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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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Journal DOI :
The Korea Society of Medical and Biological Engineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 6 - Dec 2008
Volume 29, Issue 5 - Oct 2008
Volume 29, Issue 4 - Aug 2008
Volume 29, Issue 3 - Jun 2008
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Apr 2008
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Feb 2008
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Recent Progress in Study and Development of Polymeric Scaffolds for Tissue Regeneration
Joung, Yoon-Ki ; Park, Ki-Dong ; Park, Kwi-Deok ; Han, Dong-Keun ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 29, issue 4, 2008, Pages 255~266
In tissue engineering, scaffolds play an important role in the growth of cells to 3-D organs or tissues. For the success of tissue engineering, they should be mimicked to meet the requirements of natural extracellular matrix (ECM) in the body, such as mechanical properties, adhesiveness, porosity, biodegradability, and growth factor release, etc. Contrary to other materials, polymeric materials are adequate to engineer scaffolds for tissue engineering because controlling the structure and the ratio of components and designing various shapes and size are possible. In this review, the importance, major characteristics, processes, and recent examples of polymeric scaffolds for tissue engineering applications are discussed.
RF Shimming Considering Coupling Effects for High-Field MRI
Heo, Hye-Young ; Cho, Min-Hyoung ; Lee, Soo-Yeol ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 29, issue 4, 2008, Pages 267~271
The RF shimming technique has been used to improve the transmit RF field homogeneity in highfield MRI. In the RF shimming technique, the amplitude and phase of the driving currents in each coil element are optimized to get homogenous flip angle or uniform image intensity. The inductive and capacitive coupling between the coil elements may degrade the RF field homogeneity if not taken into account in the optimization procedure. In this paper, we have analyzed the coupling effects on the RF shimming using a sixteen-element TEM RF coil model operating at 300 MHz. We have found that the coupling effects on the RF shimming can be reduced by putting high dielectric material between the active rung and the shield.
Neural Switching Mechanism in the late Korean-English bilinguals by Event-Related fMRI
Kim, Jeong-Seok ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 29, issue 4, 2008, Pages 272~277
Functional MRI technique was used in this study for examining the language switching mechanisms between the first language (L1) and the second language (L2). Language switching mechanism is regarded as a complex task that involves an interaction between L1 and L2. The aim of study is to find out the brain activation patterns during the phonological process of reading real English words and English words written in Korean characters in a bilingual person. Korean-English bilingual subjects were examined while they covertly read four types of words native Korean words, Korean words of a foreign origin, English words written in Korean characters, and English words. The fMRI results reveal that the left hemispheric language-related regions at the brain, such as the left inferior frontal, superior temporal, and parietal cortices, have a greater response to the presentation of English words written in Korean characters than for the other types of words, in addition, a slight difference was observed in the occipital-temporal lobe. These results suggest that a change in the brain circuitry underlying the relational processes of language switching is mainly associated with general executive processing system in the left prefrontal cortex rather than with a similarity-based processing system in the occipital-temporal lobes.
Characteristic wave detection in ECG using complex-valued Continuous Wavelet Transforms
Berdakh, Abibullaev ; Seo, Hee-Don ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 29, issue 4, 2008, Pages 278~285
In this study the complex-valued continuous wavelet transform (CWT) has been applied in detection of Electrocardiograms (ECG) as response to various signal classification methods such as Fourier transforms and other tools of time frequency analysis. Experiments have shown that CWT may serve as a detector of non-stationary signal changes as ECG. The tested signal is corrupted by short time events. We applied CWT to detect short-time event and the result image representation of the signal has showed us that one can easily find the discontinuity at the time scale representation. Analysis of ECG signal using complex-valued continuous wavelet transform is the first step to detect possible changes and alternans. In the second step, modulus and phase must be thoroughly examined. Thus, short time events in the ECG signal, and other important characteristic points such as frequency overlapping, wave onsets/offsets extrema and discontinuities even inflection points are found to be detectable. We have proved that the complex-valued CWT can be used as a powerful detector in ECG signal analysis.
