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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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Journal DOI :
The Korea Society of Medical and Biological Engineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Dec 1997
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Sep 1997
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Jun 1997
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Mar 1997
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Correlation Among Permeability, Apparent Density, And Porosity of Human Lumbar Vertebral Trabecular Bone
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 18, issue 4, 1997, Pages 333~338
Abnormal intraosseous flow and pressure in trabecular bone could cause various pathological conditions such as osteonecrosis and osteoarthritis. Characteristics of intraosseous fluid flow and pressure generation in porous trabecular bone can be significantly affected by the permeability. Factors which determine the permeability could be the porosity and apparent density of trabecular bone. However, there is little data on the permeability and the relationship among the permeability. porosity, and apparent density of trabecular bone. In this study. the permeability. porosity, and apparent density of human lumbar vertebral trabecular bone were experimentally measured. Also, a power relationship among the permeability, porosity, and apparent density was investigated to understand effects of the porosity and apparent density variations on the permeability of trabecular bone based on Kozeny-Carman equation. A near linear relationship between intraosseous fluid flow and time indicated that the fluid phase flowed through the pores in trabecular bone is governed by the permeability. The permeability of trybecular bone was found to have a significant power relationship with the porosity and apparent density (r: 0.84 and
< 0.0005). The power relationship could be useful to determine the permeability of trybecular bone after measuring the apparent density and porosity.
An Efficient Segmentation-based Wavelet Compression Method for MR Image
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 18, issue 4, 1997, Pages 339~348
In this paper, we propose a coding method to improve compression efficiency for MR image. This can be achieved by combining coding scheme and segmentation scheme which removes noisy background region, which is meaningless for diagnosis in the MR image. In segmentation algoritm, we use full-resolution wavelet transform to extract features of regions in image and Kohonen self-organizing map to classify the features. The subsequent wavelet coder encodes only diagnostically significant foreground regions refering to segmentation map. Our proposed algorithm provides about 15% of bit rate reduction when compared with the same coder which is not combined with segmentation scheme. And the proposed scheme shows better reconstructed image quality than JPEG at the same compression ratio.
A Lossless Coding Scheme for Progressive Transmission of Medical Images
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 18, issue 4, 1997, Pages 349~356
In this paper, we propose the lossless coding: scheme for progressive transmission of medical images. The input image is decomposed by the proposed fast adaptive subband decomposition method which is suited for a lossless coding. The decomposed images are coded by an arithmetic coder with two conditioning pixels, and the conditioning pixels are selected differently according to the property of the subbands. The conditioning contexts are usually quantized to reduce the conditional state, and the optimization method of quantization is proposed For the purpose of improving compression ratio in this paper. The proposed lossless coding scheme provides the asymmetric structure of cosec and results in better compression ability than the JPEC lossless coding[ 1 ].
Detection of Mammographic Microcalcifications by Statistical Pattern Classification 81 Pattern Matching
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 18, issue 4, 1997, Pages 357~364
The early detection of breast cancer is clearly a key ingredient for reducing breast cancer mortality. Microcalcification is the only visible feature of the DCIS's(ductal carcinoma in situ) which consist 15 ~ 20% of screening-detected breast cancer. Therefore, the analysis of the shapes and distributions of microcalcifications is very significant for the early detection. The automatic detection procedures have b(:on the concern of digital image processing for many years. We proposed here one efficient method which is essentially statistical pattern classification accelerated by one representative feature, correlation coefficient. We compared the results by this additional feature with results by a simple gray level thresholding. The average detection rate was increased from 48% by gray level feature only to 83% by the proposed method The performances were evaluated with TP rates and FP counts, and also with Bayes errors.
Reconstruction of Head Surface based on Cross Sectional Contours
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 18, issue 4, 1997, Pages 365~373
In this paper, a new method of the 3D(dimensional) image reconstruction is proposed to build up the 3D image from 2D images using digital image processing techniques and computer graphics. First, the new feature extraction algorithm that doesn't need various input parameters and is not affected by threshold is adopted This new algorithm extracts feature points by eliminating some undesirable points on the ground of the connectivity. Second, as the cast function to reconstruct surfaces using extracted feature points, the minimum distance measure between two plane images has been adopted According to this measure, the surface formation algorithm doesn't need complex calculation and takes the form of triangle or trapezoid To investigate usefulness, this approach has been applied to a head CT image and compared with other methods. Experimental comparisons show that the suggested algorithm yields better performance on feature extraction than others. In contrast with the other methods, the complex calculation for surface formation in the proposed algorithm is not necessary.
