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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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Journal DOI :
The Korea Society of Medical and Biological Engineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 28, Issue 6 - Dec 2007
Volume 28, Issue 5 - Oct 2007
Volume 28, Issue 4 - Aug 2007
Volume 28, Issue 3 - Jun 2007
Volume 28, Issue 2 - Apr 2007
Volume 28, Issue 1 - Feb 2007
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Wallerian Degeneration of Insufficiently Affected White Matters in Old Infarction: Tract of Interest Analysis of Diffusion Tensor Imaging
Choi, Chi-Hoon ; Lee, Jong-Min ; Koo, Bang-Bon ; Park, Jun-Sung ; Kwon, Jun-Soo ; Kim, Sun-I. ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 28, issue 3, 2007, Pages 317~324
The application of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fiber tractography to Wallerian degeneration (WD) is important because this technique is a very potent tools for quantitatively evaluating fiber tracts in vivo brain. We analyzed a case and control using tracts of interest (TOI) analysis to quantify WD. We scanned a case of old infarction and an age-matched healthy volunteer. T1 magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo (MPRAGE), fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and 12-direction diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were obtained and analyzed using TOI analysis. The value of mean diffusity (
) and fracional anisotrophy (FA) were analyzed statistically by MWU test. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. A comparison of the global fiber diffusion characteristics shows WD of both the corpus callosum and the ipsilateral superior longitudinal fasciculus. The corpus callosum in particular showed trans-hemispherical degeneration. Local fiber characteristics along the geodesic paths show WD in the corpus callosum, ipsilateral superior longitudinal fasciculus, ipsilateral corticospinal tract, and ipsilateral corticothalamic tract. We have demonstrated changes in
and FA values and a clear correspondence with the WD in various tracts. TOI analysis successfully revealed radial WD in white matter tracts from a region of encephalomalacia and primary gliosis, although they were only slightly affected.
Personal Identification Based on Radio Signal Strength for Ubiquitous Healthcare Systems
Lee, Jong-Shill ; Park, Sang-Hae ; Chee, Young-Joon ; Kim, In-Young ; Kim, Sun-I. ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 28, issue 3, 2007, Pages 325~331
Personal identification is essential for the automatic measurement of biosignal information in home healthcare systems. Personal identification is usually achieved with passive radio frequency identification (RFID), which does little more than store a unique identification number. However, passive RFID is not ideal for automatic identification. We present a user identification system based on radio signal strength indication (RSSI) using ZigBee for active RFID tags. Personal identification is achieved by finding the largest RSSI value from aggregated beacon messages that are periodically transmitted by active RFID tags carried by users. Obtaining reliable person!'.! identification without restricting the orientation requires a certain distance between the closest active RFID tag from the ZED and the second closest tag. The results show that the closest active RFID tag from the ZED and the second closest tag must be at least 70 cm apart to achieve reliable personal identification.
Carpal Bone Segmentation Using Modified Multi-Seed Based Region Growing
Choi, Kyung-Min ; Kim, Sung-Min ; Kim, Young-Soo ; Kim, In-Young ; Kim, Sun-Il ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 28, issue 3, 2007, Pages 332~337
In the early twenty-first century, minimally invasive surgery is the mainstay of various kinds of surgical fields. Surgeons gave percutaneously surgical treatment of the screw directly using a fluoroscopic view in the past. The latest date, they began to operate the fractured carpal bone surgery using Computerized Tomography (CT). Carpal bones composed of wrist joint consist of eight small bones which have hexahedron and sponge shape. Because of these shape, it is difficult to grasp the shape of carpal bones using only CT image data. Although several image segmentation studies have been conducted with carpal bone CT image data, more studies about carpal bone using CT data are still required. Especially, to apply the software implemented from the studies to clinical fIeld, the outcomes should be user friendly and very accurate. To satisfy those conditions, we propose modified multi-seed region growing segmentation method which uses simple threshold and the canny edge detector for finding edge information more accurately. This method is able to use very easily and gives us high accuracy and high speed for extracting the edge information of carpal bones. Especially, using multi-seed points, multi-bone objects of the carpal bone are extracted simultaneously.
