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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korea Society of Medical and Biological Engineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 6 - Dec 1998
Volume 19, Issue 5 - Oct 1998
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Aug 1998
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Jun 1998
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Apr 1998
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Feb 1998
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Microstructural Aspects of Crack Propagation in All-Ceramic Materials
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 5, 1998, Pages 433~441
This study was performed to evaluate the effects of surface flaw on the fracture of all-ceramic materials. A feldspathic porce lain of VMK68, a cashable ceramic of IPS-Empress, and an alumina-glass composite of In-Ceram were used. Specimens were prepared as 12
1mm in dimensions, and a Vickers-produced indentation crack was made at the center of the tensile surface. Test specimens were immersed in dlstilled water and In oil, which were broken under a crosshead speed of 0.05 mm/min by 3-point bend test at 37
. The characteristic patterns of Vickers indentation and fracture surfaces were examined by an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope. The fracture surfaces of the VMK68 and the IPS-Empress showed a median crack pattern at the fracture origin and indicated a tendency to cleavage hackle. The fracture surface of the alumina-glass composite, In-Ceram, showed a Palmqvist crack pattern at the fracture origin and indicated a tendency of toughening by the frictional Interlocking between the microstructurally rough fracture surfaces.
Micropatterning of Peptides to Solid Surface by Deep-UV Lithography using N-hydroxysuccinimidyl phenol azide
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 5, 1998, Pages 441~448
Defined spatial localization of biomolecules on the polymer surface Is potentially powerful method to generate biocompatible surface. Photolithography and photochemistry can be used to immobilize peptides only al a given region of the surface. In this study, peptide RGDS, one of the endothelial cells recognition sites of fibronectin, was covalently immobilized on the polystyrene coated surface with micropattern. It was performed by photochemical reactivity of a synthesized N-hydroxysuccinimidyl phenyl azide. The micropatterning was confirmed by staining with fluorescent dye, aminoacetamido fluorescein. Endothelial cell adhesion was observed only on the RGDS immobilized areas.
Preparation of Biodegradable Porous Calcium Metaphosphate Matrix
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 5, 1998, Pages 449~454
It is well known that new tissue or blood vessel is grown into a porous calcium phosphate ceramics used as a bone graft substitute due to their excellent biocompatibility. In this study, the most chemically stable porous
-crystalline form in various forms of calcium metaphosphate, Ca(PO
is prepared by the controlled thermolysis of monocalcium phosphate, Ca(H
.The diameter of cylindrical pores formed during cooling was controlled by a holding time at the melting point of a monocalcium phosphate and by the change of a crystallization temperature, to obtain the most appropriate size (about 200
m) of pores for the application of bone substitutes and matricuts. It was observed that the increasing holding time at the melting point of monocalcium phosphate results in the decreases of cylindrical pore sizes.
Automatic Interpretation of Epileptogenic Zones in F-18-FDG Brain PET using Artificial Neural Network
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 5, 1998, Pages 455~468
For the objective interpretation of cerebral metabolic patterns in epilepsy patients, we developed computer-aided classifier using artificial neural network. We studied interictal brain FDG PET scans of 257 epilepsy patients who were diagnosed as normal(n=64), L TLE (n=112), or R TLE (n=81) by visual interpretation. Automatically segmented volume of interest (VOI) was used to reliably extract the features representing patterns of cerebral metabolism. All images were spatially normalized to MNI standard PET template and smoothed with 16mm FWHM Gaussian kernel using SPM96. Mean count in cerebral region was normalized. The VOls for 34 cerebral regions were previously defined on the standard template and 17 different counts of mirrored regions to hemispheric midline were extracted from spatially normalized images. A three-layer feed-forward error back-propagation neural network classifier with 7 input nodes and 3 output nodes was used. The network was trained to interpret metabolic patterns and produce identical diagnoses with those of expert viewers. The performance of the neural network was optimized by testing with 5~40 nodes in hidden layer. Randomly selected 40 images from each group were used to train the network and the remainders were used to test the learned network. The optimized neural network gave a maximum agreement rate of 80.3% with expert viewers. It used 20 hidden nodes and was trained for 1508 epochs. Also, neural network gave agreement rates of 75~80% with 10 or 30 nodes in hidden layer. We conclude that artificial neural network performed as well as human experts and could be potentially useful as clinical decision support tool for the localization of epileptogenic zones.
