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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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Journal DOI :
The Korea Society of Medical and Biological Engineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 30, Issue 6 - Dec 2009
Volume 30, Issue 5 - Oct 2009
Volume 30, Issue 4 - Aug 2009
Volume 30, Issue 3 - Jun 2009
Volume 30, Issue 2 - Apr 2009
Volume 30, Issue 1 - Feb 2009
Selecting the target year
Developments of Small Animal Imaging Systems in Korea
Lee, Soo-Yeol ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 30, issue 1, 2009, Pages 1~9
Many types of small animal imaging modalities, like micro-CT, micro-PET, and micro-SPECT, have been recently developed worldwide. Small animal imaging systems are now recognized as indispensable tools to validate efficacy and safety of new drugs or new therapeutic methods using the animal disease models. With increasing demands for small animal imaging in biomedical research, multimodal small animal imaging systems, like micro-PET/CT or micro PET/MRI, are now also being developed. Small animal imaging with spatial resolution and sensitivity comparable to human imaging is quite challenging since laboratory small animals are much smaller than human beings. Research activities in Korea on small animal imaging systems are reviewed in this paper. In the field of micro-CT and micro-PET, many world-class technologies have been developed successfully in Korea. It is expected that the developed animal imaging system technologies can be used in the development of clinical imaging systems in Korea in the near future.
Influence of Modeling Errors in the Boundary Element Analysis of EEG Forward Problems upon the Solution Accuracy
Kim, Do-Won ; Jung, Young-Jin ; Im, Chang-Hwan ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 30, issue 1, 2009, Pages 10~17
Accurate electroencephalography (EEG) forward calculation is of importance for the accurate estimation of neuronal electrical sources. Conventional studies concerning the EEG forward problems have investigated various factors influencing the forward solution accuracy, e.g. tissue conductivity values in head compartments, anisotropic conductivity distribution of a head model, tessellation patterns of boundary element models, the number of elements used for boundary/finite element method (BEM/FEM), and so on. In the present paper, we investigated the influence of modeling errors in the boundary element volume conductor models upon the accuracy of the EEG forward solutions. From our simulation results, we could confirm that accurate construction of boundary element models is one of the key factors in obtaining accurate EEG forward solutions from BEM. Among three boundaries (scalp, outer skull, and inner skull boundary), the solution errors originated from the modeling error in the scalp boundary were most significant. We found that the nonuniform error distribution on the scalp surface is closely related to the electrode configuration and the error distributions on the outer and inner skull boundaries have statistically meaningful similarity to the curvature distributions of the boundary surfaces. Our simulation results also demonstrated that the accumulation of small modeling errors could lead to considerable errors in the EEG source localization. It is expected that our finding can be a useful reference in generating boundary element head models.
A Pressure Applied Low-Level Laser Probe to Enhance Laser Photon Density in Soft Tissue
Yeo, Chang-Min ; Park, Jung-Hwan ; Son, Tae-Yoon ; Lee, Yong-Heum ; Jung, Byung-Jo ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 30, issue 1, 2009, Pages 18~22
Laser has been widely used in various fields of medicine. Recently, noninvasive low-level laser therapeutic medical devices have been introduced in market. However, low-level laser cannot deliver enough photon density to expect positive therapeutic results in deep tissue layer due to the light scattering property in tissue. In order to overcome the limitation, this study was aimed to develop a negative pressure applied low-level laser probe to optimize laser transmission pattern and therefore, to improve photon density in soft tissue. In order to evaluate the possibility of clinical application of the developed laser probe, ex-vivo experiments were performed with porcine skin samples and laser transmissions were quantitatively measured as a function of tissue compression. The laser probe has an air suction hole to apply negative pressure to skin, a transparent plastic body to observe variations of tissue, and a small metallic optical fiber guide to support the optical fiber when negative pressure was applied. By applying negative pressure to the laser probe, the porcine skin under the metallic optical fiber guide is compressed down and, at the same time, low-level laser is emitted into the skin. Finally, the diffusion images of laser in the sample were acquired by a CCD camera and analyzed. Compared to the peak intensity without the compression, the peak intensity of laser increased about
times and FWHM decreased about
times. In addition, the laser peak intensity was positively and linearly increased as a function of compression. In conclusion, we verified that the developed low-level laser probe can control the photon density in tissue by applying compression, and therefore, its potential for clinical applications.
