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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Quality Improvement in Health Care
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Quality Assurance in Health Care
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 7, Issue 2 - Dec 2000
Volume 7, Issue 1 - May 2000
Selecting the target year
Factors Related to Waiting and Staying Time for Patient Care in Emergency Care Center
Han, Nam Sook ; Park, Jae Yong ; Lee, Sam Beom ; Do, Byung Soo ; Kim, Seok Beom ;
Quality Improvement in Health Care, volume 7, issue 2, 2000, Pages 138~155
Background: Factors related to waiting and staying time for patient care in emergency care center (ECC) were examined during 1 month from Apr. 1 to Apr. 30, 1997 at an ECC of Yeungnam university hospital in Taegu metropolitan city, to obtain the baseline data on the strategy of effective management of emergency patients. Method: The study subjects consisted of the 1,742 patients who visited at ECC and the data were obtained from the medical records of ECC and direct surveys. Results: The mean interval between ECC admission time and initial care time by each ECC duty residents was 83.1 minutes for male patients and 84.9 minutes for female patients, and mean ECC staying time (time interval between admission and final disposition from ECC) was 718.0 minutes in men and 670.5 minutes in women. As the results, the mean staying time in ECC was higher in older age, and especially the both of initial care time and staying time were highest in patients of medical aid, and shortest in patients of worker's accident compensation insurance. The on admission or not, previously endotracheal-intubation state of patient. The ECC staying ti initial care time was much more delayed in patients of not having previous medical records and the ECC staying time was higher in referred patients from out-patient department, in transferred patients from the other hospitals and patients having previous records, and in patients partly used the order-communicating system. The factors associated with the initial care time were the numbers of ECC patients and the existence of any true emergent patients, being cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) statusme was much more longer in patients of drug intoxication, in CPR patients, in medical department patients, in transfused patients and in patients related to 3 or more departments. And according to the numbers of duty internships, the ECC staying time for four internships was more longer than for five internships and after admission ordering was done, also-more longer in status being of no available beds. As above mentioned results, the factors for the ECC staying time were thought to be statistically significant (P<0.01) according to the patient's age and the laboratory orders and the X-ray films checked. And also the factor for the ECC staying time were thought to be statistically significant (P<0.01) according to the status being of no available beds, the laboratory orders and/or the special laboratory orders, the X-ray films checked, final disposing department, transferred to other hospital or not, home medication or not, admission or not, the grades of beds, the year grades of residents, the causes of ECC visit, the being CPR status on admission or not, the surgical operation or not, being known personells in our hospital. Conclution: Authors concluded that the relieving method of long-staying time in ECC was being establishing the legally proved apparatus which could differentiate the true emergency or non-emergency patients, and that the methods of shortening ECC staying time were doing definitely necessary laboratory orders and managing beds more flexibly to admit for ECC patients and finally this methods were thought to be a method of unloading for ECC personnels and improving the quality of care in emergency patients.
The Analysis of Studies about Critical Pathway in Domestic and Abroad - From 1995 to 1999 -
Kim, Yong Soon ; Park, Jee Won ; Kim, Gi Yon ;
Quality Improvement in Health Care, volume 7, issue 2, 2000, Pages 156~167
Background: Emphasis in healthcare during the 1990s has been to provide both optimal wellness and function with quality in a Cost-effective manner. Critical pathway was developed to meet the need to guide clients along the continunm of care and to achieve continuity of care. The purpose of this study is to review and analyze articles related to the critical pathway that had developed and applied in Korea and abroad from 1995 to 1999. Methods: Total 39 studies were analyzed in terms of group of application, need of development, horizontal axis: time frame, vertical axis : items of care, task force team, identification of preliminary critical pathway, validation of preliminary critical pathway, types of final critical pathway, a person who coordinates and effects on critical pathway. Results: In the aspect of group of application, there were various diseases in the overseas than in Korea. In domestic and overseas, the horizontal axis included mainly the time from the start of hospitalization to discharge and vertical axis of the critical pathway included commonly the following nine items : tests, diet, medications, consultations, activity, assessments, treatments, education, discharge planning. Preliminary critical pathway was mainly drawn up through chart review in both. Types of final critical pathway were mostly for medical team use in Korea and were for medical team and patient use in abroad. A person who coordinates critical pathway was mostly nurse in abroad. There was positive effects on critical pathway in both. Conclusion: Staff education and information about critical pathway are needed to use it effectively.
