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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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Journal DOI :
The Korea Society of Medical and Biological Engineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Dec 1995
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Sep 1995
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Jun 1995
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Mar 1995
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A Study on the Feature Region Segmentation for the Analysis of Eye-fundus Images
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 16, issue 2, 1995, Pages 121~128
Information about retinal blood vessels can be used in grading disease severity or as part of the process of automated diagnosis of diseases with ocular menifestations. In this paper, we address the problem of detecting retinal blood vessels and optic disk (papilla) in eye-fundus images. We introduce an algorithm for feature extraction based on Fuzzy Clustering algorithm (fuzzy c-means). A method of finding the optic disk (papilla) is proposed in the eye-fundus images. Additionally, the inrormations such as position and area of the optic disk are extracted. The results are compared to those obtained from other methods. The automatic detection of retinal blood vessels and optic disk in the eye-rundus images could help physicians in diagnosing ocular diseases.
A Study on the Characteristics of Therapy Radiation Detector with Diode
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 16, issue 2, 1995, Pages 129~138
High-energy and high-dose X-ray and electron beam have been used in radiation therapy after developing particle accelerators. It is recommended to irradiate patients exect real dose for improving therapy effectiveness by International Committee on Radiation Units and Measurement. The radiation detector for daily beam checks of medical accelerators is described. Using thirteen silicon diodes, we have designed the diode detector providing information about calibration, beam symmetry, flatness, stability variation according to radiation damage, time and general quality assurance for both photon and eletron beams. we also compared these measurement values with those of using ionization chamber, film and semiconductor dosimeter.
Development of a multi-channel clinical chemistry analyzer
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 16, issue 2, 1995, Pages 139~148
In this paper we report the device of a multi-channel clinical instrument developed for determi¬nation of the levels of the urinary urobilinogen, glucose, ketone, bilirubin, protein, ascorbic acid, nitrite, pH, occult-blood, specific gravity, and leukocytes semiquantitatively. The test parameters are expressed on the dry test strips as a range of color intensities by chemical reactions. The instrument measures the value of each substance by reading the reflectance light emanated from the test strips. We also designed the reagent strip cassette and loader in order to intercept the outside interference. The loader can be operated semi-automatically. The light source is consisted on light emitting diodes at three specific wavelengths (560 nm, 610 nm, 650 nm). Precision of the system was evaluated by testing a series of commercial control urine samples. Furthermore, the performance of the instrument was compared with two other test methods on the urine samples from 100 persons. Our results showed a good repeatability between tests and a satisfactory agreement between the readings by our instrument and visual evaluation.
A New Experimental Method of Mechanical Analysis for Arterial Cross-Section Research
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 16, issue 2, 1995, Pages 149~156
This paper suggests a new experimental system and protocol of mechanical analysis for arterial cross-section research. So far, most methods of arterial studies have been focused on the deformation measurement in longitudinal and circumferential direction. The deformation in radial direction has been theoretically assumed by Poisson's ratio and/or the incompressibility of arterial wall. Also, the radial gradient of strains are neglected. In fact, the radial deformation and radial gradient of strains against blood pressure are important to be observed in the pathological point of view of artery. Proposed experimental system and protocol are to measure the deformation of cross-sectional artery. Also, this method enables to measure the deformation of anterior, posterior, and side site of cross-sectional area. It is meaningful to correlate the mechanically experimented data with pathological data of athroscIerotic artery.
Automatic EEG and Artifact Classification Using Neural Network
Ahn, Chang-Beom ; Lee, Taek-Yong ; Lee, Sung-Hoon ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 16, issue 2, 1995, Pages 157~166
The Electroencephalogram (EEG) and evoked potential (EP) t;ave widely been used for study of brain functions. The EEG and EP signals acquired from multi-channel electrodes placed on the head surface are often interfered by other relatively large physiological signals such as electromyogram (EMG) or electroculogram (EOG). Since these artifact-affected EEG signals degrade EEG mapping, the removal of the artifact-affected EEGs is one of the key elements in neuro-functional mapping. Conventionally this task has been carried out by human experts spending lots of examination time. In this paper a neural-network based classification is proposed to replace or to reduce human expert's efforts and time. From experiments, the neural-network based classification performs as good as human experts : variation of decisions between the neural network and human expert appears even smaller than that between human experts.
