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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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Journal DOI :
The Korea Society of Medical and Biological Engineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Dec 1995
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Sep 1995
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Jun 1995
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Mar 1995
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A New Method for Determining the Absorption Coefficient of Oxy- and Deoxyhemoglobin by use of a Thin-fi im Optical Waveguide Sensor
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 16, issue 4, 1995, Pages 387~394
A simple method for determining the absorption coefficient of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin in human blood is proposed as an application of the complex propagation constant of a guided wave in a thin-film optical waveguide. A serial multichannel sample chamber is constructed on the waveguide to vary the interaction length between the evanescent field and the sample, and the dependence of the sensor response on the interaction length is investigated for the various concentration of two hemoglobins. The sensor response is linearly proportional to the interaction length and the concentration of two hemoglobins. The attenuation constant due to the evanescent field absorption between the samples is experimentally obtained with the designed sensor, and then the absorption coefficient is determined by the proposed method. The absorption coefficients determined by the proposed method fairly well coincided with those obtained by the conventional transmission measurement.
A Study of Susceptibility Decomposition in MRI
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 16, issue 4, 1995, Pages 395~402
The intravoxel spin phases in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) usually vary due to susceptibility differences of materials to be imaged. The phase variation in the voxel results in a reduction of the signal intensity. This signal intensity reduction is known as the susceptibility effect in MRI and has been studied extensively. In this paper, a new spectral decomposition technique Is proposed and the signal change due to the susceptibility effect can be analyzed. A pulse sequence for the spectral decomposition of the susceptibility was developed and applied to susceptibility imaging of venous blood possessing paramagnetic properties. The computer simulations and their corresponding experimental results obtained using both a phantom and human volunteers are reported. Key words : susceptibility effect in MRI : spectral decomposition of susceptibility effect.
Development of ECG Identification System Using the Fuzzy Processor
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 16, issue 4, 1995, Pages 403~414
It is very difficult to quantize the ECG analysis because the decision criterion for ECG is different with each other depending on the medical specialists of the heart and there are measured detecting errors for each ECG measurement system. Therefore, we developed the real-time ECG identification system using digital fuzzy processor for STD-BUS, in order to reduce ambiguity generated in the process of ECG identification and to analyze the irregular ECG stastically to ECG's repetition interval. The variables such as AGE (months), width of QRS, average RRI, and RRI were used to classify the ECG, and were applied to ECG signal indentification system which is developed for the purpose of research. It was found that the automatic diagnosis of ECG signal was possible in the real time process which was impossible in general process of algorithm.
DEVS/CS ( Discrete Event Specification System/continuous System) Combined Modeling of Cardiovascular Continuous System Model
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 16, issue 4, 1995, Pages 415~424
Combined models, specified by two or more modeling formalisms, can represent a wide variety of complex systems. This paper describes a methodology for the development of combined models in two model types of discrete event and continuous process. The methodology is based on transformation of continuous state space into discrete one to homomorphically represent dynamics of continuous processes in discrete events. This paper proposes a formal structure which can combine model of the DES and the CS within a framework. The structure employs the DEVS formalism for the DES models and differential or polynomial equations for the CS models. To employ the proposed structure to specify a DEVS/CS combined model, a modeler needs to take the following steps. First, a modeler should identify events in the CS and transform the states of the CS into the DES. Second, a modular employs the formalism to specify the system as the DES. Finally, a moduler developes sub-models for the CS and continguos states of the DES and establishs one-to-one correspondence between the sub-models and such states. The proposed formal structre has been applied to develop a DEVS/CS combined model for the human cardiovascular system. For this, the cardiac cycle is partitioned into a set of phases based on events identified through observation. For each phase, a CS model has been developed and associated with the phase. To validate the DEVS/CS combined model developed, then simulate the model in the DEVSIM + + environment, which is a model simulation results with the results obtained from the CS model simulation using SPICE. The comparison shows that the DEVS/CS combined model adequately represents dynamics of the human heart system at each phase of cardiac cycle.