Cost-Benefit Analysis of Clinical Pharmacokinetic Consultation Service of Theophylline
Han, Euna ; Yang, Bong-Min ; Lee, Eui-Kyung ;
Quality Improvement in Health Care, volume 7, issue 2, 2000, Pages 168~179
Background : Economic evaluation of clinical pharmacokinetic consultation services for theophylline, which is being widely used recently, is considered in patients for both proper care and cost efficiency. Mathods : This is a cost-benefit analysis of clinical pharmacokinetic consultation service for theophylline. Trial groups were chosen from 2 general hospitals which was performing clinical pharmacokinetic consultation- services in 1998. Control group was chosen from another one general hospital. The analysis includes 25 patients (sample patients) for trial group and 17 patients for control group. Results : On the basis of incremental analysis, it is estimated that the total (direct and indirect) annual costs of the clinical, pharmacokinetic services of theophylline for the patients in the trial group was about \65 million, whereas total annual benefits from those services was estimated to be about \551 million. The net benefits incurred to the sample patients, thus calculated, was about \485 million per year. In the analysis, we assumed that indirect benefits accruing to those services were non-existent. If that amount was included, the estimated net benefits would be much greater than the calculated one. Conclusion : We found that clinical pharmacokinetic consultation services for theophylline could produce more marginal benefits than marginal costs by those services from the social point of view. More controlled prospective trial in the future would be helpful for affirmation of the results of this study.
The Reliability of Satisfaction Questionnaire According to Item Arrangement
Choi, Kui-Son ; Cho, Woo-Huyn ; Hong, Jae-Seok ; Lee, Sunhee ; Kang, Myungguen ;
Quality Improvement in Health Care, volume 7, issue 2, 2000, Pages 180~188
Objectives : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of questionnaire according to item arrangement on patient satisfaction questionnaire. Methods : We developed the two types of questionnaire with different item arrangement. In the first type (A), questions were arranged according to medical service dimensions. Questions in the second type (B) were arranged according to medical process. Both questionnaires were composed of six dimensions: physical environments, process, competence, courtesy, information giving, understanding patients. Measurements were performed on a 5-score Likert scale. In an outpatients and inpatient survey, total 777 patients answered the type A (outpatients: 257, inpatients: 128) or Type B (outpatients: 257, inpatients: 135). In order to compare the internal consistency of two types. Cronbach's
were calculated. Multiple regression analysis was also performed to know which type of questionnaire explain more of the overall satisfaction. Results : In outpatient survey, type A questionnaire showed higher internal consistency than B except physical environments dimension. Also in inpatient survey, type A had higer internal consistency than B in four dimensions(process, competence, courtesy, understanding patients). In the results of multiple regression analysis, type A questionnaire (
=0.53) explained more of the variation in overall satisfaction then B questionnaire (
=0.43) in outpatient survey. In inpatient survey, type B questionnaire (
=0.40) explained, more of the variation in overall satisfaction than type A questionnaire (
=0.33).But the difference of R was not significant in inpatient survey. Conclusion : The results of this study support that type A questionnaire has higer reliability in assessment of consumer satisfaction than type B.
