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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Ecology and Resilient Infrastructure
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Ecology and Infrastructure Engineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 2, Issue 4 - Dec 2015
Volume 2, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 2, Issue 2 - Jun 2015
Volume 2, Issue 1 - Mar 2015
Selecting the target year
Challenges and Prospects of Stream Restoration
Chun, Seong Hoon ; Kim, Kyu-Ho ;
Ecology and Resilient Infrastructure, volume 2, issue 2, 2015, Pages 105~107
DOI : 10.17820/eri.2015.2.2.105
Analysis of Stream Environmental Assessment Systems in Korea: Focus on the Biological Aspect
Chun, Seong Hoon ; Kim, Chae Baek ; Kim, Woo Ram ; Park, Sang Gil ; Chae, Soo Kwon ;
Ecology and Resilient Infrastructure, volume 2, issue 2, 2015, Pages 108~117
DOI : 10.17820/eri.2015.2.2.108
This study was carried out to assess problems related to legislative regulations and guidelines concerning some biological assessment systems applied to stream corridor in Korea. We comparatively reviewed the law of stream corridors and the guidelines for master plan concerned, and the law of water quality and health assessment criteria for the aquatic ecosystem concerned. Stream environments were not managed effectively due to the absence of detail regulations and the criteria for stream assessment. A biological assessment system was not equivalently integrated within the management of water resources in process implementation of projects resulting from the dualistic management system for stream corridors in Korea. The current biological assessment system was reflected to mainly physical habitats or only oriented to some aquatic species correlated with water quality. This system was also recognized as part of environment impact assessment based on an intensive survey method of most biological taxa. Conclusively rapid and quantitative assessment techniques based on advanced organisms, such as vegetation, fish and birds, etc. should be urgently provided for considering as representative indicators of stream conditions in Korea.
An Application of Stream Classification Systems in the Nam River, Korea
Kim, Kiheung ; Jung, Heareyn ;
Ecology and Resilient Infrastructure, volume 2, issue 2, 2015, Pages 118~127
DOI : 10.17820/eri.2015.2.2.118
Because streams have a great diversity of morphological features according to their reaches, it is necessary to classify the types of streams in order to assess their characteristics of channel. In addition, a quantitative assessment system for channel characteristics should be reflected in the stream type properties. Therefore, this study compares two stream classification system (Rosgen's and Yamamoto's) to review their applicability on Korean streams, and the two classification systems were applied on the Nam River. In order for the mean bed slope and the longitudinal connectivity of the provincial and national streams to be reflected in the assessment system of channel characteristics, the Yamamoto system is considered highly adaptable in the stream geomorphology side. In addition, it has been found the Rosgen system has a low correlation of bed slope compared to the Yamamoto system in the view of bed materials. On the other hand, the Yamamoto system was found to be capable of reflecting sediment sorting (hydraulic sorting) of the bed slope. According to the results obtained at the Nam River, the Rosgen system could not classify a type of stream by relationship between bed material and bed slope, but the Yamamoto system can verify the correlation of stream type. However, further review is needed with respect to the applicability of natural rivers. Three types of stream that can be applied to the assessment system of channel characteristics were proposed.
A Comparison of Geomorphological and Hydrological Methods for Delimitation of Flood Plain in the Mankyung River, Korea
Kim, Ji-Sung ; Lee, Chan-Joo ; Kim, Joo-Hun ; Choi, Cheonkyu ; Kim, Kyu-Ho ;
Ecology and Resilient Infrastructure, volume 2, issue 2, 2015, Pages 128~136
DOI : 10.17820/eri.2015.2.2.128
River areas include channels, floodplains and all the areas affected by physical and ecological processes in river systems. It is noticeably different from present riparian zone which is bounded by dykes. In this study, two methods for delineation of a floodplain are proposed, which are used for evaluation of the function of a river. One of them is a geomorphology-based technique and the other is hydrology-based inundation analysis. For the Mankyung River, these two methods are applied to delineate the floodplain area. Areas delineated with both methods are mutually compared. The results show that the geomorphology-based method is suitable for the delineation of a valley bottom, including the floodplain in a broader sense, which is unlike an inundated area reflecting contemporary hydrologic conditions. Compared with other flood frequency areas, a 100-year flood inundation area was found reasonable to represent the spatial extent of a floodplain without regard to the longitudinal location along a river. However, it is necessary in certain rivers reach where the division of a channel exists to compare a geomorphological analysis on a valley bottom with an inundation area of different frequencies.