A Correlational Study between Auditory Evoked Potential and Subdural Hematoma for the Diveloprnent of a Noninvasive ICP Monitoring System
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 16, issue 2, 1995, Pages 167~174
Development of a noninvasive intensive care system calls for the use of evoked potentials (EPs) as a means of diagnosing traumatic head-injured patients. The experiment entails surgically placing two subarachnoid bolts and a subdural balloon through the skull to simulate a subdural hematoma. Using various levels of intracranial pressure (ICP) and/or different sizes of balloons, auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) were recorded from a rabbit. Six positive peak latencies (
) and five negative peak latencies (
) were extracted from an averaged AEP waveform. Multiple regression analyses were performed for determining. a relationship between the ICP and AEP peak latencies. The results indicate that a major correlation of ch, mges on AEP peak latencies is due to mechanical forces of a mass (inflated balloon simulating a hematoma) in the distortion of the brain matter rather than increased ICP itself.
A study on the real time fetal heart rate monitoring system by high resolution pitch detection algorithm
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 16, issue 2, 1995, Pages 175~182
Despite the simplicity of processing, a conventional autocorrelation function (ACF) method for the precise determination of fetal heart rate (FHR) has many problems. In case of weak or noise corrupted Doppler ultrasound signal, the ACF method is very sensitive to the threshold level and data window length. It is very troublesome to extract FHR when there is a data loss. To overcome these problems, the high resolution pitch detection algorithm was adopted to estimate the FHR. This method is more accurate, robust and reliable than the ACF method. With a lot of calculation, however, it is impossible to process real time FHR estimation. This paper is presented a new FHR estimation algorithm for real time processing and studied the real time FHR monitoring system by high resolution pitch detection algorithm.
A New Mean Frequency Extension Method in Doppler System
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 16, issue 2, 1995, Pages 183~190
The use of ultrasound pulsed Doppler systems has become increasingly popular due to the advantages of easy measurements of blood velocity, volume blood blow, and irregularities of the circulatory system. However, the 2-D Doppler systems have several problems, such as range ambiguity, low signal to noise ratio, and slow frame rate. The mean frequency aliasing problem originating from the pulse repetition frequency is one of major limitations in pulsed Doppler systems. A conventional approach to resolve this problem is tracking the mean frequency close to and beyond the Nyquist frequency along the temporal axis. In this paper, a new concept of tracking the mean frequency along the spatial axis is proposed. The proposed technique is fault tolerant by nature and more suitable for multi gate and 2-D Doppler system than conventional methods.
Human Exposures to Various Electromagnetic Forces : Measurement of Electromagnetic Force for Future Epidemiological Study
Kim, Deok-Won ; Ryu, Chang-Yong ; Yoon, Hyung-Ro ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 16, issue 2, 1995, Pages 191~200
Although air, water, and noise pollutions have been widely recognized, electromagnetic forces (EMF) hazard has been rarely recognized as a pollution and very little studies has been done in this country. Thus, in this study electromagnetic forces radiated by various home appliances, office machines, and communication equipments were measured and so were several places radiating strong EMF such as subway stations and electric substations. Among the home appliances microwave oven radiates lots of magnetic field and microwaves, and electric mattress does strong magnetic field. In video game room strong magnetic and considerable electric fields were measured. It was observed strong magnetic field inside of electric powered train and very strong magnetic and electric fields on some platforms. Hand-phone and car-phone radiate very hazardous level of microwaves to brain and that they rapidly come into wide use. In this study data base for various electric machines and places radiating strong EMFs were constructed and could be used for future epidemiological studies.
