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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korea Society of Medical and Biological Engineering
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 6 - Dec 2004
Volume 25, Issue 5 - Oct 2004
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Aug 2004
Volume 25, Issue 3 - Jun 2004
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Apr 2004
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Feb 2004
Selecting the target year
Development of Korean Tissue Probability Map from 3D Magnetic Resonance Images
Jung Hyun, Kim ; Jong-Min, Lee ; Uicheul, Yoon ; Hyun-Pil, Kim ; Bang Bon, Koo ; In Young, Kim ; Dong Soo, Lee ; Jun Soo, Kwon ; Sun I., Kim ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 5, 2004, Pages 323~328
The development of group-specific tissue probability maps (TPM) provides a priori knowledge for better result of cerebral tissue classification with regard to the inter-ethnic differences of inter-subject variability. We present sequential procedures of group-specific TPM and evaluate the age effects in the structural differences of TPM. We investigated 100 healthy volunteers with high resolution MRI scalming. The subjects were classified into young (60, 25.92+4.58) and old groups (40, 58.83
8.10) according to the age. To avoid any bias from random selected single subject and improve registration robustness, average atlas as target for TPM was constructed from skull-stripped whole data using linear and nonlinear registration of AIR. Each subject was segmented into binary images of gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid using fuzzy clustering and normalized into the space of average atlas. The probability images were the means of these binary images, and contained values in the range of zero to one. A TPM of a given tissue is a spatial probability distribution representing a certain subject population. In the spatial distribution of tissue probability according to the threshold of probability, the old group exhibited enlarged ventricles and overall GM atrophy as age-specific changes, compared to the young group. Our results are generally consistent with the few published studies on age differences in the brain morphology. The more similar the morphology of the subject is to the average of the population represented by the TPM, the better the entire classification procedure should work. Therefore, we suggest that group-specific TPM should be used as a priori information for the cerebral tissue classification.
Improved Vapor Recognition in Electronic Nose (E-Nose) System by Using the Time-Profile of Sensor Array Response
Yoon Seok, Yang ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 5, 2004, Pages 329~334
The electronic nose (E-nose) recently finds its applications in medical diagnosis, specifically on detection of diabetes, pulmonary or gastrointestinal problem, or infections by examining odors in the breath or tissues with its odor characterizing ability. The odor recognition performance of E-nose can be improved by manipulating the sensor array responses of vapors in time-profile forms. The different chemical interactions between the sensor materials and the volatile organic compounds (VOC's) leave unique marks in the signal profiles giving more information than collection of the conventional piecemal features, i.e., maximum sensitivity, signal slopes, rising time. In this study, to use them in vapor recognition task conveniently, a novel time-profile method was proposed, which is adopted from digital image pattern matching. The degrees of matching between 8 different vapors were evaluated by using the proposed method. The test vapors are measured by the silicon-based gas sensor array with 16 CB-polymer composites installed in membrane structure. The results by the proposed method showed clear discrimination of vapor species than by the conventional method.
Development of Trans-Admittance Scanner (TAS) for Breast Cancer Detection
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 5, 2004, Pages 335~342
This paper describes a trans-admittance scanner for breast cancer detection. A FPGA-based sinusoidal waveform generator produces a constant voltage. The voltage is applied between a hand-held electrode and a scan probe placed on the breast. The scan probe contains an 8x8 array of electrodes that are kept at the ground potential. Multi-channel precision digital ammeters using the phase-sensitive demodulation technique were developed to measure the exit current from each electrode in the array. Different regions of the breast are scanned by moving the probe on the breast. We could get trans-admittance images of resistor and saline phantoms with an anomaly inside. The images provided the information on the depth and location of the anomaly. In future studies, we need to improve the accuracy through a better calibration method. We plan to test the scanner's ability to detect a cancer lesion inside the human breast.
Implementation and Evaluation of Electroglottograph System
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 5, 2004, Pages 343~349
Electroglottograph(EGG) is a signal recorded from the vocal cord vibration by measuring electrical impedance across the vocal folds through the neck skin. The purpose of this study was to develop EGG system and to evaluate possibility for the application on speech analysis and laryngeal disease diagnosis. EGG system was composed of two pairs of ring electrodes, tuned amplifier, phase sensitive detector, low pass filter, and auto-gain controller. It was designed to extract electric impedance after detecting by amplitude modulation method with 2.7MHz carrier signal. Extracted signals were transmitted through line-in of PC sound card, sampled and quantized. Closed Quotient(CQ), Speed Quotient(SQ), Speed Index(SI), fundamental frequency of vocal cord vibration(F0), pitch variability of vocal fold vibration (Jitter), and peak-to-peak amplitude variability of vocal fold vibration(Shimmer) were analyzed as EGG parameters. Experimental results were as follows: the faster vocal fold vibration, the higher values in CQ parameter and the lower values in SQ and SI parameters. EGG and speech signals had the same fundamental frequency. CQ, SQ, and SI were significantly different between normal subjects and patients with laryngeal cancer. These results suggest that it is possible to implement portable EGG system to monitor the function of vocal cord and to test functional changes of the glottis.
