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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Fashion & Textile Research Journal
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society for ClothIng Industry
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Volume & Issues
Volume 13, Issue 6 - Dec 2011
Volume 13, Issue 5 - Oct 2011
Volume 13, Issue 4 - Aug 2011
Volume 13, Issue 3 - Jun 2011
Volume 13, Issue 2 - Apr 2011
Volume 13, Issue 1 - Feb 2011
Selecting the target year
A Study on Purchase Behavior and Design Preference of Luxury Hand Bag Users aged 20 to 30 by Lifestyle and Age Variable
Kim, Chil-Soon ; Lee, Jin ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 13, issue 6, 2011, Pages 827~837
DOI : 10.5805/KSCI.2011.13.6.827
The purpose of this study was to observe premium handbag users who are 20 to 30 year old of age, to determine purchase behavior and design preference of handbags by lifestyle and age variable to help market segmentation. A survey instrument was used. A sample was selected by quota sampling method from 20 to 30 aged Korean women, and reliable 538 data were analyzed by SPSS. Cluster type towards lifestyle and age were independent variable. There are two types of lifestyle clusters toward luxury handbags; Strongly favored and weakly favored group toward luxury handbags. Strongly favored group of luxury goods considered more brand, country of origin, and trend, while young people considered more new arrival of design in purchase of products. Preferred design type of hand bag was statistically associated with age variable. 20s consumers preferred shopper bag style and big size of handbags. Leather was preferred by the group of the strongly favored luxury goods. Through this research finding, we hope handbag brand market segmentation will be based on lifestyle and age variable to reflect customer`s demand.
A study of the Clothes and Embroidery Design in the Fashion Collection - Focused on 2004~2008 Collection -
Park, In-Jo ; Lee, Kyoung-Hee ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 13, issue 6, 2011, Pages 838~847
DOI : 10.5805/KSCI.2011.13.6.838
The object of this study is as follows. First, according to the silhouette of clothes, I will search the relationship with the embroidery design. Second, I will investigate the relation of coloration about the clothes color and embroidery color. Third, I will search the relation with the image in clothes and embroidery design characteristic. The data acquisition is selected to the total 447 pictures of embroidery clothing design from the www.style.com, www.samsungdesign.net which are the related information site. The data are limited from S/S season in 2004 till F/W season in 2008 in the Paris, Milano, and New York collection. The analytical method was made through the analyze method and statistical method. First, on the relation with the clothes silhouette and embroidery design, if the satin stitch technique is utilized as the X-shaped or A-line silhouette in the one-piece and dress, the image which is elegant and feminine can be expressed. if the satin stitch technique is utilized as the H-line silhouette in jacket and court, the mannish image can be expressed. Second, the embroidery color showed up as the contrast combination of the monotone when the clothes color was the monochrome. And the embroidery color showed up as the tone in which is bright and sober when clothes color had 2 or 3 or 4. So, if the embroidery color is utilized as the similar color scheme, it will be effective. Third, if the embroidery technique of the one-piece and dress is utilized as the the satin stitch technique and the bloom and leaf motive being stylized pattern is used in the all-over and border pattern, It will be effective to express the romantic/feminine, ethnic/folklore, active, and classic image.
The Development of Woman`s Daily Hanbok Textile Design Appling Korea Traditional Flower Pattern
Hong, Jeong-Hwa ; Kim, Hye-Kyung ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 13, issue 6, 2011, Pages 848~855
DOI : 10.5805/KSCI.2011.13.6.848
The purpose of this study is to develop design for daily hanbok with Jacquard textile design developed by using the traditional patterns that suit the needs and lifestyles of the middle and old aged group. This study will also develop Jacquard textile design that has elaborate and luxurious patterns and abundant expression of colors using the traditional patterns that suit the needs and lifestyles of the middle and old aged group. Developing daily hanbok design for woman`s casual and formal occasion will contribute to fashion business significantly by popularization of daily hanbok as one of the important fashion genre. The "Texpro Design CAD V8.21" program was used for the textile design. A total of 2 designs were developed as the Jacquard textile design with traditional patterns using flower motifs. One type of fabric was produced for each of the textile design with a color selected from "Pantone Color Chips". And finally, four woman`s daily hanbok design for either casual or and formal style were developed and these daily hanboks were consisted of one set of jacket and trouser, durumagi, one set of jacket and skirt and one set of vest and trouser. And the actual garments were constructed and the design procedure and the photos of these works were presented. This study showed the possibility of producing highly sensible daily hanbok that suits the fashion trend of middle aged women and the widening of consumer range and the creation of new market by developing Jacquard textile design.
