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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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Journal DOI :
The Korea Society of Medical and Biological Engineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 28, Issue 6 - Dec 2007
Volume 28, Issue 5 - Oct 2007
Volume 28, Issue 4 - Aug 2007
Volume 28, Issue 3 - Jun 2007
Volume 28, Issue 2 - Apr 2007
Volume 28, Issue 1 - Feb 2007
Selecting the target year
A Novel Method to Estimate Heart Rate from ECG
Leu, Jenq-Shiun ; Lo, Pei-Chen ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 28, issue 4, 2007, Pages 441~448
Heart rate variability (HRV) in electrocardiogram (ECG) is an important index for understanding the health status of heart and the autonomic nervous system. Most HRV analysis approaches are based on the proper heart rate (HR) data. Estimation of heart rate is thus a key process in the HRV study. In this paper, we report an innovative method to estimate the heart rate. This method is mainly based on the concept of periodicity transform (PT) and instantaneous period (IP) estimate. The method presented is accordingly called the "PT-IP method." It does not require ECG R-wave detection and thus possesses robust noise-immune capability. While the noise contamination, ECG time-varying morphology, and subjects' physiological variations make the R-wave detection a difficult task, this method can help us effectively estimate HR for medical research and clinical diagnosis. The results of estimating HR from empirical ECG data verify the efficacy and reliability of the proposed method.
Electrohydraulic Pump-Driven Closed-Loop Blood Pressure Regulatory System
Ahn, Jae-Mok ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 28, issue 4, 2007, Pages 449~454
An electrohydraulic (EH) pump-driven closed-loop blood pressure regulatory system was developed based on flow-mediated vascular occlusion using the vascular occlusive cuff technique. It is very useful for investigating blood pressure-dependant physiological variability, in particular, that could identify the principal mediators of renal autoregulation, such as tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) and myogenic (MYO), during blood pressure regulation. To address this issue, renal perfusion pressure (RPP) should be well regulated under various experimental conditions. In this paper, we designed a new EH pump-driven RPP regulatory system capable of implementing precise and rapid RPP regulation. A closed-loop servo-controlwas developed with an optimal proportional plus integral (PI) compensation using the dynamic feedback RPP signal from animals. An in vivo performance was evaluated in terms of flow-mediated RPP occlusion, maintenance, and release responses. Step change to 80 mmHg reference from normal RPP revealed steady state error of
during the RPP regulatory period after PI action. We obtained rapid RPP release time of approximately 300 ms. It is concluded that the proposed EH RPP regulatory system could be utilized in in vivo performance to study various pressure-flow relationships in diverse fields of physiology, and in particular, in renal autoregulation mechanisms.
Diffusion-Enhanced Modified Hemodialyzer
Lee, Kyung-Soo ; Lee, Sa-Ram ; Mun, Cho-Hae ; Min, Byoung-Goo ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 28, issue 4, 2007, Pages 455~460
Flow mismatch between blood and dialysate is invariably encountered during conventional hemodialysis, and this deteriorates diffusive mass transfer. A modification of a conventional dialyzer was conceived to prevent this mismatch. The modified dialyzer includes two independent blood flow regions (central and peripheral regions), which were achieved by redesigning the dialyzer cap. Resultantly, the blood stream was divided into two concentric dialyzer regions. Solutes clearances obtained using the modified dialyzers were compared with those of conventional dialyzers. Solutes clearances by conventional dialyzers were uniform, but solutes clearances by modified dialyzers were found to be dependent on the simulated blood split into dialyzer central and peripheral regions. Maximal clearances using the modified dialyzer were improved by up to approximately 7.6% for urea and 7.3% for creatinine, as compared with those of conventional dialyzers. More optimizations are required for clinical applications, but the finding that blood flowrates through central and peripheral fiber bundles can be easily regulated is encouraging.
A Portable Wireless EEG System for Neurofeedback: Design and Implementation
Chen, Hai-Feng ; Ye, Dong-Hee ; Kang, Young-Ho ; Lee, Jung-Tae ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 28, issue 4, 2007, Pages 461~470
Human can learn how to shape their brain electrical activity in a desired direction through continuous feedback of the electroencephalogram (EEG), and this technique is known as Neurofeedback (or EEG biofeedback), which has been used since the late 1960s in clinical applications. In this study, a portable wireless EEG (named wEEG) has been designed and implemented, which consists of a mobile station (a wireless two-channel EEG acquisition device) and a base station (a bridge between mobile station and computer). Moreover, a SensoriMotor Rhythm (SMR) training system was also implemented with the wEEG for enhancing attention with virtual environment. Experiment results based on 16 volunteers' (8 females and 8 males, average age is
) were reported in this paper. The results show that the SMR ratio of 87.5% subjects increased about 0.7% in training status than that in the stable status. With the proposed system, many training protocol scan be designed easily and can be done at home in our daily life conveniently. Additionally, the proposed system will be useful for disabled and aged people.