Unequal Distance Sampling Technique to Design Velocity-Type Respiratory Air Flow Transducer
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 5, 2004, Pages 351~359
Velocity-type repisratory air flow transducer measures dynamic pressure converted from air velocity based on the we1l-known Bernoulli's principle. It requires multiple velocity sampling holes on the flow plane. Measurement error theoretica1ly estimated by computer simulation was demonstrated to significantly reduce by unequally locating the velocity sampling holes. The flow plane was divided into multiple equi-area rings and the sampling holes were located on the circles also equally dividing each ring's area, which decreased measurement error down to 1/5 of the simple equi-radius ring division method. Also, less than 1 ％ relative error was estimated with 4 or more sampling holes. The present technique was less sensitive by <1/2 to the velocity profile change compared to the euqi-radius sampling. Therefore, the present unequal distance velocity sampling technique should be of great use to design the structure of the velocity-type respiratory air flow transducer.
Numerical Analysis on Stress Distribution of Vertebra and Stability of Intervertebral Fusion Cage with Change of Spike Shape
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 5, 2004, Pages 361~367
The axial compressive strength, relative 3-D stability and osteoconductive shape design of an intervertebral fusion cage are important biomechanical factors for successful intervertebral fusion. Changes in the stress distribution of the vertebral end plate and in cage stability due to changes in the spike shape of a newly contrived box-shaped fusion cage are investigated. In this investigation, the initial contact of the cage's spikes with the end plate and the penetration of the cage's spikes into the end plate are considered. The finite element analysis is conducted to study the effects of the cage's spike height, tip width and angle on the stress distribution of the vertebral end plate, and the micromigration of the cage in the A-P direction. The stress distribution in the end plate is examined when a normal load of 1700N is applied to the vertebra after inserting 2 cages. The micromigration of the cage is examined when a pull out load of l00N is applied in the A-P direction. The analysis results reveal that the spike tip width significantly influences the stress concentration in the end plate, but the spike height and angle do not significantly influence the stress distribution in the end plate touching the cage's spikes. In addition, the analysis results show that the micromigration of the cage can be reduced by adjusting the spike angle and spike arrangement in the A-P direction. This study proposes the optimal shape of an intervertebral fusion cage, which promotes bone fusion, reduces the stress concentration in a vertebral end plate, and increases mechanical stability.
Design of a Noise Generator for Tinnitus Retraining Therapy Using Auditory Model
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 5, 2004, Pages 369~376
The tinnitus retraining therapy(TRT) is an effective method for treating tinnitus patients. This therapy use the white noise to stimulate auditory cells for a wide frequency range. In this paper, the small white noise generator using the thermal noise is proposed. And frequency response controller which can compensate the frequency response changed by the human outer and middle ear system is proposed. We can know that proposed system is more proper type on a purpose of the tinnitus retraining therapy comparing with conventional white noise generator.
Muscle Fatigue Analysis by Median Frequency and Wavelet Transform During Lumbar Extension Exercises
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 5, 2004, Pages 377~382
In the present study, thirteen healthy volunteers performed lumbar extension exercises at 48
/s, loaded by 40, 50, 60kg(about 44, 55, 66％ of maximum voluntary contraction). During the whole period of exercises, electromyographic(EMG) signal was measured in the erector spinae muscle in order to determine muscle fatigue. Using the wavelet transform, EMG signal was separated by various frequency ranges in the time-frequency domain, and muscle fatigue was analyzed, comparing with the results based on the median frequency(MDF). MDF shifted toward the lower frequency ranges with the muscle fatigue, showing a single characteristic frequency. On the other hand, wavelet transform of EMG signals resulted in increased power amplitude in lower frequency ranges(0-125Hz), and decreased power amplitude in higher frequency ranges(375-468Hz). This study reveals that the muscle fatigue during dynamic movement is explained better by wavelet analysis.
Surface Reaction Products of CP- Ti and Ti-25wt％Pd Castings Used for Dental Application
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 5, 2004, Pages 383~389
A commercially pure Ti(CP-Ti) and Ti-25wt％Pd alloy for dental applications were cast into a phosphate-bonded Al
investment mold and the surface of the casting specimens were investigated by means of SEM/EDS, XRD and XPS. The addition of 25wt％Pd in CP-Ti showed a moderate mold reaction owing to the considerable lowering of melting point. XRD analysis of the investment after burn-out treatment revealed that it consisted essentially of
The mold reaction products were Ti
in case of CP-Ti casting and Ti
x/ in case of Ti-25wt％ Pd casting.
