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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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Journal DOI :
The Korea Society of Medical and Biological Engineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 6 - Dec 1998
Volume 19, Issue 5 - Oct 1998
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Aug 1998
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Jun 1998
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Apr 1998
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Feb 1998
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Computer-Aided Detection of Clustered Microcalcifications using Texture Analysis and Neural Network in Digitized X-ray Mammograms
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 1, 1998, Pages 1~8
Clustered microcalcifications on X-ray mammograms are an important sign for early detection of breast cancer. This paper proposes a computer-aided diagnosis method for the detection of clustered microcalcifications and marking their locations on digitized mammograms. The proposed detection method consists of the region of interest (ROI) selection, the film-artifact removal, the surrounding texture analysis method for the detection of clustered microcalcifications, which is based on the second-order histogram in two nested surrounding regions on the current pixel. This paper also describes the effectiveness of the proposed film-artifact removal filter in terms of the classification performance with the receiver operating-characteristics(ROC) analysis. A three-layer backpropagation neural network is employed as a classifier. The appropriate marking for the locations of clustered microcalcifications can be used to alert radiologists to locations of suspicious lesions.
Study on Velocity In-homogeneous Effect in fat and its Correction in Ultrasound Imaging System
Kim, Jae-Hyeon ; Bae, Mu-Ho ; Jeong, Mok-Geun ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 1, 1998, Pages 9~18
In this paper, we present the degradation of focusing induced by velocity inhomogeneity in human tissue. For simulation, the fatty layer which is the major factor of degradation for its lower velocity, is modeled as a uniform velocity perturbation layer. And we simulate the degradation of resolution resulting from change of beam path due to refraction and the time delay due to velocity difference. We show that focusing error can be compensated for considering the velocity inhomogeneity only. The proposed compensation method can be operated in real time in the presently used digital focusing systems.
Implementation of a Medical Information Transmission Protocol Based on Mobile Wireless Communication
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 1, 1998, Pages 19~24
The main goal of this paper is to propose and to test a radio protocol based CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) for the purpose of enhancing the existing medical information system. The feature of the new medical information system, Medical Application Radio System(MARS), which operating in real time is the transmission of medical information in bi-direction between the hospital control office and patients mobile stations. MARS monitors patients linked to the network by radio and provides quick alarm, flexible documentation capabilities, asnd fast treatment for the analysis of collected medical data. The existing medical information system, radio telemetry system which transfers the message of patients to the CAP(Central Access Point) unit in one way at the speed of 9.6Kbps and operates a channel frequency bandwidth. To verify the Performance of the proposed system, we have performed the numerical analysis and have implemented a test system which consists of the 2.4Ghz radio transceiver and personal computer.
Study on the Design Computing Model for SpO Extraction Algorithm on Pulse Oximetry
Kim, Yun-Yeong ; Kim, Do-Cheol ; Lee, Yun-Seon ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 1, 1998, Pages 25~32
This paper is based on the design and analysis computing model of oxygen saturation with the pulse oximeter using the integral ratio of pulsating components. In our proposed algorithm. we modeled the transmitted optical signal in fingertip or earlobe to DC component
, noise component
and etc.. To separate the pulsating components and DC components efficiently, we defined the signal average to DC components. Also we presented the way to eliminate the noise using integral ratio. To acquire a linearity of correlation graph for pulsating components ratios and non invasive oxygen saturation. we intensively observed on the oxygen saturations in the range of 75-100% in consideration of the error range of simulator. Also, for real time processing we experimented on changing the period of area calculating cycle from 1 to 6. The functional evaluation of the algorithm is compared with the method using the amplitude ratio of pulsating components frequently seen with pulse oximeter. The result was that our algorithm with 4 cycles of area calculating cycle which considered to be best fit by 1% to the existing method. Moreover r , the decision coefficient showing the correlation of regression graph with real data, proved better result of 0.985 than 0.970
A Study of in-vitro Performances of the Intracardiac Axial Flow Pump
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 1, 1998, Pages 33~38
The intracardiac axial flow pump has been developed This device has several advantages: it fits well anatomically, its blood-contacting surface is small, and it is implanted as easily as an artificial heart valve replacement. The axial flow pump consists of an impeller and a motor, both of which are encased in a housing. Two types of impeller with 4 vanes and 6 vanes are used. Sealing of the motor shaft is achieved by means of a ferrofluidic seal. A flow of 5
/min was obtained at a differential pressure of 100mmHg with a motor speed of 7091rpm with the 4-vane impeller and 6402rpm with the 6-vane impeller. Sealing was kept against a pressure of 150mmHg at 7000rpm with the 4-vane impeller and 6402rpm with the 6-vane impeller. Sealing was kept against a pressure of 150mmHg at 7000rpm over 24 hours. The index of hemolysis was 0.056 with the 4-vane impeller and 0.214 with the 6-vane impeller. The intracardiac axial flow pump is a very promising circulatory support.