Expressive Characteristics of Fringe in Modern Fashion
Kim, Sun-Young ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 13, issue 6, 2011, Pages 856~865
DOI : 10.5805/KSCI.2011.13.6.856
This paper intends to examine how Fringe, which is in an inseparable relationship with modern fashion, has been changed and what characteristics it is expressed to have in fashion on the basis of its formative property expressed in modern fashion. In order to empirically analyze Fringe, this paper analyzed a total of 346 Fringe of every type that were generally found in the worldis four biggest collections, from 2006S/S to 2011S/S. This paper found some methods Fringe is made, which are: using a snagged fabric or knit as it is; intentionally snagging or tearing a fabric to make the effect of being snagged; knotting the tail or the edge of clothes, and then, macram
; and cutting leather or suede, which canit be snagged easily, and making Fringe strands. Fringe strands which are made in the above ways are made into a band and then, attached, or Fringe strands, a feathers, a comb, or beads are attached one by one. Or a tassel is independently or consecutively applied to clothes or ornaments, which are expressed in the form of fringes. Threads, strings, leather, suede, metals, plastics, raffia, horsehair, paper, beads, pearls, crystals, or felt were used for rich texture or unique visual effects. Colors of various brightness and chromas were used in consideration of materials. Through the effects of sameness, similarity, contrast, harmony and gradation with colors of clothes, emphasis or unified harmony was expressed. The expressive characteristics of Fringe, which were found in the modern fashion through those formative characteristics, were organic rhythmical beauty, handicraft decorative beauty, and folksy natural beauty.
Cyborg Image Expressed in Fashion Illustration
Kim, Soon-Ja ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 13, issue 6, 2011, Pages 866~876
DOI : 10.5805/KSCI.2011.13.6.866
We find ourselves living in a post-human era when technology and images coexist with humans. A cyborg, a combination of an organic body and a machine could be called a human fused with a machine. It could be understood as a new species where humans and machines have combined rather than simple protoplasm or an organic body. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that a concept of a body in post humanism era is finding expression in fashion illustration through cyborg images. The concepts of post humanism and cyborg are analysed by means of research into literature and characteristics in which cyborg images as post humans are expressed through art, and images of a cyborg body in fashion illustration and their meanings are explored with the foregoing as a framework of reference. Cyborg image reflects new images and concept of a human in post humanism. The cyborg body images in fashion illustration are expressed through the addition of mechanical images, digital virtual body, monster image by means of hybrid combination, distorted physical transformation and fragmented body and body absence. And cyborg image in fashion illustration shows the extension of body concepts through the technology and uncertain and ambiguous identity.
A Study on the Costume Style on the Rock Reliefs of Ardashir I in Early Sassanian Persia
YiChang, Young-Soo ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 13, issue 6, 2011, Pages 877~887
DOI : 10.5805/KSCI.2011.13.6.877
The purpose of Sassanian dynasty was to succeed the civilization of Achaemenid dynasty but it shows vestiges of Parthian civilization in many ways. This study is an attempt to take a look at Sassanian civilization through analyzing these rock reliefs since these features are shown on the rock relief of Ardashir I in early Sassanian Iran. The way carried out this study was first, to collect and search documentary data to establish the theoretical background, and collect positive data by exploring this region and then we comparatively analyzed the two data in general and the result is the following: The form of costume is different according to the person`s status. In the early period of Ardashir I the costume style of the royals is reflected by clothes such as tunic, trousers in parthian style. However, trousers do not have vertical pleats which are commonly shown in the case of parthian trousers. It assumed that after the early period of Ardashir I, Sassanians formed their own styles. The form of cap is also different according to the person`s status. Ardashir I and the Ahura mazda god put on crown and Korymbos which symbolized the sovereign power. Except the king and the god, the prince and the king`s vassal put on high caps called Kolah. Diadem which symbolized sovereign power of king was used by the king, the god and the crown prince. There are two kinds of diadem. The first form has vertical pleats and the other does not have pleats. This form became different depending on the social position. The form of hairstyle is generally thick curly hair which goes down until the shoulder. There is no difference in their hairstyle in terms of the social position. The beard style is generally in the form of scoop. There is also no difference in terms of the person`s status.