Development of Effective Analytical Signal Models for Functional Microwave Imaging
Baang, Sung-Keun ; Kim, Jong-Dae ; Lee, Yong-Up ; Park, Chan-Young ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 28, issue 4, 2007, Pages 471~476
Various active microwave imaging techniques have been developed for cancer detection for past several decades. Both the microwave tomography and the UWB radar techniques, constituting functional microwave imaging systems, use the electrical property contrast between normal tissues and malignancies to detect the latter in an early development stage. Even though promising simulation results have been reported, the understanding of the functional microwave imaging diagnostics has been relied heavily on the complicated numerical results. We present a computationally efficient and physically instructive analytical electromagnetic wave channel models developed for functional microwave imaging system in order to detect especially the breast tumors as early as possible. The channel model covers the propagation factors that have been examined in the previous 2-D models, such as the radial spreading, path loss, partial reflection and transmission of the backscattered electromagnetic waves from the tumor cell. The effects of the system noise and the noise from the inhomogeneity of the tissue to the reconstruction algorithm are modeled as well. The characteristics of the reconstructed images of the tumor using the proposed model are compared with those from the confocal microwave imaging.
The Influence of Eye Movement for Acquiring BOLD Signal in V1 : A Study of Simultaneous Measurement of EOG and fMRI
Chung, Jun-Young ; Yoon, Hyo-Woon ; Kim, Young-Bo ; Park, Hyun-Wook ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 28, issue 4, 2007, Pages 477~483
We have measured EOG and fMRI simultaneously to investigate whether eye movement (blinking mechanism) might influence functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal response in the primary visual cortex.
Echo-Planar Imaging (EPI) with concurrent electrooculogram (EOG) was acquired in four subjects while they viewed a fixation point and a checkerboard with a flickering rate of 8Hz. With the help of EOG information we divided the experimental blocks into two different conditions: fixation and moving eye. We have compared the fMRI data of these two conditions. Our results have shown that there is no difference between these two conditions. This might suggest that eye blinking does not affect BOLD signal changes in the primary visual cortex. This means further that eye blinking can be ignored in data processing.
Synthesis and Drug-Releasing Behavior of Various Polymeric Prodrugs of PGE1 with PEG and Its Derivative as Polymer Carriers
Lee, Chan-Woo ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 28, issue 4, 2007, Pages 484~493
Two polymeric prodrugs of PGE1 (prodrugs IVg and PNg) were newly synthesized. The drug conjugation proceeded in quantitative yield without decomposition of PGE1 to PGA1. With two types conjugates, PEG-PGE1 and PN-PGE1 with different spacer groups, we first discovered a possibility of slow release of PGE1 in blood circulatory system. PGE1 is conjugated with PEG and PN through the long alkylene spacers, and their availability as polymeric prodrugs is evaluated. Their drug-releasing behavior was examined both in phosphate buffer (pH=7.4) and rat plasma. Each prodrug was known to be highly stabile in the buffer solution. The drug-releasing rate became much faster in rat plasma than in the buffer solution due to the acceleration by the plasma enzymes. The drug-release was found to reach a plateau in rat plasma because the released PGE1 or its derivatives may be captured or decomposed by the plasma proteins. The slower drug-releasing rate of pro drug PNg in rat plasma is reasonably attributed to the molecular aggregation due to the hydrophobic bonding between the PGE1 moieties and spacers.
Position Recognition and User Identification System Using Signal Strength Map in Home Healthcare Based on Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)
Yang, Yong-Ju ; Lee, Jung-Hoon ; Song, Sang-Ha ; Yoon, Young-Ro ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 28, issue 4, 2007, Pages 494~502
Ubiquitous location based services (u-LBS) will be interested to an important services. They can easily recognize object position at anytime, anywhere. At present, many researchers are making a study of the position recognition and tracking. This paper consists of postion recognition and user identification system. The position recognition is based on location under services (LBS) using a signal strength map, a database is previously made use of empirical measured received signal strength indicator (RSSI). The user identification system automatically controls instruments which is located in home. Moreover users are able to measures body signal freely. We implemented the multi-hop routing method using the Star-Mesh networks. Also, we use the sensor devices which are satisfied with the IEEE 802.15.4 specification. The used devices are the Nano-24 modules in Octacomm Co. Ltd. A RSSI is very important factor in position recognition analysis. It makes use of the way that decides position recognition and user identification in narrow indoor space. In experiments, we can analyze properties of the RSSI, draw the parameter about position recognition. The experimental result is that RSSI value is attenuated according to increasing distances. It also derives property of the radio frequency (RF) signal. Moreover, we express the monitoring program using the Microsoft C#. Finally, the proposed methods are expected to protect a sudden death and an accident in home.