Evaluation of Habitat Improvement Using Two-Dimensional Fish Habitat Modeling after the Connectivity Restoration in an Isolated Former Channel
Kim, Seog Hyun ; Kim, Dana ; Cho, Kang-Hyun ;
Ecology and Resilient Infrastructure, volume 2, issue 2, 2015, Pages 137~146
DOI : 10.17820/eri.2015.2.2.137
Lateral connectivity between a main channel and a former channel plays an integral role in maintaining ecological functions of stream-floodplain ecosystems. This study virtually restored the connectivity of the former channel, which is currently isolated by channelization, in the Mangyeong River, Korea. Fish habitat improvement after the connectivity restoration was evaluated using River2D, two-dimensional depth-averaged hydraulic modeling, depending on normal and flood flow conditions. Target fish species were crucian carp (Carassius auratus), which are known as lentic species, and pale chub (Zacco platypus), known as lotic species. The weighted usable area (WUA) of the two species was increased after the connectivity restoration: the two-way connection between the main and formal channels was more effective than the one-way connection. The result of the physical habitat simulation at a flood flow condition demonstrated an increased rate of the WUA than during a normal flow condition. In particular, the WUA of pale chub increased about four times on the two-way connectivity restoration. This result suggests that habitat availability of both lentic and lotic fish species will increase after a connectivity restoration, and a two-way connectivity restoration may be more effective. In addition, the restored formal channel would function as a shelter for fish during the flood season.
Effects of Concrete Materials for the Stream Restoration on Bombina orientalis Embryos
Park, Chan Jin ; Ahn, Hong Kyu ; Gye, Myung Chan ; Lee, Tae Hyeong ;
Ecology and Resilient Infrastructure, volume 2, issue 2, 2015, Pages 147~153
DOI : 10.17820/eri.2015.2.2.147
Various adverse effects can occur due to direct exposure from toxic substances when toxic materials are used to restore river ecosystems. Thus, this study performed analysis on the development of toxicity in terms of survival and abnormality rates using embryos of Bombina orientalis living in Korea to analyze the toxicity of materials used in the river projects. The results showed that the toxicity in cement (C group) was the strongest whereas the toxicity in plant-based polyurethane (P1 group) was the weakest. Survival rates of B. orientalis embryos were 100%, 94 - 95%, 66 - 89% and 0% in control, P1, polyurethane (P2) and C groups, respectively. Abnormalities of embryos were 10.5%, 5.3 - 10.5%, 26.3 - 27.8% and 35.7% in control, P1, P2 and C groups, respectively. Furthermore, we verified that having a sufficient curing time reduced toxic substances that were extracted. The above result suggest that cement and polyurethane hamper the early development of amphibians. In conclusion, it is highly important to review biological safety with respect to the selection of materials used to restore rivers. This study shows the importance of the selection of eco-friendly materials and processes.
Deposition and Erosion Relief of Riverfront by Vegetation
Kim, Jin-Hong ;
Ecology and Resilient Infrastructure, volume 2, issue 2, 2015, Pages 154~160
DOI : 10.17820/eri.2015.2.2.154
This paper presents the field investigation of deposition and erosion relief of a riverfront using vegetation. The results obtained were as follows: Phragmites japonica showed 0.2 m of deposition and 0.3 m-0.4 m of erosion relief of river front by the critical velocity of 1.0 m/s-1.2 m/s. P. communis showed 0.1 m-0.4 m of deposition and 0.2 m-0.3 m of erosion relief by the critical velocity of 0.6 m/s-0.7 m/s. Salix gracilistyla showed 0.1 m-0.2 m of deposition and 0.4 m-0.5 m of erosion relief by the critical velocity of 1.2 m/s-1.4 m/s. Miscanthus sacchariflorus showed 0.1 m-0.4 m of deposition and 0.1 m-0.2 m of erosion relief by the critical velocity of 0.6 m/s-0.7 m/s. S. gracilistyla had the greatest role, while M. sacchariflorus had the lowest role for erosion relief. These results showed that aquatic plants had an effective role in sustaining a stable channel.
