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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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The Korea Society of Medical and Biological Engineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 6 - Dec 2004
Volume 25, Issue 5 - Oct 2004
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Aug 2004
Volume 25, Issue 3 - Jun 2004
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Apr 2004
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Feb 2004
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A New Design of the Interrogating Waves for Medical Ultrasonic Imaging Based on Wavelets and Subband Filter Banks: A Simulation Study
Yang Yoon Seok ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 6, 2004, Pages 431~438
Medical ultrasonic imaging is a useful imaging facility known to be most safe and easy. It enables physicians to observe the inside structures of the bodies, blood flow, and motions of internal organs. Some physical properties of biologic tissues can also be estimated from backscattered sounds. However, the ultrasonic pulses interrogating the living organisms leave their footprints in the returning signals during imaging. Some significant details are buried in the footprints and their overlaps from adjacent particles. These distortions also decrease the quality of the images. Many research efforts have been made to enhance the image quality and to recover the acoustic information in various ways. In this study, a new interrogation method based on the wavelet and subband filter bank is proposed. It adopts the subband wavelet filters satisfying the perfect-reconstruction (PR) conditions as the interrogating pulses to restore the details useful in tissue characterization and to enhance the image quality. The proposed method was applied to two types of simulations of ultrasonic imaging. The results showed its ability to restore the detailsin the simulated interrogation of biologic tissues, and verified the improved image quality in the simulated imaging of general ultrasonic phantom compared with the conventional method.
The Noise Performance of Diffusion Tensor Image with Different Gradient Schemes
Lee Young-Joo ; Chang Yongmin ; Kim Yong-Sun ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 6, 2004, Pages 439~445
Diffusion tensor image(DTI) exploits the random diffusional motion of water molecules. This method is useful for the characterization of the architecture of tissues. In some tissues, such as muscle or cerebral white matter, cellular arrangement shows a strongly preferred direction of water diffusion, i.e., the diffusion is anisotropic. The degree of anisotropy is often represented using diffusion anisotropy indices (relative anisotropy(RA), fractional anisotropy(FA), volume ratio(VR)). In this study, FA images were obtained using different gradient schemes(N=6, 11, 23, 35. 47). Mean values and the standard deviations of FA were then measured at several anatomic locations for each scheme. The results showed that both mean values and the standard deviations of FA were decreased as the number of gradient directions were increased. Also, the standard error of ADC measurement decreased as the number of diffusion gradient directions increased. In conclusion, different gradient schemes showed a significantly different noise performance and the schem with more gradient directions clearly improved the quality of the FA images. But considering acquisition time of image and standard deviation of FA, 23 gradient directions is clinically optimal.
CPLD-based Controller for Bi-directional Communication in a Capsule Endoscope
Lee Jyung Hyun ; Moon Yeon Kwan ; Park Hee Joon ; Won Chul Ho ; Lee Seung Ha ; Choi Hyun Chul ; Cho Jin Ho ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 6, 2004, Pages 447~453
In the case of a capsule that can acquire and transmit images from the intestines, the size of the module and the battery capacity in the capsule are subject to restriction. The capsule must be swallowable and the battery must maintain the stable power during the capsule travels in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, it is important to control the endoscope using bi-directional wireless communication. In this study, encoder and decoder CPLD modules for bi-directional capsule endoscopes were designed and implemented. The designed controller for capsule endoscope can transmit the images of GI-track from inside to outside of the body and the capsules can be controlled by external controller simultaneously. The designed and implemented controller was verified by an in-vivo animal experiments. From these experiments, it was verified that the CPLD module for bi-directional capsule endoscope satisfied the design specifications.