The Clustering Threshold Image Processing Technique in fMRI
Jeong, Sun-Cheol ; No, Yong-Man ; Jo, Jang-Hui ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 16, issue 4, 1995, Pages 425~430
The correlation technique has been widely used in ctRl data processing. The proposed CLT (clus- tering threshold) technique is a modified CCT (correlation coefficient threshold) technique and has many advantages compared with the conventional CCT technique. The CLT technique is explained by the following two steps. First, once the correlation coefficient map above the proper TH value is obtained using the CCT technique which is discrete and includes splash noise data, then the spurious pixels are rejected and the real neural activity pixels extracted using an nxn matrix box. Second, a clustering operation is performed by the two correction rules. The real neuronal activated pixels can be clustered and the false spurious pixels can be suppressed by the proposed CLT technique. The proposed CLT technique used in the post processing in ctRl has advantages over other existing techniques. It is especially proved to be robust in noisy environment.
Analysis of Inflow and Susceptibility Effects in fMRI Obtained by CGE and TRFGE Techniques
No, Yong-Man ; Jeong, Sun-Cheol ; Jo, Jang-Hui ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 16, issue 4, 1995, Pages 431~438
Functional imaging based on the susceptibility only is achieved by separation of the susceptibility effect from the mixture of flow effect by use of a tailored RF pulse in conjunction with gradient echo sequence. Using the tailored RF pulse the susceptibility enhanced functional imaging appears to be explicitly related to the deoxygenation processes, while in the conventional gradient echo technique functional contrast on
effect images appear to be mixed with a significant fraction of blood flow (in- flow) signals of both arterial as well as venous bloods due to the nature of the fast sequence employed with the gradient echo technique. In this paper, using the tailored RF pulses, one can unambiguously separate the susceptibility and flow effects in functional imaging. Since the signal obtained can be made sufficiently high and represents oxygenation process more accurately, it seems possible to study quantitative oxygen metabolisms in brain function hitherto difficult to do with other gradient echo techniques.
Detection of Vessel Contours in Coronary Arteriograms
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 16, issue 4, 1995, Pages 439~446
In this paper, we present an algorithm for the detection of blood vessel contours in coronary aiteriograms. The proposed algorithm is based on both matched filtering and adaptive tracking. The proposed algorithm has merits in that it overcomes the bifurcation section problem as well as narrow vessel problem. Moreover, the algorithm has fast performance as well as insensitivity to noise.
Development of Transcutaneous Energy Transmission System for Medical Instrument
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 16, issue 4, 1995, Pages 447~456
As a part of electro-mechanical totally implantable artificial heart (TIAH) program, a transcut- aneous energy transmission system has been developed. By mutual magnetic induction between the first coil on the skin and the subcutaneously implanted second coil, the system transfers elctrical power through the skin. This research aimed at minimizing the size of the implanted part as well as maximizing the transfer efficiency. Using class I amplifier, we achieved above 75% power transfer efficiency at average 40W power transfer level which is required for normal TIAH operation. In vivo performance of the developed system and bio-compatibility of the material used in Implanted parts were evaluated through animal experiments.
The Use of Special Washers in Bone Plates for Improved Impact-Absorbing Characteristics
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 16, issue 4, 1995, Pages 457~462
Unlike the usual bone plate and screw fracture fixation, an improved plate fixation method, which can transfer gradually physiological load to bones, is described. The key feature of the present method is to use washers between the plate and the screw. Bio-absorbable materials or non-ferrous materials with good damping characteristics are used to manufacture the washers. The purpose of this paper is to discuss potential advantages of the proposed method, and to show experimentally its improved impact-absorbing characteristics. Vibration experiments are carried out for pig femurs and cow tibias with and without the proposed washers. This experiments show that the washers can drop the first peak value suite substantially in the FRF plots. Although in-vivo experiments have not been conducted, the present fixation method appears to be a simple and effective alternative to the presently used method.
