Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korea Society of Medical and Biological Engineering
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 6 - Dec 2004
Volume 25, Issue 5 - Oct 2004
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Aug 2004
Volume 25, Issue 3 - Jun 2004
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Apr 2004
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Feb 2004
Selecting the target year
Comparison of Film Measurements, Convolution
erposition Model and Monte Carlo Simulations for Small fields in Heterogeneous Phantoms
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 2, 2004, Pages 89~95
Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) often uses small beam segments. The heterogeneity effect is well known for relatively large field sizes used in the conventional radiation treatments. However, this effect is not known in small fields such as the beamlets used in IMRT. There are many factors that can cause errors in the small field i.e. electronic disequilibrium and multiple electron scattering. This study prepared geometrically regular heterogeneous phantoms, and compared the measurements with the calculations using the Convolution/Superposition algorithm and Monte Carlo method for small beams. This study used the BEAM00/EGS4 code to simulate the head of a Varian 2300C/D. The commissioning of a 6MV photon beam were performed from two points of view, the beam profiles and depth doses. The calculated voxel size was 1
with field sizes of 1
, and 5
. The XiOTM TPS (Treatment Planning System) was used for the calculation using the Convolution/Superposition algorithm. The 6MV photon beam was irradiated to homogeneous (water equivalent) and heterogeneous phantoms (water equivalent ＋ air cavity, water equivalent ＋ bone equivalent). The beam profiles were well matched within :t1 mm and the depth doses were within
2%. In conclusion, the dose calculations of the Convolution/Superposition and Monte Carlo simulations showed good agreement with the film measurements in the small field.
Development of a Micro-CT System for Small Animal Imaging
Sang Chul Lee ; Ho Kyung Kim ; In Kon Chun ; Myung Hye Cho ; Min Hyoung Cho ; Soo Yeol Lee ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 2, 2004, Pages 97~102
We developed an x-ray cone-beam micro computed tomography (micro-CT) system for small-animal imaging. The micro-CT system consists of a 2-D flat-panel x-ray detector with a field-of-view (FOV) of 120
120 mm2, a micro-focus x-ray source, a scan controller and a parallel image reconstruction system. Imaging performances of the micro-CT system have been evaluated in terms of contrast and spatial resolution. The minimum resolvable contrast has been found to be less than 36 CT numbers at the dose of 95 mGy and the spatial resolution about 14 lp/mm. As small animal imaging results, we present high resolution 3-D images of rat organs including a femur, a heart and vessels. We expected that the developed micro-CT system can be greatly used in biomedical studies using small animals.
Interactive Virtual Anthroscopy Using Isosurface Raycasting Based on Min-Max Map
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 2, 2004, Pages 103~109
A virtual arthroscopy is a simulation of optical arthroscopy that reconstructs anatomical structures from tomographic images in joint region such as a knee, a shoulder and a wrist. In this paper, we propose a virtual arthroscopy based on isosurface raycasting, which is a kind of volume rendering methods for generating 3D images within a short time. Our method exploits a spatial data structure called min-max map to produce high-quality images in near real-time. Also we devise a physically-based camera control model using potential field. So a virtual camera can fly through in articular cavity without restriction. Using the high-speed rendering method and realistic camera control model, we developed a virtual arthroscopy system.
Automatic Registration of Images for Digital Subtraction Radiography Using Local Correlation
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 2, 2004, Pages 111~117
Most of digital subtraction methods in dental radiography are based on registration using manual landmarks. We have developed an automatic registration method without using the manual selection of landmarks. By restricting a geometrical matching of images to a region of interest (ROl), we compare the cross-correlation coefficient only between the ROIs. The affine or perspective transform parameters satisfying maximum of cross-correlation between the local regions are searched iteratively by a fast searching strategy. The parameters are searched on the 1/4 scale image coarsely and then, the fine registration is performed on the original scale image. The developed method can match the images corrupted by Gaussian noise with the same accuracy for the images without any transform simulation. The registration accuracy of the perspective method shows a 17% improvement over the manual method. The application of the developed method to radiography of dental implants provides an automatic noise robust registration with high accuracy in almost real time.
Development of an Automatic External Biphasic Defibrillator System
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 2, 2004, Pages 119~127
In this paper, an automatic external biphasic defibrillator that removes ventricular fibrillation efficiently with a low discharging energy has been developed. The system is composed of software including a fibrillation detection algorithm and a system control algorithm, and hardware including a high voltage charging/discharging part and a signal processing part. The stability of the developed system has been confirmed through continuous charging/discharging test of 160 times and the detection capability of the real-time fibrillation detection algorithm has been estimated by applying a total of 30 various fibrillation signals. In order to verify the clinical efficiency and safety, the system has been applied to five pigs before and after fibrillation inductions. Also, we have investigated the system efficiency in removing fibrillation by applying two different discharging waveforms, which have the same energy but different voltage levels.
Classification of Normal and Abnormal QRS-complex for Home Health Management System
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 2, 2004, Pages 129~135
In the home health management system, we often face the situation to handle biological signals that are frequently measured from normal subjects. In such a case, it is necessary to decide whether the signal at a certain moment is normal or abnormal. Since ECC is one of the most frequently measured biological signals, we describe algorithms that detect QRS-complex and decide whether it is normal or abnormal. The developed QRS detection algorithm is a simplified version of the conventional algorithm providing enough performance for the proposed application. The developed classification algorithm that detects abnormal from mostly normal beats is based on QRS width, R-R interval and QRS shape parameter using Karhunen-Loeve transformation. The simplified QRS detector correctly detected about 99% of all beats in the MTT/BIH ECG database. The classification algorithm correctly classified about 96% of beats as normal or abnormal. The QRS detection and classification algorithm described in this paper could be used in home health management system.
