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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Sport Biomechanics
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Dec 2015
Volume 25, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Jun 2015
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Mar 2015
Selecting the target year
Analysis on Biomechanical Differences in Lower Limbs Caused by Increasing Heart Rates During Drop-landing
Hong, Wan-Ki ; Kim, Do-Eun ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 25, issue 2, 2015, Pages 141~147
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2015.25.2.141
Objective : This study aimed to understand how increased heart rates at the time of drop landing during a step test would affect biomechanical variables of the lower extremity limbs. Background : Ballet performers do more than 200 landings in a daily training. This training raises the heart rate and the fatigability of the lower extremity limbs. Ballet performance high heart rate can trigger lower extremity limb injury. Method : We instructed eight female ballet dancers with no instability in their ankle joints(mean
; body mass index,
, career duration,
) to perform the drop landing under the following conditions: rest, 60% heart rate reserve (HRR) and 80% HRR. Results : First, the study confirmed that the increased heart rates of the female ballet dancers did not affect the working ranges of the knee joints during drop landing but only increased angular speeds, which was considered a negative shock-absorption strategy. Second, 80% HRR, which was increased through the step tests, led to severe fatigue among the female ballet dancers, which made them unable to perform a lower extremity limb-neutral position. Hence, their drop landing was unstable, with increased introversion and extroversion moments. Third, we observed that the increasing 80% HRR failed to help the dancers effectively control ground reaction forces but improved the muscular activities of the rectus femoris and vastus medialis oblique muscles. Fourth, the increasing heart rates were positively related to the muscular activities of the vastus medialis oblique and rectus femoris muscles, and the extroversion and introversion moments. Conclusion/Application : Our results prove that increased HRR during a step test negatively affects the biomechanical variables of the lower extremity limbs at the time of drop landing.
Correlation Analysis of The X-Factor, X-Factor Stretch and Swing-Related Factors during Drive Swing
Lee, Kyung-Hun ; Kwon, Moon-Seok ; Lim, Young-Tae ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 25, issue 2, 2015, Pages 149~155
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2015.25.2.149
Purpose : Recently, many researchers and golf coachers demonstrated that X-factor and X-factor stretch had a co-relationship with driving distance. However, its relationship is still controversial and ambiguous. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship among X-factor, X-factor stretch and swing-related factors, including driving distance in elite golfers. Method : Seventeen male elite golfers (handicap:
) with no history of musculo-skeletal injuries participated in the study. Thirty spherical retro-reflective markers were placed on including the middle point of PSIS, the right/left ASIS, the right/left lateral acromion of the scapula, driver head and shaft grip. All motion capture data was collected at 100Hz using 6 infrared cameras. Carry distance, club speed, ball speed, smash factor, launch angle, and spin rate were collected from radar-based device, TrackMan. Results : Pearson's correlation coefficient method was used to find the correlations among X-factor, X-factor stretch and swing-related factors. Positive correlations between driving distance and other swing-related factors which include club speed(r=.798, p<.001), and ball speed(r=.948, p<.001) were observed. In contrast to the swing-related factors, X-factor and X-factor stretch had no relationship to driving distance. Conclusion : These results indicate that X-factor and X-factor stretch are not key regulators in driving distance.
3-Dimensional Performance Optimization Model of Snatch Weightlifting
Moon, Young-Jin ; Darren, Stefanyshyn ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 25, issue 2, 2015, Pages 157~165
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2015.25.2.157
Object : The goals of this research were to make Performance Enhanced Model(PE) taken the largest performance index (PI) through artificial variation of principle components calculated by principle component analysis for trial data, and to verify the effect through comparing kinematic factors between trial data (Raw) and PE. Method : Ten subjects (5 men, 5 women) were recruited and 80% of their maximal record was considered. The PI is a regression equation. In order to develop PE, we extracted Principle components from trial position data (by Principle Components Analysis (PCA)). Before PCA, we made 17 position data to 3 row matrix according to components. We calculated 3 eigen value (principle components) through PCA. And except Y (medial-lateral direction) component (because motion of Y component is small), principle components of X (anterior-posterior direction) and Z (vertical direction) components were changed as following. Changed principle components = principle components + principle components
k. After changing the each principle component, we reconstructed position data using the changed principle components and calculated performance index (PI). A Paired t-test was used to compare Raw data and Performance Enhanced Model data. The level of statistical significance was set at
. Result : The PI was significantly increased about 12.9kg at PE (
) when compared to the Raw data (
). It means that performance can be increased by optimizing 3D positions. The difference of kinematic factors as follows : the movement distance of the bar from start to lock out was significantly larger (about 1cm) for PE, the width of anterior-posterior bar position in full phase was significantly wider (about 1.3cm) for PE and the horizontal displacement toward the weightlifter after beginning of descent from maximal height was significantly greater (about 0.4cm) for PE. Additionally, the minimum knee angle in the 2-pull phase was significantly smaller (approximately 2.7cm) for the PE compared to that of the Raw. PE was decided at proximal position from the Raw (origin point (0,0)) of PC variation). Conclusion : PI was decided at proximal position from the Raw (origin point (0,0)) of PC variation). This means that Performance Enhanced Model was decided by similar motion to the Raw without a great change. Therefore, weightlifters could be accept Performance Enhanced Model easily, comfortably and without large stress. The Performance Enhance Model can provide training direction for athletes to improve their weightlifting records.
