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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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Journal DOI :
The Korea Society of Medical and Biological Engineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 6 - Dec 2000
Volume 21, Issue 5 - Oct 2000
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Aug 2000
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Jun 2000
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Jun 2000
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Apr 2000
Volume 21, Issue 1 - 00 2000
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Segmentation of Multispectral MRI Using Fuzzy Clustering
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 21, issue 4, 2000, Pages 333~338
In this paper, an automated segmentation algorithm is proposed for MR brain images using T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and PD images complementarily. The proposed segmentation algorithm is composed of 3 step. In the first step, cerebrum images are extracted by putting a cerebrum mask upon the three input images. In the second step, outstanding clusters that represent inner tissues of the cerebrum are chosen among 3-dimensional(3D) clusters. 3D clusters are determined by intersecting densely distributed parts of 2D histogram in the 3D space formed with three optimal scale images. Optimal scale image is made up of applying scale space filtering to each 2D histogram and searching graph structure. Optimal scale image best describes the shape of densely distributed parts of pixels in 2D histogram and searching graph structure. Optimal scale image best describes the shape of densely distributed parts of pixels in 2D histogram. In the final step, cerebrum images are segmented using FCM algorithm with its initial centroid value as the outstanding clusters centroid value. The proposed cluster's centroid accurately. And also can get better segmentation results from the proposed segmentation algorithm with multi spectral analysis than the method of single spectral analysis.
A Study on the Analysis of Ciliary Beat Frequency in Human Respiratory Tract n Vivo
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 21, issue 4, 2000, Pages 339~344
The mucociliary system is one of the most important airway defense mechanisms in human body and impairment of ciliary movement results in various diseases in respiratory tract. In this study, we have developed a system that can measure ciliary movement in vivo and quantified ciliary beat frequency (CBF) through autoregressive (AR) power spectrum. To measure the frequency in vivo, we applied a photoelectric method that was composed of a laser light and a fiber optic probe. Scattered signals are transferred to a PC in which they are displayed on the monitor and its CBF is determined by the AR method in were acquired. For 8 normal subjects, the analyzed CBFs ranged from 5 to 10Hz and its mean was 7.3
1.1Hz. This result showed similar aspects to the reported results of CBFs to data. We expect that this result will be applied in various clinical studies such as analysis of CBF changes by drugs or by diseaes.
Radiotelemetry for ECG and Event Signals Using FDM
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 21, issue 4, 2000, Pages 345~351
This study is to dvelop a radiotelemetry system to transmit and receive ECG (electrocardiograph) and event signals by using the frequency division multiplexing(FDM) technique. ECG signal sensed by the electrodes is amplified and added to the event signals acting in different frequency range for lead-off, nurse call and low level battery by using FDM. The sub-carrier oscillator using Colpitts circuits and main carrier frequency which is multiplied is frequency modulated by this superhetrodyne technique, and demodulated from the compose IF signal through the quadrature demodulator. A pulse counter demodulator and filtering circuits extract the original ECG and event signals.
A Study on Hemolysis Characteristics of Intra-Cardiac Axial Flow Blood Pump
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 21, issue 4, 2000, Pages 353~362
Minimization of hemolysis is one of the key factors for successful axial flow blood pumps. It is, however, difficult to estimate the hemolytic performance of axial flow blood pumps without experiments. Instead, the Computational Fluid Dynamics(CFD) analysis enables the prediction of hemolysis. Three-dimensional fluid dynamics of axial flow pumps with different impellers were analyzed using the CFD software, FLOTRAN. The turbulence model k-
was used. The changes in turbulent kinetic energy applied to each particle (red blood cell) flowing through the pumps were computed and displayed by the particle trace method (particle spacing of 10 msec). Also, the Reynolds shear stress was calculated from the turbulent kinetic energy. The shear stress was higher behind the impellers than elsewhere. The CFD analysis could predict in vitro results of hemolysis and also the areas where hemolysis occurred. The CFD analysis was found to be a useful tool for designing less hemolytic rotary blood pumps.