Effect of Endothelial Cell Growth Factor and Cyclic AMP Increasers on the Proliferation of Human Omental Microvascular Endothelial Cells
Kim, Won-Gon ; Kim, Jong-Man ; Yu, Se-Yeong ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 16, issue 4, 1995, Pages 463~470
Complete prelining of artificial vascular grafts with autologous endothelial cells may be one of the ideal solutions to obtain a nonthrombogenlc blood-contacting surface. To establish an intact endothelial cell monolayer on a prosthetic surface at the time of implantation,a sufficient number of endothelial cells and adequate propagation condition In cell culture are prerequisites. In this experimental study, endothelial cells from microvessels of adult human oriental adipose tissue were enzymatically harvested, and optimal culture conditions for proliferation of the endothelial cells in cell culture were examined. Human oriental adipose tissue was digested with collagenase and endothelial cells were separated from other stromal elements by mesh filtration method. Cultured cells were identified as endothelial cells by immunofluorescent staining for factor VIII-related antigen. Proliferation in usual 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS) medium or medium containing endothelial cell growth factor (ECGF)(5 ng/ml) and heparin (HEP)(1,000 units/ml) were compared,and the effects of adding compounds that increase intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels, that is,cholera toxin (CT)(1
/ml) and isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX)(0.2 ml),were also analyzed. In total,following eight media groups were examined. 1) FBS medium + ECGF + HEP, 2) FBS medium + ECGF + HEP+CT, 3) FBS medium+ECGF+HEP+lBMX, 4) FBS medium+ECGF+HEP+CT+ IBMX, 5) FBSmedium, 6) FBS medium +CT, 7) FBS medium + IBMX, 8) FBS medium + CT + IBMX. It was shown that the medium containing ECGF + HEP with or without cholera toxin was most efficient in Stimulating cell proliferation. IBMX was considered to have antagonistic effect to ECGF. Among experimental groups without ECGF and HEP, the addition of cholera toxin and IBMX was shown to significantly potentiate cell proliferation. This results could provide a practical method for use of cultured human endothelial cells for endothelial cell seeding of cardiovascular prosthetic device, particularly in small-diameter vascular grafts.
Comparison between Nl -N2 Audiograms of Guinea Pigs pre and post loudtone exposure
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 16, issue 4, 1995, Pages 471~480
The modification of Nl -N2 Audiograms before and after loudtone exposure onto the tympanic membrane of guinea pigs was examined. The exposure was a loud continuous tone of 106 dB SPL intensity at 10 KHz for 10 minutes. The comparison between Wl-H2 Audiograms pre and post loudtone exposure indicates that the exposed cochlea permanently lost its normal hearing function. The largest threshold shifts wore found between 12-13.2KHz. The functional change of the cochlea after the loudtone exposure depends on the state of the cochlea before the trauma. More sensitive cochlea is more critically damaged in its function after the trauma than less sensitive cochlea.
Endovaginal and Endorectal Surface Coils for in-ViVo Human MR Imaging and Spectroscopy
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 16, issue 4, 1995, Pages 481~491
Endovaginal and endorectal receiver only surface coils were designed for MR imaging (MRI) and
MR spectroscopy (MRS) for the uterine cervix and the prostate. The shape of endovaginal coil wire was rectangular with round corner. Size of the coil wire was empirically determined for 7cm and 4cm along the long and short axis, respectively. The coil wire loop was supported by acryl handle and bent about
at one side of the loop considering the average angle of the cervix to the vagina. We called this as a "spoon-type endovaginal coil". The wire of the endorectal coil was made of the flexible materials so that the wire loop became long elliptic shape by pushing the acryl handle into the plastic tube for the comfort of patients when the coil was inserted into the cervix. Then, the shape was maintained to be circle by popping out handle. Conventional spin echo (SE) and fast spin echo (FSE) sequences were used as 71 and 72 weighted imaging sequences, respectively. Matrix size was 128~
. FOVs for surface coil and body coil were 14cm and 24cm, respectively. 3D volume localized in vivo
MR spectroscopy of the human cervix and prostate was performed using PRESS or STEAM localization method with the following parameters . TR=3 sec, TE=135 msec for PRESS or 30 msec for STEAM, NEX=2, NS=48, Sl=2048, and SW=2500 Hz. Using home-built endovaginal and endorectal coils, excellent T1- and T2-images were obtained to visualize early cervical and prostate tumors. 3D volume localized in vivo IH MRS was useful to differentiate the cancerous tissue from the normal tissue.
