland), 3D Imagery (IBS-2000, EXYMA) was used to understand the muscle balance. In order to do the Teaser movement subjects had to lay flat on their back and then lean forward as much as possible and hold the position for 10 seconds. Afterwards, they would lay back down again. A camera (MHS-PM5K, SONY) was used to make 4 phases (take off, recoil forward, holding, recoil backward) during the teaser exercise to analyze movement. In this study quantitative and qualitative analysis was used. For the statistical analysis, 2X2 ANOVA was used to analyze the differences in movement time, X,Y,Z maximum force, center of pressure and angles according to different phases. 2X3 ANOVA was used to analyze the differences in muscle balance via SPSS 18.0. Results : Soft. Elastic mat had a longer holding time, lower Fx/ Fy/ Fz, shorter Fx trajectory, larger angle and shorter gaps in muscle balance than a hard surface in skilled subjects. This was because the mat can help to recruit and then sustain core fine muscles during holding time in the Teaser movement.
The Effects of Lower Limb Muscle Activity on Postural Stability and Ground Type During Gait in Elderly Women
Woo, Byung-Hoon ; Park, Yang-Sun ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 25, issue 1, 2015, Pages 77~84
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2015.25.1.077
Objective : The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of lower limb muscle activity on postural stability and ground type in elderly women subjects. Method : Forty two subjects participated in the experiment (high group - age:
, low group - age:
). Wireless EMG with eight channels was used. Ground types were classified as flat and cushion. Results : In the double-support phase, left and right rectus femoris, left biceps femoris, left and right tibialis anterior, and left gastrocnemius did not show a significant difference in postural stability according to ground type. However right biceps femoris and gastrocnemius showed higher muscle activity in the elderly women group with lower postural stability. In the single-support phase, left and right rectus femoris, right biceps femoris, and left and right tibialis anterior did not show a significant difference in postural stability according to ground type. In addition, left biceps femoris had higher muscle activity in the elderly women group with lower postural stability. Left gastrocnemius had higher muscle activity in the elderly women group with higher postural stability and right gastrocnemius had higher muscle activity in the elderly women group on cushion ground. Conclusion : In a dynamic postural stability and cushion ground, biceps femoris and gastrocnemius muscle activity were high. As a result, biceps femoris and gastrocnemius muscle strengthening exercise on cushion ground could be beneficial in the prevention of falling.
Influence on the Ground Reaction Force Parameters According to Wearing Positions of Backpacks During Stair Ascending and Descending
Hyun, Seung-Hyun ; Ryew, Che-Cheong ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 25, issue 1, 2015, Pages 85~94
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2015.25.1.085
Purpose : The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence on the ground reaction force parameters according to wearing positions of backpack for during stair ascending and descending. Methods : Participants selected as subject were consisted of young female(n=10) and performed stairs walks(ascending and descending) with 2 types of wearing position(front of trunk[FT], rear of trunk[RT]). Passive(Fz 1) and active(Fz 2) forces of the vertical GRF were determined from time function and frequency domain. Also shear forces(Fx, Fy 1, Fy 2), dynamic postural stability index(MLSI, APSI, VSI, DPSI), loading rate and center of pressure (
, COP area) were calculated from time function and frequency domain. Results : Fx, Fy 1, Fy 2, and Fz 1 in GRF didn't show significant differences statistically according to the wearing positions of backpack(p>.05), but stair descending showed higher forces than that of stair ascending. Particularly, Fz 2 of stair ascending showed higher forces than that of stair descending(p<.001), RT types showed higher than that of FT types(p<.05). MLSI, APSI, VSI, and DPSI of stair descending showed the increased stability index than that of stair ascending(p<.05), MLSI of RT types showed the decreased stability index than that of FT types(p<.05). Loading rate didn't show significant differences statistically according to the wearing positions of backpack(p>.05), but stair descending showed higher loading rate than that of stair ascending(p<.001). Also,
in stair descending showed the increased movement than that of stair ascending(p<.05). Conclusions : A backpack of 10 kg(10 kg(ratio of body weights
) showed significantly change GRF parameters according to wearing positions during stair ascending and descending. If possible, we suggest that the dynamic stability, in case of stairs walking with a smaller weights can be further improved.