A Study on an Optimal Respiration Rate for the ANS Assessment based on RSA Analysis
Lee, Sang-Myung ; Lee, Sung-Jun ; Ahn, Jae-Mok ; Kim, Jeom-Keun ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 28, issue 4, 2007, Pages 503~511
Heart rate variability(HRV) is the clinical consequence of various influences of the autonomic nervous system(ANS) on heart beat. HRV can estimate the potential physiologic rhythm from the interval between consecutive beats(RR interval or HRV data), but cardiovascular system governed by ANS is in relation to respiration and autonomic regulation. It is known as RSA representing respiration-related HR rhythmic oscillation. Because the mechanism linking the variability of HR to respiration is complex, it has so far been unknown well. In this paper, we tried to evaluate 5-min RR interval segments under control of respiration in order to find out a proper respiration rate that can estimate the ANS function. 10 healthy volunteers were included to evaluate 5-min HRV data under 4 different respiration-controlled environments; 0.03Hz, 0.1Hz, 0.2Hz, and 0.4Hz respiration. HRV data were analyzed both in the frequency and the time domain, with cross-correlation coefficient(cross-coeff.) for HRV and respiration signal. The results showed maximum cross-coeff. of 0.84 at 0.1 Hz and minimum that of 0.16 at 0.4Hz respiration. Cross-coeff was decreased at a faster rate from 0.1Hz respiration. All mean SDNN, RMSSD, and pNN50 of time domain measures were 108.7ms, 71.85ms, and 28.47%, respectively, and LF, HF, and TP of frequency domain measures were
at 0.1Hz respiration, respectively. In conclusion, 0.1Hz respiration was observed to be very meaningful from time domain and frequency domain analysis in relation to respiration and autonomic regulation of the heart.
Investigation of Nanofiber and Thermosensitive Scaffold for Intervertebral Disc through Organ Culture
Lee, Yong-Jae ; Shin, Ji-Won ; Shin, Ho-Jun ; Kim, Chan-Hwan ; Park, Ki-Dong ; Bae, Jin-Woo ; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon ; Kim, Young-Jick ; Shin, Jung-Woog ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 28, issue 4, 2007, Pages 512~519
The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of a novel tissue engineering approach to regenerate intervertebral disc. In this study, thermosensitive scaffold (chitosan-Pluronic hydrogel) and nanofiber were used to replace the nucleus pulposus (NP) and annulus fibrosus of a degenerated intervertebral disc, leading to an eventual regeneration of the disc using the minimally invasive surgical procedure and organ culture. In preliminary study, disc cells were seeded into the scaffolds and cellular responses were assessed by MTT assay and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Based on these results, we could know that tissue engineered scaffolds might provide favorable environments for the regeneration of tissues. Organ culture was performed in fresh porcine spinal motion segments with endplates on both sides. These spinal motion segments were classified into three groups: control (Intact), injured NP (Defect), and inserting tissue engineered scaffolds (Insert). The specimens were cultivated for 7 days, subsequently structural stability, cell proliferation and morphological changes were evaluated by the relaxation time, quantity of DNA, GAG and histological examination. In these results, inserting group showed higher relaxation time, reduced decrement of DNA contents, and accumulated GAG amount. Consequently, the tissue engineered scaffolds used in this study seen to be a promising base scaffolds for regenerative intervertebral disc due to its capacity to absorb external dynamic loading and the possible ideal environment provided for disc cell growing.
