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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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Journal DOI :
The Korea Society of Medical and Biological Engineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 6 - Dec 2008
Volume 29, Issue 5 - Oct 2008
Volume 29, Issue 4 - Aug 2008
Volume 29, Issue 3 - Jun 2008
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Apr 2008
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Feb 2008
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Research Trends and Challenges in Technology Development of Medical Electronic Implant Devices
Cho, Jin-Ho ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 29, issue 6, 2008, Pages 415~430
The technologies in medical electronic implant(MEI) devices are developing rapidly, and already, there are various kinds of the MEI devices in the current medical equipments market. Recently, the global market scale of MEI devices have been increased about 13% year by year, and the import amount of MEI devices in Korea is increasing rapidly. In the near future, the demands of MEI devices will be magnificently increasing by the continuous development of the biomedical electronics devices which coupled with neural, brain and other organs will bring us to tremendous effects, such as providing new therapeutic solutions to patients, extension and saving human life, and an important clue of medical development. However, the investment of the research and the activity of developments in this field are still very weak in the Korea. Consequently, this paper introduces about the research trends of MEI devices, and technological problems those must be solved, and then concludes with the suggestions in order to be the leading country in this field.
Automated 2D/3D Image Matching Technique with Dual X-ray Images for Estimation of 3D In Vivo Knee Kinematics
Kim, Yoon-Hyuk ; Phong, Le Dinh ; Kim, Kyung-Soo ; Kim, Tae-Seong ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 29, issue 6, 2008, Pages 431~435
Quantitative information of a three dimensional(3D) kinematics of joint is very useful in knee joint surgery, understanding how knee kinematics related to joint injury, impairment, surgical treatment, and rehabilitation. In this paper, an automated 2D/3D image matching technique was developed to estimate the 3D in vivo knee kinematics using dual X-ray images. First, a 3D geometric model of the knee was reconstructed from CT scan data. The 3D in vivo position and orientation of femoral and tibial components of the knee joint could be estimated by minimizing the pixel by pixel difference between the projection images from the developed 3D model and the given X-ray images. The accuracy of the developed technique was validated by an experiment with a cubic phantom. The present 2D/3D image matching technique for the estimation of in vivo joint kinematics could be useful for pre-operative planning as well as post-operative evaluation of knee surgery.
MREIT of Postmortem Swine Legs using Carbon-hydrogel Electrodes
Minhas, Atul S. ; Jeong, Woo-Chul ; Kim, Young-Tae ; Kim, Hyung-Joong ; Lee, Tae-Hwi ; Woo, Eung-Je ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 29, issue 6, 2008, Pages 436~442
Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography(MREIT) has been suggested to produce cross-sectional conductivity images of an electrically conducting object such as the human body. In most previous studies, recessed electrodes have been used to inject imaging currents into the object. An MRI scanner was used to capture induced magnetic flux density data inside the object and a conductivity image reconstruction algorithm was applied to the data. This paper reports the performance of a thin and flexible carbon-hydrogel electrode that replaces the bulky and rigid recessed electrode in previous studies. The new carbon-hydrogel electrode produces a negligible amount of artifacts in MR and conductivity images and significantly simplifies the experimental procedure. We can fabricate the electrode in different shapes and sizes. Adding a layer of conductive adhesive, we can easily attach the electrode on an irregular surface with an excellent contact. Using a pair of carbon-hydrogel electrodes with a large contact area, we may inject an imaging current with increased amplitude primarily due to a reduced average current density underneath the electrodes. Before we apply the new electrode to a human subject, we evaluated its performance by conducting MREIT imaging experiments of five swine legs. Reconstructed conductivity images of the swine legs show a good contrast among different muscles and bones. We suggest a future study of human experiments using the carbon-hydrogel electrode following the guideline proposed in this paper.
Event Transmission of Respiratory rate and Heart rate Measured on Wheelchair
Han, Dong-Kyoon ; Kim, Jong-Myoung ; Hong, Joo-Hyun ; Cha, Eun-Jong ; Lee, Tae-Soo ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 29, issue 6, 2008, Pages 443~450
The purpose of this study is to measure both ECG and BCG(Ballistocariograph) signal of a subject on moving or resting wheelchair and detect the heart rate and respiratory rate and transmit an event message to remote server on emergent situation. To acquire ECG and BCG data, amplifier circuits were composed to be suitable for their characteristics. The output signals were converted to digital data and stored in bio-signal archiving media(SD card). CDMA module was used to transmit the event data on ECG electrode detachment and the received data was monitored by the developed C# application program. 5 volunteers participated in the experiment to evaluate the validity of the developed device. When the event occurs in each subject, 48 Kbyte data, stored for 32 seconds from that point, was transmitted to remote server through CDMA cellular phone network correctly. The received data of ECG, BCG, and 3-axial acceleration could be archived in server and the heart rate and respiratory rate could be measured and analyzed. The developed device in this study could acquire the ECG and BCG data of subjects on wheelchair simultaneously and measure their heart rate and respiratory rate. In addition, event data was verified to be transmitted to remote server without any errors.