A Study on Computer Aided Surgical Simulation Method for Total Hip Arthroplasty
Kim Sang Hoo ; Han Seung Moo ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 6, 2004, Pages 455~464
Total hip arthroplasty(THA) considerably depends on high-experienced doctors because of high difficulty of the operation. Selection of acetabular cup's and femoral implant's position is closely related with success or failure of THA. Nevertheless the selection has usually depended on doctor's eye measurement, which makes the position accuracy of artificial joint lower after THA, often resulting in revision of THA. The present study determined a method to select accurately the position of acetabular cup and femoral implant through surgical simulation with 3D characteristic geometrical information of patient's pelvis and femur. We examined the change of femoral anteversion angle and neck-shaft angle accompanied by the change of acetabular cup's position and the insertion position of femoral implant. As result of analyzing geometrical information through different surgical simulations, we found that it was possible to select the accurate position of acetabular cup and femoral implant. It is expected to help doctors get experienced in THA operation through repetitive surgical simulations using the method suggested in the study.
Development of a New Training System for the Improvement of Equibrilium Sense
Lee Jung Ok ; Park Young Gun ; No Pang Hwang ; Hong Chul Un ; Kim Nam Gyun ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 6, 2004, Pages 465~469
We propose a new training system for the improvement of equilibrium sense using unstable platform. This system consists of unstable platform, computer interface and various softwares. The unstable platform was a simple structure of elliptical-type which included tilt sensor and wireless RF module. To evaluate the effort of balance training, we measured the parameters such as the moving time to the target and duration to maintain cursor in the target of screen. Balance training was carried out for two weeks and we classified the subjects into two groups by the training program. As a result, the moving time was reduced and duration time was lengthened through the repeating training of equilibrium sense using training program of sine curve trace(SCT) and Block game. Especially, there was remarkable improvement at direction which was too difficult for the subjects to balance their body. It was showed that this system had an effort on improving equilibrium sense and might be applied to clinical use as an effective balance training system.
Double Threshold Method for EMG-based Human-Computer Interface
Lee Myungjoon ; Moon Inhyuk ; Mun Museong ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 6, 2004, Pages 471~478
Electromyogram (EMC) signal generated by voluntary contraction of muscles is often used in a rehabilitation devices such as an upper limb prosthesis because of its distinct output characteristics compared to other bio-signals. This paper proposes an EMG-based human-computer interface (HCI) for the control of the above-elbow prosthesis or the wheelchair. To control such rehabilitation devices, user generates four commands by combining voluntary contraction of two different muscles such as levator scapulae muscles and flexor-extensor carpi ulnaris muscles. The muscle contraction is detected by comparing the mean absolute value of the EMG signal with a preset threshold value. However. since the time difference in muscle firing can occur when the patient tries simultaneous co-contraction of two muscles, it is difficult to determine whether the patient's intention is co-contraction. Hence, the use of the comparison method using a single threshold value is not feasible for recognizing such co-contraction motion. Here, we propose a novel method using double threshold values composed of a primary threshold and an auxiliary threshold. Using the double threshold method, the co-contraction state is easily detected, and diverse interface commands can be used for the EMG-based HCI. The experimental results with real-time EMG processing showed that the double threshold method is feasible for the EMG-based HCI to control the myoelectric prosthetic hand and the powered wheelchair.
Design of an Optimal Adaptive Filter for the Cancellation of M-wave in the EMG Controlled Functional Electrical Stimulation for Paralyzed Individuals
Yeom Hojoon ; Park Youngcheol ; Lee Younghee ; Yoon Youngro ; Shin Taemin ; Yoon Hyoungro ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 6, 2004, Pages 479~487
Biopotential signals have been used as command in systems using electrical stimulation of motor nerves to restore movement after an injury to the central nervous system (CNS). In order to use the voluntary EMG (electromyography) among the biopotentials as a control signal for the electrical stimulation of the same muscle for CNS injury patients, it is necessary to remove M-wave of having high magnitude from raw data. We designed an optimal filter for removing the M-wave and preserving the voluntary EMG and showed that the optimal filter is eigen filter. We also proved that the previous method using the prediction error filter(PEF) is a suboptimal filtering in the sense of preserving the voluntary EMG. On basis of the data obtained from a model for M-wave and voluntary EMG and from actual CNS injury patients, with false-positive rate analysis, the proposed adaptive filter showed a very promising performance in comparison with previous method.