A Study on Patients' Satisfaction and Service Utilization in the DRG Based Payment System - Patients who Experienced Cesarean Section Before and After the Demonstration Program -
Kim, Ji Sook ; Park, Hayoung ;
Quality Improvement in Health Care, volume 7, issue 2, 2000, Pages 190~202
Background : The objectives of this study were to examine patients' satisfaction with the DRG based payment method and its association with their awareness of the method, to examine patient reported changes in doctors' caring attitude, level of their out-of-pocket payments, providers' acceptance of patients' request for additional services after the program, and to examine changes in service utilization recorded in medical records. Method : One hundred-four patients who had cesarean sections before and after the demonstration program at two hospitals located in Seoul participated in the study. Patients were surveyed before discharges when their charges were finalized. Their medical records were reviewed as well to collect data for service utilization during hospital stays. The association between patients' satisfaction with the payment method and their awareness of the method was analyzed by
-test, and the significance of changes in providers' acceptance of patients' request for additional services and service utilization after the program were examined by
-test and t-test, respectively. Results : A large proportion of patients did not know of the DRG based payment method at the time of survey and a significantly larger proportion of patients who came to the hospitals with the knowledge satisfied with the method. About the same proportion of patients reported improvement and deterioration in doctors' caring attitude compare to the previous hospitalizations and a similar result was found concerning out-of-pocket payments. Providers' acceptance of patients' request for medication, PCA and painless delivery decreased significantly after the program whereas the acceptance for additional hospital days and laboratory and radiology tests did not. Length of stay, the numbers of days on antibiotics and antianemic medication, and the number of blood tests decreased significantly after the program, however, decreases in the rate of antianemic medication and the number of urine analyses were not statistically significant. Re-operation, in-hospital death, and complications were not observed before and after the program. Conclusion : The study findings indicated a need for better patient education and publicity about the newly introduced payment method to improve their satisfaction with the system. Other study findings concerning service utilization and quality of care indicators were consistent with the government funded evaluation studies.
Developing a Composite Quality Indicator to Assess The Quality of Care for US Medicare End-stage Renal Disease Patients
Kang, Hye-Young ;
Quality Improvement in Health Care, volume 7, issue 2, 2000, Pages 204~216
Background : There has been a concern that the quality of care provided to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients in the United States may not be as good as recommended. This paper illustrates a composite measure to assess, the quality of care received by ESRD patients undergoing in-center hemodialysis by incorporating outcomes for 4 major treatment areas. The 4 treatment areas are: dialysis treatments, anemia control, nutritional management, and blood pressure control. Methods : The major data source for the study was the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) Dialysis Morbidity and Mortality Study Wave 1 (DMMS-1) d Sixteen categories of a composite quality indicator were constructed by combining 4 dichotomous variables (16=2*2*2*2). representing the optimal vs. less than optimal level of outcome for each of the 4 treatment outcome measure respectively. Optimal outcome level for each treatment area was defined based on the recommendation from the National Kidney Foundation: (a) delivered dialysis doses (Kt/V)
1.2; (b) hematocrit level
30%; (c) serum albumin concentration
3.8g/dl ; and (d) blood pressure of <140 / <90mmHg. The 16 quality indicator were ranked according to their relative quality weights, which were estimated from its association with the relative risk of survival, adjusting for patient's baseline severity and dialysis facility characteristics. Results : Out of the entire sample of 2,179 patients, only 229 (10%) meet th recommended outcome levels for all 4 treatment areas. Overall, the study patients were distributed evenly over the 16 quality indicators, indicating a great variation in the quality of ESRD care. It appears that the rank of the 16 quality-indicators is driven by serum albumin concentration, suggesting that serum albumin concentration may be the most powerful predictor of ESRD patient survival among the 4 outcome measures. Conclusion : The developed quality indicator has the advantage of describin a range of care for dialysis patients and thus providing a more complete picture of care as compared to previous studies that have focused on only single or few components of the ESRD care.
Severity-Adjusted Mortality Rates of Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Using MedisGroups
Kwon, Young-Dae ;
Quality Improvement in Health Care, volume 7, issue 2, 2000, Pages 218~228
Background : Among 'structure', 'process' and 'outcome' approaches, outcome evaluation is considered as the most direct and best approach to assess the quality of health care providers. Risk-adjustment is an essential method to compare outcome across providers. This study has aims to judge performance of hospitals by severity adjusted mortality rates of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Methods : Medical records of 584 patients who got the CABG surgery in 6 general hospitals during 1996 and 1997 were reviewed by trained nurses. The MedisGroups was used to quantify severity of patients. The predictive probability of death was calculated for each patient in the sample from a multivariate logistic regression model including the severity score, age and sex. For evaluation of hospital performance, we calculated ratio of observed number to expected number of deaths and z score [(observed number of deaths - expected number of deaths)/square root of the variance in the number of deaths], and compared observed mortality rate with confidence interval of adjusted mortality rate for each hospital. Results : The overall in-hospital mortality was 7.0%, ranged from 2.7% to 15.7% by hospital. After severity adjustment the mortality by hospital was from 2.7% to 10.7%. One hospital with poor performance was distinctly divided from others with good performance. Conclusion : In conclusion, severity-adjusted mortality rate of CABG surgery might be applied as an indicator for hospital performance evaluation in Korea. But more pilot studies and improvement of methodologies has to be done to use it as quality indicator.