Improvement of Endoscopic Image using De-Interlacing Technique
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 5, 1998, Pages 469~476
In the case of acquisition and displaying medical Images such as ultrasonography and endoscopy on VGA monitor of PC system, image degradation of tear-drop appears through scan conversion. In this study, we compare several methods which can solve this degradation and implement the hardware system that resolves this problem in real-time with PC. It is possible to represent high quality image display and real-time processing and acquisition with specific de-interlacing device and PCI bridge on our hardware system. Image quality is improved remarkably on our hardware system. It is implemented as PC-based system, so acquiring, saving images and describing text comment on those images and PACS networking can be easily implemented.metabolism. All images were spatially normalized to MNI standard PET template and smoothed with 16mm FWHM Gaussian kernel using SPM96. Mean count in cerebral region was normalized. The VOls for 34 cerebral regions were previously defined on the standard template and 17 different counts of mirrored regions to hemispheric midline were extracted from spatially normalized images. A three-layer feed-forward error back-propagation neural network classifier with 7 input nodes and 3 output nodes was used. The network was trained to interpret metabolic patterns and produce identical diagnoses with those of expert viewers. The performance of the neural network was optimized by testing with 5~40 nodes in hidden layer. Randomly selected 40 images from each group were used to train the network and the remainders were used to test the learned network. The optimized neural network gave a maximum agreement rate of 80.3% with expert viewers. It used 20 hidden nodes and was trained for 1508 epochs. Also, neural network gave agreement rates of 75~80% with 10 or 30 nodes in hidden layer. We conclude that artificial neural network performed as well as human experts and could be potentially useful as clinical decision support tool for the localization of epileptogenic zones.
A Study on the Development of Urine Analysis System using Strip and Evaluation of Experimental Result by means of Fuzzy Inference
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 5, 1998, Pages 477~486
In this paper, we implemented the urine analysis system capable of measuring a qualitative and semi-quantitative and assay using strip. The analysis algorithm of urine analysis was adopted a fuzzy logic-based classifiers that was robust to external error factors such as temperature and electric power noises. The spectroscopic properties of 9 pads In a strip were studied to developing the urine analysis system was designed for robustnesss and stability. The urine analysis system was consisted of hardware and software. The hardware of the urine analysis system was based on one-chip microprocessor, and Its peripherals which composed of optic modulo, tray control, preamplifier, communication with PC, thermal printer and operating status indicator. The software of the urine analysis system was composed of system program and classification program. The system program did duty fort system control, data acquisition and data analysis. The classification program was composed of fuzzy inference engine and membership function generator. The membership function generator made triangular membership functions by statical method for quality control. Resulted data was transferred through serial cable to PC. The transferred data was arranged and saved be data acquisition program coded by C+ + language. The precision of urine analysis system and the stability of fuzzy classifier were evaluated by testing the standard urine samples. Experimental results showed a good stability states and a exact classification.
Proposal of Magnetic Coupling Type Implantable Middle Ear Hearing Aid
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 5, 1998, Pages 487~495
In this paper, a new type of implantable middle ear hearing aid, which consists of external loop coil, a small magnet and a simple external device, is proposed. The internal device of proposed type consists of only a small magnet and the external device does not need to be positioned behind the ear or in the ear canal. The proposed type is excellent in cosmetic sides and very convenient to use, because the external device can be hidden in upper garment and collar of clothes. Also, purposely this type doesn't need to be small on the size of battery, which means it has longer battery life. Therefore, the battery is not necessary to be charged frequently. It also can solve the difficulty of gap calibration at surgical operation which conventional Implantable middle. Therefore, the battery is not necessary to be charged frequently. It also can solve the difficulty of gap calibration at surgical operation which conventional implantable middle ear hearing aid has. We investigate the performance of proposed implantable middle ear bearing aid and we analyze that proposed type is appropriate for mild and severe hearing impaired person and the result of experiment showed the accuracy of our analysis. For the validation of our analysis we used the temporal bone at the experiment and confirm that ossicles can be vibrated when the proposed system In startled in the body.
A Study on the Mathematical Modeling of Human Pharyngeal Tissue Viscoelasticity
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 5, 1998, Pages 495~502
A mathematical model of viscoelasticity on the material property of human pharyngeal tissue utilizing Y.C. Fung's Quasi-linear viscoelastic theory is proposed based on cyclic load, stress relaxation, incremental load, and uniaxial tensile load tests. The material properties are characterized and compared with other biological materials' results. The mathematical model is proposed by combining two characteristic functions determined from the stress relaxation and uniaxial tensile load tests. The reduced stress relaxation function G(t) and elastic response function S(t) are obtained from stress relaxation test and uniaxial tensile load test results respectively. Then the model describing stress-time history of the tissue is implemented utilizing two functions. The proposed model is evaluated and validated by comparing the model's cyclic behaviour with experimental results. The model data could be utilized as an important information for constructing 3-dimensional biomechanical model of human pharynx using FEM(Finite Element Method).
A Numerical Study on the Response of the Tibial Component in Total Knee Arthroplasty to Longitudinal Impact
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 5, 1998, Pages 503~511
In this study, the stress distribution for different tibial components was observed In order to Investigate the load transfer and potential failure mechanism of the tibial components subjected to dynamic impact loading and also to evacuate the effect of bone-implant bonding conditions on the implant system. The 3-dimensional finite element models included an intact tibia, cemented metal-backed tibial component, uncemented metal-blocked tibial component, cemented all-polyethylene tibial component, and metal-backed component with a debonded bone/stem interface. The results showed that the cemented metal-hocked component Induced slightly higher peak stress at stem tip than the uncemented component. The peak stress of the all-polyethylene tibia1 component at stem trip showed about half thats of metal-backed tibial components. The all-polyethylene component showed a similar dynamic response to intact tibia. In case of debonded bone/stem interface, the peak stress below the metal tray was three times Higher than that of the fully bonded interface and unstable stress distribution at the stem tip was observed with time, which causes another adverse bone apposition and implant loosening. Thus, the all-polyethylene tibial component bonded fully to the surrounding bone might be most desirable system under an impact loading.
