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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korea Society of Medical and Biological Engineering
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 6 - Dec 1999
Volume 20, Issue 5 - Oct 1999
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Aug 1999
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Jun 1999
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Apr 1999
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Feb 1999
Selecting the target year
Recent Development Trend and Future of Biosignal Processing
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 20, issue 2, 1999, Pages 119~138
3-Dimensional Dental Surgery System based on PC using anatomical landmarks
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 20, issue 2, 1999, Pages 139~148
In this paper, we designed the dental surgery system based on PC. This system predict post operated 3-dimensional image, So the patient has no need to take CT after surgery and expose his body to radiological damage. We predict the post operated skull from the patient's CT with pre and post cephalometry X-ray. Our novel procedures, to register X-ray and CT, are based on anatomical landmarks, singular value decomposition. And we display the predicted image 3-dimensionally by surface rendering. We verified this system by dry skull experiment and clinical experiment. When significance level is 0.05, there is on significance.
Segmentation of MR Brain Image and Automatic Lesion Detection using Symmetry
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 20, issue 2, 1999, Pages 149~154
In anatomical aspects, magnetic resonance image offers more accurate information than other medical images such as X ray, ultrasonic and CT images. This paper introduces a method that segments and detects lesion for 2 dimensional axial MR brain images automatically. Image segmentation process consists of 2 stages. First stage extracts cerebrum region using thresholding and morphology. In the second stage, white matter, gray matter and cerebrospinal fluid in the cerebrum are extracted using FCM, We could improve processing time as removing uninterested region. Finally symmetry measure and anatomical Knowledge are used to detect lesion.
A Study on 3d Reconstruction and Simulated Implantation of Human Femur Using Consecutive CT-Images
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 20, issue 2, 1999, Pages 155~164
In this paper, the prototype of SIS(Simulated Implantation System) for human femoral head is introduced. SIS is a software which carries on a virtual femoral head replacement surgery including 3d visualization as well as various numeric analyses between a patient's femur and artificial femur through certain stages of the image processing and of the computer graphics. Also, processes required after acquiring consecutive CT-images and projected image of an artificial femur are discussed, and the corresponding results including prototype of SIS are given.
Phase Dependent Image Contrast Enhancement in MRI
Y.M Ro ; C. W. Mun ; I. K. Hong ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 20, issue 2, 1999, Pages 165~172
An enhancement technique for phase dependent image contrast in MRI(Manetic Resonance Imaging) is proposed. Because the method can enhance inherent phase contrast it is suited for susceptibility imaging and flow imaging where intravoxel phase is a source of image contrast. In this paper, applying external phase in the voxel enhances phase contrast. The external phase is generated by a tailored RF pulse so that one can control the phase contrast and even produces phase only contrast. Signal intensity due to both inherent phase and external phase is analyzed and the proposed technique is applied to a susceptibility effect only imaging and a flow effect only imaging. To verify the proposed technique, computer simulations are performed and their results are given.
Simulation of lesion-to-liver contrast difference curves in Dynamic Hepatic CT with Pharmacokinetic Compartment Modeling
S.J. Kim ; K.H. Lee ; J.H. Kim ; J.K. Han ; B.G. Min ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 20, issue 2, 1999, Pages 173~182
Contrast-enhanced CT has an important role in assessing liver lesions, the optimal protocol to get most effective result is not clear. The mein goal when deciding injention protocol is to optimize lesion detectability with rapid scanning when lesion to liver contrast is maximum. For this purpose, we developed a physiological model of the contrast medium enhancement based on the compartment modeling and pharmacokinetics. Blood supply to liver is achieved in two paths. This dual supply characteristic distinguishes the CT enhancement of liver from that of the other organs. The first path is by hepatic artery and to second, by portal vein. However, it is assumed that only gepatic artery can supply blood to hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) compartment, thus, the difference of contrast enhancement is resulted between normal liver tissue and hepatic tumor. By solving differential equations for each compartment simultaneously using the computer program Matlab, CT contrast-enhancement curves were simulated. The simulated enhancement curves for aortic, hepatic, portal vein, and HCC compartments were compared with the mean enhancement curves from 24 patients exposed to the same protocols as the simulation. These enhancement curves showed a good agreement. Furthermore, we simulated lesion-to-liver curves for various injection protocols, and the effects were analyzed. The variables to be considered in the injection protocol were injection rate, dose, and concentration of contrast material. These data may help to optimize scanning protocols for better diagnosis.