The Stress Concentration Caused by Pin-hole in Femur after Computer-navigated Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Finite Element Analysis
Park, Hyung-Kyun ; Kim, Yoon-Hyuk ; Park, Won-Man ; Kim, Kyung-Soo ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 29, issue 6, 2008, Pages 451~456
Total knee arthroplasty(TKA) using computer-assisted navigation has been increased in order to improve the accuracy of femoral and tibial components implantation. Recently, a few clinical studies have reported on the femoral stress fracture after TKA using computer-assisted navigation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the stress concentration around the femoral pin-hole for different pin-hole diameter, the modes of pin penetration by finite element analysis to understand the effects of pin-hole parameters on femoral stress fracture risk. A three-dimensional finite element model of a male femur was reconstructed from 1 mm thick computed tomography(CT) images. The bone was rigidly fixed to a 25 mm above the distal end and 1500 N of axial compressive force and 12 Nm of axial torsion were applied at the femoral head. For all cases, transcortical pin penetration mode showed the highest stress fracture risk and unicortical pin penetration mode showed the lowest stress concentration. Pin-hole diameter increased the stress concentration, but pin number did not increase the stress dramatically. The results of this study provided a biomechanical guideline for pin-hole fracture risk of the computer navigated TKA.
A Study on the Interoperability between the HL7 and the IEEE 1451 based Sensor Network
Kim, Woo-Shik ; Lim, Su-Young ; Ahn, Jin-Soo ; Nah, Ji-Young ; Kim, Nam-Hyun ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 29, issue 6, 2008, Pages 457~465
HL7(Health Level 7) is a standard for exchanging medical and healthcare data among different medical information systems. As the ubiquitous era is coming, in addition to text and imaging information, a new type of data, i.e., streaming sensor data appear. Since the HL7 is not covering the interfaces among the devices that produces sensor data, it is expected that sooner or later the HL7 needs to include the biomedical sensors and sensor networks. The IEEE 1451 is a family of standards that deals with the sensors, transducers including sensors and actuators, and various wired or wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we consider the possibility of interoperability between the IEEE 1451 and HL7. After we propose a format of messages in HL7 to include the IEEE 1451 TEDS, we present some preliminary results that show the possibility of integrating the two standards.
Detection of Abnormal Heartbeat using Hierarchical Qassification in ECG
Lee, Do-Hoon ; Cho, Baek-Hwan ; Park, Kwan-Soo ; Song, Soo-Hwa ; Lee, Jong-Shill ; Chee, Young-Joon ; Kim, In-Young ; Kim, Sun-Il ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 29, issue 6, 2008, Pages 466~476
The more people use ambulatory electrocardiogram(ECG) for arrhythmia detection, the more researchers report the automatic classification algorithms. Most of the previous studies don't consider the un-balanced data distribution. Even in patients, there are much more normal beats than abnormal beats among the data from 24 hours. To solve this problem, the hierarchical classification using 21 features was adopted for arrhythmia abnormal beat detection. The features include R-R intervals and data to describe the morphology of the wave. To validate the algorithm, 44 non-pacemaker recordings from physionet were used. The hierarchical classification model with 2 stages on domain knowledge was constructed. Using our suggested method, we could improve the performance in abnormal beat classification from the conventional multi-class classification method. In conclusion, the domain knowledge based hierarchical classification is useful to the ECG beat classification with unbalanced data distribution.
N400 Event-related Potential and Gamma Band Activities during Visual Perception of Korean/English Words
Yoon, Jin ; Choi, Jung-Woo ; Kim, Ja-Hyun ; Kim, Kyung-Hwan ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 29, issue 6, 2008, Pages 477~483
The observations of difference and similarity in brain activities involved in processing different languages have fundamental importance in cognitive neuroscience. The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference and similarity in temporal brain activation patterns due to the language difference during visual perception of Korean and English words under priming. Especially, we tried to find the difference in evoked spectral power in gamma-band, which is known to reflect feature binding. The stimulation was visually presented as word pairs belonging to same or different categories so that N400 event-related potential(ERP) was evoked. Average ERP analysis and spectral analysis of gamma-band activity(GBA) were performed on 12 normal Korean subjects. Several ERP components such as P1, N1, N400, and P600 could be identified consistently, and the differences in N1, N400, and P600 were observed. From the spectral analysis, we found that the evoked GBA(eGBA) was significantly larger for English at
ms poststimulus. The latency of the eGBA was also considerably delayed for English. Overall, the results on the ERP components and eGBA analyses seem to be commensurate with subjects' familiarity of each language, and the difficulty of perceiving words of each language. The methods of this study can also be applied for clinical purposes considering that the language-related processing can be greatly altered for the patients with neurological or psychiatric diseases.