EEG Nonlinear Interdependence Measure of Brain Interactions under Zen Meditation
Huang, Hsuan-Yung ; Lo, Pei-Chen ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 29, issue 4, 2008, Pages 286~294
This work investigates the characteristics of brain interactions of experienced Zen-Buddhist practitioners by obtaining multichannel EEG (electroencephalogram) data. Brain interactions were compared among three phases-40-minute meditation (M), 5-minute Chakra-focusing practice (Z) and rest with closed eyes (R). The similarity index S, developed in nonlinear dynamical system theory, was employed to measure the degree of possibly asymmetric coupling. Meditators exhibited, overall, stronger interactions among multiple cortical areas in meditation stages M and Z than in the R state. This enhancement was greater in the M stage when the meditator was accompanied by a thought-free and fully consciousness state. In the high-frequency band (>13Hz), the interdependence was also higher in both meditation stages than at baseline rest. However, the interaction strength, especially in the posterior regions, was greatest in the Z stage, which involved internal attention. Few electrode pairs were observed with significant pair-wise asymmetry in the Z state. The similarity is a possible characteristic of dense reciprocal and strong mutual interactions between multiple cortical areas during meditation - especially in the Z state in the high-frequency band. These results demonstrate that profound Zen meditation induces various dynamic states in different phases of meditation, possibly reflected by nonlinear interdependence measure.
Evaluation of CDMA Network Based Wireless 3 Channel ECG Monitoring System
Hong, Joo-Hyun ; Cha, Eun-Jong ; Lee, Tae-Soo ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 29, issue 4, 2008, Pages 295~301
A wireless 3 channel ECG monitoring system was developed so that it could monitor the health and movement state during subject's daily life. The developed system consists of a wireless biomedical signal acquisition device, a personal healthcare server, and a remote medical server. Three experiments were performed to evaluate the accuracy, reliability and operability, applicability during daily life of the developed device. First, ECG signals were measured using the developed device and commercial reference device during sitting and marking time and compared to verify the accuracy of R-R intervals. Second, the reliable data transmission to remote server was verified on two types of simulated emergency event using patient simulator. Third, during five types of motion in daily life, the accuracy of data transmission to remote server using CDMA network was verified on two types of event occurring. By acquiring and comparing subject's biomedical signal and motion signal, the accuracy, reliability and operability, applicability during daily life of the developed device were verified. In addition, PDA-phone based wireless system enabled subject to be monitored without any constraints. Therefore, the developed system is expected to be applicable for monitoring the aged and chronic diseased people and giving first-aid in emergency.
Analysis of Properties and Phantom Design Based on Plastic Hardener and Softener for Ultrasonic Imaging
Lee, G.J. ; Park, D.H. ; Shin, T.M. ; Seo, J.B. ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 29, issue 4, 2008, Pages 302~306
Plastic hardener and softener based ultrasound phantoms were made in various constitutions and their acoustic properties were measured. Speed of sound is approximately
in all the phantoms, which is about 7% less than that of in soft tissue. Attenuation coefficient is strongly dependent on the ratio between hardener and softener. In order to achieve the tissue level attenuation (0.5 dB/cm/MHz), 60% of hardener or less is required. The synthesized phantoms can be preserved for more than 6 months without structural degradation.
Development of a Reading Training Software offering Visual-Auditory Cue for Patients with Motor Speech Disorder
Bang, D.H. ; Jeon, Y.Y. ; Yang, D.G. ; Kil, S.K. ; Kwon, M.S. ; Lee, S.M. ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 29, issue 4, 2008, Pages 307~315
In this paper, we developed a visual-auditory cue software for reading training of motor speech disorder patients. Motor speech disorder patients can use the visual and/or auditory cues for reading training and improving their symptom. The software provides some sentences with visual-auditory cues. Our sentences used for reading training are adequately comprised on modulation training according to a professional advice in speech therapy field. To ameliorate reading skills we developed two algorithms, first one is automatically searching the starting time of speech spoken by patients and the other one is removing auditory-cue from the recorded speech that recorded at the same time. The searching of speech starting time was experimented by 10 sentences per 6 subjects in four kinds of noisy environments thus the results is that
error was detected. The experiment of the cancellation algorithm of auditory-cue was executed from 6 subjects with 1 syllable speech. The result takes improved the speech recognition rate
between before and after cancellation of auditory-cue in speech. User satisfaction index of the developed program was estimated as good.