Estimation Method for Brain Activities are Influenced by Blood Pulsation Effect
Lee, W.H. ; Ku, J.H. ; Lee, H.R. ; Han, K.W. ; Park, J.S. ; Kim, J.J. ; Yoon, K.J. ; Kim, I.Y. ; Kim, S.I. ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 28, issue 3, 2007, Pages 338~343
BOLD T2*-weighted MR images reflects cortical blood flow and oxygenation alterations. fMRI study relies on the detection of localized changes in BOLD signal intensity. Since fMRI measures the very small modulations in BOLD signal intensity that occur during changes in brain activity, it is also very sensitive to small signal intensity variations caused by physiologic noise during the scan. Due to the complexity of movement of various organs associated with heart beat, it is important to reduce cardiac related noise rather than other physiological noise which could be required with relatively simple method. Therefore, a number of methods have been developed for the estimation and reduction of cardiac noise in fMRI study. But, each method has limitation. In this study, we proposed a new estimation method for brain activities influenced by blood pulsation effect using regression analysis with blood pulsation signal and the correspond slice of fMRI. We could find out that the right anterior cingulate cortex and right olfactory cortex and left olfactory cortex were largely influenced by blood pulsation effect for new method. These observed areas are mostly on the structure of anterior cerebral artery in the brain. That is convinced with that our method would be valid and our new method is easier to apply in practice and reduce computational burden than the retrospective method.
Effect of Water State in Electroactive Chitosan/Poly (Diallyldimethylammonium Chloride) Hydrogels on Bending Behavior at Various pH Conditions
Yoon, Seong-Gil ; Kim, Seon-Jeong ; Kim, In-Young ; Kim, Sun-I. ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 28, issue 3, 2007, Pages 344~347
A interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) hydrogel, composed of chitosan (CS) and poly(diallydimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) was prepared, which exhibited electrical sensitive behavior. The swelling behavior of the CS/PDADMAC SIPN hydrogel was studied by immersion of the gel into various pH buffer solutions, and their stimuli response in electric fields also investigated. In order to clarify the relationship between the equilibrium swelling ratio and bending behavior of the SIPN hydrogels, the state of water in the SIPN hydrogel was also investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).
Modeling, Simulation, and Control of a Polyaniline/Carbon-Nanotube Polymer Actuator
Sohn, Ki-Won ; Yi, Byung-Ju ; Kim, Sean-Jeong ; Kim, In-Young ; Kim, Sun-I. ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 28, issue 3, 2007, Pages 348~354
Polymer actuators, which are also called as smart materials, change their shapes when electrical, chemical, thermal, or magnetic energy is applied to them and are useful in wide variety of applications such as microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), machine components, and artificial muscles. For this study, Polyaniline/carbon-nanotube polymer actuator that is one of electroactive polymer actuators was prepared. Since the nonlinear phenomena of hysteresis and a step response are essential considerations for practical use of polymer actuators, we have investigated the movement of the Polyaniline/carbon-nanotube polymer actuator and have developed an integrated model that can be used for simulating and predicting the hysteresis and a step response during actuation. The Preisach hysteresis model, one of the most popular phenomenological models of hysteresis, were used for describing the hysteretic behavior of Polyaniline/carbon-nanotube polymer actuator while the ARX method, one of system identification techniques, were used for modeling a step response. In this paper, we first expain details in preparation of the Polyaniline/carbon-nanotube polymer then present the mathematical description of our model, the extraction of the parameters, simulation results from the model, and finally a comparison with measured data.
Prediction of Diabetic Nephropathy from Diabetes Dataset Using Feature Selection Methods and SVM Learning
Cho, Baek-Hwan ; Lee, Jong-Shill ; Chee, Young-Joan ; Kim, Kwang-Won ; Kim, In-Young ; Kim, Sun-I. ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 28, issue 3, 2007, Pages 355~362
Diabetes mellitus can cause devastating complications, which often result in disability and death, and diabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of death in people with diabetes. In this study, we tried to predict the onset of diabetic nephropathy from an irregular and unbalanced diabetic dataset. We collected clinical data from 292 patients with type 2 diabetes and performed preprocessing to extract 184 features to resolve the irregularity of the dataset. We compared several feature selection methods, such as ReliefF and sensitivity analysis, to remove redundant features and improve the classification performance. We also compared learning methods with support vector machine, such as equal cost learning and cost-sensitive learning to tackle the unbalanced problem in the dataset. The best classifier with the 39 selected features gave 0.969 of the area under the curve by receiver operation characteristics analysis, which represents that our method can predict diabetic nephropathy with high generalization performance from an irregular and unbalanced dataset, and physicians can benefit from it for predicting diabetic nephropathy.