Development of Neuromuscular Stimulus System using Wearable Ultra-miniature Lighting Modules and its Verification of Clinical Effectiveness
Park, Se-Hyeong ; Lee, Jong-Shill ; Kim, In-Young ; Kim, Sun-I. ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 30, issue 1, 2009, Pages 23~33
It can be used easily to reduce rehabilitation and treatment time if diagnostic and therapeutic devices are attached to cloth or body. Therefore we developed neuromuscular wearable ultra-miniature lighting modules which can improve the neuromuscular function and verified its clinical effectiveness. The system is based on the ultra-miniature lighting treatment module and there are two types of systems. One of them is designed as an attached type and the other type is combined with clothing. The wearable ultra-miniature lighting module is composed of controller (battery, MCU, bidirectional transmitter and receiver), cable, treatment medium generating device and other peripheral devices. To verify the clinical effectiveness of this device, we observed the difference of the strength of a muscle before and after 650nm and 25mW laser irradiation on the reflex point for 1 to 4 seconds. Among 48 patients having the degenerative osteoarthritis, the muscle strength before and after irradiation of laser was
. According to the result, the muscle strength after treatment was significantly increased (p<0.01). To whom having difficulty in visiting to OPD(Out-Patient Department), doctors medically examine the patients and find the therapeutic point, attachment of this wearable ultra-miniature lighting module can function as self treatment (treating instrument) and treatment assist at home. If doctor can remotely control the patient and take part in treatment, the therapeutic device could contribute to prevention and care device.
Multimodal Medical Image Registration based on Image Sub-division and Bi-linear Transformation Interpolation
Kim, Yang-Wook ; Park, Jun ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 30, issue 1, 2009, Pages 34~40
Transforms including translation and rotation are required for registering two or more images. In medical applications, different registration methods have been applied depending on the structures: for rigid bodies such as bone structures, affine transformation was widely used. In most previous research, a single transform was used for registering the whole images, which resulted in low registration accuracy especially when the degree of deformation was high between two images. In this paper, a novel registration method is introduced which is based image sub-division and bilinear interpolation of transformations. The proposed method enhanced the registration accuracy by 40% comparing with Trimmed ICP for registering color and MRI images.
A Development of Diagnosis and Treatment System for Swallowing Disorder and Extraction of Analysis Parameters
Shin, D.I. ; Song, Y.J. ; Choi, K.H. ; Cheong, H.C. ; Huh, S.J. ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 30, issue 1, 2009, Pages 41~48
In this paper, we present the diagnosis system for swallowing disorder. There are some types of diagnosis device for swallowing disorder, for example, the video fluoroscopy, the nuclear medicine inspection, the endoscopy, EMG and motion analysis. But these systems need heavy devices or have dangerous nuclear exposure, so are uncomfortable for handicapped person. Our system has advantages of simplicity, accuracy and quantitative analysis. In addition to the diagnosis aspect, this system can be used to biofeedback treatment.
Suppression of Osteoporotic bone loss on the site to which low Intensity Ultrasound is Irradiated - In vivo test on BMD and Morphological Characteristics
Ko, Chang-Yong ; Seo, Dong-Hyun ; Kim, Hyo-Seon ; Kim, Han-Sung ; Kim, Sang-Hee ; Kim, Jin-Man ; Kim, Ki-Won ; Lim, Do-Hyung ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 30, issue 1, 2009, Pages 49~55
Purpose : The aim of this study is to evaluate a possibility of clinical application for the effects of low intensity ultrasound stimulation (LIUS) in morphological characteristics (i.e., structure, bone mineral density) of bone on osteoporotic fracturesprevention. Materials and Methods : Eight virgin 14-week-old ICR mice (approximate weight 25g) were used and ovariectomized (OVX) to induce osteoporosis. Right tibia (US) for each mouse served as the LIUS (1.5MHz frequency, 1.0 kHz pulse repetition on frequency,
pulse length, and stimulation for 20 minutes a day and 5 days a week over a 6-week period). Left tibia (CON) for each mouse served as the non-stimulated controls. Structural parameters and bone mineral density (
) on trabecular bone of tibiae were calculated and measured from images derived in-vivo micro computed tomography (micro-CT) at 0 week and after 6weeks. Results : The BV/TV and Tb.N in US group were significantly bigger than those in CON group. The Tb.Pf in US group, moreover, was significantly smaller than that in CON group (p<0.05).For the others structural parameters and BMD, however, there were no significant difference between US group and CON group (p>0.05). Conclusion : The LIUS might prevent bone loss and keep bone connectivity in osteoporotic bones. Therefore, the LIUS might prevent effectively the osteoporotic fractures in clinics.