Characteristiis of Dynamic Response in the Human Head and Neck to Implusive Loading
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 16, issue 4, 1995, Pages 491~498
A numerical human head/neck model was constructed for analyzing the implication in decleration injuries. This model consists of nine rigid bodies representing the head, cervical vertebrae C1-C7, and T1. These rigid bodies were connected by intervertebral disks described by massless beam elements. Muscles and ligaments were also incoperated in the model represented by nonlinear spring and viscoblastic element respectively Agreement of the analytical kinematic response with the results of experimental data from a volunteer run was satisfactory. Moreover, possible injury estimation from the calculated moment, force variations in the disc, and force variation in ligaments matched well with clinical observations.
Three Dimensional Shape Estimation by Shading Analysis of Endoscopic Image
Lee, Tae-Su ; Cha, Eun-Jong ; Yun, Se-Jin ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 16, issue 4, 1995, Pages 499~506
A new numerical method estimated three dimensional shape of the internal surface of the stomach by analyzing the shading data of endoscopic image. First analyzed was the inherent instrumentational characteristics of the endoscope system, followed by the analysis of the stomach surface properties, both of which affected the imaging properties. We employed these prior informations to implement the iterative algorithm of shading analysis based on Hom's variational approach. The present algorithm was validated by performing simulation on a
image data chosen from original
image of the stomach surface model. The best 3-dimensional estimation of the surface was achieved with the Lagrangian multiplier, of 0.3, when the algorithm best converged showing minimal estimation error.
Identification of Nonstationary Time Varying EMG Signal in the DCT Domain and a Real Time Implementation Using Parallel Processing Computer
Lee, Yeong-Seok ; Lee, Jin ; Kim, Seong-Hwan ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 16, issue 4, 1995, Pages 507~516
The nonstationary identifier in the DCT domain is suggested in this study for the identification of AR parameters of above-lesion upper-trunk electromyographic (EMG) signals as a means of developing a reliable real time signal to control functional electrical stimulation (FES) in paraplegics to enable primitive walking. As paraplegic shifts his posture from one attitude to another, there is transition period where the signal is clearly nonstationary. Also as muscle fatigues, nonstationarities become more prevalent even during stable postures. So, it requires a develpment of time varying nonstationary EMG signal identifier. In this paper, time varying nonstationary EMG signals are transformed into DCT domain and the transformed EMG signals are modeled and analyzed in the transform domain. In the DCT domain, we verified reduction of condition number and increment of the smallest eigenvalue of input correlation matrix that influences numerical properties and mean square error were compared with SLS algorithm, and the proposed algorithm is implemented using IMS T-805 parallel processing computer for real time application.
Design of a Cascade Adaptive Filter for the Performance sn Detection of Segment
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 16, issue 4, 1995, Pages 517~524
This paper is a study on the design of the cascade adaptive filter (CAF) for baseline wandering elimination in order to enhance the performance of the detection of ST segments in ECG. The CAF using Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm consists of two filters. The primary adaptive filter which has the cutoff frequency of 0.3Hz eliminates the baseline wandering in raw ECG The secondary adaptive filter removes the remnant baseline wandering which is not eliminated by the primary adaptive filter. The performance of the CAF was compared with the standard filter, the recursive filter, and the adaptive impulse correlated filter (AICF). As a result, the CAF showed a lower signal distortion than the standard filter and the AICF. Also, the CAF showed a better perf'ormance in noise elimination than the standard filter and the recursive filter. In conclusion, considering the characteristics of the noise elimination and the signal distortion, the CAF shows a better performance in the removal of the baseline wandering than the other three Otters and suggests the high performance in the detection of ST segment.