Effect of Loaded Warm-up Jumps on the Following Performance of Vertical Jump
Kim, Hyun-Goun ; Kim, Young-Kwan ; Cho, Hang Nan ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 25, issue 2, 2015, Pages 167~174
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2015.25.2.167
Purpose : The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of loaded vertical jumps on the following vertical jumps and to find how long the transient effect of warm-ups would continue. Methods : Twelve healthy college male students, majoring in physical education, participated in this study voluntarily. They performed three sets of unloaded jumps (pre-jump, 5% post jump, and 10% post jump) and two sets of loaded jumps (5% and 10% loaded jumps) according to the counter-balanced order. At each set, three trials of maximal vertical jumps were performed by a 30 second interval between trials and a 3 minute break after warm-up jumps. Force platform and motion capturing system were used to record motions and ground reaction force. Results : Only 5% post-warm-up jumps (
) showed significant increase in the jump height compared with pre-warm-up jumps (
). The transient effects of loaded warm-ups disappeared 4 minutes after loaded jumps. Conclusion : Conclusively, a decent amount of loading (around 5% extra of body weight) during sport specific warm-ups would give a positive, transient effect on the performance of the vertical jump.
Differences in the Length Change Pattern of the Medial Gastrocnemius Muscle-Tendon Complex and Fascicle during Gait and One-legged and Two-legged Vertical Jumping
Lee, Hae-Dong ; Han, Bo-Ram ; Kim, Jin-Sun ; Oh, Jeong-Hoon ; Cho, Han-Yeop ; Yoon, So-Ya ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 25, issue 2, 2015, Pages 175~182
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2015.25.2.175
Objective : The purpose of this study was to investigate difference in fascicle behavior of the medial gastrocnemius during the locomotion with varying intensities, such as gait and one-legged and two-legged vertical jumping. Methods : Six subjects (3 males and 3 females; age:
, body mass:
) performed normal gait (G) at preferred speed and maximum vertical jumping with one (OJ) and two (TJ) legs. While subjects were performing the given tasks, the hip, knee and ankle joint motion and ground reaction force was monitored using a 8-infrared camera motion analysis system with two forceplates. Simultaneously, electromyography of the triceps surae muscles, and the fascicle length of the medial gastrocnemius were recorded using a real-time ultrasound imaging machine. Results : Comparing to gait, the kinematic and kinetic parameters of TJ and OJ were found to be significantly different. Along with those parameters, change in the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle-tendon complex (MTC) length (
for TJ and
for OJ) and changes in the fascicle length of the MG (
for TJ and
for OJ) were observed. Although the total excursion of the MTC and the MG fascicle length during the two types of jump were not significantly different, however the pattern of length changes were found to be different. For TJ, the fascicle length maintained isometric longer during the propulsive phase than OJ. Conclusion : One-legged and two-legged vertical jumping use different muscle-tendon interaction strategies.