Implementation of Auto Surgical Illumination Robotic System Using Ultrasonic Sensor-Based Tracking Algorithm
Choi, Dong-Gul ; Yi, Byung-Ju ; Kim, Young-Soo ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 28, issue 3, 2007, Pages 363~368
Most surgery illumination systems have been developed as passive systems. However, sometimes it is inconvenient to relocate the position of the illumination system whenever the surgeon changes his pose. To cope with such a problem, this study develops an auto-illumination system that is autonomously tracking the surgeon's movement. A 5-DOF serial type manipulator system that can control (X, Y, Z, Yaw, Pitch) position and secure enough workspace is developed. Using 3 ultrasonic sensors, the surgeon's position and orientation could be located. The measured data aresent to the main control system so that the robot can be auto-tracking the target. Finally, performance of the developed auto-illuminating system was verified through a preliminary experiment in the operating room environment.
A Study on Accelerometer Based Motion Artifact Reduction in Photoplethysmography Signal
Kang, Joung-Hoon ; Cho, Baek-Hwan ; Lee, Jong-Shill ; Chee, Young-Joon ; Kim, In-Young ; Kim, Sun-I. ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 28, issue 3, 2007, Pages 369~376
With the convergence of ubiquitous networking and medical technologies, ubiquitous healthcare(U-Healthcare) service has come in our life, which enables a patient to receive medical services at anytime and anywhere. In the u-Healthcare environment, intelligent real-time biosignal aquisition/analysis techniques are inevitable. In this study, we propose a motion artifact cancelation method in portable photoplethysmography(PPG) signal aquisition using an accelerometer and an adaptive filter. A preliminary experiment represented that the component of the pedestrian motion artifact can be found under 5Hz in the spectral analysis. Therefore, we collected PPG signals under both simulated conditions with a motor that generates circular motion with uniform velocity (from 1 to 5Hz) and a real walking condition. We then reduced the motion artifact using a recursive least square adaptive filter which takes the accelerometer output as a noise reference. The results showed that the adaptive filter can remove the motion artifact effectively and recover peak points in PPG signals, which represents our method can be useful to detect heart rate in real walking condition.
New Fluid Flow System for Simulation of Mechanical Loading to Bone Cells During Human Gait Cycle
Ahn, Jae-Mok ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 28, issue 3, 2007, Pages 377~386
Mechanical loading to bone cells using simple sine wave or constant wave fluid flow has been widely used for in vitro experiments. Human gait is characterized by a complex loading to bones of lower extremities which results from a series of events consisting of heel strike, foot flat and push-off during the stance phase of the gait cycle. Telemetric force analyses have shown that human femora are subject to multiphasic loading. Therefore, it would be ideal if the physiologic loading conditions during human walking can be used for in vitro mechanotransduction studies. Here, for a mechanotransduction study, we develop it fluid flow system (FFS) in order to simulate human physiologic mechanicalloading on bone cells. The development methods of the FFS including the COR (Center for Orthopedic Research), monitor program are presented. The FFS could generate various multiphasic loading conditions of human gaits with output flow. Wall shear distribution was very uniform, with 81 % of the effective loading area of the culture on a glass slide. Our results demonstrated that the FFS, provide a new translational approach for unveiling molecular mechanotransduction pathways in bone cells.
Preliminary Study of a New Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenator Development When Using Pulsatile Flow
Lee, Sa-Ram ; Lee, Kyung-Soo ; Jung, Jae-Hoon ; Mun, Cho-Hay ; Min, Byoug-Goo ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 28, issue 3, 2007, Pages 387~391
An oxygenator is a very important artificial organ and widely used for patients with lung failure or during open heart surgery. Although an oxygenator has been widely studied worldwide to enhance its efficiency, studies on oxygenators, in particular when using a pulsatile blood flow, are domestically limited. Therefore, a new oxygenator was developed in the lab and animal experimental results are described in the paper. The oxygenator is composed of polycarbonate housing and polypropylene hollow fibers. It has a total length of 400 mm and a surface area of
. The animal experiment lasted for 4 hours. The blood flow rate was set to 2 L/min and a pulsatile blood pump, T-PLS (Twin-Pulse Life Support), was used. Samples were drawn at the oxygenator's inlet and outlet. The total hemoglobin (Hb), saturation oxygen (
), and partial oxygen pressure (
), and plasma bicarbonate ion concentration (
) were measured. The oxygen and carbon dioxide transfer rates were also calculated based on the experimental data in order to estimate the oxygenator's gas transfer efficiency. The oxygen and carbon dioxide transfer rates were
, respectively. The results showed a higher carbon dioxide transfer rate was achieved with the oxygenator. Also, the mean inlet and outlet blood pressures were 162.79 and 137.92 mmHg, respectively. The oxygenator has a low pressure drop between its inlet and outlet. The aim of own preliminary study was to make a new oxygenator and review its performance when applying a pulsatile blood pump thus, confirming the possibility of a new oxygenator suitable for pulsatile flow.