Hydraulic Stability of a Non-Toxic Revetment Block
Oh, Jun Oh ; Jun, Sang Mi ; Park, Jae Hyeon ;
Ecology and Resilient Infrastructure, volume 2, issue 2, 2015, Pages 161~166
DOI : 10.17820/eri.2015.2.2.161
The inappropriate hydraulic design criteria on the new revetment technique for the ecological river restoration project happens to lead to economic loss during the flood season. In this study, the hydraulic stability of the developed non-toxic revetment was evaluated at a maximum discharge of
and a maximum velocity of 3.0 m/s in a real scale experimental channel. The vertical movement of the non-toxic revetment block was in the range of
mm in the experimental conditions. The results show that the non-toxic revetment block was sufficiently hydraulically secured.
Physicochemical Characteristics and Nutrient Release from Sediment in an Urban Stream
Kim, Tae Hoon ; Jung, Jae Hoon ; Choi, Sun Hwa ; Choi, I Song ; Oh, Jong Min ;
Ecology and Resilient Infrastructure, volume 2, issue 2, 2015, Pages 167~176
DOI : 10.17820/eri.2015.2.2.167
The water quality of the Gulpo Stream flowing through Incheon, Bucheon, Seoul, and Kimpo is getting worse due to a slow flow rate and bank constructions by stream channelization as well as an inflow of pollutants from living-sewages and factory-sewages. Besides, a dry stream phenomenon caused by a lack of maintenance water upstream makes a self-purification system worse, and the water quality of the Gulpo Stream is currently at its lowest level. The accumulated sludge of the streambed is mostly formed by the deposition of particle pollutants due to the slow flow rate and an artificially straightened stream channel. This accumulated sludge adsorbs a great quantity of organic materials and heavy metals. Because of the internal contamination possibility by a re-gushing, even after the pollution source is removed, it can cause future water pollution. Without a total examination as previously recommended, it is considered difficult to accomplish practical efficiency. In conclusion, the management of periodic sediment management such as dredging would be necessary in the Gulpo Stream because sediment could be an internal pollution source of stream water under anaerobic conditions.
Activated Carbon Performance for the Treatment of Diesel-Derived Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Choi, Yongju ; Luthy, Richard G. ;
Ecology and Resilient Infrastructure, volume 2, issue 2, 2015, Pages 177~184
DOI : 10.17820/eri.2015.2.2.177
This study assessed the performance of activated carbon (AC) amendment to treat polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including both parent- and alkylated-moieties in sediment impacted by diesel. A field-collected, diesel-impacted sediment with a NAPL content of 1% was used for the study. No. 2 diesel fuel is weathered by heating at
for 4 days to obtain a weathered diesel sample having C3-naphthalenes to C2-phenanthrenes/anthracenes (N2/P3) ratio similar to the original sediment. The sediment samples spiked with the weathered diesel to obtain non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contents of 1, 5 and 10% were contacted with AC with a dose of 5% as sediment dry weight for 1 month. By the AC-sediment contact, the freely-dissolved equilibrium concentrations were substantially reduced. Even for sediment with 10% NAPL content, the reductions in the freely-dissolved concentrations were 92% and 75% for total parent-and alkylated-PAHs, respectively. The effect of NAPL contents on the performance of AC was negligible for parent-PAHs, while for alkylated-PAHs, a slightly reduced AC performance was observed. The results suggest that the AC amendment can be an effective option for the treatment of petroleum-impacted sediment with relatively high NAPL contents.
Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Emission Models and Evaluation of Their Application on Agricultural Lands in Korea
Hwang, Wonjae ; Park, Minseok ; Kim, Yong-Seong ; Cho, Kijong ; Lee, Woo-Kyun ; Hyun, Seunghun ;
Ecology and Resilient Infrastructure, volume 2, issue 2, 2015, Pages 185~190
DOI : 10.17820/eri.2015.2.2.185
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission from agricultural lands is recognized as one of important factors of global warming. The objective of this short communication was to evaluate the applicability of different soil GHG emission prediction models on agricultural systems in Korea. Four models, namely, DNDC, DAYCENT, EXPERT-N and COUP, were selected and the basic structure (e.g., components and sub-model), input variables, and output variables were compared. In particular, the availability and compilation of essential input variables were assessed. Major input variables needed for operating these predictive models were found to be available through database systems established by national organizations such as the Korea Meteorological Administration, the Korean Soil Information System, and the Rural Development Administration. However, in order to apply these models in Korea, it was necessary to calibrate and validate each of the models for the domestic landscape settings and climate conditions. In addition, field data of long-term monitoring of GHG emission from agricultural lands are limited and therefore should be measured.