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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Sport Biomechanics
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Dec 2015
Volume 25, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Jun 2015
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Mar 2015
Selecting the target year
Aging-Related Changes in Hand Intrinsic and Extrinsic Muscles and Hand Dexterity : an MRI Investigation
Hsu, Jeffrey ; Koh, Kyung ; Park, Yang-Sun ; Kwon, Hyun-Joon ; Kim, Yoon-Hyuk ; Shin, Joon-Ho ; Shim, Jae-Kun ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 25, issue 4, 2015, Pages 371~381
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2015.25.4.371
Object : The purpose of this study was to investigate aging-related changes of intrinsic and extrinsic hand muscles in their strength, cross-sectional area and volume, force control, and multi-digit synergies. It was hypothesized that aging would negatively affect distal muscles (intrinsic muscles) more than proximal muscles (extrinsic muscles). Method : Nine young and eleven older right-handed participants underwent MRI scans of the hand and forearm. Muscle cross-sectional areas and volumes of the intrinsic and extrinsic hand muscles were determined. Result : Muscle volume of the intrinsic muscles were larger in the younger group than the older group while muscle volume of the extrinsic muscles did not differ. For the cross-sectional area, both the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the younger group were larger than the older group. The maximum strength of the intrinsic muscles of the young group was 31% greater than the older group (
, p < 0.05) while the extrinsic muscles showed no significant difference. Although the elderly group showed a trend of decreased force control and multi-digit synergies, no statistical differences were found. These findings indicate aging-related decreases in hand muscle size and strength affect intrinsic muscles more than extrinsic muscles, thus supporting the hypothesis that sarcopenia affects the muscle size and strength of distal muscles more than proximal muscles. Conclusion : The aging-related decreases in hand muscle size and function were more apparent in intrinsic hand muscles, located more distally, than extrinsic muscles, located more proximally.
The Effect on Muscle Activation in the Trunk and Lower Limbs While Squatting with Slope-whole-body Vibration
Oh, Ju-Hwan ; Kang, Seung-Rok ; Kwon, Tae-Kyu ; Min, Jin-Young ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 25, issue 4, 2015, Pages 383~391
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2015.25.4.383
Objective : The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dynamic squats with slope-whole body vibration (WBV) on the trunk and lower limb in muscle activities. Method : 9 healthy women (age:
, body weight:
) were recruited for this study. Muscle activities in the trunk and lower limb muscles, including biceps femoris (BF), rectus femoris (RF), rectus abdominum (RA), gastrocnemius (GCM), iliocostalis lumborum (IL) and tibialis anterior (TA), were recorded using an EMG measurement system. The test was performed by conducting dynamic squats with slope-WBV using frequency (10Hz, 50Hz), amplitude (0.5mm), and degree (
). Experimental method consisted of 2-pre-sessions and 1-test-session for 20 seconds. Results : The results showed that the muscle activities of the trunk and low limb muscles increased significantly with the
slope and lower frequency (10Hz) except for in the TA. From this result, we confirmed that the slope and WBV could efficiently affect stimulation, enhancing muscle activities by facilitating neural control trail and muscle chain tightness. Conclusion : Utilizing the slope-WBV device while squatting could give positive effects on muscle activation in the trunk and lower limb muscles and provide neural stimulation, enhancing muscle chain of control subsystem through TVR (tonic vibration reflex).