A Sham Experiment for the Measurement of Nonlinear Pulse Propagation Characteristics of Blood Vessel Using Bispectral Analysis
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 16, issue 4, 1995, Pages 525~532
In this paper, a new try to measure nonlinear propagation characteristics of the pulse along blood vessel by using bispectral analysis is introduced, and the possibility of its application to the medical diagnosis is shown. In this method, the waveforms of pulse motion of blood vessel at two separated measuring points on the wall were detected from Doppler frequency modulation of transmitted probing ultrasonic waves. Then the auto- and crossbispectrum of detected waveforms are calculated to estimate the quadratic NTF (nonlinear transfer function) between the two measuring positions. In order to show relationships between the NTF and the nonlinear propagation characteristics, computer simulations have been performed. As the propagation distance increases, harmonic frequency components in NTF increases broadly due to the nonlinear effect in the propagation of blood pulse. In order to represent this phenomena quantitatively, we propose a new parameter, dispersion ratio of WTF. Basic experimental system was constructed by using 3.5MHz probing ultrasonic waves and the preliminary experiments were carried out on ague phantom and human body. Experimental results showed the validity of the measurement system enoughly.
Effects of Pretreatment Method on the Bonding Strength of 4-META/MMA-TBB Resin to Bovine Dentin
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 16, issue 4, 1995, Pages 533~542
The present study investigated the effectiveness of pretreatment on dentin bonding. The adhesive resin was 5% 4-methacryloyloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride (4-META) in methyl methacrylate (MMA) combined with poly-MMA powder. Polymerization of this resin was initiated by tri-n-butyl borage (TBB). Ground bovine dentin samples were etched with either an aqueous solution of 10% citric (10-0 solution) (Group I) or aqueous solution of 10% citric acid and 3% ferric chloride(10-3 solution) (Group ll ). After etching, the primer (an aqueous solution of 35% hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEM- A) and 5% glutaraldehyde was applied on the differently etched surfaces (Group III , Group IV). The 10-0 treatment showed the lowest tensile bond strength, followed by the 10-3 treatment, primer application after the 10-0 treatment and primer application after the 10-3 treatment. The relationship among the surface morphology after pretreatment, fractured surface morphology and tensile bond strength was examined. It revealed that the surface morphology change by different pretreatment influenced the bond strength and the resulting fractured surface morphology. The correlation of tensile bond strength with the fracture morphology was explained.
A Study on the Improvement of Driving Stability for the Motorized Manual Wheelchair INMEL-VII
Jeong, Dong-Myeong ; Go, Su-Bok ; Kim, Ju-Myeong ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 16, issue 4, 1995, Pages 543~554
This paper describes the improvement of driving stability and the control system for INMEL-VII which is motorized manual wheelchair to satisfy requirements of the disabled The INMEL-VI was based on high maneuverability of the omnidirection drive and safety But the results of field tests about two years showed some problems to the disabled in daily life such as driving stability, Pm switching noise, and rotation of motor without driving command on negative slope. To solve the problems due to an increased DC motor power and applied to direct connection method in INMEL- VII. It improved the driving circuits and set switching frequency to 5KHz to eliminate the switching noise caused by PWM control of DC motor, As compare with the INMEL-VI, INMEL-VII is improved in driving stability by transfer the weight center to forward. The results of field testing proved the improvement of the driving stability and software algorithm It has been estimated to have a hlgh practical use for powered walking aids to the disabled's daily life.
Development of O-Ring Measurement Systems of Muscular Meridians for objectification of Constitutional Diagnosis
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 16, issue 4, 1995, Pages 555~561
In this paper, the O-Ring Measurement System (O-R MS) has been designed to supplement such subectivity and apply to the diagnosis by constitution. A single chip microprocessor of Intel MCS-51 family has been used to control the O-R MS and process data with real time, and the O-R MS could measure the minute muscular strength, expanded width between fingers, and time of the measurement. Therefore the objective constitutional diagnosis is possible by the O-R MS. As a clinical testing for estimating credibility of O-R MS, the acupuncture points representing the constitution has been stimulated using a semiconductor laser stimulator and measure the muscular strength by the O-R MS. The result of clinical testing has been shown that the constitutional diagnosis with the O-R MS is proved highly precision of 96% and it is expected that the O-R MS can be used practically for the objective constitutional diagnosis.