Ellipse-Stacking Methods for Image Reconstruction in Compton Cameras
Lee, Mi-No ; Lee, Soo-Jin ; Kim, Soo-Mee ; Lee, Jae-Sung ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 28, issue 4, 2007, Pages 520~529
An efficient method for implementing image reconstruction algorithms for Compton cameras is presented. Since Compton scattering formula establishes a cone surface from which the incident photon must have originated, it is crucial to implement a computationally efficient cone-surface integration method for image reconstruction. In this paper we assume that a cone is made up of a series of ellipses (or circles) stacked up one on top of the other. In order to reduce computational burden for tracing ellipses formed by the intersection of a cone and an image plane, we propose a new method using a series of imaginary planes perpendicular to the cone axis so that each plane contains a circle, not an ellipse. In this case the cone surface integral can be performed by simply accumulating the circles along the cone axis. To reduce the computational cost of tracing circles, only one of the circles in the cone is traced and the rest are determined by using simple trigonometric ratios. For our experiments, we used the three different schemes for tracing ellipses; (i) using the samples generated by the ellipse equation, (ii) using the fixed number of samples along a circle on the imaginary plane, and (iii) using the fixed sampling interval along a circle on the imaginary plane. We then compared performance of the above three methods by applying them to the two reconstruction algorithms - the simple back-projection method and the expectation-maximization algorithm. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed methods (ii) and (iii) using imaginary planes significantly improve reconstruction accuracy as well as computational efficiency.
Analysis of the Parameters of Magnetocardiography Depending on the Age and Gender
Lim, Hyun-Kyoon ; Chung, Nam-Sik ; Lee, Yong-Ho ; Kwon, Hyuk-Chan ; Joung, Bo-Young ; Park, Yong-Ki ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 28, issue 4, 2007, Pages 530~538
Magnetocardiography (MCG) is a device to measure the magnetic field from the heart. It is a noninvasive device and takes only few minutes to record magnetocardiogram from a subject. In this study, we compared the difference of MCG data recorded from 56 normal subjects in early twenties (28 males and 28 females, mean
years) and 36 elderly subjects (20 males and 16 females, mean
years) for the analysis of the age and gender difference. A total of 24 parameters used in the analysis were derived from QRS complex, R-wave, T-wave, and ST-T period. As a result, seven parameters including maximum current angle and map angle showed the significant difference (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively) between young males and young females. Significant difference (p<0.05) between elderly males and elderly females was found from a parameter, pole distance at T-wave peak. In the comparison of age difference, seven parameters regarding current moment, pole distance, and dynamics showed the significant difference between young and elderly males. Eight parameters also showed significant difference (p<0.05) between two younger and elderly female groups. Results showed that parameters regarding current moment, pole distance, and dynamics might be changed when people get older. In conclusion, gender and age difference should be considered when MCG data are analyzed for certain parameters.
Implementation of Wireless Charger with the Function of Auto-Shutdown for fully Implantable Middle Ear Hearing Devices
Lee, Jang-Woo ; Lim, Hyung-Gyu ; Jung, Eui-Sung ; Han, Ji-Hun ; Lee, Seung-Hyun ; Park, Il-Yong ; Cho, Jin-Ho ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 28, issue 4, 2007, Pages 539~548
In the paper, a wireless charger with the function of auto-shutdown for fully implantale middle ear hearing devices (F-IMEHD) has been designed. The wireless charger can communicate with an implant module to be turned off automatically shutdown after an internal rechargeable battery has been fully-charged by electromagnetic coupling using two coils. For the communication with an implant module, the wireless charger uses the load shift keying (LSK) method. But, the variation of the mutual inductance due to the different distance between two coils can cause the communication error in receiving the fully-charged signal from an implant module. To solve the problem, the implemented wireless charger has a variable reference generator for LSK communication. The wireless charger generates proper level of the reference voltage for a comparator using an ADC (analog-to-digital converter) and a DAC (digital-to-analog converter). Through the result of experiment, it has been confirmed that the presented wireless charger can detect signals from implantable module. And wireless charger can stop generating electromagnetic flux after an implanted battery has been fully charged in spite of variable coil distance according to different skin thickness.
Development of an Extraction Method of Cortical Surfaces from MR Images for Improvement in Efficiency and Accuracy
An, Kwang-Ok ; Jung, Hyun-Kyo ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 28, issue 4, 2007, Pages 549~555
In order to study cortical properties in human, it is necessary to obtain an accurate and explicit representation of the cortical surface in individual subjects. Among many approaches, surface-based method that reconstructs a 3-D model from contour lines on cross-section images is widely used. In general, however, medical brain imaging has some problems such as the complexity of the images, non-linear gain artifacts and so on. Due these limitations, therefore, extracting anatomical structures from imaging data is very a complicated and time-consuming task. In this paper, we present an improved method for extracting contour lines of cortical surface from magnetic resonance images that simplifies procedures of a conventional method. The conventional method obtains contour lines through thinning and chain code process. On the other hand, the proposed method can extract contour lines from comparison between boundary data and labeling image without supplementary processes. The usefulness of the proposed method has been verified using brain image.