Analysis of the Characteristics of Ground Reaction Force According to the Level of Knee Osteoarthritis During Gait
Lee, Kyung-Ill ; Lee, Chul-Gab ; Hong, Wan-Ki ; Kim, Min ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 25, issue 4, 2015, Pages 393~399
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2015.25.4.393
Objective : This study was conducted with an aim to use it as basic data for developing assistive devices, such as insoles that can suppress the progress of degenerative diseases and strategies, to improve early degenerative diseases by assessing walking characteristics of farm workers who were classified as KL-grade in the perspective of motor mechanics. Method : 38 male and female adults who complained of knee joint pain for more than six months were selected, and they were classified according to KL-grade. KL-grade was assessed by an orthopaedic specialist and an occupational environment health specialist. Filming equipment (FX-1, CASIO, Japan) and a ground reaction force system (AMTI OR6, AMTI, USA) were used to identify ground reaction force characteristics, and WOMAC was used for a pain rating scale. Results : There was a difference between the right and left side (axis-X) according to KL-grade, and when the grade was higher, the internal ground reaction force was also higher. Changes in COP were not affected by KL-grade of the knee joint, but it tended to increase as the grade increased. There were differences in the time required for limb support while walking according to the grades, and when the grade was higher, walking was more inefficient with long braking force and short propulsion forces. Also, pain rating scale, the right and left side, and COP changes while in support phase were related. Conclusion : There was a partial, statically significant difference in KL-grade and ground reaction force occurring during the support phase, and there were differences in ground reaction forces according to the grades of degenerative arthritis in the knee joint, indicating that this study is worthy as basic data for future studies.
The Effects of Corrective Hip Joint Exercises and Foot Orthotics on RCSP, Ankle's Range of Motion, and Core Muscle Strength for Middle School Students with Pes Planus
Kim, Nam-Hee ; Yi, Kyung-Ock ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 25, issue 4, 2015, Pages 401~412
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2015.25.4.401
Objective : The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of hip joint exercises and orthotics on RCSP, ankle's range of motion, and core muscle strength of middle school students with pes planus. Method : Out of the original pool of 200 students, 60 students with pes planus (RCSP < -2) were selected for the study. The selected 60 students were then divided into four groups. The first group was a combined orthotics and exercise group (12 students), the second was the orthotics-only group (9 students), the third was the exercise-only group (8 students), and the last was the control group (10 students). Exercise groups worked out twice a week for 60 minutes per session over 8 weeks. The independent variables were corrective hip joint exercises and orthotics. The dependant variables consisted of kinematic and kinetic variables. The kinematic variables were RCSP, and ankle's range of motion (dorsiflexion and plantarflexion). The kinetic variables were muscles forces that consist in core muscle strength, which are hip joint adduction, abduction, and flexion muscles forces. Statistical analysis was performed via SPSS 18.0 with multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) and a paired t-test was used. Results : The left foot was more responsive to the treatments, both exercise and orthotics, than the right foot. RCSP improved significantly in the left foot for the first and third groups. Only the first group significantly improved hip joint adduction, abduction, and flexion muscles' strengths. As for the ankle's range of motion of the left foot, plantarflexion showed improvement when treated with exercise, orthotics, or both. Conclusion : This study found that exercise is more effective in correcting RCSP and foot orthotics is more effective in reinforcing core muscle strength. Future studies should expand on these results to examine the relationship between the ankle, hip, and pelvis.
Effects of Changes in Illumination Level and Slope on Fall-Related Biomechanical Risk Factors While Walking for Elderly Women
Jeon, Hyun-Min ; Park, Sang-Kyoon ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 25, issue 4, 2015, Pages 413~421
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2015.25.4.413
Objective : The purpose of this study was to investigate biomechanical changes of the lower limb including dynamic stability with changes in illumination (300Lx, 150Lx, and 5Lx) and slope (level and
downhill) as risk factors for elderly falls. Method : Fifteen elderly females were selected for this study. Seven infrared cameras (Proreflex MCU 240: Qualisys, Sweden) and an instrumented treadmill (Bertec, USA) surrounded by illumination regulators and lights to change the levels of illumination were used to collect the data. A One-Way ANOVA with repeated measures using SPSS 12.0 was used to analyze statistical differences by the changes in illumination and slope. Statistical significance was set at
. Results : No differences in the joint movement of the lower limbs were found with changes in illumination (p>.05). The maximum plantar flexion movement of the ankle joints appeared to be greater at 5Lx compared to 300Lx during slope gait (p<.05). Additionally, maximum extension movement of the hip joints appeared to be greater at 5Lx and 150Lx compared to 300Lx during slope gait (p<.05). The maximum COM-COP angular velocity (direction to medial side of the body) of dynamic stability appeared to be smaller at 150Lx and 300Lx compared to 5Lx during level gait (p<.05). The minimum COM-COP angular velocity (direction to lateral side to the body) of dynamic stability appeared smaller at 150Lx compared to 5Lx during level gait (p<.05). Conclusion : In conclusion, elderly people use a stabilization strategy that reduces walk speed and dynamic stability as darkness increases. Therefore, the changes in illumination during gait induce the changes in gait mechanics which may increase the levels of biomechanical risk in elderly falls.