Analysis of Biomechanical Changes According to Mechanical Alignment of the Lower Limbs when Gait with a Material Handling
Lee, Kyung-Ill ; Lee, Chul-Gab ; Song, Han-Soo ; Hong, Wan-Ki ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 25, issue 2, 2015, Pages 183~190
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2015.25.2.183
Objective : Walking with a Material handling is an activity frequently undertaken by agricultural workers in Korea, due to the nature of their work. This study aimed to investigate differences in biomechanical variables according to the mechanical alignment of the lower limbs when walking with a heavy load, and to use this as basic data in the design of various working environments to reduce the skeletomuscular burden on the knee joint. Method : The study subjects comprised of 22 right-foot dominant adult men and women aged between 20 and 23 years. The subjects were divided into a varus or valgus group according to the mechanical alignment of the lower limb by using radiographic findings. The subjects walked without any load and with a load of 10%, 20%, or 30% of their body weight held in front of them. The Kwon3d XP program was used to calculate biomechanical variables. Results : The flexion/extension moment of the knee joint showed a decreasing trend with increased load, irrespective of the mechanical alignment of the lower limb, while the varus group did not show normal compensatory action when supported by one leg at the point of maximum vertical ground reaction force. In addition, in terms of the time taken, subjects showed no difficulties in one-foot support time up to 20%/BW, but at 30%/BW, despite individual differences, there was an increase in single limb. The increased load resulted in a decrease in the ratio of standing phase to ensure physical stability. The valgus group showed a trend of increasing the stability of their center of mass with increasing load, through higher braking power in the early standing phase. Conclusion : In conclusion, although there was no statistical difference in biomechanical variables according to the mechanical alignment of the lower limbs, the varus group showed a more irregular walking pattern with a Material handling than the valgus group, partially proving the association between lower limb alignment and walking with a Material handling.
Biomechanical Analysisz of Varying Backpack Loads on the Lower Limb Moving during Downhill Walking
Chae, Woen-Sik ; Lee, Haeng-Seob ; Jung, Jae-Hu ; Kim, Dong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 25, issue 2, 2015, Pages 191~198
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2015.25.2.191
Objective : The purpose of this study was to conduct biomechanical analysis of varying backpack loads on the lower limb movements during downhill walking over
ramp. Method : Thirteen male university students (age:
) who have no musculoskeletal disorder were recruited as the subjects. Each subject walked over
ramp with four different backpack weights (0%, 10%, 20% and 30% of body weight) in random order at a speed of
. Five digital camcorders and two force plates were used to obtain 3-d data and kinetics of the lower extremity. For each trial being analyzed, five critical instants were identified from the video recordings. Ground reaction force, loading rate, decay rate, and resultant joint moment of the ankle and the knee were determined by the inverse dynamics analysis. For each dependent variable, one-way ANOVA with repeated measures was used to determine whether there were significant differences among four different backpack weight conditions (p<.05). When a significant difference was found, post hoc analyses were performed using the contrast procedure. Results : The results of this study showed that the medio-lateral GRFs at RHC in 20% and 30% body weight were significantly greater than the corresponding value in 0% of body weight. A consistent increase in the vertical GRFs as backpack loads increased was observed. The valgus joint movement of the knee at RTO in 30% body weight was significantly greater than the corresponding values in 0% and 10% body weight. The increased valgus moment of 30% body weight observed in this phase was associated with decelerating and stabilizing effects on the knee joint. The results also showed that the extension and valgus joint moments of the knee were systematically affected by the backpack load during downhill walking. Conclusion : Since downhill walking while carrying heavy external loads in a backpack may lead to excessive knee joint moment, damage can occur to the joint structures such as joint capsule and ligaments. Therefore, excessive repetitions of downhill walking should be avoided if the lower extremity is subjected to abnormally high levels of load over an extended period of time.
The Biomechanical Analysis of a One-Legged Jump in Traditional Korean Dance According to Breathing Method
An, Ju-Yeun ; Yi, Kyung-Ock ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 25, issue 2, 2015, Pages 199~206
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2015.25.2.199
Objective : The purpose of this study was to conduct a biomechanical analysis of a one-legged jump in a traditional Korean dance (Wae Bal Ddwigi) according to breathing method. Method : Participants for this study were 10 dancers with experience for at least 10 years in traditional Korean dance. Independent variables for this test were two different types of breathing methods. Dependent variables were ground reaction force and lower extremity kinematic variables. The jumping movement was divided into three separate stages, take off, flight, and landing. The subjects were asked a questionnaire regarding the degree of impact force and stability of landing posture after the experiment. The Kistler Force Plate (9281B, Switzerland) was used to measure ground reaction force. A digital camera was used to look into angles of each joint of the lower part of body. SPSS was used for statistical analysis via the dependent t-test(p<.05). Results : There were significant differences in jumping according to breathing method. The inhalation & exhalation method yielded significantly longer flight times combined with greater ground reaction force. The breath-holding method required more core flexion during landing, increasing movement at the hips and shoulders. Conclusion : Consequently, there was more flexion at the knee to compensate for this movement. As a result, landing time was significantly higher for breath-holding.