Analysis of Joint Movements and Changes of Muscle Length During STS(sit-to-stand) at Various Sitting Heights in the Korean Elderly's daily life
Hwang, S.J. ; Son, J.S. ; Kim, J.Y. ; Kim, H.D. ; Lim, D.H. ; Kim, Y.H. ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 29, issue 6, 2008, Pages 484~492
Sit to stand(STS) movement is one of the most common activity in daily life. In addition, Korean traditionally stand up from various sitting heights in one's daily life compared to other foreigners. As Korea enter rapidly to the aging society, needs of the elderly's independent life are increasing. Therefore the importance of research about the analysis of elderly's activity in daily life is rapidly increasing. In this study, we analyzed joint movements and changes of muscle length during STS(sit-to-stand) at various sitting heights(table seat, bath seat, bottom) in the Korean elderly's daily life by using the motion analysis and musculoskeletal modeling. Ten Korean elderly and young were participated in this experiment. Three heights of sitting posture which could represent typical sitting in Korean daily life were chosen as table seat(42cm), bath seat(21cm) and bottom(0cm). As the results, the elderly showed both smaller knee/hip flexion and larger trunk flexion relatively in comparison to the young during table seat STS. The elderly also showed larger dorsiflexion and smaller ROM of knee, hip, trunk compared to the young during bath seat STS. Additionally, the elderly showed larger plantarflexion, hip flexion, smaller knee flexion and trunk flexion during the first half of bottom STS and larger knee flexion, hip flexion and trunk flexion during the second half of bottom STS. In addition, we could know contraction and relaxation characters of major muscles in lower limb during various STS through the analysis of changes in muscle length by musculoskeltal modeling.
Development and Evaluation of skin Hydration Measure System using the Suscepance Method
Kim, Hong-Sig ; Jang, Woo-Young ; Shin, Kun-Soo ; Cho, Baek-Hwan ; Kim, In-Young ; Kim, Sun-I. ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 29, issue 6, 2008, Pages 493~501
In this paper, a novel system is proposed to measure skin hydration using the susceptance method. This system largely consists of a low-voltage(
V) driven circuit and minimized electrodes of size(
). To evaluate the accuracy of the novel system in measuring skin hydration, skin hydration values from 105 subjects are measured by the proposed system. The measurements are then compared to those obtained by the golden reference device based on the capacitance method in terms of Intraclass Correlation Coefficient(ICC) and correlation coefficient. All measurements are performed on 7 sites, which are forehead, Crow's foot, cheek, chin, volar forearm, dorsal forearm, and back of the hand, in a room where the temperature and humidity are maintained at an uniform level of
, respectively. ICC values are above 0.9(p=0.001), signifying that the skin hydration values measured by the two methods show a good level of reliability. Correlation coefficient between the two methods is also 0.562(p=0.001). Based on these results, it is expected that the proposed system may be applicable in a variety of clinical or cosmetic areas.
A New Algorithm for Extracting Voluntary Component and Evoked Component from Mixed EMG
Song, T. ; Hwang, S.H. ; Khang, G. ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 29, issue 6, 2008, Pages 502~511
This study was designed to develop a new algorithm to extract the voluntary EMG and the evoked EMG from a mixed EMG generated when the muscle is stimulated both voluntarily and by electrical stimulation in the FES system. The proposed parallel filter algorithm consists of three phases: (1) Fourier transform of the mixed EMG, (2) multiplication of the transformed signal to two frequency functions, and (3) inverse Fourier transform. Four incomplete spinal cord injured patients participated in the experiments to evaluate the algorithm by measuring the knee extensor torque and the EMG signals from the quadriceps. Two functions of the algorithms were evaluated: (1) extraction of the evoked EMG and (2) the voluntary EMG from the mixed EMG. The results showed that the algorithm enabled us to separate the two EMG components in real time from the mixed EMG. The algorithm can and will be used for estimating the voluntary torque and the evoked torque independently through an artificial neural network based on the two EMG components, and also for generating a trigger signal to control the on/off time of the FES system.