Development of Laser Speckle Flowgraphy System for Monitoring Blood Flow in Skin Tissue
Lee, M.C. ; Fujii, H. ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 28, issue 3, 2007, Pages 392~396
In this paper, we develop a new system to visualize the blood flow map in skin tissue, using the technique of Laser Speckle Flowgraphy (LSFG). The measuring unit consists of the laser diode, imaging system, line sensor, scanning mirror, and one-board microcomputer. The speckle signal is analyzed and sent to a PC, where the blood flow in a tissue area of
is evaluated and displayed in a 2-D color map. It is demonstrated that the new LSFG instrument is useful to evaluate the degree of allergic reaction in patch test.
Finite Element Modeling and Nonlinear Analysis of Lumbosacrum Including Partial Ilium and Iliolumbar Ligaments
Ha, S.K. ; Lim, J.W. ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 28, issue 3, 2007, Pages 397~409
Owing to needs of biomechanical comprehension and analysis to obtain various medical treatment designs which are related with the spine in order to cure and diagnose LBP patients, the FE modeling and nonlinear analysis of lumbosacrum including a partial ilium and iliolumbar ligaments, were carried out. First, we investigated whether the geometrical configuration of vertebrae displayed by DICOM slice files is regular and normal condition. After constructing spinal vertebrae including a partial ilium, a sacrum and five lumbars (from L1 to L5)with anatomical shape reconstructed using softwares such as image modeler and CAD modeler, we added iliolumbar ligaments, lumbar ligaments, discs and facet joints, etc.. And also, we assigned material property and discretized the model using proper finite element types, thus it was completely modeled through the above procedure. For the verification of each segment, average sagittal ROM, average coronal ROM and average transversal ROM under various loading conditions(
), average vertical displacement under compression(400N), ALL(Anterior Longitudinal Ligament) and PLL(Posterior Longitudinal Ligament) force at L12 level, strains of seven ligaments on sagittal plane at L45 level and maximal strain of disc fibers according to various loading conditions at L45 level, etc., they were compared with experimental results. For the verification of multilevel-lumbosacrum spine including partial ilium and iliolumbar ligaments, the cases with and without iliolumbar ligaments were compared with ROM of experiment. The results were obtained from analysis of the verified FE model as follows: I) Iliolumbar ligaments played a stabilizing role as mainly posterior iliolumbar ligaments under flexion and as both posterior and anterior iliolumbar ligaments of one side under lateral bending. 2) The iliolumbar ligaments decreased total ROM of 1-8% in total model according to various motion conditions, which changed facet contact forces of L5S level by approximately 0.8-1.4 times and disc forces of L5S level by approximately 0.8-1.5 times more than casewithout ilioligaments, under various loading conditions. 3) The force of lower discs such as L45 and L5S was bigger than upper discs under flexion, left and right bending and left and right twisting, except extension. 4) It was predicted that strains of posterior ligaments among iliolumbar ligaments would produce the maximum 16% under flexion and the maximum 10% under twisting. 5) It's expected that this present model applies to the development and design of artificial disc, since it was comparatively in agreement with the experimental datum.
Quantitative Analysis of the Training of Equilibrium Sense for the Elderly Using an Unstable Platform
Piao, Yong-Jun ; Yu, Mi ; Kwon, Tae-Kyu ; Hwang, Ji-Hye ; Kim, Nam-Gyun ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 28, issue 3, 2007, Pages 410~416
This paper presents quantitative analysis of a training system based on an unstable platform and a visual interactive system for improving sense of equilibrium. The training system consists of an unstable platform, a force plate, a safety harness, a monitoring device, and a personal-computer. To confirm the effects of the training system, fifteen young volunteers and five elderly volunteers went through a series of balance training using the system. During the training, we measured relevant parameters such as the time a subject maintain his or her center of pressure on a target, the time a subject moves his or her center of pressure to the target, and the mean absolute deviation of the trace before and after training with this system and training programs to evaluate the effects of the training. The results showed that the training system can successfully assess the gradual improvement of the postural control capability of the subject in the system and showed a possibility of improving balance of the subject. Moreover, the significant improvement in the postural capability of the elderly subject suggests that elderly subjects can benefit more from the training using the system for the improvement of sense of equilibrium.