Signal analysis of respiratory muscle activity for the detection of timing points
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 16, issue 2, 1995, Pages 201~208
The information obtained from the analysis of respiratory muscle elecromyographic (EMG) activities provides a mean for studying muscular activity in relation to the ventilatory process. Thus, in order to comprehend the airflow pattern and its brain control, signal processing is required to characterize respiratory muscle activity. This paper presents a computerized method for the analysis of the electrical activity of the respiratory muscles of premature lambs, and focuses upon the automatic determination of respiratory timing points such as onset and cessation points of the burst activity. Based on experimental results, reliable timing points can be obtained using the proposed methodology.
First-Pass Observation using Tailored-RF Gradient Echo (TRFGE) MR Imaging in Cat Brain
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 16, issue 2, 1995, Pages 209~216
Recently, a new tailored RF gradient echo (TRFGE) sequence was reported. This technique not only enhances the magnetic susceptibility effect but also allows us to measure local changes in brain oxygenation. In this study, a phantom and cat brain experiments were performed on a 4.7 Tesla BIQSPEC (BRUKER) instrument with a 26 cm gradient system. We have demonstrated that the signal intensity (SI) of the TRFGE sequence varies according to the concentration of susceptibility contrast agent. Three capillary tubes with different concentrations of Gd-DTPA (0.01, 0.05, 0.1 mMOI/l) were placed at the middle of a cylindrical water phantom. Using both TRFGE and conventional gradient echo (CGE) sequences, phantom images of the slices which contain all three tubes were obtained. For the animal experiment, cats were anesthetized and ventilated using halotane (0.5%) and a
mixture (2:1), and blood pressure and heart rate were monitored and kept normal. For the observation of tue first pass of Gd- DTPA, imaging was started at t = 0. At t = 8 ~ 12s, 0.2 mMol/Kg Gd-DTPA was manually injected in the femoral vein. The imaging parameters were TRITE = 25/10 msec, flip angle =
, FOV = 10cm, image matrix size =
with 64 phase encodings and the image data acquisition window was 10 msec. SI-time curves were then obtained from a series of 30 images which were collected at 2 sec intervals using both CGE and TRFGE pulse sequences before, during, and following the contrast injection.
Development of a Human Motion Analyzer
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 16, issue 2, 1995, Pages 217~222
We propose some applications of image processing techniques to extract quantitative measurements by using a camera system developed in Korea university and Catholic Medical School. From now on the system will be called as KCMOTION. The purpose of this study is to provide basic kinematic and kinetic data for the analysis of human movements and to find the clinical usefulness and reliability of the proposed motion analysis system. Two tests, sit-to-stand (STS) movements and pendulum test, are conducted by the system. The aims of the tests are to identify variability and reliability of KCMOTION to give some quantitative comparisons to the other systems. The result of STS movement are compared to the LOCUS IIID motion analyzer by the ratio of maximum flexion movement per body weight to the actual maximum flexion extension torque per body weight. That result in 29 % and 33 % for hip and knee joint, respectively in KCMOTION and 27 % and 30 % in LOCUS IIID System. The results of the pendulum movements are compared to that of using Cybex and Electrogoniometer with relaxation index, amplitude ratio, swing number and swing time. The results of relaxation index and amplitude ratio of the KCMOTION are between those of the Cybex and Electrogoniometer. We also observed that the KCMOTION detect more natural movement, from the results of swing number and time.