Numerical Analysis on the Flow in Cannulae having Side Holes
Park Joong Yull ; Park Chan Young ; Min Byoung Goo ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 6, 2004, Pages 489~496
Insertion of cannulae into vessels may disturb the blood flow doing non-physiological load and stress on blood cells such that ADP may increase and result in hemolysis. Authors used the computational method to simulate the 3-dimensional blood flow inside of the cannula using numerical method. We limited the research to within the drainage cannulae with side holes inserted through the human vein. In this paper, 9 different cannulae with side holes categorized by the number of side holes of 4, 12, and 20, and also categorized by the array type of side holes of staggered array, in-line array, and alternative in-line array were studied and compared to the cannula with no side holes by using CFD analysis. We evaluated the flow rate, the wall shear stress, and the shear rate and compared them with one another to estimate the effect of the side holes. The flow rate is not proportional to the number of the side holes. However, larger number of side holes can reduce the mean shear rate. Both the number and the array type of side holes play an important role on the fluid dynamics of the blood flow in cannulae.
Blood Flow Simulation in Bifurcated Geometry of Abdominal and Iliac Arteries Based on CT Images
Hong Y. S. ; Kim M. C. ; Kang H. M. ; Lee C. S. ; Kim C. J. ; Lee J. M. ; Kim D. S. ; Lee K. ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 6, 2004, Pages 497~503
Numerical simulation of blood flow has been conducted based on real vessel geometries generated front DICOM medical images of abdominal and iliac bifurcated arteries of a healthy man. A program was developed to read cross sectional images of the three dimensional arteries and smoothly extract boundary coordinates of vessels. Commercial programs were employed for mesh generation and flow simulation. Pressures, velocities, and flow distributions were found to lie within normal physiological ranges. Peak velocity measured in the iliac artery by ultrasound was 20% smaller than that obtained by simulation. The trend of velocity variation in a cardiac cycle was fairly similar between the simulation and the ultrasonic measurements. Simulation based on real vessel geometry of individual patient provides information on pressure, velocity, and its distribution in the diseased arteries or arteries to be surgically treated. The results of simulation may help surgeons to better understand hemodynamic status and surgical need of the patient by revealing variation of the hemodynamic parameters. Futhermore, they may serve as basic data for surgical treatment of arteries. This research is expected to develop to a program in the future that early diagnose atherosclerosis by showing distribution of a hemodynamic index closely related to atherosclerosis in arteries.
A Development of the Automated System for Adjusting the Hexapod Circular Fixator
Jung S. G. ; Park B. S. ; Sim H. J. ; Han C. S. ; Han J. S. ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 6, 2004, Pages 505~510
In this article, we present an automated system for adjusting the 6 degree of freedom (D.O.F.) circular fixator. The system includes a scheduling software to adjust the Hexapod Circular Fixator (HCF) and an automated strut with the ability of the multiple synchronized motion and independent motion. The HCF was designed to control a 6 D.O.F. Ilizarov fixator and it's mechanism. The HCF adjustment software evaluates each value of altered length of the HCF struts to correct the complex skeletal deformity by using the X-ray data of the patient. The data of HCF adjustment software feed into the automated strut system which provides the scheduled adjustment. Then, the automated strut is synchronized by input data. Also the data of HCF adjustment software can be used to adjust HCF without automated struts. The proposed HCF system was verified by experiments.