Intrabed Networks in a Patient Monitoring System
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 18, issue 4, 1997, Pages 373~380
In this paper, we describe the intrabed network in a patient monitoring system we developed The intrabed network handles data communication between the main unit of a bedside patient monitor and parameter modules plugged in it. We designed the intrabed network based on RS-485 and HDLC protocol with 1 Mbps data rate. Message exchanges are implemented based on three data structures of packet frame. and stream. We present the specification and the performance of the data communication network for the developed patient monitor.
Interbed Networks in la Patient Monitoring System
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 18, issue 4, 1997, Pages 381~388
In this paper, we present the design and implementation of the interbed network communication protocol, which links patient monitors, central stations, DB servers, and clinical workstations together in a patient monitoring system. We describe the requirements to be met thor real-time patient monitoring, propose 2 services Patient Locator Service(PL:7) and Remote Patient Monitoring Service( RPMS). PLS provides the information about how many patients are currently being monitored and where they are located, while RPMS allows the doctors to monitor their patients'vital sign in real-time. The messages for the services, their formats and exchange scheme are also presented with a whole picture of how they are implemented. We adopted the object-oriented programming paradigm in all the analysis and design processes. In the experiment performed in a real clinical setting, the services turned out to meet all the requirements needed for real-time patient monitoring.
A Study on the Adaptive Technique for Artifact Cancelling in Electroencephalogram Analysis System
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 18, issue 4, 1997, Pages 389~396
Several types of electrical artifact seen on electroencephalogram( EEG) records are described. Those are the EOG and the PVC roller pump noise, and so on. An adaptive digital filtering of the electroencephalogram( EEG) is a successful way of suppressing mains interference, but it affects some of the frequency components of the signal, whore artifacts may not be acceptable in some cafes of automatic EEG processing. Thus we studied the method for cancelling these artifacts. This proposed method does not use the reference channel, and is realized by connecting the linear predictor and the fixed FIR filter for the EOG artifact, and by cascading the linear predictor and the noise canceller for the pump artifact. The simulation results illustrate the performances of the proposed method in terms of the capability of interferences suppression. In the results we obtained about 20 dB noise reduction.
Signal Analysis and Visualization Environment with Visual Programming Capability
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 18, issue 4, 1997, Pages 397~407
In this paper, we present a signal analysis environment with visual programming capability, which is called Signal Analysis and Visualization Environment( SAVE). The system allows a user to perform visually programmed analysis of signals and visualize the results. The visualization facility enables the user to compare original signals with processed ones arid also to display signals overlaid synchronously with the events extracted from the signals. The SAVE system has an extensible architecture: each signal processing algorithm is implemented as a separate building block object module, which can be freely added or removed from the SAVE system without any code modification. We describe the overall structure of the SAVE system and the building block objects, which provide the extensibility in collaboration with together. We illustrate some test runs in order to five a taste of how to use and where to use the system.
In Vivo Doppler-Based Measurement of Bending Vibration Velocity in Liver Vibrated by Lo7v Frequency Signal
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 18, issue 4, 1997, Pages 407~412
In this paper, we present a new method to diagnose the characteristics of the soft tissue, especially a liver. In order to diagnose the characteristics of a liver, it is necessary to evaluate the propagation delay time and propagation velocity of bending vibration In a liver. For this purpose, we measure the propagation velocity of bending vibration in a liver for low frequency forced vibration using a standard ultrasonic Doppler diagnosis equipment. We have carried out preliminary experiments by using an ultrasonic probe of 3.5MHz and obtained some results. This new measurement method developed here can be applied to new research and medical fields for acoustic non-invasive diagnosis of soft tissue.
A Quantitative Analysis of Activation Pattern of Active Elbow Muscles
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 18, issue 4, 1997, Pages 413~420
In this paper, we analyzed the contraction patterns of active elbow muscles during isometric, concentric and eccentric contraction. The analysis parameters consist of frequency domain parameters (mean frequency, median frequency, peak frequency, peak power, skewness, kurtosis) and time domain paraseters (zero crossing, positive maxima, integrated EMG). The results of this study were as follows; The BR/BB of isometric contraction appeared to be Venter as the elbow joint was more extended. The BR /BB during concentric and eccentric contraction tended to increase with more extension of the elbow joint angle, but there was no significant difference between concentric and eccentric contraction. Further, the EMG power spectrum due to the type of contraction were different betwen eccentric and concentric contraction. According to the results, it was found that the activation pattern in elbow flexor muscles was different during three different muscle contraction pattern. Therefore, elbow flexor muscles should not be considered a single functioning unit. Especially, at the time domain analysis, IEMG is a dominant parameter for analysis of activation patterns, and the skewness kurtosis can be useful parameters in functional recognition for prosthesis control purpose.