Regional Myocardial Blood Flow Estimation Using Rubidium-82 Dynamic Positron Emission Tomography and Dual Integration Method
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 16, issue 2, 1995, Pages 223~230
This study investigates a combined mathematical model for the quantitative estimation of regional myocardial blood flow in experimental canine coronary artery occlusion and in patients with ischemic myocardial diseases using Rb-82 dynamic myocardial positron emission tomography. The coronary thrombosis was induced using the new catheter technique by narrowing the lumen of coronary vessel gradually, which finally led to partial obstruction of coronary artery. Thirty four Rb-82 dynamic myocardial PET scans were performed sequentially for each experiment using our 5, 10 and 20 second acquisition protocol, respectively, and six to seven regions of interest were drawn on each transaxial slices, one on left ventricular chamber for input function and the others on normal and decreased perfusion myocardial segments for the flow estimation in those regions. Two compartment model and graphical analysis method have been applied to the measured sets of regional PET data, and the rate constants of influx to myocardial tissue were calculated for regional myocardial flow estimates with the two parameter fits of raw data by the Levenberg-Marquardt method. The results showed that, (I) two compartment model suggested by Kety-Schmidt, with proper modification of the measured data and volume of distribution, could be used for the simple estimation of regional myocardial blood flow, (2) the calculated regional myocardial blood flow estimates were dependent on the selection of input function, which reflected partial volume effect and left ventricular wall motion in previously used graphical analysis, and (3) mathematically fitted input and tissue time activity curves were more suitable than the direct application of the measured data in terms of convergence.
Quantitative Analysis of Artifactual Perfusion Defects due to the Cutoff Frequencies of Reconstruction Filters in Tc-99m-MIBI Myocardial SPECT Images
Kwark, Cheol-Eun ; Chung, June-Key ; Lee, Myung-Chul ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 16, issue 2, 1995, Pages 231~238
Tc-99m-MIBI (Sestamibi) myocardial SPECT along with TI-201 tomographic Imaging has demonstrated wide application and high image quality sufficient for the diagnosis of myocardial perfusion defect, which consequently reflects regional myocardial blood flow. The qualitative values of myocardial SPECT with Tc-99m-MIBI as well ds the quantitative cases depend in some degree on the reconstruction techniques of multiple projections. Filtered backprojection (FBP) Is the common standard method for reconstruction rather than the complicated and time-consuming arithmetic methods. In FBP it is known that the distribution of radioactivity in reconstructed transverse slices varies with the selected litter parameters such as cutoff frequencies and order (Butterworth case) The cutoff frequencies used in clinicAl practice partially remove and decrease the true radioactive distribution and alter the pixel counts, which lead to underestimation of true counts in specific myocardial regions. In this study, we have investigated the effect of cutoff frequencies of reconstruction filter on the artifactually induced perfusion defects, which are often demonstrated near inferior and/or inferoseptal cardiac walls due to the intense hepatic uptake of Tc-99m-MIBI. A computerized method for Identifying the relative degree of artifactual perfusion defect and for comparing those degrees along with the relative amount of hepatic uptake to myocardium was developed and patient images were studied to observe the quantitative degree of underestimation of myocardial perfusion, and to propose some reasonable threshold of cutoff frequency in the diagnosis of perfusion defect quantitatively. We concluded that from the quantitative viewpoint cutoff frequencies may be used as high as possible with the sacrifice of homogeneity of image quality, and those frequencies lower than the common 0.3 Wyquist frequency would reveal severe degradation of radioactive distribution near inferior and/or inferoseptal myocardium when applying Butterworth or low pass filter.
A Design of Optimal Masks in Hadamard Transform Spectrometers
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 16, issue 2, 1995, Pages 239~248
The method of increasing signal to noise ratio (SNR) in a Hadamard transform spectrometer (HTS) is multiplexing. The multiplexing is executed by a mask. Conventional masks are mechanical or electro-optical. A mechanical mask has disadvantages of jamming and misalignment. A stationary electro-optical mask has a disadvantage of information losses caused by spacers which partition mask elements. In this paper, a mixed-concept electro-optical mask (MCEOM) is developed by expanding the length of a spacer to that of lon-off mask element. An MCEOM is operated by stepping a movable mask. 2N measurements are required for N spectrum estimates. The average mean square error (AMSE) using MCEQM is equal to that using a stationary electro-optical mask without spacers for large N. The cost of manufacturing an MCEOM is lower than that of producing a conventional electro-optical mask because an MCEOM needs only (N + 1)/2 on-off mask elements whereas the con¬ventional electro-optical mask needs N on-off mask elements. There are no information losses in the spectrometers having an MCEOM.