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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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Journal DOI :
The Korea Society of Medical and Biological Engineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 6 - Dec 2004
Volume 25, Issue 5 - Oct 2004
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Aug 2004
Volume 25, Issue 3 - Jun 2004
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Apr 2004
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Feb 2004
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Microcalcification Extraction by Using Automatic Thredholding Based on Region Growing
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 4, 2004, Pages 235~242
In this paper, we proposed the algorithm for detection of microtalcification by automatic threshold decision based on region growing method. The region for optimal threshold is grown from local maximum pixel by increasing repeatedly threshold in microralcification candidate region. Then, the optimal threshold is automatically decided at the maximum value of the contrast and edge sharpness in this region. Microcalcifications could be efficiently detected as satisfied result that true positive ratio is 81.5% and average false positive numbers are 1.1 about total 299 microcalcifirations in real image. In a result, we showed that this algorithm can be used to aid diagnostic-radiologist for the diagnosis of the early phase of breast cancer.
Dynamic Characteristic Change of the Cerebral Blood Volume in Cats Using Perfusion MR Imaging
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 4, 2004, Pages 243~251
This study was to quantitative analysis compare to dynamic characteristic change of the regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) after development of cerebral fat embolism in cats using perfusion MR Imaging. Forty-four adult rats were used. Triolein (n = 15), oleic acid (n = 9) and linoleic acid (n = 11) were injected into the internal carotid artery using microcatheter through the transfemoral approach. Polyvinyl alcohol (Ivalon) (n = 9) was injected as a control group. Perfusion MR images were obtained at 30 minutes and 2 hours after embolization, based on T2 and diffusion-weighted images. The data was time-to-signal intensity curve and ΔR
＊ curve were obtained continuously with the aid of home-maid image proc in.leased significantly at 2 hours compared with those of 30 minutes (P＜0.005). In conclusion, cerebral blood flow decreased in cerebral fat embolism immediately after embolization and recovered remarkably in time course. It is thought that clinically informations to dynamic characteristic change of the cerebral hemodynamics to the early finding in cerebral infarction by DWI and PWI
Evaluation of Image Qualities for a Digital X-ray Imaging System Based on Gd
S(Tb) Scintillator and Photosensor Array by Using a Monte Carlo Imaging Simulation Code
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 4, 2004, Pages 253~259
in this study, we developed a Monte Carlo imaging simulation code written by the visual C
++/ programing language for design optimization of a digital X-ray imaging system. As a digital X-ray imaging system, we considered a Gd
S(Tb) scintillator and a photosensor array, and included a 2D parallel grid to simulate general test renditions. The interactions between X-ray beams and the system structure, the behavior of lights generated in the scintillator, and their collection in the photosensor array were simulated by using the Monte Carlo method. The scintillator thickness and the photosensor array pitch were assumed to 66
, respertively, and the pixel format was set to 256 x 256. Using the code, we obtained X-ray images under various simulation conditions, and evaluated their image qualities through the calculations of SNR (signal-to-noise ratio), MTF (modulation transfer function), NPS (noise power spectrum), DQE (detective quantum efficiency). The image simulation code developed in this study can be applied effectively for a variety of digital X-ray imaging systems for their design optimization on various design parameters.
An Electrical Conductivity Reconstruction for Evaluating Bone Mineral Density : Simulation
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 4, 2004, Pages 261~268
Osteoporosis is a clinical condition in which the amount of bone tissue is reduced and the likelihood of fracture is increased. It is known that the electrical property of the bone is related to its density, and, in particular, the electrical resistance of the bone decreases as the bone loss increases. This implies that the electrical property of bone may be an useful parameter to diagnose osteoporosis, provided that it can be readily measured. The study attempted to evaluate the electrical conductivity of bone using a technique of electrical impedance tomography (EIT). It nay not be easy in general to get an EIT for the bone due to the big difference (an order of 2) of electrical properties between the bone and the surrounding soft tissue. In the present study, we took an adaptive mesh regeneration technique originally developed for the detection of two phase boundaries and modified it to be able to reconstruct the electrical conductivity inside the boundary provided that the geometry of the boundary was given. Numerical simulation was carried out for a tibia phantom, circular cylindrical phantom (radius of 40 mm) inside of which there is an ellipsoidal homeogenous tibia bone (short and long radius are 17 mm and 15 mm, respectively) surrounded by the soft tissue. The bone was located in the 15 mm above from the center of the circular cross section of the phantom. The electrical conductivity of the soft tissue was set to be 4 mS/cm and varies from 0.01 to 1 ms/cm for the bone. The simulation considered measurement errors in order to look into its effects. The simulated results showed that, if the measurement error was maintained less than 5 %, the reconstructed electrical conductivity of the bone was within 10 % errors. The accuracy increased with the electrical conductivity of the bone, as expected. This indicates that the present technique provides more accurate information for osteoporotic bones. It should be noted that tile simulation is based on a simple two phase image for the bone and the surrounding soft tissue when its anatomical information is provided. Nevertheless, the study indicates the possibility that the EIT technique may be used as a new means to detect the bone loss leading to osteoporotic fractures.