Development of Closed-loop Control Type FES System for Restoration of Gait in Patients with Foot Drop
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 20, issue 2, 1999, Pages 183~190
The purpose of this study was to develop a portable and convenient closed-loop contrel type electrical stimulator for patients with foot drop. This system restores walking movement as well as prevents from atrophy or necrosis of lower limb muscles and increases blood circulation in hemiplegic patients caused by traffic accident, industrial disaster or stoke. This system detects the changes of the ankle joint angle during walking, and then controls the stimulus intensity automatically to maintain the programmed level of the ankle joint angle. Also, this automatic system controls the stimulus intensity which is affected by increased electrode impedance resulting from long time use. The system detects the joint angle by an optical sensor and includes modified PID control which adjusts the stimulus intensity if the joint angle deviates from the preset value. Stimulus parameters are 30~80 volt, 40 Hz, and 0.2 ms. The system was applied to five hemiplegic patients for 42 days. Duration of stimulation was 15 min/day for the first week and then the duration was gradually increased to 30, 60, 90 and 120 min/day. The muscle force was increased up to 29.7%, muscle fatigue was decreased compared with the level before stimulation and the pattern of locomotion was improved. These results suggest that the electrical stimulator with closed-loop control type is more convenient and effective in restoration of locomotion of patients with foot drop than open-loop system.
Estimation of Tension Status for Alcohol Dependent Patients using Biofeedback Training and Fuzzy Theory
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 20, issue 2, 1999, Pages 191~198
Biofeedback training is one of physiological self control methods for patients who has psychological problem and rehabilitational problem. It has been used to control blood pressure, heart rate, peripheral temperature, respiration, electromyography (ENG), and other biological signals-ENG, respiration, heat rate, peripheral temperature, skin conductance level-was developed in house. We applied this system to alcohol dependent patients to perform biofeedback training. In this experiment, the relaxation biofeedback training for alcohol dependent patient was carried out and the tension state for the change of biological signals were estimated using the fuzzy theory after relaxation biofeenback training. Eight alcohol dependent patients were agreed to participate in this experiment. Result showed that 1) the tension degree of patients were higher than the tension degree of normal subject. 2) The tension degree of patients were decreased as the training numbers were increased.
Measuring the Light Dosimetry Within Biological Tissue Using Monte Carlo Simulation
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 20, issue 2, 1999, Pages 199~204
As the correct measuring of the light dosimetry in biological tissues give the important affection to the effect of PDT treatment we used Monte Carlo simulation to measure the light dosimetry on this study. The parameters using in experiments are the optical properties of the real biological tissue, and we used Henyey-Greenstein phase function among the phase functions. As we results, we displayed the result the change of Fluence rate and the difference against the previous theory was at least 0.35%. Biological tissues using in experiment were Human tissue, pig tissue, rat liver tissue and rabbit muscle tissue. The most of biological tissue have big scattering coefficient in visible wavelength which influences penetration depth. The penetration depth of human tissue in visible region is 1.5~2cm. We showed that it is possible to measure fluence rate and penetration depth within the biological tissues by Monte Carlo simulation very well.