Influence of Wall Motion and Impedance Phase Angle on the Wall Shear Stress in an Elastic Blood Vessel Under Oscillatory Flow Conditions
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 21, issue 4, 2000, Pages 363~372
The present study investigated flow dynamics of a straight elastic blood vessel under sinusoidal flow conditions in order to understand influence of wall motion and impedance phase angle(time delay between pressure and flow waveforms) on wall shear stress distribution using computational fluid dynamics. For the straight elastic tube model considered in the our method of computation. The results showed that wall motion induced additional terms in the axial velocity profile and the pressure gradient. These additional terms due to wall motion reduced the amplitude of wall shear stress and also changed the mean wall shear stress. Te trend of the changes was very different depending on the impedance phase angle. As the wall shear stress increased. As the phase angle was reduced from 0
4% wall motion case, the mean wall shear stress decreased by 10.5% and the amplitude of wasll shear stress increased by 17.5%. Therefore, for hypertensive patients vulnerable state to atherosclerosis according to low and oscillatory shear stress theory.
A Finite Element Simulation of Cancellous Bone Remodeling Based on Volumetric Strain
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 21, issue 4, 2000, Pages 373~384
The goal of this paper is to develop a computational method to predict cancellous bone density distributions based upon continuum levels of volumetric strain. Volumetric strain is defined as the summation of normal strains, excluding shear strains, within an elastic range of loadings. Volumetric strain at a particular location in a cancellous structure changes with changes of the boundary conditions (prescribed displacements, tractions, and pressure). This change in the volumetric strain is postulated to predict the adaptive change in the bone apparent density. This bone remodeling theory based on volumetric strain is then used with the finite element method to compute the apparent density distribution for cancellous bone in both lumbar spine and proximal femur using an iterative algorithm, considering the dead zone of strain stimuli. The apparent density distribution of cancellous bone predicted by this method has the same pattern as experimental data reported in the literature (Wolff 1892, Keller et al. 1989, Cody et al. 1992). The resulting bone apparent density distributions predict Young's modulus and strength distributions throughout cancellous bone in agreement with the literature (Keller et al. 1989, Carter and Hayes 1977). The method was convergent and sensitive to changes in boundary conditions. Therefore, the computational algorithm of the present study appears to be a useful approach to predict the apparent density distribution of cancellous bone (i.e. a numerical approximation for Wolff's Law)
Development of a Static Prosthesis-Alignment Device Using a Force Plate and a Laser Light
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 21, issue 4, 2000, Pages 385~390
The alignment of the prosthetics is very important in an amputee's gait. In the present study. a static prosthesis-alignment device was developed. It consisted of a force plate with four load cells, a laser beam controlled by a step motor, and a control part programmed by PCBASIC. Using the static prosthesis-alignment device, we measured the distance between the load line and various joints of 24 normal volunteers in three standing postures. such as neutral, forward leaning, and backward leaning. Only neutral postures were evaluated on four trans-tibial amputees. The load line for the normal person's neutral position located anterior to the ankle, the knee, and the greater trochanter, but posterior to the shoulder joint. Forward and backward leaning of the normal person resulted in a significant anterior and posterior movements of the load line, respectively. The load line for the amputated side of the trans-tibial amputee also located anterior to the ankle, the extremity prostheses, providing a good relative locations of the load line with respect to various joints.
Numerical Analysis of the Flow in a Compliant Tube Considering Fluid-wall Interaction
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 21, issue 4, 2000, Pages 391~401
Flow through compliant tubes with linear taper in wall thickness is numerically simulated by finite element analysis. For verification of the numerical method, flow through a compliant stenotic vessel is simulated and the results are compared to the existing experimental data. Steady two-dimensional flow in a collapsible channel with initial tension is also simulated and the results are compared with numerical solutions from the literature. Computational results show that as cross-sectional area decreases with the reduction in downstream pressure, flow rate increases and reaches the maximum when the speed index (mean velocity divided by wave speed) is near the unity at the point of minimum cross-section area, indicating the flow limitation or choking (flow speed equals wave speed) in one-dimensional studies. for further reductions in downstream pressure, flow rate decreases. The flow limitation or choking consist of the main reasons of waterfall effect which occurs in the airways, capillaries of lung, and other veins. Cross-sectional narrowing is significant but localized. When the ratio of downstream-to-upstream wall thickness is 2, the area throat is located near the downstream end. As this ratio is increased to 3, the constriction moves to the upstream end of the tube.