Three-Dimensional Image Reconstruction from Compton Scattered Data Using the Row-Action Maximum Likelihood Algorithm
Lee, Mi-No ; Lee, Soo-Jin ; Nguyen, Van-Giang ; Kim, Soo-Mee ; Lee, Jae-Sung ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 30, issue 1, 2009, Pages 56~65
Compton imaging is often recognized as a potentially more valuable 3-D technique in nuclear medicine than conventional emission tomography. Due to inherent computational limitations, however, it has been of a difficult problem to reconstruct images with good accuracy. In this work we show that the row-action maximum likelihood algorithm (RAMLA), which have proven useful for conventional tomographic reconstruction, can also be applied to the problem of 3-D reconstruction of cone-beam projections from Compton scattered data. The major advantage of RAMLA is that it converges to a true maximum likelihood solution at an order of magnitude faster than the standard expectation maximiation (EM) algorithm. For our simulations, we first model a Compton camera system consisting of the three pairs of scatterer and absorber detectors placed at x-, y- and z-axes, and generate conical projection data using a software phantom. We then compare the quantitative performance of RAMLA and EM reconstructions in terms of the percentage error. The net conclusion based on our experimental results is that the RAMLA applied to Compton camera reconstruction significantly outperforms the EM algorithm in convergence rate; while computational costs of one iteration of RAMLA and EM are about the same, one iteration of RAMLA performs as well as 128 iterations of EM.
Development of a Mobile Ultrasound Scanner for Point-of-care Applications
Cho, Jeong ; Sohn, Hak-Yeol ; Kim, Gi-Duck ; Song, J.H. ; Song, Tai-Kyong ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 30, issue 1, 2009, Pages 66~78
A mobile ultrasound scanner developed for use in point-of-care applications is introduced, which can not only provide ultrasound images but can also measure various bio-signals. The mobile ultrasound scanner is also designed to meet the demanding requirements for point-of-care diagnosis, such as battery-powered operation, portability in terms of size and weigh, and real-time wireless communications capability for remote diagnosis. To meet these requirements, an efficient beamforming method for high resolution imaging with a small number of active elements, a hardware efficient beamformer architecture, and echo processing algorithms with greatly reduced computational complexity have been developed. Experimental results show that the prototype mobile ultrasound scanner is fully functional and satisfies most of the design requirements.
Ultrasound Harmonic Imaging Method based on Harmonic Quadrature Demodulation
Kim, Sang-Min ; Song, Jae-Hee ; Song, Tai-Kyong ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 30, issue 1, 2009, Pages 79~88
A harmonic quadrature demodulation method to extract the second harmonic component from focused ultrasound signals after a single transmit-receive event is proposed. In the proposed method, the focused ultrasound signal is converted into baseband inphase and quadrature components by multiplying with sine and cosine signals both having twice the center frequency of the transmitted signal and filtering the two modulated signals. The quadrature component is then passed through a Hilbert filter to be added to the inphase component, which leaves only the envelope of the second harmonic component. A novel phase estimation technique is employed in the proposed method to avoid the phase mismatch between the focused signal and the two modulating signals. The proposed method is verified through both theoretical analysis and computer simulations. It is shown that compared to the pulse inversion scheme the proposed method provides almost the same results for stationary targets and significantly improved harmonic to fundamental ratio for moving targets.
Bone Cell Response to Neurotransmitters and Mechanical Loading
Kwag, J.H. ; Kim, B.G. ; Kim, K.H. ; Kim, C.H. ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 30, issue 1, 2009, Pages 89~93
Bone remodeling is a continuous process of skeletal renewal during which bone formation is tightly coupled to bone resorption. Mechanical loading is an important regulator of bone formation and resorption. In recent studies, neurotransmitters such as vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) were found to be present inside bone tissue and have been suggested to potentially regulate bone remodeling. In this study, our objective was to use a pre-established in vitro oscillatory fluid flow-induced shear stress mechanical loading system to quantify the effect of VIP on bone resorptive activity and investigate its combined effect with mechanical loading. VIP decreased osteoclastogenesis significantly decreased RANKL/OPG mRNA ration by approximately 90%. Combined VIP and mechanical loading further decreased RANKL/OPG ratio to approximately 95%. These results suggest that VIP present in bone tissue may synergistically act with mechanical loading to regulate bone remodeling via suppression of bone resorptive activities.
Development of a Hearing Impairment Simulator considering Frequency Selectivity of the Hearing Impaired
Joo, S.I. ; Kil, S.K. ; Goh, M.S. ; Lee, S.M. ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 30, issue 1, 2009, Pages 94~102
In this paper, we propose a hearing impairment simulator considering reduced frequency selectivity of the hearing impaired, and verify it's performance through experiments. The reduced frequency selectivity was embodied by spectral smearing using linear prediction coding(LPC). The experiments are composed of 4 kinds of tests; pure tone test, speech reception threshold(SRT) test, and word recognition score(WRS) test without spectral smearing and with spectral smearing. The experiments of the hearing impairment simulator were performed with 9 subjects who have normal hearing. The amount of spectral smearing was controlled by LPC order. The percentile score of WRS test without smearing is
. The scores of WRS with 24th LPC order and with 8th LPC order are
respectively. It is verified that WRS score is lowered by decreasing LPC order. This is a reasonable result considering that spectral smearing is getting heavier according to decreasing LPC order. It is confirmed that spectral smearing using LPC simulates the reduced frequency selectivity of the hearing impaired and affects the clearness of speech reception.