Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korea Society of Medical and Biological Engineering
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 32, Issue 4 - Dec 2011
Volume 32, Issue 3 - Sep 2011
Volume 32, Issue 2 - Apr 2011
Volume 32, Issue 1 - Feb 2011
Selecting the target year
Prediction of energy expenditure from a tri-axial accelerometer during treadmill walking
Lee, H.Y. ; Park, S.W. ; Kim, S.H. ; Lee, D.Y. ; Kim, Y.H. ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 32, issue 2, 2011, Pages 79~84
DOI : 10.9718/JBER.2011.32.2.079
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relevance of the prediction equations derived from the relationship between metabolic energy expenditure and kinetic energy, for different speeds of walking and running over the treadmill. Seven male subjects participated in this study. A tri-axial accelerometer was attached on between the left and right posterior superior iliac spines. Kinetic energy was calculated by the integration of acceleration data and compared with the metabolic energy measured by a gas analyzer. Correlation coefficients were determined to find a relationship between the kinetic energy and the metabolic energy expenditure. Also, the difference between measured and predicted values was used to find the relevance for individual and group equations. Results showed a relatively good correlation between the measured metabolic energy and the calculated kinetic energy. In addition, a dramatic increase in kinetic energy was observed at the transition speed of walking and running (6 km/h). There was no difference in how to predict the kinetic energy expenditure for individual and group even though people have different physical characteristics. This study would be useful to predict metabolic energy expenditures by the regression analysis with acceleration data.
Development of Correction Technologies for Quantification of Photon Measurement in Bio-Luminescence Image
Tak, Yoon-Oh ; Kim, Hyeon-Sik ; Park, Hyeong-Ju ; Choi, Heung-Kook ; Choi, Eun-Seo ; Hann, S.-Wook ; Lee, Byeong-Il ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 32, issue 2, 2011, Pages 85~92
DOI : 10.9718/JBER.2011.32.2.085
Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) is the most sensitive animal imaging technique for molecular imaging research. Generally, highly sensitive CCD is used to detect an optical probe introduced in a living mouse. However, in many cases, the light signal emitted from a probe is too small to detect because it is scattered and attenuated by the tissue prior to being detected. The problem is that scattering and attenuation not only inhibit accurate measurement but also make image quality down. Thus we introduced a new method to reduce noise by using property of CCD and method to improve image quality of bioluminescence image by using two steps Gaussian blurring.
Effects of Somatosensory Stimulation on Lower-Limb Joint Kinetic of Older Adult During Stair Descent
Kwak, K.Y. ; So, H.J. ; Kim, S.H. ; Yang, Y.S. ; Kim, N.G. ; Kim, D.W. ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 32, issue 2, 2011, Pages 93~104
DOI : 10.9718/JBER.2011.32.2.093
The purpose of this study was to investigate lower-limb joint torque of the two groups as it changed by somatosensory stimulation during the descent down three stairs of different heights and to describe the difference between the two groups, which are young people group and elderly people group. Subjects of each groups climbed down a stair at four stimulation conditions, which are non-stimulation, tibialis anterior tendon stimulation, achilles tendon stimulation, tibialis anterior - achilles tendon stimulation. Motion capture data were collected using 3D optoelectric motion tracking system that utilizes active infrared LEDs, near infrared sensor and force plate. The obtained motion capture data was used to build 3D computer simulation model. The results show that lower-limb joint torque of the two groups changed with somatosensory stimulation as they descended the stairs and the joint torque of the two groups differed from each other.
Lower extremity stiffness over different landing methods during hopping
Lee, J.J. ; Son, J.S. ; Kim, J.Y. ; Kim, Y.H. ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 32, issue 2, 2011, Pages 105~108
DOI : 10.9718/JBER.2011.32.2.105
The purpose of the present study was to analyze the lower stiffness over the difference between soft and stiff landings during hopping. Five male subjects performed hopping on two legs at 2.5 Hz. During the experiments, 3D motion capture system was used to obtain the kinematic data and two force plates were synchronized to calculate the kinetic data. We determined lower extremity stiffness of the knee and ankle from kinetic and kinematic data. Leg stiffness was approximately 1.2-times significantly higher in stiff landing than in soft landing_ There was no significant difference in knee joint stiffness between soft and stiff landings. Ankle joint stiffness was approximately 1.34-times significantly higher in stiff landing than in soft landing. These results suggest that humans adjust lower extremity stiffness over the comparison of two different landing methods we evaluated.