Development of a Biomechanical Motion System for the Rehabilitation of Various Joints
Lee Y. S. ; Baek C. S. ; Jang J. H. ; Sim H. J. ; Han C. S. ; Han J. S. ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 6, 2004, Pages 511~517
The existing rehabilitation systems were developed to exercise specific joints only. Therefore rehabilitating the various joints of human, various kinds of devices are need. To overcome these defects, this paper proposed the CMRS, an integrated system that performs various rehabilitation exercises. The characteristics of motion and the positions between human body and the system were investigated with the kinematics analysis of upper and lower limb of human body. We presented a proper mechanism to develop a rehabilitation device on the base of the study and studied the relative positions between head part and human joints. Through the simulations, the possibility of rehabilitation system was verified. And the base frame was also developed for convenient and stable position control. Finally, the CMRS was developed as an 8 degree of freedom mechanism. It is expected that the CMRS will be applied to the rehabilitations of various joints.
Analysis of the Micro-Structural and Mechanical Properties in Human Femoral Head Trabecular Bone with and without Osteoporosis
Won Ye-Yeon ; Baek Myong-Hyun ; Cui WenQuan ; Chun KeyoungJin ; Kim Man Kyung ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 6, 2004, Pages 519~523
This study investigates micro-structural and mechanical properties of trabecular bone in human femoral head with and without osteoporosis using Micro-CT and finite element-model. 15 cored trabecular bone specimens with 20min of diameter were obtained from femoral heads with osteoporosis (T-score > -2.5 ) resected for total hip arthroplasty, and 5 specimens were removed from femoral head of cadavers, which has no history of musculoskeletal diseases. A high-resolution micro-CT system was used to scan each specimen to obtain histomorphometry indices. Based on obtained micro-images(pixel size=21.31㎛), a FE-model was created to determine mechanical property indices. While non-osteoporosis group had increases trabecular thickness, bone volume, bone volume fraction, degree of anisotropy and trabecular number compared with those of non-osteoporotic group, the non-osteoporotic group showed decreases in trabecular separation and structure model index. Regarding the mechanical property indices, reaction force, apparent stress and young's modulus were 1ower in osteoporotic group than in non-osteoporotic group. Our data shows salient deteriorations in trabecular micro-structural and mechanical properties in human femoral head with osteoporosis.
FEM Analysis of Lumbar Interbody Fusion using the Cage and Screw in Relation to Bone Mineral Density
Kim H. S. ; Park J. H. ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 6, 2004, Pages 525~530
Three dimensional finite element models of lumbar interbody fusion using rage and screws were constructed for the simulation of stress distribution and maximum displacement. It is also performed to investigate the efforts of osteoporosis and the location of cage on the stress distribution. It is known from the results that the increase of the strength of trabecular bone causes to decrease the stress of cortical bone and to increase the stress of trabecular bone. And it is found that the trend of stress distribution is changed by the change of location of cage and proper location of cage enhances the rate of operational success.
Stiffness Analysis of External Fixation System with System Configuration Parameters
Kim Yoon Hyuk ; Lee Hyun Keun ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 6, 2004, Pages 531~536
In fracture treatment with external fixators, the inter-fragmentary movements at the fracture site affect the fracture healing process, and these movements are highly related to the stiffness of external fixation systems. Therefore, in order to provide the optimal fracture healing at the fracture site, it is essential to understand the relationship between the stiffness and the system configurations in external fixation system. In this study we investigated the influences of system configuration parameters on the stiffness in the finite element analysis of an external fixation system of a long bone. The system alignment, the geometric and the material non-linearity of the pin, the joint stiffness and the callus formation were considered in the finite element model. In the first, the system stiffness of the developed finite element model was compared with the experiment data for model validation. The consideration of the joint stiffness and nonlinearity of the model improved the system stiffness results. The joint stiffness, the non-alignment of the system decreased the system stiffness while the callus formation increased the system stiffness. The present results provided the biomechanical basis of rational guidelines for design improvements of external fixators and pre-op. planning to maximize the system stiffness in fracture surgery.