Dispersion of Particle Pulse in Human Lung Airway
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 5, 1998, Pages 511~518
In order to develop the aerosol bolus technique which is thought to be a potential tool for probing geometries or abnormalities of small airways, an experimental system of measuring fast time variations of particle concentration in the inhaled and exhaled breathing air was developed. The system generates monodisperse sebacic acrid particles of 1 micron size and 1.2 of geometric standard deviation in high concentration of
particles/cc, delivers a short pulse of particles at the controlled instant during inhalation using a solenoid valve, and measures the fast change of particle concentration in using the laser light scattering. Successful operation of the generator and the measuring system was confirmed by smooth concentration profiles in inhalation. It was also confirmed that maintaining a constant breathing rate is essential to stable outputs and any disturbance in flow rate near the mode (maximum concentration) induces a large number of spurious peaks in the exhalation. Experimental data without strict control of breathing flow rate showed a substantial amount of scatter. The measured results showed an improvement in scatter over the existing results. When compared with theoretical predictions from 1-D convective diffusion equation and other experiments, general characteristics of dispersion for several penetration depths showed a good agreement, but there exists some difference in absolute values, which is attributed to the difference in body conditions. Improvements are needed in the theory, especially in relation to correcting for the effect of breathing flow rate.
A Basic Study on the Design of the Flexible Keel in the Energy-Storage Prosthetic Foot for the Improvement of the Walking Performance of the Below Knee Amputees
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 5, 1998, Pages 519~530
In this paper, the basic study on the design of the flexible keel of the energy-storage prosthetic foot was performed in order to Improve the walking performance and Increase the activities of the below knee amputees. Based on the analysis of the anthropometric data and the normal gait on two dimensional sagittal plane available In the literature, we presented a model of the basic structure of the flexible keel of the prosthetic foot. The model of the basic structure was composed of the simple beams, and linear rotational spring and damper. Laminated carbon fiber-reinforced composites were selected as the material of the basic structure model of the flexible keel In order to apply the high strength and light weight materials to the basic structure of the flexible keel of the prosthetic foot. The recoverable strain energy In response to the change of beam shape was calculated bur the finite element analysis and it was suggested that the change of beam shape could be the design variable in flexible keel design. The simulation process was systematically designed by using orthogonal array table in order to design the flexible keel structure which could store the more recoverable strain energy. finite element analysis was carried but according to the design of simulations by using the finite element program ABAQUS and the flexible keel structure of the energy-storage prosthetic foot was obtained from the analysis of variance(ANOVA). The dynamic simulation model of the prosthetic walking using the flexible keel structure was made and the dynamic analysis was carried but during one walk cycle. Based on the above results, an effective design process was presented for the development of the prosthetic fool system.
Method of Display and Processing of Binocular Stereoscopic Image for 3D Endoscopy
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 5, 1998, Pages 531~538
This paper represents the design of 3D endoscopic image processing system in order to Improve visualization and enhance the ability of the surgeon to perform delicate endoscopic surgery. The proposed 3D systems have four features of stereo endoscopic image processing The multiplexer give field seauential stereo for recording and for aligning cameras and viewing stereo with 3D monitor. Demultiplexing of the field sequential image which separates out the R and L images for dual TFT-LCD 3D monitor viewed with passive polarized glasses. separable processing of the left and right eye images, and design of TFT-LCD 3D monitor. The viewing angle, zone, and image quality of the Polarization-type Stereoscopic Display (SM500TFT-3D) system which we have developed using 15 Samsung TFT-1.CD with a screen resolution of 1024×768 pixels were measured and compared with those of Electric Shutter-type Stereoscopic Display system. The result of experiments shows that the Polarization-type Stereoscopic Display System using TFT-LCD has a wade viewing angle and zone which Is necessary fort multi-view and it has better image quality and stability of the optical performances than the Electric Shutter-type does.
A Study on Visual and Auditory Emotion under Color and Music Stimuli
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 5, 1998, Pages 539~546
The purpose of this study is to estimate human emotion quantitatively under colors and music stimuli and to examine the for correlation between color and music sensibility. Physiological signals(electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram, Galvanic skin conductivity and respiration rate) were measured to compare color with music sensibilities. The personality of the subject were investigated using factor analysis and semantic differential method of 20 items(7 interval scaled). The results showed that red, yellow and violets color provoked active and exciting senses mainly as dance, rock and blues music. While blue, cyan and pink colors ware involved in tranquil and resting emotions deeply as classic and ballade music.