The Effect of Multisensory Exercise on Foot Pressure Sensitivity, Balance for the Elderly
Kang, Ji-Eun ; Yi, Kyung-Ock ; Lee, Tae-Yong ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 25, issue 1, 2015, Pages 95~101
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2015.25.1.095
Objective : The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of multisensory exercise on foot pressure sensitivity and balance for the elderly. Method : The subjects were 17 elderly women (11 for the experimental group and 6 for the control group) with a mean age of 83. The subjects all lived in senior residence centers in Seoul. Multisensory exercise was done twice a week for 40 minutes during a 12 week period. Exercise programs were changed every 3 weeks according to the principal of gradual progress of the exercise. In order to train the vision system subjects were asked to open and close their eyes during exercise. When it came to training the vestibular system, subjects stood and walked on high elastic mats with their bare feet. For the somatasensory system subjects always stood and walked with their bare feet. The sub-Metatarsal Pad Elasticity Acquisition Instrument (MPEAI) was used to measure foot pressure sensitivity. MFT Balance test (V1.7) was used to measure anterior / posterior and medial / lateral directional balance. For the statistical analysis the IBM SPSS 21.0 was used to perform Repeatde measured ANOVA and Wilcoxon ranked test. Results : For the multisensory exercise group Hallux (after 6 weeks, 12 weeks), heel (after 6 weeks) and 2nd Metartarsal
(after 6 weeks) pressure sensitivity increased statistically, but the control group didn't change. Also, balance didn't change for the experimental and control group statistically. Conclusion : Exercise with bare feet on a high elastic mat had a partially positive effect on foot sensitivity.
Effects for Running Shoes with Resilience of Midsole on Biomechanical Properties
Yoo, Chan-Il ; Won, Yonggwan ; Kim, Jung-Ja ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 25, issue 1, 2015, Pages 103~111
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2015.25.1.103
Objective : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect for running shoes with resilience of midsole on biomechanical properties. Methods : 10 healthy males who had no history of injury in the lower extremity with an average age of 26.5 year(SD=1.84), height of 172.22 cm(SD=4.44) and weight of 67.51 kg(SD=6.17) participated in this study. All subjects ran on the treadmill wearing three different running shoes. Foot pressure data was collected using Pedar-X system(Novel Gmbh, Germany) operating at 100 Hz. Surface EMG signals for biceps femoris, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, medial lateralis, tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius, soleus and peroneus longus were acquired at 1000 Hz using Bignoli 8 System(Delsys Inc., USA). To normalize the difference of the magnitude of muscle contractions, it was expressed as a percentage relative to the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). The impact resilience of the midsole data was collected using Fastcam SA5 system(Photron Inc., USA). Collected data was analyzed using One-way ANOVA in order to investigate the effects of each running shoes. Results : TPU midsole was significantly wider in contact area than EVA, TPE midsole in midfoot and higher in EMG activity than EVA midsole at biceps femoris. TPE midsole was significantly wider in contact area than EVA midsole in rearfoot and higher in peak pressure than EVA midsole in forefoot. EVA midsole was significantly higher in EMG activity than TPU midsole at tibia anterior. In medial resilience of midsoles, TPE midsole was significantly higher than EVA, TPU midsole. Conclusion : TPU midsole can reduce the load on the midfoot effectively and activate tibialis anterior, biceps femoris to give help to running.
Analysis of Plantar Foot Pressure according to Insole Types during Treadmill Gait
Woo, Jung-Hwi ; Lee, Joong-Sook ; Yang, Jeong-Ok ; Lee, Bom-Jin ; Bae, Kang-Ho ; Han, Dong-Wook ; Park, Sang-Muk ; Bae, Jin-Woo ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 25, issue 1, 2015, Pages 113~122
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2015.25.1.113
Objective : The purpose of this study was to analyze the foot-pressure distribution of 2D(2 dimensional form) & 3D(3 dimensional form; a customized arch-fit for posture correction) insoles for assessing their biomechanical functionality. Background : Recently there has been increased interest in both foot health and foot pain patients. Analysis of the plantar pressure was often used to solve the problems of the foot displayed by such people as rheumatoid arthritis patients. Method : Subjects who participated in this study were 17 female university students who had no previous injury experience in lower limbs and a normal gait pattern. The shoe size of all subjects was 240 mm. Two models of insoles of 2D(typical flat insole - 2 dimensional form) and 3D(special production - 3 dimensional form) were selected for the test. Using the Pedar-X system and Pedar-X insoles, 4.0 km/h of walking speed, and a compilation of 50 steps walking stages were used to analyze foot-pressure distribution. Results : Results of the foot-pressure distribution and biomechanical functionality on each insole were as follows; analyses of mean plantar pressure, maximum plantar pressure, maximum vertical GRF, and plantar pressure curve shape all showed overall low plantar pressure and GRF. Conclusion : This can be evaluated as an excellent insole for low levels on the plantar pressure and GRF. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that according to this analysis the 3D Customized Arch-fit Insole was better than 2D insole on the basis of these criteria.