Analysis of the Likelihood of Successful Defibrillation as a Change of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Transition using Support Vector Machine
Jang, Seung-Jin ; Hwang, Sung-Oh ; Lee, Hyun-Sook ; Yoon, Young-Ro ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 28, issue 4, 2007, Pages 556~568
Unsatisfied results of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) estimates were caused by the fact that the predictability of the predictors was insufficient. This unmet estimate of the predictors may be affected by transitional events due to behaviors which occur during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). We thus hypothesized that the discrepancy of ROSC estimates found in statistical characteristics due to transitional CPR events, may affect the performance of the predictors, and that the performance of the classifier dichotomizing between ROSC and No-ROSC might be different during CPR. In a canine model (n=18) of prolonged ventricular fibrillation (VF), standard CPR was provided with administration of two doses of epinephrine 0 min or 3 min later of the onset of CPR. For the analysis of the likelihood of a successful defibrillation during CPR, Support Vector Classification was adopted to evaluate statistical peculiarity combining time and frequency based predictors: median frequency, frequency band-limited power spectrum, mean segment amplitude, and zero crossing rates. The worst predictable period showed below about 1 min after the onset of CPR, and the best predictable period could be observed from about 1.5 min later of the administering epinephrine through 2.0-2.2 min. As hypothesized, the discrepancy of statistical characteristics of the predictors was reflected in the differences of the classification performance during CPR. These results represent a major improvement in defibrillation prediction can be achieved by a specific timing of the analysis, as a change in CPR transition.
Pressure Regulation System for Optimal Operation of the Pneumatic VAD with Bellows-Type Closed Pneumatic Circuit
Kim, Bum-Soo ; Lee, Jung-Joo ; Nam, Kyung-Won ; Jeong, Gi-Seok ; Ahn, Chi-Bum ; Sun, Kyung ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 28, issue 4, 2007, Pages 569~576
Ventricular Assist Device(VAD) has switched its goal from a short-tenn use for bridge-to-transplantation to a long-tenn use for destination therapy, With this goal, the importance of long-tenn reliability gets more interests and importances, H-VAD is an portable extracorporeal biventricular assist device, and adopts an electro-pneumatic driving mechanism. The pneumatic pressure to pump out blood is generated with compression of bellows, and is transmitted in a closed pneumatic circuit through a pneumatic line. The existing pneumatic VAD adopts a air compressor which can generate stable pressures but has defects such as a noise and a size problem. Thus, it is not suitable for being used as a portable device, These problems are covered with adopting a closed pneumatic circuit mechanism with a bellows which has a small size and small noise generation, but it has defects that improper pneumatic setting causes a failure of adequate flow generation. In this study, the pneumatic pressure regulation system is developed to cover these defects of a bellows-type pneumatic VAD. The optimal pneumatic pressure conditions according to various afterload conditions for an optimal flow rate were investigated and the afterload estimation algorithm was developed, The final pneumatic regulation system estimates a current afterload and regulate the pneumatic pressure to the optimal point at a given afterload condition. The afterload estimation algorithm showed a sufficient performance that the standard deviation of error is 8.8 mmHg, The pneumatic pressure regulation system showed a sufficient performance that the flow rate was stably governed to various afterload conditions. In a further study, if a additional sensor such as ultrasonic sensor is developed to monitor the direct movement of diaphragm in a blood pump part, the reliability would be greatly increased. Moreover, if the afterload estimation algorithm gets more accuracy, it would be also helpful to monitor the hemodynamic condition of patients.
Validation of Urine Volume Evaluation by Hydraulic Pressure Measurement
Kim, Kyung-Ah ; Choi, Sung-Soo ; Lee, In-Kwang ; Park, Kyung-Soon ; Kim, Wun-Jae ; Lee, Tae-Soo ; Cha, Eun-Jong ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 28, issue 4, 2007, Pages 577~584
Uroflowmetry is non-invasive and easily performed to diagnose benign prostatic hypertrophy(BPH) frequent in aged men. Weight change during urination is usually measured to estimate the urinary flow rate by a load cell, but sensitive to any impacts against the bottom of the container, leading to unnecessary noise generation. Moreover, load cells are relatively expensive raising the production cost. The present study proposed a new technique, measuring hydraulic pressure on the bottom of the urine container to evaluate the urinary volume. Low cost pressure transducer enabled almost perfectly linear relationship between the urine volume and the hydraulic pressure. During both the simulated and human urination experiments, variance of the pressure signal was more than 50% smaller than the weight signal acquired by a load cell, which demonstrated that the impact noise was decreased to a great degree by pressure compared to weight measurement.