Measurements of Auditory Evoked Neuromagnetic Fields using Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 18, issue 4, 1997, Pages 421~428
Magnetic field sensors made from superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) are the most sensitive low-frequency sensors available, enabling measurements of extremely weak magnetic fields from the brain. Neuromagnetic measurements allow superior spatial resolution, compared with the present electric measurements, and superior temporal resolution, compared with the fMRl and PET, providing useful informations for the functional diagnoses of the brain. We developed a 4-channel SQUID system for neuromagnetic applications. The main features of the system are its simple readout electronics and compact pickup coil structure. A magnetically shielded room has been constructed for the reduction of environmental magnetic noises. The developed SQUID system has noise level lower than the magnetic noise from the brain. Magnetic field signals of the spontaneous r-rhythm activity and auditory evoked magnetic fields have been measured.
In-Vitro Thrombosis Detection of Mechanical Valve using Artificial Neural Network
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 18, issue 4, 1997, Pages 429~438
Mechanical valve is one of the most widely used implantable artificial organs of which the reliability is so important that its failure means the death of patient. Therefore early noninvasive detection is essentially required, though mechanical valve failure with thrombosis is the most common. The objective of this paper is to detect the thrombosis formation by spectral analysis and neural network. Using microphone and amplifier, we measured the sound from the mechanical valve which is attached to the pneumatic ventricular assist device. The sound was sampled by A/D converter(DaqBook 100) and the periodogram is the main algorithm for obtaining spectrum. We made the thrombosis models using pellethane and silicon and they are thrombosis model on the valvular disk, around the sewing ring and fibrous tissue growth across the orifice of valve. The performance of the measurment system was tested firstly using 1 KHz sinusoidal wave. The measurement system detected well 1KHz spectrum as expected. The spectrum of normal and 5 kinds of thrombotic valve were obtained and primary and secondary peak appeared in each spectrum waveform. We find that the secondary peak changes according to the thrombosis model. So to distinguish the secondary peak of normal and thrombotic valve quantatively, 3 layer back propagation neural network, which contains 7, 000 input node, 20 hidden layer and 1 output was employed The trained neural network can distinguish normal and valve with more than 90% probability. As a conclusion, the noninvasive monitoring of implanted mechanical valve is possible by analysing the acoustical spectrum using neural network algorithm and this method will be applied to the performance evaluation of other implantable artificial organs.
Plantar Pressure Distribution Characteristics of Hallux Valgus
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 18, issue 4, 1997, Pages 439~446
We undertook this study to determine the plantar pressure distribution characteristics of hallux valgus, major increasing foot disease. Twenty three valgus Patients were evaluated with clinical examinations, radiologic studies and dynamic plantar pressure distribution measurements. The present study also suggested a masking method for detailed analyses on plantar pressure distribution measurements. With higher grade of hallux valgus, pressure, contact area, and impulse on metartasus are significantly increased Pressure concentration is very important in foot diseases and an approximate plantar pressure distribution should be considered on any shoe design.
The Control Method of Rehabilitation Assistance Mobile Robot Using Force-Reflection Joystick
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 18, issue 4, 1997, Pages 447~456
When the disabled is operating a rehabilitation assisting system with a joystick by himself, unlike in the case of a normal person, tremor with joystick control or instant miscontrol can often occur. If these misoperations should be directly relayed to the system, shaking or malfunction of the mobile rehabilitation assisting system might be the result. The safety of the disabled is of prime concern. To solve this problem, that is, to prevent the miscontrol of the disabled operator and avoid crashes into his or her surroundings, we propose the force-reflection locomotion algorithm with the joystick. This method uses ultrasonic sensors to measure the distance between the object and mobile robot. Based on the reception of sensory data, the necessary torque is applied via the joystick to the attatched motor. To confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method, the subjects on the reflected force by the dynamic characteristics of the joystick and the reflected force by the distance information are tested Even though there are some differences in human dexterity, we confirmed the fact that the information from the obstacles was relayed to the operator via the joystick and resulted in an improved operational performance and safety level with regard to those obstacles.
A Development of Telephone for the Hearing Impaired to Improve Listening Ability of Telephone Speech
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 18, issue 4, 1997, Pages 457~466
We developed a new hearing aid telephone which helps the hearing impaired person to improve the listening ability of telephone speech. Recently, the hearing impaired person and the elderly who has hearing loss have been continuously increased and their desire for participating society as a producer has been increased also. So they strong1y want the hearing aid devices which make compensation fortheir handicap. The hearing aid telephone is one of the basic aid devices that helps the hearing impaired to communicate well with other poeple and to acquire easily useful information through the phone. We analyze the hearing ability of the hearing impaired, design the new model of the hearing aid telephone and test the telephone in three fields-electrical, word perception, user test. Our new tolephone has lour band pass filter channels and the center frequencies of these filters are 500, 1000, 2000, 3000Hz which are considered psychoacoustic factors and telephone line characteristics. The hearing impaired can adjust the total gain characteristics of receiving sound to his hearing ability by setting four volumes in the telelphone. This procedure is called fitting which is a very important factor for the hearing impaired to take meaning of speech. The total gain of this telephone is over 20dB from 250Hz to 3200Hz range. From the results of the tests we certify that our new model is better for the hearing impaired to understand the meaning or telephone speech than the old general models. The next step of developing the hearing aid telephone is to study about compressing sidetone and noise, dividing frequency bands, selecting hearing aid pattern and compensating psychoacoustic loudness. we expect that the advanced hearing aid telephone can be developed by the research about speech perception characteristics of the hearing impaired in engineering and clinical side.