Reliability of 3D-Inertia Measurement Unit Based Shoes in Gait Analysis
Joo, Ji-Yong ; Kim, Young-Kwan ; Park, Jae-Young ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 25, issue 1, 2015, Pages 123~130
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2015.25.1.123
Purpose : The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of 3D-inertia measurement unit (IMU) based shoes in gait analysis. This was done with respect to the results of the optical motion capturing system and to collect reference gait data of healthy subjects with this device. Methods : The Smart Balance
system of 3D-IMU based shoes and Osprey
motion capturing cameras were used to collect motion data simultaneously. Forty four healthy subjects consisting of individuals in 20s (N=20), 40s (N=13), and 60s (N=11) participated in this study voluntarily. They performed natural walking on a treadmill for one minute at 4 different target speeds (3, 4, 5, 6 km/h), respectively. Results : Cadence (ICC=.998), step length (ICC=.970), stance phase (ICC=.845), and double-support phase (ICC=.684) from 3D-IMU based shoes were in agreement with results of optical motion system. Gait data of healthy subjects according to different treadmill speeds and ages were matched to previous literature showing increased cadence and reduced step length for elderly subjects. Conclusion : Conclusively, 3D-IMU based shoes in gait analysis were a satisfactory alternative option in measuring linear gait parameters.
Analysis of the Coordination of the Trunk Tilting Angle and Bilateral Lower Limbs According to the Stirrups Length during Trot in Equestrian: Asymmetric Index Development of Overall Movement Index Algorithm
Hyun, Seung-Hyun ; Ryew, Che-Cheong ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 25, issue 1, 2015, Pages 131~140
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2015.25.1.131
Purpose : The purpose of this study was to analyze the coordination of the trunk tilting angle and bilateral lower limbs according to the stirrups length during trot in equestrian. Methods : Participants selected as subject were consisted of adult male(n=7, mean age:
, mean height:
, mean body mass:
, mean, mean leg length:
). They were divided into 3-types of stirrups lengths(67 cm, 72 cm, 77 cm) during trot. The variables analyzed were consisted of the trunk front-rear angle, lower limb joint(Right Left hip, knee, ankle), overall movement index(OMI) of the lower limbs(thigh, shank, foot) and asymmetry index(AI%) during trot. Results : The average angle in hip and knee joint showed more extended posture according to the increase of stirrups lengths and ankle angle showed more plantarflexion posture according to increase of stirrups length during 1 stride in trot. Also, average angle showed more extended posture in right hip and ankle joint than that of left. The angle of knee joint didn't show significant difference statistically between right and left. Also asymmetric index in average angle of hip, knee and ankle joint didn't show significant difference statistically in between lower limbs, but hip joint showed higher asymmetric index in stirrup length of 77 cm and ankle joint showed higher asymmetric index in stirrup length of 67 cm than that of the others respectively. The FR angle in trunk of horse-rider showed relative backward leaning motions at stirrup length of 67 cm and 77 cm than that of stirrup length of 72 cm during stance and swing phase. OMI in thigh, shank, and foot limbs didn't show significant difference statistically according to the stirrups length of right and left lower limbs, but left lower limbs showed higher index than that of right lower limb. Stirrup length of 72 cm in shank and foot limbs showed higher index than that of stirrup length of 67 cm and 77 cm. But stirrup length of 72 cm showed higher asymmetric index than that of stirrups length of 67 cm and 77 cm. Conclusions : When considering the above, 72 cm(ratio of lower limb 74.04%) stirrup lengths could be useful in posture correction and stabilization than 67cm(ratio of lower limb 68.69%) and 77 cm(ratio of lower limb 79.18%) stirrup lengths during trot in horse back riding.