Analysis of Arterial Stiffness Variation by Photoplethysmographic DC Component
Lee, Chung-Keun ; Shin, Hang-Sik ; Kong, In-Deok ; Lee, Myoun-Ho ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 32, issue 2, 2011, Pages 109~117
DOI : 10.9718/JBER.2011.32.2.109
Assuming that photons absorbed by a vessel do not have acute variations, DC component reflect the basal blood volume (or diameter) before blood pulsation. Vascular stiffness and reflection is influenced by changes in basal blood volume (or diameter). This paper describes analysis of the characteristic variations of vascular stiffness, according to relative variations in DC components of the PPG signal (25-75%). For quantitative analysis, we have used parameters that were proposed previously, reflection and stiffness index, and the second derivative of PPG waveform, b/a and d/a. Significantly, the vascular stiffness and reflections were increased according to increase in DC component of the PPG signal for more than about 3% of baseline values. The systolic blood pressure were increased from
mmHg, about 2.76% (r = 0.991, P < 0.001) and the AC component of the PPG signal were decreased from
arbitrary unit, about 5.09% (r = -0.993, P < 0.001). It is separated by DC median and correlation analysis was performed for analyzing vascular characteristics according to instantaneous DC variations. There are significant differences between two correlation coefficients in separated data.
Human Body Orientation Tracking System Using Inertial and Magnetic Sensors
Choi, H.R. ; Ryu, M.H. ; Yang, Y.S. ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 32, issue 2, 2011, Pages 118~126
DOI : 10.9718/JBER.2011.32.2.118
This study proposes a human body orientation tracking system by inertial and earth magnetic sensors. These sensors were fused by indirect Kalman filter. The proposed tracking system was configured and the filter was implemented. The tracking performance was evaluated with static and dynamic tests. In static test, the sensor was fixed on the floor while its static characteristics was analyzed. In dynamic test, the sensor was held and moved manually for 30 seconds. The dynamic test included x, y, z axis rotations, and elbow flection/extension motions that mimic drinking. For these dynamic motions, the tracking angle error was under
on average. The proposed tracking method is expected to be useful for various human body motion analysis.
Effect of Acupuncture at the LU5(Reinforcement), LU10(Reduction) on the Pulsation Scale of Chon, Gwan and Chuk region using High Resolution Infrared Camera
Na, Chang-Su ; Jeon, Hyo-Sang ; Kim, Jee-Hyun ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 32, issue 2, 2011, Pages 127~133
DOI : 10.9718/JBER.2011.32.2.127
Arteria radialis is a branch of the brachial artery extending down the forearm around the wrist where it closes to skin surface. In the oriental medicine, the skin above arteria radialis has an important role because oriental medicine practitioners put their finger tips on the area, and diagnose patient's health conditions by feeling the pulsation of the arterial contraction. The finger tip diagnostic method relies on subjective decision of the practitioner; and there is a need to develop an objective diagnostic modality. The pulsation of the arterial contraction appears not only a movement on the site but also as temperature fluctuation due to pulsatile feeding of warmer blood. The goal of this study is to demonstrate a feasibility of using an infrared camera quantitatively to detect the temperature fluctuation on the skin. Clinical important three different areas, called chon, gwan, chuk, near a wrist where the arteria radialis reaches close to skin surface are marked with small pieces of surgical tape. A high-speed and high-resolution infrared camera with a 3 cm of field of view measures these areas for 10 second at 200 frames per second with a 320*240 pixel size. The pulsatile temperature fluctuation is calculated after passing a band pass filter to remove any stationary temperature over 10 second. The temperature fluctuation of a healthy male volunteer is measured at a room temperature as a control, and is compared with another measurement performed after 20 minutes staying in a room at a 40 degree Celsius. This comparison is repeated for three times, and indicates that the fluctuation increases after staying 20 minutes in the warm room. This increase becomes smaller when the person stays in the warm room with an acupuncture treatment that decreases body temperature. So that an objective diagnostics on the site may become feasible.
Extraction Method of Significant Clinical Tests Based on Data Discretization and Rough Set Approximation Techniques: Application to Differential Diagnosis of Cholecystitis and Cholelithiasis Diseases
Son, Chang-Sik ; Kim, Min-Soo ; Seo, Suk-Tae ; Cho, Yun-Kyeong ; Kim, Yoon-Nyun ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 32, issue 2, 2011, Pages 134~143
DOI : 10.9718/JBER.2011.32.2.134
The selection of meaningful clinical tests and its reference values from a high-dimensional clinical data with imbalanced class distribution, one class is represented by a large number of examples while the other is represented by only a few, is an important issue for differential diagnosis between similar diseases, but difficult. For this purpose, this study introduces methods based on the concepts of both discernibility matrix and function in rough set theory (RST) with two discretization approaches, equal width and frequency discretization. Here these discretization approaches are used to define the reference values for clinical tests, and the discernibility matrix and function are used to extract a subset of significant clinical tests from the translated nominal attribute values. To show its applicability in the differential diagnosis problem, we have applied it to extract the significant clinical tests and its reference values between normal (N = 351) and abnormal group (N = 101) with either cholecystitis or cholelithiasis disease. In addition, we investigated not only the selected significant clinical tests and the variations of its reference values, but also the average predictive accuracies on four evaluation criteria, i.e., accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and geometric mean, during l0-fold cross validation. From the experimental results, we confirmed that two discretization approaches based rough set approximation methods with relative frequency give better results than those with absolute frequency, in the evaluation criteria (i.e., average geometric mean). Thus it shows that the prediction model using relative frequency can be used effectively in classification and prediction problems of the clinical data with imbalanced class distribution.