Effect of heel Heights of shoe on Muscle Activation of Lower Extremity on the Rocking Surface in older Women
Kim, Kyoung ; Cho, Yong-Ho ; Cha, Yong-Jun ; Song, Byung-Seop ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 29, issue 4, 2008, Pages 316~322
The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation of lower extremity such as rectus femoris, tibialis anterior and soleus according to 0cm(bare foot), 4cm and 7cm heel height of shoe on the rocking surface in older women. 20 older women who did not have any lower musculoskeletal and neurological disorders in the past were participated in this study. Each subject was standing for 15 seconds on the level 8 of Biodex Stability System (BSS) while wearing 4cm and 7cm heel height shoes including bare foot. Electromyography was used to measure muscle activation of lower extremity, and the muscle activation was expressed as a percentage of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (% MVIC). We measured % MVIC of three muscles during 5 seconds except for the first 5 seconds and last 5 seconds. SPSS 12.0 program was used for this study. Repeated one-way analysis of variance(ANOVA) was performed to compare the significant difference among the muscles of lower extremities according to heel heights of shoe on the rocking plate. % MVIC of each muscle such as rectus femoris, tibialis anterior and soleus regarding heel heights of shoe had statistically significant differences (p<0.05). The results of contrast test were as follows; 1) % MVIC of rectus femoris had significant differences between barefoot and 4cm, and barefoot and 7cm. 2) % MVIC of tibialis anterior had significant differences between barefoot and 4cm, barefoot and 7cm, and 4cm and 7cm. 3) % MVIC of soleus had significant differences between barefoot and 7cm, 4cm and 7cm. The results indicate that all commonly responsive muscle on the conditions of barefoot, 4cm, and 7cm shoe height on the rcoking surface is tibialis anterior muscle. We found out that the more heels of shoe high, the more muscle activation increases. High-heeled shoes above 7cm remarkably increase the muscle activation of lower extremity and may result in muscle fatigue. Thus, these shoes may summate risk factors of falls in older women. We can acknowledge that the heels above 4 cm affect each muscle activation in lower extremity on the rocking surface.
The Study of Mechanical Simulation for Human Respiratory System
Chi, S.H. ; Lee, M.K. ; Lee, T.S. ; Choi, Y.S. ; Oh, S.K. ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 29, issue 4, 2008, Pages 323~328
A patient with respiratory disorders such as a sleep apnea is increasing as the obese patient increase on the modern society. Positive Airway Pressure (PAP) devices are used in curing patient with respiratory disorders and turn out to be efficacious for patients of 75%. However, these devices are required for evaluating their performance to improve their performance by the mechanical breathing simulator. Recently, the mechanical breathing simulator was studied by the real time feedback control. However, the mechanical breathing simulator by an open loop control was specially required in order to analyze the effect of flow rate and pressure after operating the breathing auxiliary devices. Therefore the aims of this study were to make the mechanical breathing simulator by a piston motion and a valve function from the characteristic test of valve and motor, and to duplicate the flow rate and pressure profiles of some breathing patterns: normal and three disorder patterns. The mechanical simulator is composed cylinder, valve, ball screw and the motor. Also, the characteristic test of the motor and the valve were accomplished in order to define the relationship between the characteristics of simulator and the breathing profiles. Then, the flow rate and pressure profile of human breathing patterns were duplicated by the control of motor and valve. The result showed that the simulator reasonably duplicated the characteristics of human patterns: normal, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), mild hypopnea with snore and mouth expiration patterns. However, we need to improve this simulator in detail and to validate this method for other patterns.
Comparison of ICA-based and MUSIC-based Approaches Used for the Extraction of Source Time Series and Causality Analysis
Jung, Young-Jin ; Kim, Do-Won ; Lee, Jin-Young ; Im, Chang-Hwan ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 29, issue 4, 2008, Pages 329~336
Recently, causality analysis of source time series extracted from EEG or MEG signals is becoming of great importance in human brain mapping studies and noninvasive diagnosis of various brain diseases. Two approaches have been widely used for the analyses: one is independent component analysis (ICA), and the other is multiple signal classification (MUSIC). To the best of our knowledge, however, any comparison studies to reveal the difference of the two approaches have not been reported. In the present study, we compared the performance of the two different techniques, ICA and MUSIC, especially focusing on how accurately they can estimate and separate various brain electrical signals such as linear, nonlinear, and chaotic signals without a priori knowledge. Results of the realistic simulation studies, adopting directed transfer function (DTF) and Granger causality (GC) as measures of the accurate extraction of source time series, demonstrated that the MUSIC-based approach is more reliable than the ICA-based approach.