Study on Spatio-Temporal Eye-Hand Coordination in Targeting Tasks
Eun, H.I. ; Yu, M. ; Lee, A.R. ; Kim, D.W. ; Kwon, T.K. ; Kim, N.G. ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 28, issue 3, 2007, Pages 417~422
In this study, we investigated spatio-temporal eye-hand coordination by the "Global effect paradigm", a target-distracter configuration Global effect is observed a variety of visual tasks, for example, during rapid automatic tracking, scanning for target detail, and the comparison of target configurations. Global effect used to investigate eye-hand coordination with a task that presents a target close to a distracter. Eight young subjects participated in the experiments. The experiments consist of using a distracter less eccentric than the targe1 and using a distracter more eccentric than target. Each experiment consist of tasks which are making reference, pointing the target with watching visual stimulation(saccade) and pointing the target. The subject's task was to move towards the target as quickly as possible. We measured the eye movement by using EOG and the hand movement by using NDI Optotrak system. This study shows that eye and hand movement exists for global effect paradigm in spatio-temporal coordination.
A Modified SaA Architecture for the Implementation of a Multiplierless Programmable FIR Filter for Medical Ultrasound Signal Processing
Han, Ho-San ; Song, Jae-Hee ; Kim, Hak-Hyun ; Goh, Bang-Young ; Song, Tai-Kyong ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 28, issue 3, 2007, Pages 423~428
Programmable FIR filters are used in various signal processing tasks in medical ultrasound imaging, which are one of the major factors increasing hardware complexity. A widely used method to reduce the hardware complexity of a programmable FIR filter is to encode the filter coefficients in the canonic signed digit (CSD) format to minimize the number of nonzero digits (NZD) so that the multipliers for each filter coefficients can be replaced with fixed shifters and programmable multiplexers (PM). In this paper, a new structure for programmable FIR filters with a improved frequency response and a reduced hardware complexity compared to the conventional shift-and-add architecture using PM is proposed for implementing a very small portable ultrasound scanner. The CSD codes are optimized such that there exists at least one common nonzero digit between neighboring coefficients. Such common digits are then implemented with the same shifters. For comparison, synthesisable VHDL models for programmable FIR filters are developed based on the proposed and the conventional architectures. When these filters have the same hardware complexity, pass-band ana stop-band ripples of the proposed filter are lower than those of the conventional filter by about
and by about
, respectively. For the same filter performance, the hardware complexity of the proposed architecture is reduced by more than 20% compare to the conventional SaA architecture.
Optimized Sigma-Delta Modulation Methodology for an Effective FM Waveform Generation in the Ultrasound System
Kim, Hak-Hyun ; Han, Ho-San ; Song, Tai-Kyong ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 28, issue 3, 2007, Pages 429~440
A coded excitation has been studied to improve the performance for ultrasound imaging in term of SNR, imaging frame rate, contrast to tissue ratio, and so forth. However, it requires a complicated arbitrary waveform transmitter for each active channel that is typically composed of a multi-bit Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) and a linear power amplifier (LPA). Not only does the LPA increase the cost and size of a transmitter block, but it consumes much power, increasing the system complexity further and causing a heating-up problem. This paper proposes an optimized 1.5bit fourth order sigma-delta modulation technique applicable to design an efficient arbitrary waveform generator with greatly reduced power dissipation and hardware. The proposed SDM can provide a required SQNR with a low over-sampling ratio of 4. To this end, the loop coefficients are optimized to minimize the quantization noise power in signal band while maintaining system stability. In addition, the decision level for the 1.5 bit quantizer is optimized for a given input waveform, which results in the SQNR improvement of more than 5dB. Computer simulation results show that the SQNR of a FM(frequency modulated) signal generated by using the proposed method is about 26dB, and the peak side-lobe level (PSL) of its compressed waveform on receive is -48dB.