A Developmental Study of an Alignment Program for the Asymmetrically Developed Squash Players
Kim, Seung-Kwon ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 25, issue 4, 2015, Pages 423~429
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2015.25.4.423
Objective : The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a body alignment correction program on asymmetrically developed squash players. Method : 30 experienced squash players who showed asymmetric body development, after evaluation of moire topography contour line shape, were involved in the experiment. All of them were right-handed and had more than five years of experience playing squash. Variables of body composition, moire topography and EMG were statistically compared between pre- and post- application of the 12-week body alignment correction program. The program consisted of 10-minute, left-handed forehand and backhand drive movements and 36 minutes performing 12 different yoga postures. Results : First, the body alignment correction program showed significant effects on the total weight, body fat percentage, and body mass index of the participants. Second, a decrease of right side inclined angles and an increase of left side inclined angles might result in a higher left-right symmetry rate and a better left-right balance; however the data was not statistically significant. Third, the EMG left-right deviation of erector spinae and latissimus decreased and the erector spinae muscle was thought to be more essential for vertebral movement and left-right asymmetry correction. Conclusion : A body alignment correction program, including yoga and opposite side exercises, could reduce left-right asymmetry.
Kinematic Analysis of Accuracy Evaluation of Pyeongwon Poomsae
Jo, Yong-Myung ; Ryu, Jae-Kyun ; Kim, Young-Suk ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 25, issue 4, 2015, Pages 431~440
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2015.25.4.431
Objective : The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between accuracy score and the motions which are performed in PyeongWon Poomsae, thereby developing objectivity in accuracy evaluations for Poomsae competitions. Method : The subjects were six male Poomsae players (age:
). A three-dimensional motion analysis was performed on the subjects using six high-speed cameras (60 frames/sec) and subjects' performed motions were evaluated by 5 evaluators. The entire Pyeong Poomsae was divided into 13 events and 9 phases; there were three pairs of symmetric phases among them: front kick & turning side kick phases (3PH, 3-1PH), arm motion & stance phases (4PH, 4-1PH), side kick with Hakdari-stance phases (5PH, 5-1PH). Performance time, change and range of COM, height of vertex, and foot of side kicks were analysed. The Data was analysed utilizing correlation analysis. Results : There was a positive correlation between accuracy score and the difference between right and left range of COM (X direction) at 4PH (r=0.921, p=0.009). Conclusion : The results of our study indicate that it is necessary to consider some of objective criterion such as performance time, COM range, and symmetrical movements in accuracy evaluations of Poomsae competitions.
A Literature Review of Parkinson's Disease Rating, Balance, Fall and Gait Scales
Kim, Chang-Hwan ; Kim, Mi-Young ; Lim, Bee-Oh ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 25, issue 4, 2015, Pages 441~451
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2015.25.4.441
Objective : The purpose of the study was to investigate and compare the differences between Parkinson's disease rating, balance, fall and gait scales. Results : Parkinson's disease rating scales include the Hoehn-Yahr Scale and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). The Hoehn-Yahr Scale can measure disease rates easily; however it is not sensitive enough to evaluate the disease's process and management. UPDRS's advantage is in it's higher inter-reliability score; however it is more complicated to use. Parkinson's balance scales are comprised of the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC). BBS has the advantage in that it is cheaper to measure and simple in use. ABC's advantage is especially in it's ability to measure higher functional levels; however it is more difficult measure responses due to scores appearing in both extremes. The Fall Efficacy Scale (FES) and The Survey of Activities and Fear of Falling in the Elderly (SAFE) are Parkinson's fall scales. FES's leverage over SAFE is that it is simpler to measure; however it does not coincide with responses which proves disadvantageous in measuring balance loss in high-level Parkinson's patients. SAFE's advantage is in it's simpler use and ability to be utilized without encountering the fear of fall; however it's at a disadvantage in regards to its use with multilateral aspects providing insufficient inspection. Lastly, the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI) and the Functional Gait Assessment (FGA) are Parkinson's gait scales. DGI is advantageous in its ability to test gait ability when exposed to a variety of external environments; however it is disadvantageous in that it registers higher scores with activities. FGA's advantage is in it's dynamic balance test; however it at a disadvantage with those unable to walk. Conclusion : A researcher of Parkinson's patients must choose each scale while considering their positive and negative characteristics.
