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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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Journal DOI :
The Korea Society of Medical and Biological Engineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 6 - Dec 2005
Volume 26, Issue 5 - Oct 2005
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Aug 2005
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Jun 2005
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Apr 2005
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Feb 2005
Selecting the target year
An fMRI Study of Cognitive Function during Hyperoxia
Chung Soon-Cheol ; Kim Ik-Hyeon ; Tack Gye-Rae ; Lee Soo Yeol ; Sohn Jin-Hun ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 26, issue 1, 2005, Pages 1~7
This study aimed to investigate the hypothesis that administration of the air with 30% oxygen compared with normal air (21% oxygen) enhances cognitive functioning through increased activation in the brain. Seventeen college students (righthanded, average age of 24.3) were selected as subjects for this study. An oxygen supply equipment that provides 21% and 30% oxygen at a constant rate of 8L/min was developed. In order to measure the performance level of visuospatial and verbal cognition, two psychological tests were developed. The experiment consisted of two runs, one for cognition task with normal air (21% oxygen) and the other for cognition task with hyperoxic air (30% oxygen). Visuospatial and verbal tasks were presented while brain images were scanned by a 3T fMRI system using the single-shot EPI method. The results showed that there was an improvement in performance and also increased activation in several brain areas in the higher oxygen condition. These results suggest that while performing cognitive tasks, high concentrations of oxygen administration make oxygen administration sufficient, thus making neural network activate more, and the ability to perform cognitive tasks increase.
Development of a Group-specific Average Brain Atlas: A Comparison Study between Korean and Occidental Groups
Kim Hyun-Pil ; Lee Jong-Min ; Lee Dong Soo ; Koo Bang-Bon ; Kim Jae-Jin ; Kim In Young ; Kwon Jun Soo ; Yoo Tae Woo ; Chang Kee-Hyun ; Kim Sun I. ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 26, issue 1, 2005, Pages 9~16
One of the most important roles of a brain atlas is providing a spatial reference system in which multiple images can be interpreted in a consistent way. The brain atlase based on Western populations such as the International Consortium for Brain Mapping's 452 T-1 Weighted Average Atlas was widely used; however, they may not be the optimal choice for use with brain images from other ethnic groups, because structural differences between occidental and oriental brains have been reported. Therefore, in this study, we created an average brain atlas from 100 healthy Koreans (100 cases (M/F=53/47), 39.0±17.0 years). The purpose of this study was to make a Korean average-brain atlas and to measure its differences from a widely accepted average brain atlas built on an occidental population. The average brain atlas for Koreans was developed using widely accepted tools and procedures. The comparison between the Korean and occidental averages was performed using tissue probability maps and a registration tool, and it was shown that the global pattern of differences between the two average brains found in this work agreed with previously reported differences: Korean brains are wider and shorter in size, and smaller in volume, yet no hemispheric volume asymmetry was found.
Development of Analytical Model for Optimization of Dual Layer Phoswich Detector Length for PET
Chung Yong Hyun ; Choi Yong ; Choe Yearn Seong ; Lee Kyung-Han ; Kim Byung-Tae ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 26, issue 1, 2005, Pages 17~22
Small animal PET using a dual layer phoswich detector has been developed to obtain high and uniform spatial resolution. In this study, a simple analytic model to optimize the lengths of a dual layer phoswich detector was derived and validated by Monte Carlo simulation. For a small animal PET scanner with a 10㎝ ring diameter, the optimal length of the phoswich detector consisting of various crystal materials, such as LSO and LuYAP, were calculated analytically and validated using GATE. The detector module consisted of 8×8 arrays of crystals, with each phoswich detector element having a 2㎜×2㎜ sensitive area. The total crystal length was fixed to 20㎜. The optimal lengths of the phoswich detector layers, as functions of the crystal materials and order, conveniently derived by the analytic equation, showed good agreement with those estimated by the time consuming simulation. The simple analytical model can be used for the fast and accurate design of an optimal phoswich detector for small animal PET to achieve high spatial resolution and uniformity.
A Fast Volume Rendering Algorithm for Virtual Endoscopy
Ra Jong Beom ; Kim Sang Hun ; Kwon Sung Min ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 26, issue 1, 2005, Pages 23~30
3D virtual endoscopy has been used as an alternative non-invasive procedure for visualization of hollow organs. However, due to computational complexity, this is a time-consuming procedure. In this paper, we propose a fast volume rendering algorithm based on perspective ray casting for virtual endoscopy. As a pre-processing step, the algorithm divides a volume into hierarchical blocks and classifies them into opaque or transparent blocks. Then, in the first step, we perform ray casting only for sub-sampled pixels on the image plane, and determine their pixel values and depth information. In the next step, by reducing the sub-sampling factor by half, we repeat ray casting for newly added pixels, and their pixel values and depth information are determined. Here, the previously obtained depth information is utilized to reduce the processing time. This step is recursively performed until a full-size rendering image is acquired. Experiments conducted on a PC show that the proposed algorithm can reduce the rendering time by 70- 80% for bronchus and colon endoscopy, compared with the brute-force ray casting scheme. Using the proposed algorithm, interactive volume rendering becomes more realizable in a PC environment without any specific hardware.