The Motion Analysis of the Scaphoid, Capitate and Lunate During Dart-Throwing Motion Using 3D Images
Park, Chan-Soo ; Kim, Kwang-Gi ; Kim, Yu-Shin ; Jeong, Chang-Bu ; Jang, Ik-Gyu ; Lee, Sang-Lim ; Oh, Su-Chan ; Yu, Do-Hyun ; Baek, Goo-Hyun ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 32, issue 2, 2011, Pages 144~150
DOI : 10.9718/JBER.2011.32.2.144
The primary purpose of this study was to analyze the motion of the scaphoid, capitate, and lunate during dart-throwing motion by three-dimensional modeling. Five series of CT images of five normal right wrists were acquired from five motion steps from radial extension to ulnar flexion in the dart-throwing motion plane. Segmentation and three-dimensional modeling of bones from CT images was performed using Analyze. Distances among centroids of the scaphoid, capitate and lunate and angles between principal axes of three carpal bones were calculated to analyze the motion by using MATLAB. As the wrist motion changed from radial extension to ulnar flexion, the distance between two adjacent bones decreased. The scaphoid and lunate rotated less than the capitates during dart-throwing motion. This study reports the Three-dimensional in vivo measurement of carpal motion using CT images.
Development of Standards of Tattoo Machine for Safety and Performance Evaluation
Kim, Y.G. ; Cho, S.K. ; Lee, T.W. ; Yeo, C.M. ; Jung, B.J. ; Kwon, Y.M. ; Cha, J.H. ; Hur, C.H. ; Park, K.J. ; Kim, D.S. ; Kim, H.S. ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 32, issue 2, 2011, Pages 151~157
DOI : 10.9718/JBER.2011.32.2.151
Tattooing is a performance for decorative and cosmetic marking by placing permanent ink into the skin. As the cultural meaning of tattoo in Korea is changing, the tattoo machines are widely spread n permanent cosmetic market. Though the use of the tattoo machine was increased, the evaluation standards of tattoo machine were not existed. Korea Food and Drug Association regulated the electrical and mechanical safety standards which were founded on the IEC 601-1 second edition. Also they regulated he biological safety standards which were derived from the ISO 10993 series, however, these general valuations of common medical device were insufficient for evaluating tattoo machine. We developed the standards of tattoo machine for safety and performance evaluation for tattoo machine by preliminary hazard analysis in ISO 14971. The evaluation criteria of tattoo machines are focused on the mechanical invasion. We suggested the additional evaluation items of the needle speed, length, vibration with general valuation criteria of common medical device. We anticipate that this research may be a primary stage to figure a standard regulation and evaluation for tattoo machine.
Computer Simulation for X-ray Breast Elastography
Kim, Hyo-Geun ; Aowlad Hossain, A.B.M. ; Lee, Soo-Yeol ; Cho, Min-Hyoung ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 32, issue 2, 2011, Pages 158~164
DOI : 10.9718/JBER.2011.32.2.158
Breast cancer is the most frequently appearing cancer in women, these days. To reduce mortality of breast cancer, periodic check-up is strongly recommended. X-ray mammography is one of powerful diagnostic imaging systems to detect 50~100 um micro-calcification which is the early sign of breast cancer. Although x-ray mammography has very high spatial resolution, it is not easy yet to distinguish cancerous tissue from normal tissues in mammograms and new tissue characterizing methods are required. Recently ultrasound elastography technique has been developed, which uses the phenomenon that cancerous tissue is harder than normal tissues. However its spatial resolution is not enough to detect breast cancer. In order to develop a new elastography system with high resolution we are developing x-ray elasticity imaging technique. It uses the small differences of tissue positions with and without external breast compression and requires an algorithm to detect tissue displacement. In this paper, computer simulation is done for preliminary study of x-ray elasticity imaging. First, 3D x-ray breast phantom for modeling woman's breast is created and its elastic model for FEM (finite element method) is generated. After then, FEM experiment is performed under the compression of the breast phantom. Using the obtained displacement data, 3D x-ray phantom is deformed and the final mammogram under the compression is generated. The simulation result shows the feasibility of x-ray elasticity imaging. We think that this preliminary study is helpful for developing and verifying a new algorithm of x-ray elasticity imaging.