East Reconstruction of 3D Human Model from Contour Lines
Shin Byeong-Seok ; Roh Sung ; Jung Hoe-Sang ; Chung Min Suk ; Lee Yong Sook ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 6, 2004, Pages 537~543
In order to create three-dimensional model for human body, a method that reconstructs geometric models from contour lines on cross-section images is commonly used. We can get a set of contour lines by acquiring CT or MR images and segmenting anatomical structures. Previously proposed method divides entire contour line into simply matched regions and clefts. Since long processing time is required for reconstructing cleft regions, its performance might be degraded when manipulating complex data such as cross-sections for human body. In this paper, we propose a fast reconstruction method. It generates a triangle strip with single tiling operation for simple region that does not contain branch structures. If there exist branches in contour lines, it partitions the contour line into several sub-contours by considering the number of vertices and their spatial distribution. We implemented an automatic surface reconstruction system by using our method which reconstructs three-dimensional models for anatomical structures.
Image Discriminal Analysis for Detecting a Esophagitis
Seo K. W. ; Lee C. W. ; Kim W. ; Lee S. Y. ; Lee D. W. ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 6, 2004, Pages 545~550
An Image processing algorithm was developed and tested to detect abnormal parts, such as esophagitis, with the information on the color and the texture in a digital clinic endoscopic image by using discriminal analysis. In order to develope the algorithm, the critical parameters from many parameters were found to distinguish between normal and abnormal part in the various images. The Inflammation and ulceration which are very important diagnostic indexes were detected by the algorithm. The algorithm proved to a reliable program for detecting abnormal parts with 20 images. A success rate was 92.8% and 92.4% in the calibration stage and the validation stage by using the algorithm with discriminal analysis.
Comparison Between Ultrasonic and X-ray Methods for Imaging the Children′s Growth Plate
Kim Sang Hoo ; Kim Hyung Jun ; Han Eun Ok ; Han Seung Moo ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 6, 2004, Pages 551~556
The purpose of this study was to suggest a systematic and scientific method for measurement of children's growth development, in which the accuracy of existing diagnosis method has not been concretely examined yet. The most popular method for diagnosis of children's growth is to analyze the opening degree of growth plate in each joint by X-ray image. However, X-ray method has some disadvantages; it is impossible to measure the diagnosis of growth periodically and repeatedly due to the radiation problem. Hence, this study introduced a profile analysis and the algorithm of analyzing the image of growth plate with the BUA(Broadband Ultrasound Attenuation) of calcaneus, to verify the possibility of alternative ultrasonic method harmless to human body. We obtained the images of growth plate in proximal tibiae, phalanges, and calcanei of 269 children (7∼16 years old) with X-ray. And the image of growth plate in calcanei was also obtained front those children with ultrasound. The results showed that the time of the opening degree of growth plate in each joint was almost consistent between X-ray and ultrasonic images. Also, the images of growth plate measured by X-ray and ultrasound showed the high correlation. Therefore, it is expected that the algorithm of ultrasonic profile analysis introduced in this study can replace the existing X-ray method to measure the growth plate correctly.
Vacuum Assisted Auto-Lancing Technique for Capillary Blood Sampling on the Forearm with Minimized Pain
Park Mi Sook ; Park Kyung Soon ; Kim Kyung Ah ; Jun Myung Hee ; Kim Tae Im ; Lee Tae Soo ; Cha Eun Jong ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 6, 2004, Pages 557~563
A new vacuum assisted auto-lancing technique is proposed to minimize pain. Specially designed lancing device was introduced, which applied -100mmHg right after skin puncture on the forearm. Sampled blood volumes were measured in 58 normal females. Mean volume of 464 samples was approximately 2.6
and the frequency of more than 0.5
was 86%. Thus the success rate of blood sugar test should also be the same when using modern glucose meters capable of testing with only 0.3~0.5
of capillary blood. When pain scores were quantitatively evaluated by the visual pain measure, only 23% pain of the traditional finger sampling was experienced, demonstrating that capillary blood sampling was performed on the forearm with almost no pain. The present technique reduced pain to a great degree, though resampling might be unavoidable due to 14% of test failure rate estimated for modern glucose meters. However, minimized pain makes the present technique of great convenience for diabetic patients who need blood sampling a few times a day.