The Influences of Consumer Behavior according to their Perceived Suitability toward the Type of Corporate Social Responsibility Activities
Lee, Jung-Im ; Shin, Su-Yun ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 13, issue 6, 2011, Pages 888~899
DOI : 10.5805/KSCI.2011.13.6.888
Fashion companies make use of diverse strategies to have a competitive edge as there is a growing fierce competition. According to earlier studies, consumers prefer the products and services of companies that direct their energy into CSR activities if there`s little disparity in quality of products and services among the companies. The way consumers look at the CSR activities of businesses is very important for the companies since it is linked to their evaluation and image of the companies and indulgencies on their word-of-mouth, purchase and loyalty. It`s not quite advisable for fashion companies to make an investment in CSR activities without any specific plans or conviction of the effectiveness of the activities. Actually, lots of domestic companies fail to success their CSR activities, despite of their hard efforts. This study was to examine the appropriateness of corporate CSR activities, the attitude of customers to companies and their intention of recommendation and purchase in detail, and to provide some information on strategy setting for the CSR activities of fashion businesses.
The Influence of Male Consumers` Clothing Benefits Sought on Purchase Intention of Functional Clothing : Focused on Well-being Health Consciousness and Age
Cho, Yun-Jin ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 13, issue 6, 2011, Pages 900~908
DOI : 10.5805/KSCI.2011.13.6.900
The volume of the functional clothing market is gradually growing in Korea. This study intended to identify the relationship among benefits sought in clothing, well-being health consciousness, age, and purchase intention of functional clothing. A survey data was collected from 380 male ranging from 20 to 59 years old and was analyzed SPSS 17.0. As a result, six clothing benefit factors were identified and labeled as attraction improvement, social position, figure flaw compensation, individuality, comfort, and economy. The influences of benefits sought in clothing on the purchase intention was found. Also well-being health consciousness and age moderated the effects of benefits sought in clothing on the purchase intention.
The Comparison of Consumer Characteristics according to Purchasing Experience of Secondhand Fashion Goods
Park, Hyun-Hee ; Choo, Tae-Gue ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 13, issue 6, 2011, Pages 909~916
DOI : 10.5805/KSCI.2011.13.6.909
This study explored the differences in consumer characteristics-consumer self-confidence, attitude toward, trust and purchase intention for secondhand fashion goods, self-confidence in fashion coordination, price sensitivity for fashion product, and environment conservation consciousness-according to purchasing experience of secondhand fashion goods. A set of questionnaire was administered to 400 university students in Daegu from 18 to 28 April 2011. Data were analyzed by factor analysis, Cronbach`s
, frequency, t-tests. Secondhand fashion goods shoppers were 135(37%) and non-shoppers were 230(63%). The difference analysis results between the two groups were as follows. First, in consumer self-confidence, shoppers showed higher than non-shoppers except persuasion knowledge, and there was no difference in marketplace interfaces between the two groups. Second, there were significant differences in attitude toward secondhand fashion goods, trust and purchase intention for secondhand fashion goods between the two groups. Third, shoppers had higher self-confidence in fashion coordination than non-shoppers, but there was no difference in environment conservation consciousness and price sensitivity for fashion product between the two groups. For future study, it is suggested to find out more general characteristics of secondhand fashion goods shoppers covering other age brackets.
Flagship Store Trends in the Retail Market: Exploring the Characteristics
Park, Kyung-Ae ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 13, issue 6, 2011, Pages 917~925
DOI : 10.5805/KSCI.2011.13.6.917
Flagship store opening is one of the most frequently reported retail news in which it is widely used to promote a new store opening. The purpose of this study was to explore the flagship stores on media reports. Flagship store cases were collected from the news article database of the largest internet portal in Korea. A total of 210 cases were collected and content-analyzed. Though various business types of flagship stores were observed, most were in fashion. The most common characteristic of the flagship cases was the location of the prime sites in a metropolitan city. Global luxury and designer fashion brands met most characteristics, but many flagship stores were not more than a brand-owned store. The flagship store term is emphasized with dramatic expressions and various promotional events for media interests and in turn for marketing communication effect.