A Comparative Study on the Methods for Weighting the Dimensions of Customer Satisfaction with Importance Perceived by Customers
Kang, Myunggeun ; Cho, Woohyun ; Lee, Sunhee ; Choi, Kuison ; Mooon, Kitae ;
Quality Improvement in Health Care, volume 7, issue 2, 2000, Pages 230~242
Background : The measuring instruments for customer satisfaction in hospitals are often composed of some dimensions reflecting the conceptive complexity of them. Then, overall satisfaction would be expected to be equal the 'weighted' sum of scores by dimensions because the importance rated by customers may be different across the dimensions. But the issue of how to weight the dimensions with importance is not yet solved. We examined 3 sets of weighting methods as to make effect on predictive power against overall satisfaction. Methods : We conducted a survey included 483 subjects who had visited or admitted to a university hospital, using the short form questionnaire being developed by The Korean Society of Quality Assurance in Health Care for out-patient and in-patient. By using a multiple linear regression model, we compared among changes of explanatory powers against overall satisfaction as dependent variable after weighting 4 dimensions of the survey questionnaire as independent variables with importance scores of dimensions perceived by consumers. And we compared the feasibility of each weighting, methods by checking missing cases. Results : There were no weighting methods increasing the explanatory power after applying them. The method of absolute scoring was found higher explanatory-power than others, but this finding had no statistical significance. Regarding the number of missing value, method of absolutely scoring had the least cases. Conclusion : Our findings suggested that weighting the dimensions with importance might have little significance in the cases of scales having items highly correlated, such as consumers' satisfaction. Though asking with items to be answered absolutely, customers might be rating relatively in some degree and this method produced least missing cases. Considering these points, in the cases when weighting the dimensions with importance would be required, we suggest that weighting method by absolute scoring might be better than others.
Case Study on Job Flow Improvement of Foodservice at a University Hospital
Kim, Hyung Mi ; Yang, Il Sun ; Park, Eun Cheol ; Lim, Hyun Sook ;
Quality Improvement in Health Care, volume 7, issue 2, 2000, Pages 244~261
Background : In order to cope with changes in the management environment at hospitals, increased interests are drawn in patient foodservice system on Continuous Quality Improvement Activity as the method of approaching a quality food service and effective management. Thus, as a part of this activity, this study was conducted to evaluate job flow improvement that was already performed and the results of that process at the dietetic department of a university hospital, focusing on improving management. Method : On February 15 of 1998. the dietetic department formed a job flow-improvement to decide on the priority of job flow improvement, and prepared specific action strategies and schedule of the priority: after a 5 month process period, job improvement achieved on June 15. 1998. Also, economic achievement of the task was evaluated through labor productivity analysis and cost-benefit analysis. Results : The patient food service system which was managed decentralized at the present hospital was centralized, some steps of the food service process were integrated, and quality of patient food was improved. Also, as a solution of the problems expected when conducting job flow improvement was made on food service equipments and utensils. The result of evaluating the job flow improvement that labor productivity improved by 18.2% compared to before the improvement and the result of the analysis of cost-benefit showed that Benefit-Cost (B/C) ratio was 2.22. showing financial merit on the investment. Conclusions : Continuous Quality Improvement Activity needs to be initiated and conducted in the future in various areas of hospital foodservice system in order to actively adopt to ever changing hospital management environment. In order to achieve this goal, many researches and more efforts need to be put in by people in charge of hospital food service management, and interests and support are needed from hospital policy makers.