Development of a High-Performance Bipolar EEG Amplifier for CSA System
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 20, issue 2, 1999, Pages 205~212
When we want to observe and record a patient's EEG in an operating room, the operation of electrosurgical unit(ESU) causes undesirable artifacts with high frequency and high voltage. These artifacts make the amplifiers of the conventional EEG system saturated and prevent the system from measuring the EEG signal. This paper describes a high-performance bipolar EEG amplifier for a CSA (compressed spectral array ) system with reduced ESU artifacts. The designed EEG amplifier uses a balanced filter to reduce the ESU artifacts, and isolates the power supply and the signal source of the preamplifier from the ground to cut off the current from the ESU to the amplifier ground. To cancel the common mode noise in high frequency, a high CMRR(common mode rejection ratio) diffferential amplifier is used. Since the developed bipolar EEG amplifier shows high gain, low noise, high CMRR, high input impedance, and low thermal drift, it is possible to observe and record more clean EEG signals in spite of ESU operation. Therefore the amplifier may be applicable to a high-fidelity CSA system.
A Study on Measurements of Optical Absorption Coefficients of Biological tissue
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 20, issue 2, 1999, Pages 213~220
In this study, we measured the absorption coefficient of the tissues of mouse (brain, heart, liver, muscle and tumor) and human brain (normal and tumor) in the wavelength between 500nm~900nm. The optical coefficient is a representative of the characteristics of the materials. So, we can characterize the biological tissue with the optical coefficients. Using the spectrograph monometer and PDA(Photo Diode Array), we experimented with quick-frozen sectioned specimens. Because the optical coefficient is concerned with the conformation and biochemical component of the biological tissue, we experimented as the wavelength between 500nm~900nm on the normal and tumor samples of the animal and human. For the mouse, there are distinctive differences of the absorption coefficients between normal tissues and tumor. The absorption coefficient of the normal tissue varies 0.1~0.2cm
with wavelength. But, the absorption coefficient of the brain tumor is changed round about 0.4~0.5cm
as the wavelength. The absorption coefficients we measured can be a useful implement to detect diseases.
Development of U-shaped Arterialvenous Shunt Using Porous Polyurethane
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 20, issue 2, 1999, Pages 221~230
A new technique for the preparation of porous polyurethane vascular prostheses was investigated. Synthetic vascular grafts with porous wall have been widely proposed, claiming that strength, suture retention, kink resistance, and other handling properties are improved over those with nonporous solid wall. Related to these facts, the control of pores and compliance match have been very important and interesting issues. Two kinds of polymer sheets were compared. One was the porous PU-sheet made at room temerature by the solvent/non-solvent exchange. And the other was the porous PU-sheet fabricated by thermal phase transition and solvent/non-solvent exchange in the thermal controlled bath. According to the result of the above experiments, polyurethane solution was injected into a mold designed for U-type graft. After freezing at low temperature, solvent was dissolved out with alcohol at <
and water at room temperature to form porous vessels. The average pore size and pore occupation were easily changed by changing polyurethane concentration and freezing rate. This technique can give a proper pore size for tissue ingrowth, and suitable compliances for matching with arteries and veins. In addition, the fabrication of more complicated shaped vessels such as the U-type vascular grafts is easily controlled by using a mold. This method might give a desired compliact graft for artificial implantaion with the commercially available medical polymers.
Thermomechanical Effect on the Water Wet Dental Hard Tissue by the Q-switched Er : YAG Laser
Y. H. Kwon ; Ky0-han Kim ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 20, issue 2, 1999, Pages 231~236
Understanding the exgenous water induced thermomechanical effect on the dental hard tissue by the Q-switched Er:YAG laser (1-
-long pulse width) has an important impact on the further understanding of the free-running Er:YAG laser (250-
-long pulse width) ablation on the dental gard tissue because one macroscopic effect in the free-running laser is an accumulation of microscopic effects we investigated in this study. The Q-switched Er:YAG laser with exogenous water on the tooth enhanced ablation rate compared to the case of no water on the tooth. The frequency of exogenous-water jet on the tooth has affected the ablation rate in such a way that as we dispensed water drops less frequently we could get more enhanced ablation rate. The amplitude of the recoil pressure depends on the tooth surface conditions such that as surfaces wet, and as the volume of the exogenous water drop increased, the amplitude of the recoil pressure increased also. From this study we realized that the 1
long pulsed induced thermomechanical effect provides us useful information for the understanding of the free-running Er:YAG laser induced ablation with exogenous water.