Effects of the Probody Massage on the Physical Characteristics, Gross Motor Function and ROM in Youth with Cerebral Palsy : Case study
Kim, Eui-Suk ; Yang, Jeong-Ok ; Lee, Joong-Sook ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 25, issue 4, 2015, Pages 453~463
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2015.25.4.453
Objective : The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the Probody Massage Program on the physical characteristics, gross motor function and ROM (Range Of Motion) of children with cerebral palsy. Method : The subjects of this study were two children who have been diagnosed with first grade cerebral palsy that utilized T development support center located in B Metropolitan city for 8 weeks, twice a week, to carry out the Probody Massage Program for 30 minutes. Physiological reactions (height, weight, BMI, blood pressure (an index of inflammation), pulse rate) and large operating functions (sitting, crawling and the joints' range of motion as an angle of the shoulders' upper limb articulation) were measured pretest, after 4 weeks, and after 8 weeks. Results : The Probody Massage Program showed positive changes in physical characteristics (blood pressure, sitting, and crawling), gross motor function (upper limb shoulder movement), joint range of motion, height, body weight, metabolic activation and blood circulation of children with cerebral palsy. Conclusion : We believe making a practical impact on the growth and development, functional recovery of daily life, and improvement of quality of life of children with cerebral palsy by utilizing Probody Massage Program improves blood pressure (an index of inflammation), pulse, sitting, crawling, and the joints' range of motion as an angle of the shoulder joints' upper limb movement of children with cerebral palsy.
The Analysis of Foot Pressure and Lap Time for the Development of Korean Bobsleigh Shoes
Park, Jong-Jin ; Kim, Kyung-Hun ; Park, Seung-Bum ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 25, issue 4, 2015, Pages 465~474
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2015.25.4.465
Objective : A study and development of Korean Bobsleigh athletes's shoe which considers their physical condition has yet to be completed. So this study examines the effects of running shoes used by athletes based on plantar pressure and sprint time in order to provide raw data for the development of bobsleigh shoes suitable for Koreans. Method : The study selected seven bobsleigh athletes as subjects and selected three pairs of spiked running shoes from three companies, which will be referred to as Company N (Type A), Company A (Type B), and Company M (Type C). To analyze sprint time and plantar pressure for each shoe, the subject of the study were instructed to wear the selected shoes and to drag a sled at maximum sprint for 15 meters for 15 meters for in each condition that would be in real bobsleigh competitions. Results : The average sprint intervals for each athlete in each pair of shoes revealed Type C produce the fastest sprint in the order of Type C < Type A< Type B. Shoe Type C also had the largest contact area in order of Type C > Type B > Type A (p<.01). None of the three shoe types seem to yield a distinct advantage in terms of maximum average pressure or maximum pressure. Conclusion : In the future, functional analysis should be carried out by comparing the material properties, hardness, and toe spring of shoes based on the Type C shoe from Company M in order to develop bobsleigh shoes suitable for Koreans.