Control Simulation of Left Ventricular Assist Device using Artificial Neural Network
Kim, Sang-Hyeon ; Jeong, Seong-Taek ; Kim, Hun-Mo ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 1, 1998, Pages 39~46
In this paper, we present a neural network identification and a control of highly complicated nonlinear left ventricular assist device(LVAD) system with a pneumatically driven mock circulation system. Generally, the LVAD system needs to compensate for nonlinearities. It is necessary to apply high performance control techniques. Fortunately, the neural network can be applied to control of a nonlinear dynamic system by learning capability. In this study, we identify the LVAD system with neural network identification(NNI). Once the NNI has learned the dynamic model of the LVAD system, the other network, called neural network controller(NNC), is designed for a control of the LVAD system. The ability and effectiveness of identifying and controlling the LVAD system using the proposed algorithm will be demonstrated by computer simulation.
In Vitro Motion Analysis of Supplementary Valve
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 1, 1998, Pages 47~52
To develop the supplementary heart valve which could reduce the complications of prosthetic heart valve, in vitro experiments were performed to analyze the movement of the supplement valves from the view point of the flow dynamics and leaflet dynamics. The autologous pericardium was attached to deficient portion of the porcine valve which was dissected completely and partially. The pericardium was treated by buffered glutaraldehyde solution in the preshaped mould to preserve the shape of the leaflet. The function of the valves were evaluated in the mock circulatory system and three sets of experiment were performed. The instantaneous motion of the leaflet was pictured by the 35mm camera and the pressure drop through the valve and cardiac output were measured. The supplementary valve which was replaced completely performed better thatn the valve replaced partially. In vitro experiments showed that the supplementary valve which was replaced completely performed better than the valve replaced partially. In vitro experiments showed that the supplementary valve could undertake the prosthetic heart valve in clinic.
Bone Mineral Density and Stress Distribution in Human Patella
Han, Seung-Moo ; Jared Davis ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 1, 1998, Pages 53~58
This study examined the distribution of bone mineral density(BMD) and the von Mises stress in the patella. The BMD of eighteen patellae were determined by using quantitative computed tomography and imaging analysis software. It was found that the BMD of the patella varied with location. BMD values were largest at the superior and lateral regions and decreased inferiorly and medially. This distribution appeared to correspond to the organization of trabeculae within the patella. A two-dimensional finite element analysis was performed on each patella. It was also found that the maximum von Mises stress in the patella occurred along the cortical shell on the non-articular surface. The trabecular von Mises stress existed in the posterior region of the patella. These findings demonstrated the potential for finite element studies in vivo. Further, such studies may lead to the development of custom-made, patient-specific patella prostheses.
Modeling of Sensorineural Hearing Loss for the Evaluation of Digital Hearing Aid Algorithms
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 1, 1998, Pages 59~68
Digital hearing aids offer many advantages over conventional analog hearing aids. With the advent of high speed digital signal processing chips, new digital techniques have been introduced to digital hearing aids. In addition, the evaluation of new ideas in hearing aids is necessarily accompanied by intensive subject-based clinical tests which requires much time and cost. In this paper, we present an objective method to evaluate and predict the performance of hearing aid systems without the help of such subject-based tests. In the hearing impairment simulation(HIS) algorithm, a sensorineural hearing impairment medel is established from auditory test data of the impaired subject being simulated. Also, the nonlinear behavior of the loudness recruitment is defined using hearing loss functions generated from the measurements. To transform the natural input sound into the impaired one, a frequency sampling filter is designed. The filter is continuously refreshed with the level-dependent frequency response function provided by the impairment model. To assess the performance, the HIS algorithm was implemented in real-time using a floating-point DSP. Signals processed with the real-time system were presented to normal subjects and their auditory data modified by the system was measured. The sensorineural hearing impairment was simulated and tested. The threshold of hearing and the speech discrimination tests exhibited the efficiency of the system in its use for the hearing impairment simulation. Using the HIS system we evaluated three typical hearing aid algorithms.