Development and Evaluation of Smart Jacket for Women aged Fifties and Sixties
Lee, Jeong-Ran ; Paek, Kyung-Ja ; Kim, Gu-Young ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 13, issue 6, 2011, Pages 926~933
DOI : 10.5805/KSCI.2011.13.6.926
The purpose of this research was to develop a smart wear equipped with wearable technologies for women in the age of 50`s and 60`s and confirm its acceptability. For this, we constructed a casual jacket that has the integration of heating and lighting function, and evaluated the user`s satisfaction. The size of the heating device attached at the back of the jacket was 300 mm in width and 120 mm in length and the size of the one attached at the front abdomen was 180 mm in width and 120 mm in length. The power supplier was the unification of the battery and controller which have been waterproofed. The lighting device connected with LED was 26mm in width, 20 mm in length and 1.5 mm in thickness. It has been designed in a waterproofed rectangular shape and was attachable to the jacket. The satisfaction survey of a smart jacket has been conducted with three standards, which were convenience, appearance and practicality. Free physical movement among the standard of convenience had very high scores with the average of 4.7 on a five point-scale. The acceptability of the jacket was 4.6, which proved that it didn`t have unique feelings compared to ordinary ones. The evaluation score of the appearance of the jacket was 4.5. Especially inside finishing of the jacket received the highest scores from all ages. According to the evaluation of practicality, there has been no change in the appearance of the jacket and the function of heating device after laundry.
A Study on Grading Practices of Men`s Pants in Apparel Industry
Kyung, Yoon-Mi ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 13, issue 6, 2011, Pages 934~942
DOI : 10.5805/KSCI.2011.13.6.934
This study was intended to analyze conventional grading increments and methods for middle-age men`s pants, and to suggest new grading guidelines that will enable to improve satisfaction with size and silhouette as a result of combining the concept of grading, which help maintain the ratio and proportion by sizes as one of ready-made apparel`s advantages, with body form oriented and aesthetic approaches. In the apparel industry, the current sizing specifications and methods adopted by relevant companies, as well as the characteristics of body forms of men aged 35 to 55 years were comparatively analyzed to find out problems and ultimately to suggest their solutions or improvements. It was considered that as the conventional grading practices used in the industry were customary on the basis of the past experiences, it was required to take the body forms of target consumers into account and also, to reconsider the conventional grading methods. Analyses of sizing and specifications by brands show that 4 to 19 sizes including 82 or 84 as standard size have been produced. Since men`s apparel has a large number of sizes with the large range of sizes, grading is critically important. As silhouettes depend on the distribution of grading rule values at each point of increment pattern in the main regions during grading, it is necessary to consider both size grading and form variations. To maintain an appropriate silhouette with keeping the angle of center back line of a pattern, it is desirable to set the ratio of side line part to center part from the crease line to approximately 3:7. It is required to diversify the values of grading rules according to different sizes and pattern regions in consideration for the body forms of key consumers. In addition, if the natural lines of designs and patterns for the width increments of waist circumference and hip circumference, the increments of hip width in pant`s front and back panels, the ratio of grading rule values of the right and left sides of crease line, knee circumference, thigh circumference and so on are taken into account, grading will be satisfactory in the all aspects of size, silhouette and ratio.