Kinetic Analysis of Gam-ki in the Korean Traditional Dance during Expressing Different Emotions
Cho, Nam-Gyu ; Oh, Seong-Geun ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 25, issue 2, 2015, Pages 207~218
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2015.25.2.207
Objective : The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of Gam-ki (double-arm winding) depending on the emotion being expressed. Gam-ki is one of the basic movements of Korean traditional dance. Method : We selected three Korean traditional dancers who belong to National Dance Company of Korea. They were asked to express four different emotions (anger, joy, sadness, and neutral) while performing Gam-ki. We analyzed elapsed time and time ratio, size of movement, ground reaction forces and ground impulses. Results : During Gam-ki the elapsed time for each phase as well as for one cycle was longest when "sadness" was expressed then followed by "neutral" and then "angry" and "joy." Except for the ankle in/eversion, the ROMs of the lower limb joints seem not to be an emotion-characteristic factor. The ROMs of the upper limb joints were largest when "anger" was expressed. Neck rotation is associated with expressing negative emotions ("angry" and "sadness"). For medial-lateral GRF "angry"> "joy" > "neutral" > "sadness" was in order. Therefore, it can be regarded as a factor indicating the activity of the emotion.
The Analysis of EMG According to Surface Type and Elastic Band Usage During the Pilates Superman Movement
Son, Nam-Jeong ; Yi, Kyung-Ock ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 25, issue 2, 2015, Pages 219~229
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2015.25.2.219
Objective : The purpose of this study was to analyze EMG according to surface type and elastic band usage during the pilates Superman movement. Method : The subjects were 10 female university students with a mean age of 27. The independent variables were surface type (yoga mat, air filled equipment, elastic mat) and elastic band usage. In order to measure muscle activity, the Noraxon(USA) was used. Eight muscles (upper trapezius, lower trapezius, thoracic spine, lumbar spine, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, biceps femoris, semitendinosus) activation were analyzed. For the statistical analysis, MANOVA, independent t-test and Scheffe test for the post-hoc via SPSS 20.0 was used. Results : The left and right upper trapezius muscle activities were significantly reduced when using the elastic bands. In addition gluteus medius muscle activities significantly increased with the elastic band as well. Conclusion : According to the usage of the elastic band and the different types of surfaces, different muscle groups were recruited. Elastic bands were found to have more activation on the gluteus medius muscle meanwhile there was less activation on the upper trapezius during the pilates Superman movement.
Developing of Functional Sport Underpants using Infrared Thermal Image Analysis
Lee, Joong-Sook ; Yang, Jeong-Ok ; Lee, Bom-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 25, issue 2, 2015, Pages 231~240
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2015.25.2.231
Objective : This study is for providing data about men's functional sport underpants. It provides the fundamental data of biomechanics by measuring and analyzing the functionality of various underpants using infrared thermal image camera. Method : Then author drew a conclusion based on the final analysis of 965 questionnaire survey results about issues on men's functional sport underpants after discarding invalid questionnaires, as following. Change in body temperature while wearing functional underpants compared to general briefs or boxer pants showed lower temperature by approximately 1~2 degrees Celsius. In the case of general underpants, wearer sweats and feels hotter due to the friction of penis, scrotum and thigh. However functional sport functional underpants improved this issue with ergonomic 3D design by putting penis towards the lower part of the abdomen(below the navel) while putting the scrotum comfortably on the testicles, which enables to make room between the penis, scrotum and thigh of a wearer. Results : This was analyzed to lower the temperature of penis and scrotum. The survey results about the quality of functional underpants showed that 78% of the respondents felt comfortable while driving; 68.5% replied that frictional heat decreased while working out; 78.7% felt less sweat and humidity; 81.7% replied as highly wearable and comfortable; 77.1% replied functional sport underpants were the most comfortable in routine lives or in workout times. Putting all such results together, it is possible to conclude that functional sport is an excellent product. Conclusion : This can be evaluated as an excellent functional sport underpants, towards the penis abdomen (under the navel) in 3D human engineering design, by the scrotum to wearing to be easier to scrotum of pocket, the penis and scrotum and thighs were separated and analyzed with a function that will lower the body temperature of the penis and scrotum.