Design and Implementation of Digital Electrical Impedance Tomography System
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 4, 2004, Pages 269~275
Different biological tissues have different values of electrical resistivity. In EIT (electrical impedance tomography), we try to provide cross-sectional images of a resistivity distribution inside an electrically conducting subject such as the human body mainly for functional imaging. However, it is well known that the image reconstruction problem in EIT is ill-posed and the quality of a reconstructed image highly depends on the measurement error. This requires us to develop a high-performance EIT system. In this paper, we describe the development of a 16-channel digital EIT system including a single constant current source, 16 voltmeters, main controller, and PC. The system was designed and implemented using the FPGA-based digital technology. The current source injects 50KHz sinusoidal current with the THD (total harmonic distortion) of 0.0029% and amplitude stability of 0.022%. The single current source and switching circuit reduce the measurement error associated with imperfect matching of multiple current sources at the expense of a reduced data acquisition time. The digital voltmeter measuring the induced boundary voltage consists of a differential amplifier, ADC, and FPGA (field programmable gate array). The digital phase-sensitive demodulation technique was implemented in the voltmeter to maximize the SNR (signal-to-noise ratio). Experimental results of 16-channel digital voltmeters showed the SNR of 90dB. We used the developed EIT system to reconstruct resistivity images of a saline phantom containing banana objects. Based on the results, we suggest future improvements for a 64-channel muff-frequency EIT system for three-dimensional dynamic imaging of bio-impedance distributions inside the human body.
percentile female finite Element Model for Crashworthiness Simulation - Part I Articulated Rigid Body Model
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 4, 2004, Pages 277~282
In order to investigate the small female occupant behavior and accompanying injury mechanisms in vehicular trash event, a finite element model of
percentile female has been developed. The model consists of articulated rigid body, which represents the morphology of small female body, and internal components with anatomical details. Articulated rigid body model serves as a basic platform for joining the detail internal skeletons and organs, while itself can be used for representing the overall kinematics of small female occupant. The modeling details such as anthropometry and finite element structure as well as validation results for the articulated rigid body model are introduced in this paper. The second part of the modeling, i.e. the internal components with anatomical details of small female are presented in subsequent part II of the paper.
percentile female finite Element Model for Crashworthiness Simulation - Part II Detail Modeling of Internal Components
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 4, 2004, Pages 283~288
The finite element modeling of small female occupant for crash simulation is presented in this paper subsequently to the part I of articulated rigid body model. The limbs and internal components are additionally modeled by joining them to the articulated rigid body model for predicting the crash injuries such as bone fractures and joint dislocations. The behavioral characteristics of each limbs and internal components were validated against available cadaveric test results. Accordingly, the human model proposed in this paper could be utilized for the investigation of impact injury mechanism and further complement the lacking biofidelity of current crash dummy.