FES Exercise Program for Independent Paraplegic Walking
Gang, Seon-Hwa ; Gang, Gon ; Kim, Jong-Mun ; Jeong, Sun-Yeol ; Jeong, Jin-Sang ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 1, 1998, Pages 69~80
This research was designed to investigate how the exercise program affects paraplegic standing and walking employing functional electrical stimulation(FES). Emphasis was also given to fatigue of major lower extremity muscles induced by different types of electrical stimulation. We applied continuous and intermittent rectangular pulse trains to quadriceps of 10 normal subjects and 4 complete paraplegic patients. The frequencies were 20Hz and 80Hz, and the knee angle was fixed at 90
to investigate how muscle fatigue is related to muscle length. The knee extensor torque was measured and monitored. We have been training quadriceps and gastrocnemius of a male paraplegic patient by means of electrical stimulation for the past two year. FES standing was initiated when the knee extensors became strong enough to support the body weight, and then the patient started FES walking utilizing parallel bars and a walker. We used an 8-channel constant-voltage stimulator and surface electrodes. The experimental results indicated that paralyzed muscles fatigued rapidly around the optimal length contrary to normal muscles and confirmed that low frequency and intermittent stimulation delayed fatigue. Our exercise program increased muscle force by approximately 10 folds and decreased the fatigue index to half of the initial value. In addition, the exercise enabled the patient to voluntarily lift each leg up to 10cm, which was of great help to the swing phase of FES walking. Both muscle force and resistance to fatigue were significantly enhanced right after the exercise was applied every day instead of 6 days a week. Up to date, the patient can walk for more than two and half minutes at 10m/min while controlling the on/off time of the stimulator by pushing the toggle switch attached to the walker handle.
A Study on the Reflection of Rabbit Nervous Tissue After Electromagnetic Irradiation and the Effect of Nimodipine Injection
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 1, 1998, Pages 81~90
Electromagnetic waves may induce various effects on nervous tissues either by thermal or non-thermal mechanisms. This paper intoduces a method to evalute the non-thermal effect to central nervous system by measuring the EEGs of the rabbits treated by nimodipine before exposed to weak microwave field. 20 rabbits were divided into 2 groups and their EEGs were measured after their head section were exposed to 2,450 MHz microwave with the power density of 10 dBm and 20 dBm respectively for 10 minutes and compared with those of the 3rd group of 10 rabbits which were not exposed. The 4th group of 10 rabbits were intravenously given with nimodipine before exposed to 20 dBm field to determine whether this drug would reverse the EEGs changes induced by weak microwave irradiation. As field poser exceeded 20 dBm although no significant physiological changes were observed, total induced EEGs power was remarkably decreased suggesting the presence of CNS activation. Using Fourier analysis on the EEGs signal it was found that remarkable decrease in delta band and increase in the alpha and beta bands in a significant manner(P<0.05) compared to control group. The changes were, however, not reversed by nimodipine-treatment. The effects may be pure thermal in nature because no significant change has been observed in nimodipine treated rabbits.
A New Fast Spin Echo MR Imaging Technique for the Simultaneous Dual Echo Image Acquisition
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 1, 1998, Pages 91~100
In magnetic resonance imaging, the fast spin echo imaging technique is a widely used clinical imaging method. since its scanning time is much shorter than the conventional spin echo imaging and it gives the almost same image quality. However, the fast spin echo technique has two times longer imaging time for the dual echo acquisition which can obtain a spin density image and a T-give the same qulity images at the single echo imaging time. T he proposed technique reduces the imaging time by overlapping most of were obtained at the 0.3T permanent MRI system are presented.