Modeling and Simulation of the Cardiovascular System Using Baroreflex Control Model of the Heart Activity
Choi Byeong Cheol ; Jeong Do Un ; Shon Jung Man ; Yae Su Yung ; Kim Ho Jong ; Lee Hyun Cheol ; Kim Yun Jin ; Jung Dong keun ; Yi Sang Hun ; Jeon Gye Rok ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 6, 2004, Pages 565~573
In this paper, we proposed a heart activity control model for simulation of the aortic sinus baroreceptor, which was the most representative baroreceptor sensing the variance of pressure in the cardiovascular system. And then, the heart activity control model composed electric circuit model of the cardiovascular system with baroreflex control and time delay sub-model to observe the effect of time delay in heart period and stroke volume under the regulation of baroreflex in the aortic sinus. The mechanism of time delay in the heart activity baroreflex control model is as follows. A control function is conduct sensing pressure information in the aortic sinus baroreceptor to transmit the efferent nerve through central nervous system. As simulation results of the proposed model, we observed three patterns of the cardiovascular system variability by the time delay. First of all, if the time delay over 2.5 second, aortic pressure and stroke volume and heart rate was observed non-periodically and irregularly. However, if the time delay from 0.1 second to 0.25 second, the regular oscillation was observed. And then, if time delay under 0.1 second, then heart rate and aortic pressure-heart rate trajectory were maintained in stable state.
Grand Average in MEG and Crude Estimation of Anatomical Site
Kwon H. ; Kim K. ; Kim J. M. ; Lee Y. H. ; Park Y. K. ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 6, 2004, Pages 575~580
In this work, a method is presented to find an anatomical site of a current source crudely in a standard brain using grand average of MEG data. Minimum norm estimation algorithm and truncated singular value decomposition were applied to calculate the distributed sources that can reproduce the measured signals. Grand average over all subjects was obtained from the transformed signals, which would be detected in a standard sensor plane by the obtained distributed current sources. In the simulation study, it was shown that the localized dipole using the grand average is consistent with the mean location of localized dipoles of all subjects within several mm even with large inter-individual differences of sensor positions. This result suggests that the mean location of low level signal source can be estimated as a dipole source in grand average and it was confirmed in the localization of the current source of N100m. when the localized dipole is registered on a standard brain. This result also suggests that the activity region obtained from grand average can be crudely estimated on a standard brain using the source location of the N100m as a reference point.
The Analysis of Mental Stress using Time-Frequency Analysis of Heart Rate Variability Signal
Seong Hong Mo ; Lee Joo Sung ; Kim Wuon Shik ; Lee Hyun Sook ; Youn Young Ro ; Shin Tae Min ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 6, 2004, Pages 581~587
Conventional power spectrum methods based on FFT, AR method are not appropriate for analyzing biomedical signals whose spectral characteristics change rapidly. On the other hand, time-frequency analysis has more desirable characteristics of a time-varying spectrum. In this study, we investigated the spectral components of heart rate variability(HRV) in time-frequency domain using time frequency analysis methods. In the various time-frequency kernels functions, we studied the suitable kernels for the analysis of HRV using synthetic HRV signals. First, we evaluated the time/frequency resolution and cross term reduction of various kernel functions. Then, from the instantaneous frequency, obtained from time-frequency distribution, the method extracting frequency components of HRV was proposed. Subjects were 17 healthy young men. A coin-stacking task was used to induce mental stress. For each subjects, the experiment time was 3 minutes. Electrocardiogram, measured during the experiment, was analyzed after converted to HRV signal. In the results, emotional stress of subjects produced an increase in sympathetic activity. Sympathetic activation was responsible for the significant increase in the LF/HF ratio. Subjects were divided into two groups with task ability. Subjects who have higher mental stress have lack of task ability.