Analysis of Plantar Pressure Differences between Flat Insole Trekking Shoes and Nestfit Trekking Shoes
Choi, Jae-Won ; Lee, Joong-Sook ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 25, issue 4, 2015, Pages 475~482
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2015.25.4.475
Objective : The purpose of this study was to investigate mean plantar foot pressure, maximum plantar pressure and ground reaction force, and center migration path of pressure according to the type of trekking shoes for the development of shoes. Method : Subjects of the study averaged
of age. Their average height was
and their average weight was
. The method of this study was administered measuring 50 steps, at once, 3 times at a speed of 4 km/h and using the data of 30 steps. Pedar-X system measured the mean foot pressure, maximum foot pressure, mean maximum force, and center migration path of pressure by subjects' position while walking. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 23.0 using a paired t-test. Results : Results of the study showed Nestfit trekking shoes lower foot pressure of both feet in mean foot pressure and maximum foot pressure. Nestfit trekking shoes showed high ground reaction force (p<.001) in the midfoot, and low mean ground reaction force in the rearfoot. The center migration path of pressure showed the Nestfit trekking shoes were more stable than flat insole trekking shoes. Conclusion : It can be concluded that wearing Nestfit trekking shoes spreads pressure efficiently and induces walking stability because Nestfit trekking shoes spread the pressure of the forefoot and rearfoot to the midfoot and the center migration path of pressure shows regularly.
A Locomotive Analysis on Forelimbs' Movement According to Change in Velocity of Horses' Quadruped Cadence
Hyun, Seung-Hyun ; Ryew, Che-Cheong ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 25, issue 4, 2015, Pages 483~488
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2015.25.4.483
Objective : The purposes of this study was to analyze the locomotive movement of forelimbs according to changes in velocities in the quadruped cadence of horses. Methods : Horses selected as subjects consisted of Jeju pony horses (heights of withers:
). Two camcorders (HDR-HC7/HDV 1080i, Sony Corp, Japan) were used to capture the movement of the horses' forelimbs at a rate of 60 frames/sec. Additionally, raw data was collected from Kwon3D XP motion analysis package ver 4.0 program (Visol, Korea) with DARTFISH (DFKREA., Korea) video software solution. The variables analyzed consisted of 1 step lengths, 1 stride lengths, stance time, swing time, 1 stride time, velocity while walking, and trot of the horses. A two-way ANOVA and paired t-test of the variables by velocity and phase were treated at .05 level of significant difference, statistically. Results : The time elapsed of walk(stance: 0.63 sec[63.86%], swing: 0.35 sec[36.14%], 1 stride time: 0.99 sec respectively) showed significant difference with more delay than that of trot(stance: 0.29 sec[45.73%], swing: 0.34 sec[54.27% ], 1 stride time: 0.63 sec respectively), and also showed significant difference at trot in interaction (stance time>tort swing>walk swing>walk stance). The 1 step lengths and stride lengths in trot showed significant difference with longer than that of walk. Velocity of Trot showed significant difference statistically with higher than that of walk Conclusion : The horses' velocity during 1 step lengths and 1 stride lengths showed a proportional relationship, but the correlation between the horses' velocity and stance time showed a negative relationship during the quadruped cadence.
Biomechanical Analysis for the Development of Windlass Mechanism for Trail-walking Shoe
Park, Jong-Jin ; Park, Seung-Bum ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 25, issue 4, 2015, Pages 489~498
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2015.25.4.489
Objective : The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of the windlass mechanism in trail-walking shoe prototypes that can effectively support arches. A study of these effects should help with the development of a first-rate trail-walking shoe development guide for the distribution of quality information to consumers. Methods : The subjects were ten adult males who volunteered to participate in the study. Shoes from three companies, which will be referred to as Company S (Type A), Company M (Type B), and Company P (Type C), were selected for the experiment. The subjects wore these shoes and walked at a speed of 4.2 km/h, and as they tested each shoe, the contact area, maximum pressure average, and surface force were all measured. Results : Shoe Type A showed a contact area of
, Type B showed an area of
, and Type C showed an area of
(p<.01). Shoe Type A demonstrated a maximum average pressure of
, Type B an average of
, and Type C an average of
(p<.05). Shoe Type A showed a ground reaction force of
, Type B a force of
, and Type C a force of
(p<.05). Conclusion : The Type A trail-walking shoe, which was designed with a wide arch from the center of the forefoot to the front of the rearfoot showed excellent performance, however, more development and analysis of the windlass mechanism for a variety of arch structures is still necessary.