High Frequency Noise Reduction in ECG using a Time-Varying Variable Cutoff Frequency Lowpass Filter
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 2, 2004, Pages 137~144
ECG signals are often contaminated with high-frequency noise such as muscle artifact, power line interference, and others. In the ECG signal processing, especially during a pre-processing stage, numerous noise removal techniques have been used to reduce these high-frequency noise without much distorting the original signal. This paper proposes a new type of digital filter with a continuously variable cutoff frequency to improve the signal quality This filter consists of a cutoff frequency controller (CFC) and variable cutoff frequency lowpass filter (VCF-LPF). From the noisy input ECG signal, CFC produces a cutoff frequency control signal using the signal slew rate. We implemented VCF-LPF based on two new filter design methods called convex combination filter (CCF) and weight interpolation fille. (WIF). These two methods allow us to change the cutoff frequency of a lowpass filter In an arbitrary fine step. VCF-LPF shows an excellent noise reduction capability for the entire time segment of ECG excluding the rising and falling edge of a very sharp QRS complex. We found VCF-LPF very useful and practical for better signal visualization and probably for better ECG interpretation. We expect this new digital filter will find its applications especially in a home health management system where the measured ECG signals are easily contaminated with high-frequency noises .
Spatial and Directional Sensation Prosthesis for the Blind
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 2, 2004, Pages 145~150
In this study for the prosthesis of the spatial and directional sensation for the blind, an ultrasonic scale system and an electronic compass system were developed. The ultrasonic scale utilizes 40 ㎑ sound for the detection of distance to the barrier and the spatial information is transferred to the blind by various sound interval, which is proportional to the distance. The electronic compass utilizes a magnetoresistor bridge for the detection of the magnetic field strength of earth in horizontal plane. The information for the direction of the earth's north is transferred by tactile stimuli by a vibrating motor band around upper head. Detection distance of the ultrasonic scale is ranged from 0.065 to 3.26 meters, and the detection angle resolution of the electronic compass is about 22.5 degrees. The integrated system of the ultrasonic scale and the electronic compass was developed. Distance information is converted to the location of the tactile stimulation along the clockwise direction by a vibrating motor according to the distance installed around upper head of the blind. The intent of this article is to provide an practical prosthetic tool of spatial and directional sensation for the blind. Daily practice of this system will improve the usefulness of this system.
Development of EMG-Triggered FES System and Optimal Electrode Location for Chronic Hemiplegic Patients
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 2, 2004, Pages 151~156
The purpose of this study was to develop EMG triggered FES system for restoration of upper extremity function in chronic hemiplegic patients and to identify the optimal location of electrode application for the EMG triggered FES system which produces effective muscle contraction and detects EMG activity for extension in the wrist and finger joints. The stimulus system was composed of EMG measuring component, constant current component and the program for muscle contraction by EMG triggered FES and passive FES. Parameter of electrical stimulation was 35 ㎐ in frequency, 150
in pulse width and symmetric bi-phasic wave. In 15 hemiplegic patients, EMG triggered FES was applied to the proximal half of forearm which was divided into 12 areas. The most sensitive area for measuring EMG activities during extension of the wrist and fingers was area 4, 5 and the optimal location of electrical stimulation for producing extension of the wrist and fingers was area 4, 5, 7, 8. These results suggest that the area 4 and 5 was considered as the most optimal location of electrode application for measuring EMG activities as well as producing extension of the wrist and fingers by EMG triggered FES system.
Limitation of Nitrogen ion Implantation and Ionplating Techniques Applied for Improvement of Wear Resistance of Metallic Implant Materials
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 2, 2004, Pages 157~163
Nitrogen ion implantation and ion plating techniques were applied for improvement of the wear resistance of metallic implant materials. In this work, the wear dissolution behaviour of a nitrogen ion implanted super stainless steel (S.S.S, 22Cr-20Ni-6Mo-0.25N) was compared with those of S.S.S, 316L SS and TiN coated 316L SS. The amounts of Cr and Ni ions worn-out from the specimens were Investigated using an electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Furthermore, the Ti(Grade 2) disks were coated with TiN, ZrN and TiCN by use of low temperature arc vapor deposition and the wear resistance of the coating layers was compared with that of titanium. The chemical compositions of the nitrogen ion implanted and nitride coated layers were examined with a scanting auger electron spectroscopy. It wat observed that the metal ions released from the nitrogen ion implanted S.S.S surface were significantly reduced. From the results obtained, it was shown that the nitrogen ion implanted zone obtained with 100 KeV ion energy was easily removed within 200,000 revolutions from a wear dissolution testing under a similar load condition when applied to artificial hip joint. The remarkable improvement in wear resistance weir confirmed by the nitrides coated Ti materials and the wear properties differ greatly according to the chemical composition of the coating layers. for specimens with the same coating thickness of about 3
, TiCN coated Ti showed the highest wear resistance. However, after removing the coating layers, the wear rates of all nitrides coated Ti reverted to their normal rates of below 10,000 revolutions from Ti-disk-on-disk wear testing under the same load condition. From the results obtained, it is suggested that the insufficient depth of the 100 Kel N
＋/ ion implanted zone and of the nitrides coated layers of 3
are subject to restriction when used as frictional parts of load bearing implants.