Effects of a Heel Wedge on the Knee Varus Torque During Walking
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 4, 2004, Pages 289~293
In the present study, knee varus torque and mediolateral accelerations were measured using the three-dimensional motion analysis system and a linear accelerometry in odor to determine the effect of heel wedges during walking. Wedges were inclined with 10
in medial and lateral directions respectively Both knee varus torques and mediolateral accelerations showed two distinct positive peaks in loading response and preswing. Medial wedges resulted in significantly increased both knee varus torque and lateral acceleration in loading response, compared with the barefoot walking(p<0.05). On the other hand, lateral wedges decreased them in loading response(p<0.05). This became more significant for more inclined wedges. However, no significant correlations were found between knee varus torque and lateral acceleration according to the angle of heel wedges in preswing. From this study, it was found that a lateral wedge would be helpful to treat osteoarthritis, decreasing knee varus torque in loading response. In addition, lateral acceleration of the knee joint might be an alternative to determine the effect of wedges and the alignment of the knee joint during walking, instead of measuring knee torque by the three-dimensional motion analysis.
Intraaneurysmal Blood Flow Changes for the Different Coil Locations
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 4, 2004, Pages 295~300
Coil embolization technique has been used recently to treat cerebral aneurysms. When a giant or a multilobular aneurysm are treated by roils, filling an aneurysm sac completely with coils is difficult and partial blocking of an aneurysm sac is inevitable. Blood flow characteristics, which nay affect the embolization process of an aneurysm sac, are changed by the locations of coils for the Partially blocked aneurysms. Blood flow fields are also influenced by the geometry of a parent vessel. In order to suggest the coil locations effective for aneurysm embolization, the blood flow fields of lateral aneurysm models were analyzed for the different coil locations and parent vessel geometries. Three dimensional pulsatile flow fields are analyzed by numerical methods considering non-Newtonian viscosity characteristics of blood. Flow rate into the aneurysm sac (inflow rate) and wall shear stress, which are suspected as flow dynamic factors influencing aneurysm embolization, are also calculated. Inflow rates were smaller and the low wall shear stress zones were larger in the neck blocked models compared to the dome blocked models. Smaller inflow and larger low wall shear stress zones in the distal neck blocked model imply that the distal neck should be the effective coil locations for aneurysm embolization.
An Inverse Dynamic Analysis of Lower Limbs During Gait
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 4, 2004, Pages 301~307
An inverse dynamic model of lower limbs is presented to calculate joint moments during gait. The model is composed of 4 segments with 3 translational joints and 12 revolute joints. The inverse dynamic method is based on Newton-Euler formalism. Kinematic data are obtained from 3 dimensional trajectories of markers collected by a motion analysis system. External forces applied on the foot are measured synchronously using force plate. The use of developed model makes it possible to calculate joint moments for variation of parameters.
A Study on the Effect of Physical Stimuli on Bone Cell Differentiation Using a Hybrid Bioreactor
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 4, 2004, Pages 309~314
in this study, hybrid bioreactor was used to apply physical stimuli in cell culture. Effect of the applied physical stimuli on the growth and differentiation of MC3T3-El cell in a three-dimensional Chitosan scaffold were studied by using the hybrid bioreactor. The hybrid bioreactor for physical stimulus was specially designed to apply uniaxial cyclic compressive and shear strain. Physical stimulus was applied over a period of 14 days with 150 cycles per day at a frequency of 0.5Hz. Strain magnitude was 2.5% of the scaffold size. Control group and physically stimulated group of the MC3T3-El tell were incubated and harvested at the indicated times (Day 6, 8, 10, 12, 14). The total amount of protein, which obtained information of cell growth, was determined by Lowey method. Alkaline phosphatase activity was examined by ELISA. Physically stimulated group using the hybrid bioreactor was increased in alkaline phosphatase activity comparing with control group. The nodule formation and calcium deposit of the physical stimuli group which resulted in cell differentiation was faster than that of control group.
Development of Adaptive Feedback Cancellation Algorithm for Multi-channel Digital Hearing Aids
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 4, 2004, Pages 315~321
In this study, we proposed an adaptive feedback cancellation algorithm for multi-band digital healing aids. The adaptive feedback canceller (AFC) is composed of an adaptive notch filter (ANF) for feedback detection and an NLMS (normalized least mean square) adaptive filter for feedback cancellation. The proposed feedback cancellation algorithm is combined with a multi-band hearing aid algorithm which employs the MDCT (modified discrete cosine transform) filter bank for the frequency-dependent compensation of hearing losses. The proposed algorithm together with the MDCT-based multi-channel hearing aid algorithm has been evaluated via computer simulations and it has also been implemented on a commercialized DSP board for real-time verifications.