Changes in Physiological Responses by the Pressure of Non-Elastic Corset
Na, Young-Joo ; Kim, Yang-Hee ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 13, issue 6, 2011, Pages 943~951
DOI : 10.5805/KSCI.2011.13.6.943
The purpose of this study is to analyze the physiological effects of non-elastic corset on women`s health and pain through measuring the clothing pressure, subjective pressure sensation, blood velocity and metabolism. 5 women in their twenties were picked as our subjects, their average size being 85cm at bust girth, 69 cm at waist girth. With the subjects each wearing a corset, we are testing in artificial environment with a treadmill according to the planned exercise procedures. The average pressure of the corset is 0.938 kPa (maximum 3.006 kPa at 45 degree front bowing), which is 10.2 times higher than the control group, averaging from 9.3 times higher at resting, 11.4 times at walking, 11.1 times at running. The effect of corset pressure on the physiological responses of the body is increased more when exercise than when resting. Clothing pressure increased in the order of the postures: sitting > standing with 45 degree bowing > standing. They experienced a high level of tighten discomfort of 5.6 in the scale of 1.0 to 7.0 due to the high pressure of the corset when resting, after intense exercise the level increased to 6.0, while without corset the level increased 1.7 to 2.2. With corset on, the blood circulation did not increase even though when the body exercised and blood flow became unbalanced making great gaps between both at the right and left finger tips. Perspiration of chest and back decreased 37.3% when wearing corset; 27.5% at resting, 56.7% at walking, 25.8% at running, and 39.0% at recovery. With corset on oxygen consume and metabolism increased 9.0%, 7.9%, respectively, which means the corset makes the body uncomfortable. Lung volume exchange VE decreased almost 4.1~7.3% with corset on and
, RER and total volume in lung, VT also decreased too, which means the digestion of stomach and lung function are inhibited due to the high corset pressure.
The Effect of Consumer`s Participation on Emotional Response, Service Quality Perception and Revisiting Intention in the Beauty Service Field
Choi, Woo-Lee ; Park, Jong-Hee ; Hwang, Yeon-Soon ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 13, issue 6, 2011, Pages 952~958
DOI : 10.5805/KSCI.2011.13.6.952
The primary purposes of this study were to investigate on effect of consumer`s participation on their emotional response, service quality perception and revisiting intention in the beauty service field. The data were collected from 385 customers of beauty salons in Busan area, Gimhae area in Kyongnam and Daegu area. It was analyzed by frequency analysis, factor analysis, reliability analysis, and path analysis. The results were as follows: First, consumer was experienced positive emotion toward their participation of service offering course. Second, there were significant influence their participation on their service quality perception. And in the case mediating emotional response, their were more influence. Finally, consumer was perceived positively service quality when they was experienced positively emotion in service field during service offering course. And they had revisiting intention when they was perceived service quality excellently.
Effect of Wearing Micro-Current Apparel on the Physiological Response
Kang, Mi-Jeong ; Kwon, Young-Ah ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 13, issue 6, 2011, Pages 959~965
DOI : 10.5805/KSCI.2011.13.6.959
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of wearing induced micro current brassiere on the physiological responses of women. Four women participated to wear a different brassiere condition: with and without micro current chips. Subjects were carried out after wearing the induced micro current brassiere for 120minutes. Eardrum temperature, skin temperature, blood pressure, heart rate, thermal perception, humid perception, and comfort perception were obtained. The results were as follows. The brassiere with micro current chips showed better performance on weight loss than the brassiere without micro current chips. Participants in a higher level of BMI were more likely to lose greater weight. Mean skin temperatures decreased with micro current chips. Participants felt more comfortable for walking in micro current brassiere than in brassiere without micro current chips.
Improvement of Cross Sectional Distance Measurement Method of 3D Human Body
Kim, Min-Kyoung ; Nam, Yun-Ja ; Han, Hyun-Sook ; Choi, Young-Lim ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 13, issue 6, 2011, Pages 966~971
DOI : 10.5805/KSCI.2011.13.6.966
This study is designed to develop programs that analyze the distance of clothes from human skin and cross-sectional body figures based on 3D human body scan data, and to verify accuracy and efficiency of the program so that it can be used for clothing fit evaluation and 3D human body research. The auto cross-sectional imaging program was developed by using Visual C++ and OpenGL, and the 3D human body scan data were adopted to measure the space between skin and clothing. The space measurements were obtained by two widely used programs, RapidForm and AutoCAD, and a program devised by the researchers of this study. Measuring time and space measurements from different programs were compared in order to verify accuracy and efficiency of the newly-devised program. As a result, no significant difference was found in the measurements. However, the required time to measure one cross section was different within the significance level of 0.05, and the differences become more remarkable as the number of measuring and the angle of space between skin and clothing increase. Therefore, the program developed by this study is expected to be useful for research on body shapes and fit evaluation based on 3D human body scan data in the fashion field.