A High-performance Digital Hearing Aid Processor Based on a Programmable DSP Core
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 18, issue 4, 1997, Pages 467~476
This paper presents a designing of a digital hearing aid processor (DHAP) chip being operated by a dedicated DSP core. The DHAP for hearing aid devices must be feasible within a size and power consumption required. Furthermore, it should be able to compensate for wide range of hearing losses and allow sufficient flexibility for the algorithm development. In this paper, a programmable 16-bit fixed-point DSP core is employed thor the designing of the DHAP. The designed DHAP performs a nonlinear loudness correction of 8 frequency bands based on audiometric measurements of impaired subjects. By employing a programmable DSP, the DHAP provides all the flexibility needed to implement audiological algorithms. In addition, the chip has low-power feature and
dimensions that fit for wearable hearing aids.
Compensation of Arousal Level Criteria by a Modified KSS Scale
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 18, issue 4, 1997, Pages 477~484
In this paper, we proposed the compensation method to evaluate arousal level in different initial arousal states. Arousal level was measured by the relationship between IRI and Nz. Since Nz is affected by BI which is directly proportional to initial arousal state of subjects, the arousal level is underestimated To overcome this problem, we proposed the compensation method using modified Karolinska sleepiness scale, and determined compensation coefficients derived from this scale with five arousal levels. Applying these coefficients to portable arousal monitoring system, the proposed method in this paper could be useful for real-time evaluation and control of arousal level. As a result the developed system can detect and control the arousal state from initial drowsing sate.
Relationship Between Skin Impedance Signal, Reaction time, and Eye Blink Depending on Arousal Level
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 18, issue 4, 1997, Pages 485~491
This paper describes the relationship between skin impedance signal, behavioral signal, and subjective evaluation depending on arousal level. Nz and reaction time had similar trend with mKSS level, but eyeblink rate was different from these two parameters. eye-blink rate increased slowly from mKSS level 1 to 5, and had high increasing rate at mKSS 7. But it showed steep descent at mKSS level 9. Each subject showed different eye-blink rates, but changing rates of EBR was similar at eachm KSS level. Therefore it suggests that rising rate of EBR can be used arousal level criterion. From the result of reaction time test. human performance was decreased rapidly above the mKSS level 5, and false positive and false negative data was observed above the mKSS level 3. It is desirable to give a subject some stimuli such as sound or aroma to rise arousal level between mKSS level 3 and mKSS level 5.
Evaluation of Arousal Level to Prevent Drowsy Driving by Fuzzy Inference
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 18, issue 4, 1997, Pages 491~498
This paper describes the arousal measurement and control system using fuzzy logic to prevent drowsy driving. Sugeno's method was used for fuzzy inference in this study. Arousal evaluation and control criteria were modified from result of Nz-IRI analysis depending on arousal sate. Membership function and rule base of fuzzy inference were determined from the modified arousal level criteria When lRl (Inter-SIR Interval) was shorter than 60sec, outputs of both methods were changed from small to big, but output of three step warning method was same level until the next warning range. Since output of fuzzy inference tracked well the change of subject's arousal level, problems of three step warning method could be overcome by fuzzy inference method Furthermore, the output of the fuzzy inference was highly correlated with Nz(r = 0.99). Therefore, the fuzzy inference method for evaluation and the control of arousal will be more effective at real driving situation than three step warning method.
Measurement of Absorption and Scattering Coefficients of Biological Tissues by Time-Resolved Reflectance Method
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 18, issue 4, 1997, Pages 499~505
A non-invasive technique to measure absorption and scattering coefficients was investigated The reflected backscattered light from the surface of phantom and biological tissue was obtained by using a time-correlated single photon counting system in pico-second time domain. The absorption and scattering coefficients were acquired by the time of peak and asymptotic behavior of the time-resolved reflectance curve and agreed well the ones that is obtained with deconvolution method It was found that the approximation method was good for biological medium to calculate optical properties due to its convenience and accuracy.