Gait Analysis of a Pediatric-Patient with Femoral Nerve Injury : A Case Study
Hwang, S.H. ; Park, S.W. ; Son, J.S. ; Park, J.M. ; Kwon, S.J. ; Choi, I.S. ; Kim, Y.H. ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 32, issue 2, 2011, Pages 165~176
DOI : 10.9718/JBER.2011.32.2.165
The femoral nerve innervates the quadriceps muscles and its dermatome supplies anteromedial thigh and medial foot. Paralysis of the quadriceps muscles due to the injury of the femoral nerve results in disability of the knee joint extension and loss of sensory of the thigh. A child could walk independently even though he had injured his femoral nerve severely due to the penetrating wound in the medial thigh. We measured and analyzed his gait performance in order to find the mechanisms that enabled him to walk independently. The child was eleven-year-old boy and he could not extend his knee voluntarily at all during a month after the injury. His gait analysis was performed five times (GA1~GA5) for sixteen months. His temporal-spatial parameters were not significantly different after the GA2 or GA3 test, and significant asymmetry was not observed except the single support time in GA1 results. The Lower limb joint angles in affected side had large differences in GA1 compared with the normal normative patterns. There were little knee joint flexion and extension motion during the stance phase in GA1 The maximum ankle plantar/dorsi flexion angles and the maximum knee extension angles were different from the normal values in the sound side. Asymmetries of the joint angles were analyzed by using the peak values. Significant asymmetries were found in GA1with seven parameters (ankle: peak planter flexion angle in stance phase, range of motion; ROM, knee: peak flexion angles during both stance and swing phase, ROM, hip: peak extension angle, ROM) while only two parameters (maximum hip extension angle and ROM of hip joint) had significant differences in GA5. The mid-stance valleys were not observed in both right and left sides of vertical ground reaction force (GRF) in the GA1, GA2. The loading response peak was far larger than the terminal stance peak of vertical ground reaction curve in the affected side of the GA3, GA4, GA5. The measured joint moment curves of the GA1, GA2, GA3 had large deviations and all of kinetic results had differences with the normal patterns. EMG signals described an absence of the rectus femoris muscle activity in the GA1 and GA2 (affected side). The EMG signals were detected in the GA3 and GA4 but their patterns were not normal yet, then their normal patterns were detected in the GA5. Through these following gait analysis of a child who had selective injuries on the knee extensor muscles, we could verify the actual functions of the knee extensor muscles during gait, and we also could observe his recovery and asymmetry with quantitative data during his rehabilitation.
Development of the High_frequency and Low_strain Vibration Stimulation System for Stimulating Bone
Yoo, Ju-Yeon ; Park, Guen-Chul ; Jeon, Ah-Young ; Kim, Yun-Jin ; Ro, Jung-Hoon ; Jeon, Gye-Rok ;
Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research, volume 32, issue 2, 2011, Pages 177~184
DOI : 10.9718/JBER.2011.32.2.177
In this study, the system for application of the bone stimulation was implemented using high frequency and low strain method. The whole system consists of the high frequency and low strain vibration stimulation system 177 for stimulating bone, LVDT sensor, and wireless sensor based on tri-axial accelerometer. To evaluate the usefulness of the system, the frequencies and accelerations from function generator were applied to the vibration stimulation system. The range of frequency was 17 Hz, 30 Hz, 45 Hz, 50 Hz and the range of acceleration was set 0.3 g, 0.6 g, 1g, and 2 g. The measured frequencies and acceleration using LVDT (linear variable difference transformer) sensor and 3-axial accelerometer were estimated and compared. The range of frequencies average difference was from 0.0 to 0.004 Hz. As the standard deviation of frequencies estimated by LVDT sensor and accelerometer was below 0.03 Hz and the output frequencies of function generator were similar: Also the results of t-test were satisfied with conditions of p > 0.05. And the acquired frequencies and acceleration from vibration measuring device module were estimated and analyzed. As the mean of accelerations was similar to the acceleration applied from function generator. And the standard deviation of acceleration estimated from vibration measuring device module was ranged from 0.019 g to 0.038 g. Also the results of t-test were satisfied with conditions of p > 0.05. Therefore, these results were airy similar to the acceleration applied from function generator. As a result, the usefulness of the system was confirmed. n a further study, clinical experiment will be carried out with the authorization of IRB (institutional review board) so that appropriate frequency and strain would be investigated in clinical field.