A New Algorithm for Extracting Fetal ECG from Multi-Channel ECG using Singular Value Decomposition in a Discrete Cosine Transform Domain
Song In-Ho ; Lee Sang-Min ; Kim In-Young ; Lee Doo-Soo ; Kim Sun I. ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 6, 2004, Pages 589~598
We propose a new algorithm to extract the fetal electrocardiogram (FECG) from a multi-channel electrocardiogram (ECG) recorded at the chest and abdomen of a pregnant woman. To extract the FECG from the composite abdominal ECG, the classical time-domain method based on singular value decomposition (SVD) has been generally used. However, this method has some disadvantages, such as its high degree of computational complexity and the necessary assumption that vectors between the FECG and the maternal electrocardiogram (MECG) should be orthogonal. The proposed algorithm, which uses SVD in a discrete cosine transform (DCT) domain, compensates for these disadvantages. To perform SVD with lower computational complexity, DCT coefficients corresponding to high-frequency components were eliminated on the basis of the properties of the DCT coefficients and the frequency characteristics of the FECG. Moreover, to extract the pure FECG with little influence of the direction of the vectors between the FECG and MECG, three new channels were made out of the MECG suppressed in the composite abdominal ECG, and the new channels were appended to the original multi-channel ECG. The performance of the proposed algorithm and the classical time-domain method based on SVD were compared using simulated and real data. It was experimentally verified that the proposed algorithm can extract the pure FECG with reduced computational complexity.
Implantable Flexible Sensor for Telemetrical Real-Time Blood Pressure Monitoring using Polymer/Metal Multilayer Processing Technique
Lim Chang-Hyun ; Kim Yong-Jun ; Yoon Young-Ro ; Yoon Hyoung-Ro ; Shin Tae-Min ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 6, 2004, Pages 599~604
Implantable flexible sensor using polymer/metal multilayer processing technique for telemetrical real-time blood pressure monitoring is presented. The realized sensor is mechanically flexible, which can be less invasively implanted and attached on the outside of blood vessel to monitor the variation of blood pressure. Therefore, unlike conventional detecting methods which install sensor on the inside of vessel, the suggested monitoring method can monitor the relative blood pressure without injuring blood vessel. The major factor of sudden death of adults is a disease of artery like angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. A disease of circulatory system resulted from vessel occlusion by plaque can be preventable and treatable early through continuous blood pressure monitoring. The procedure of suggested new method for monitoring variation of blood pressure is as follows. First, integrated sensor is attached to the outer wall of blood vessel. Second, it detects mechanical contraction and expansion of blood vessel. And then, reader antenna recognizes it using telemetrical method as the relative variation of blood pressure. There are not any active devices in the sensor system; therefore, the transmission of energy and signal depends on the principle of mutual inductance between internal antenna of LC resonator and external antenna of reader. To confirm the feasibility of the sensing mechanism, in vitro experiment using silicone rubber tubing and blood is practiced. First of all, pressure is applied to the silicone tubing which is filled by blood. Then the shift of resonant frequency with the change of applied pressure is measured. The frequency of 2.4 MHz is varied while the applied pressure is changed from 0 to 213.3 kPa. Therefore, the sensitivity of implantable blood pressure is 11.25 kHz/kPa.
A Study on Estimation of Systolic Blood Pressure using PTT
Park E. K. ; Lee S. M. ; Han Y. H. ; Lee J. Y. ; Kwon S. Y. ; Kim I. Y. ; Kim Sun I. ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 6, 2004, Pages 605~609
Blood pressure (BP) is one of the important physiological parameters for diagnosing cardiovascula diseases by means of noninvasive method. Existing noninvasive methods for measuring arterial BP have to use cuff and difficult in measuring arterial BP continuously. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and pulse transit time (PTT) have a kind of inverse relationship. We acquired PTT data when subjects were in relaxation and also after exercise. We performed the linear regression analysis for making the regression equations for each subject and the regression equation for all subjects. We compared the estimated SBP with the measured SBP to check the accuracy of our regression equations. From the result, the regression equations for each subject was appropriate according to the American National Standards Institute of the Association of the Advancement of Medical Instrument (ANSI/AAMI) which says that BP devices should have ±5mmHg mean of error and 8mmHg standard deviation of error. However, the regression equation for all subjects was not proper to ANSI/AAMI recommendation. The result means that, without cuff, we can continuously estimate each subject's SBP through PTT and indivisual calibration.