A Simulation study on the Cardiac Current Density distribution during the Defibrillation Shock
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 21, issue 4, 2000, Pages 403~409
This paper is about to simulate the defibrillation situations using 3D FE(finite element) thorax model and describes the effects of three clinical electrodes' positions and size and organ's resistivity used in simulation on the characteristics of current density distribution over myocardium. The model was constructed with a eillipsoidal cylinder for the thorax and the 2D Visible Human images for remains. And, the distributions of current density were computed by a commercial program ANSYS 5.4. The electrical shock of the AP(anterior-posterior ) electrode provided more current flows with heart than the others and that of the LL(lateral-lateral) electrode showed the most uniform current density distribution. However, the electrode size had little effect on the current density distribution. In the evaluation of model's sensitivity to tissue resistivity variation, the variation of the myocardium's resistivity most affected the minimum, average and maximum current densities.
Analysis of Oscillometric Model based on Shape of Arterial Pressure
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 21, issue 4, 2000, Pages 411~417
This paper describes the analysis of the oscillometric method based on the shape of arterial pressure and proposal of a new algorithm for estimating the blood pressure by computer simulation. In the first step, the arterial pressure model which is able to control the shape of arterial pressure was designed and then we simulated the oscillometric model using both the existing exponential model showing the static arterial pressure-volume relation and the designed arterial pressure model. By analyzing the correlation of characteristic ratio based on the shape of arterial pressure, we could find that the characteristic ratio was not the only standard parameter for estimating systolic and diastolic pressure. We were able to estimate the shape of arterial pressure by computing the correlation of arterial pressure shape with oscillation shape. Finally, we proposed an algorithm which is able to estimate systolic and diastolic pressure according to pressure(Pp) table constructed from the relation of maximum amplitude of oscillation and arterial pressure shape. We tested 60 arterial pressure waveforms having various arterial pressure shape and pulse. As a results, the absolute deviation average values of the estimation of systolic, diastolic and mean pressure were 1.62%, 2.40% and 2.20%, respectively. In conclusions, the proposed algorithm showed the possibility of usefullness in estimating the blood pressure.
Display-Pixel-Based Focusing Method for Ultrasound Imaging
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 21, issue 4, 2000, Pages 419~431
In this paper, a new beamforming technique is proposed, which can completely eliminate all the artifacts caused by digital scan converter. In the proposed method, named display-pixel-based focusing(DPBF) by the authors, ultrasound waves are focused directly at the display pixels instead of sampling points on the polar coordinate. Consequently. the DPBF system does not require the digital scan converter. To verify the proposed method, we modified a commercial scanner and performed experiments with a 3.5 MHz convex array and a 7.5 MHz linear array. We also defined and measured ICRA/B(Image Coarseness Ratio) to compare the image quality quantitatively. The experimental results with in vivo and in vitro data show that the proposed method improves the ICRA/B considerably, resulting in much smoother and finer images.
A Block-Based Volume Rendering Algorithm Using Shear-Warp factorization
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 21, issue 4, 2000, Pages 433~439
Volume rendering is a powerful tool for visualizing sampled scalar values from 3D data without modeling geometric primitives to the data. The volume rendering can describe the surface-detail of a complex object. Owing to this characteristic. volume rendering has been used to visualize medical data. The size of volume data is usually too big to handle in real time. Recently, various volume rendering algorithms have been proposed in order to reduce the rendering time. However, most of the proposed algorithms are not proper for fast rendering of large non-coded volume data. In this paper, we propose a block-based fast volume rendering algorithm using a shear-warp factorization for non-coded volume data. The algorithm performs volume rendering by using the organ segmentation data as well as block-based 3D volume data, and increases the rendering speed for large non-coded volume data. The proposed algorithm is evaluated by rendering 3D X-ray CT body images and MR head images.