Real-Time 3D Ultrasound Imaging Method Using a Cross Array Based on Synthetic Aperture Focusing: I. Spherical Wave Transmission Approach
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 5, 2004, Pages 391~401
3D imaging systems using 2D phased arrays have a large number of active channels, compelling to use a very expensive and bulky beamforming hardware, and suffer from low volume rate because, in principle, at least one ultrasound transmit-receive event is necessary to construct each scanline. A high speed 3D imaging method using a cross array proposed previously to solve the above limitations can implement fast scanning and dynamic focusing in the lateral direction but suffer from low resolution except at the fixed transmit focusing along the elevational direction. To overcome these limitations, we propose a new real-time volumetric imaging method using a cross array based on the synthetic aperture technique. In the proposed method, ultrasound wave is transmitted successively using each elements of an 1D transmit array transducer, one at a time, which is placed along the elevational direction and for each firing, the returning pulse echoes are received using all elements of an 1D receive array transducer placed along the lateral direction. On receive, by employing the conventional dynamic focusing and synthetic aperture method along lateral and elevational directions, respectively, ultrasound waves can be focused effectively at all imaging points. In addition, in the proposed method, a volume of interest consisting of any required number of slice images, can be constructed with the same number of transmit-receive steps as the total number of transmit array elements. Computer simulation results show that the proposed method can provide the same and greatly improved resolutions in the lateral and elevational directions, respectively, compared with the 3D imaging method using a cross array based on the conventional fixed focusing. In the accompanying paper, we will also propose a new real-time 3D imaging method using a cross array for improving transmit power and elevational spatial resolution, which uses linear wave fronts on transmit.
Real-Time 3D Ultrasound Imaging Method Using a Cross Array Based on Synthetic Aperture Focusing: II. Linear Wave Front Transmission Approach
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 5, 2004, Pages 403~414
In the accompanying paper, we proposed a real. time volumetric imaging method using a cross array based on receive dynamic focusing and synthetic aperture focusing along lateral and elevational directions, respetively. But synthetic aperture methods using spherical waves are subject to beam spreading with increasing depth due to the wave diffraction phenomenon. Moreover, since the proposed method uses only one element for each transmission, it has a limited transmit power. To overcome these limitations, we propose a new real. time volumetric imaging method using cross arrays based on synthetic aperture technique with linear wave fronts. In the proposed method, linear wave fronts having different angles on the horizontal plane is transmitted successively from all transmit array elements. On receive, by employing the conventional dynamic focusing and synthetic aperture methods along lateral and elevational directions, respectively, ultrasound waves can be focused effectively at all imaging points. Mathematical analysis and computer simulation results show that the proposed method can provide uniform elevational resolution over a large depth of field. Especially, since the new method can construct a volume image with a limited number of transmit receive events using a full transmit aperture, it is suitable for real-time 3D imaging with high transmit power and volume rate.
The CDA-based System Design and Implementation for the Exchange of ECG Reports Between Heterogeneous Systems
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 5, 2004, Pages 415~419
As the medical environment field has been facilitated by the rapid development of the information technologies and ubiquitous healthcare service based on network, the exchange of medical information between hospitals become more and more important. However, although most electrocardiograph vendors have provided digital modalities and their ECG data management systems, these were proprietary and not compatible with each other due to multiplicity of vendor specific formats and lack of open ECG data standards. Therefore, we aim to design and develop the ECG management system for archiving, saving, searching, viewing and transferring ECG data and the diagnostic reports. And the system is based on Clinical Document Architecture (CDA) developed by HL7 and DICOM Waveform Standard for the exchange of the structured diagnostic reports and the transfer of ECG data.
Computer Aided Diagnosis System for Evaluation of Mechanical Artificial Valve
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 5, 2004, Pages 421~430
Clinically, it is almost impossible for a physician to distinguish subtle changes of frequency spectrum by using a stethoscope alone especially in the early stage of thrombus formation. Considering that reliability of mechanical valve is paramount because the failure might end up with patient death, early detection of valve thrombus using noninvasive technique is important. Thus the study was designed to provide a tool for early noninvasive detection of valve thrombus by observing shift of frequency spectrum of acoustic signals with computer aid diagnosis system. A thrombus model was constructed on commercialized mechanical valves using polyurethane or silicon. Polyurethane coating was made on the valve surface, and silicon coating on the sewing ring of the valve. To simulate pannus formation, which is fibrous tissue overgrowth obstructing the valve orifice, the degree of silicone coating on the sewing ring varied from 20％, 40％, 60％ of orifice obstruction. In experiment system, acoustic signals from the valve were measured using microphone and amplifier. The microphone was attached to a coupler to remove environmental noise. Acoustic signals were sampled by an AID converter, frequency spectrum was obtained by the algorithm of spectral analysis. To quantitatively distinguish the frequency peak of the normal valve from that of the thrombosed valves, analysis using a neural network was employed. A return map was applied to evaluate continuous monitoring of valve motion cycle. The in-vivo data also obtained from animals with mechanical valves in circulatory devices as well as patients with mechanical valve replacement for 1 year or longer before. Each spectrum wave showed a primary and secondary peak. The secondary peak showed changes according to the thrombus model. In the mock as well as the animal study, both spectral analysis and 3-layer neural network could differentiate the normal valves from thrombosed valves. In the human study, one of 10 patients showed shift of frequency spectrum, however the presence of valve thrombus was yet to be determined. Conclusively, acoustic signal measurement can be of suggestive as a noninvasive diagnostic tool in early detection of mechanical valve thrombosis.