Effect of Color Developing by Alkali and Heating of Cotton Fabrics Dyed with Persimmon Extract
Kim, Ok-Soo ; Jang, Jeong-Dae ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 13, issue 6, 2011, Pages 972~982
DOI : 10.5805/KSCI.2011.13.6.972
The purpose of this study is to improve the method of color developing with alkali solution as a promotor of color developing for feasible use. Cotton fabric was dyed with persimmon extract ranged with 0~3% alkali component with 5 types of strong to mild alkali solution. Heat treatment for color developing was applied to fabric dyed with persimmon extract and alkali mixing solution. Tests were carried out to analyze the change of surface color,
, and water repellent of the dyed cotton fabric. The alkali mixing sample showed higher
value than control one without alkali mixing on the base of dyed fabric due to high color developing by alkali in the initial step of dyeing process. As alkali concentration increased, deeper dark color appeared on the fabric. The fabric color was changed to more dark in the application of sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate in the initial step of dyeing process but color was not changed by increased heating time. However, the fabric showed a slight dark color with sodium acetate and more color change than that of the fabric dyed with persimmon extract without alkali. Therefore, sodium acetate seemed to a suitable promotor for color developing in persimmon extract dyeing. Property of water repellent was showed after color developing by heating with low concentration of alkali treatment.
Effects of Chestnut hulls Mordant on Oenothera Odorata Jacguin-Dyed Fabrics
Seo, Hye-Young ; Kim, Hye-Rim ; Song, Wha-Soon ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 13, issue 6, 2011, Pages 983~989
DOI : 10.5805/KSCI.2011.13.6.983
This study aimed to identify mordant effects of Chestnut hulls. The color of post and pre-mordanted fabrics were measured in terms of H, V, C,
, and K/S values. In addition, color fastness and antimicrobial activity were evaluated. The pre-mordant concentration of Chestnut hulls for cotton, mercerized cotton and silk was optimized to 50% (o.w.f.) and 70% (o.w.f.), respectively. Post-mordant concentration of Chestnut hulls of mercerized cotton, silk and cotton was optimized to 50% (o.w.f.) and 90% (o.w.f.), respectively. The hue of fabrics was influenced by mordant methods, such as pre-mordant and post-mordant, slightly. Wet cleaning fastness of pre-mordanted cotton and mercerized cotton fabrics was higher than that of post-mordanted fabrics. The wet cleaning fastness of silk fabrics was not affected by the mordant method, and their fastness were proved to be excellent. The dry cleaning fastness of post-mordanted cotton fabrics was higher than that of pre-mordanted cotton fabrics. The dry cleaning fastness of mercerized cotton and silk was proved to be excellent regardless of mordant methods. The antimicrobial activity of Oenothera odorata jacquin dyed fabrics and Chestnut hulls mordanted fabrics was proved to 99.9%, and their excellent antimicrobial activity remained after wet and dry cleaning.
Physical Properties of Various Structured Knitted Fabrics
Yea, Su-Jeong ; Song, Wha-Soon ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 13, issue 6, 2011, Pages 990~995
DOI : 10.5805/KSCI.2011.13.6.990
This study analyzed the effects of the knit stitch type, fiber composition, and yarn thickness on the mechanical properties of knitted fabric. The results were as follows: The course density was the highest in the case of the rib stitch. On the other hand, the wale density was the highest in the case of the float stitch. The thickness was the highest in the case of the rib stitch. The same results were obtained even for different fiber compositions and yarn thicknesses considered in this study. The burst strength of wool knit fabric was higher than that of A/W knit fabric. The stiffness was the lowest in the case of the plain stitch. The same results were obtained even for different fiber compositions and yarn thicknesses. The pilling properties were excellent for all knit stitches, fiber composition, and yarn thicknesses as pilling degree : 5. The air permeability decreased in the following order : rib > plain > float stitch. The same results were obtained even for different fiber compositions and yarn thicknesses. The heat retention rate decreased in the following order : rib > float > plain stitch. The same results were obtained even for different fiber compositions and yarn thicknesses.