A Synthetic Aperture Focusing Method for Three-way Dynamic Focusing
Kim Jung-Jun ; Chang Jin-Ho ; Song Tai-Kyong ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 26, issue 1, 2005, Pages 31~35
A novel synthetic aperture method for real-time three-way dynamic focusing is proposed, which provides lateral beam patterns represented as the product of Fourier transforms of transmit subaperture, receive subaperture, and a synthetic window function. In the proposed method, all array elements are fired individually and for each firing echo signals are recorded from all elements of a receive subaperture moving along an array with the transmit element. The three-way dynamic focusing is then achieved by employing a synthetic aperture algorithm for two-way dynamic focusing and a synthetic focusing method for transmit dynamic focusing. Both theoretical analysis and computer simulation results show that the proposed method produces ultrasound beams with improved lateral resolution at all depths compared to the conventional phased array imaging and synthetic aperture focusing methods.
Microscopic Imaging of Articular Cartilage using Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography
Lee Sang-Won ; Oh Jung-Taek ; Kim Beop-Min ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 26, issue 1, 2005, Pages 37~42
We construct and test the polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) system for imaging porcine and human articular cartilages. PS-OCT is a new imaging technology that provides information regarding not only the tissue structures but tissue components that show birefringence such as collagen. In this study, we measure the cartilage thickness of the porcine joint and the phase retardation due to collagen birefringence. Also, we demonstrate that changes of the collagen fiber orientation could be detected by the PS-OCT system. Finally, differences between normal and damaged human articular cartilage are observed using the PS-OCT system, which is then compared with the regular histology pictures. As a result, the PS-OCT system is proven to be effective for diagnosis of the pathology related to the cartilage. In the future, this technology may be used for discrimination of the collagen types. When combined with endoscope technologies, the PS-OCT images may become a useful tool for in vivo tissue testing.
Development of a Small Animal CT using a Linear Detector Array and Small-Scale Slip Rings
An Ung Hwan ; Chun In Kon ; Lee Sang Chul ; Cho Min Hyoung ; Lee Soo Yeol ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 26, issue 1, 2005, Pages 43~47
We have developed a small bore x-ray CT for small animal imaging with a linear x-ray detector array and small-scale slip rings. The linear x-ray detector array consists of 1024 elements of 400□m×400□m with a gadolinium oxysulfide (GOS) scintillator on top of them. To avoid use of expensive large diameter slip rings for projection data transmission from the Xray detector to the image reconstruction system, we used the wireless LAN technology. The projection data are temporally stored in the data acquisition system residing on the rotating gantry during the scan and they are transmitted to the image reconstruction system after the scan. With the wireless LAN technology, we only needed to use small-scale slip rings to deliver the AC electric power to the X-ray generator and the power supply on the rotating gantry. The performances of the small animal CT system, such as SNR, contrast, and spatial resolution, have been evaluated through experiments using various phantoms. It has been experimentally found that the SNR is almost linearly proportional to the tube current and tube voltage, and the minimum resolvable contrast is less than 30 CT numbers at 40kVp/3.0㎃. The spatial resolution of the small animal CT system has been found to be about 0.9Ip/㎜. Postmortem images of a piglet is also presented.
Design of a Low-cost Active Dry Electrode Module for Single Channel EEG Recording
Byeon Jong-Gil ; Jin Kyung-Soo ; Park Byoung-Woo ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 26, issue 1, 2005, Pages 49~54
This paper presents a design of 1-channel active dry electrode module for EEG from one's forehead. The IA(instrumentation amplifier) circuit inside the module is based on the configuration sown on the paper MettingVanRijn et al. We analyze the IA circuit to find out the related equation, and then compare its simulated characteristic with the result obtained from the real active dry electrode circuit. With the active dry electrode and the wet(Ag/AgCI) electrode connected to the separated analog processing module on one's forehead at the same time, their real time and FFT outputs of EEG are examined for comparison. The active dry electrode module has advantages over the wet electrode and its analog processing module: 1) The size of the analog processing circuit of the active dry electrode module is smaller than that of existing EEG analog processing module; 2) the total cost required to make the proposed analog processing circuit is much lower than that of the existing circuit, since the designed circuit needs smaller parts; 3) the electrical characteristic is comparable to the general EEG analog processing module even if the designed module has simpler circuit configuration.
3-D High Resolution Ultrasonic Transmission Tomography and Soft Tissue Differentiation
Kim Tae-Seong ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 26, issue 1, 2005, Pages 55~63
A novel imaging system for High-resolution Ultrasonic Transmission Tomography (HUTT) and soft tissue differentiation methodology for the HUTT system are presented. The critical innovation of the HUTT system includes the use of sub-millimeter transducer elements for both transmitter and receiver arrays and multi-band analysis of the first-arrival pulse. The first-arrival pulse is detected and extracted from the received signal (i.e., snippet) at each azimuthal and angular location of a mechanical tomographic scanner in transmission mode. Each extracted snippet is processed to yield a multi-spectral vector of attenuation values at multiple frequency bands. These vectors form a 3-D sinogram representing a multi-spectral augmentation of the conventional 2-D sinogram. A filtered backprojection algorithm is used to reconstruct a stack of multi-spectral images for each 2-D tomographic slice that allow tissue characterization. A novel methodology for soft tissue differentiation using spectral target detection is presented. The representative 2-D and 3-D HUTT images formed at various frequency bands demonstrate the high-resolution capability of the system. It is shown that spherical objects with diameter down to 0.3㎜ can be detected. In addition, the results of soft tissue differentiation and characterization demonstrate the feasibility of quantitative soft tissue analysis for possible detection of lesions or cancerous tissue.