Feasibility of Optoelectronic Neural Stimulation Shown in Sciatic Nerve of Rats
Kim Eui tae ; Oh Seung jae ; Baac Hyoung won ; Kim Sung june ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 6, 2004, Pages 611~615
A neural prostheses can be designed to permit stimulation of specific sites in the nervous system to restore their functions, lost due to disease or trauma. This study focuses on the feasibility of optoelecronic stimulation into nervous system. Optoelectronic stimulation supplies, power and signal into the implanted optical detector inside the body by optics. It can be effective strategy especially on the retinal prosthesis, because it enables the non-invasive connection between the external source and internal detector through natural optical window 'eye'. Therefore, we designed an effective neural stimulating setup by optically based stimulation. Stimulating on the sciatic nerve of a rat with proper depth probe through optical stimulation needs higher ratio of current spreading through the neural surface, because of high impedance of neural interface. To increase the insertion current spreading into the neuron, we used a parallel low resistance compared to load resistance organic interface and calculated the optimized outer parallel resistance for maximum insertion current with the assumption of limited current by photodiode. Optimized outer parallel resistance was at a range of 500Ω-700Ω and a current was at a level between 580uA and 650uA. Stimulating current efficiency from initial photodiode induced current was between 47.5 and 59.7%. Various amplitude and frequency of the optical stimulation on the sciatic nerve showed the reliable visual tremble, and the action potential was also recorded near the stimulating area. These result demonstrate that optoelectronic stimulation with no bias can be applied to the retinal prosthesis and other neuroprosthetic area.
Development and Performance Evaluation of Parallel Sequence Analysis System on PC-Cluster
Shin Yong-Won ; Park Jeong-Seon ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 6, 2004, Pages 617~621
In recent, researchers in the field of Bioinformatics need to analyze thousands of genome sequences efficiently according to introduce of new analysis methods and technologies such as genome expression microchip. This rapid growth in the field of bio-engineering needs computing resources to analyze rapidly for genome sequences, but it does not introduce the computing resources due to an enormous investment expense. The core factor of this study is integrated environment based PC-Cluster system & high speed access rate up to 155Mbps, continuous collection system for bio-information at home and abroad. The results of the study are establishment & stabilization of information and communication infrastructure, establishment & stabilization of high performance computer network up to 155Mbps, development of PC-Cluster system with 32 nodes, a parallel BLAST on Cluster system, which can provides scalable speedup in terms of response time, and development of collection & search system for bio-information.
A Study on Human Autonomic Nervous System Activities by Far-Infrared Ray Hyperthermia
Park Chan-Ouk ; Jang Yun-Ho ; Min Se-Dong ; Kang Se-Gu ; Lee Chung-Keun ; Lee Myoungho ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 25, issue 6, 2004, Pages 623~628
This paper describes autonomic nervous system activities caused by hyperthermia of far-infrared ray on human body. Designed protocol and analysis algorithm were evaluated by experiments on 20 subjects to analyze the characteristic of heart rate variability(HRV) signals which could be analyzed by FFT power spectrum and time-frequency analysis. Using Poincare' plot analysis, LF and HF were compared with SD1 and SD2. During the experiment, subject was exposed to hyperthermic effects of far-infrared radiation. We could confirm that far-infrared ray, which was known to improve the blood circulation, stress state and enhancing thermal effect into human body, had an effect on human nervous system. As the hyperthermic temperature of far-infrared ray increased, the activity of cardiovascular system to sustain the homeostasis was observed by means of investigating the increase of the sympathetic activity