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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Fashion & Textile Research Journal
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society for ClothIng Industry
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 14, Issue 6 - Dec 2012
Volume 14, Issue 5 - Oct 2012
Volume 14, Issue 4 - Aug 2012
Volume 14, Issue 3 - Jun 2012
Volume 14, Issue 2 - Apr 2012
Volume 14, Issue 1 - Feb 2012
Selecting the target year
Allegory in Lady Gaga's Fashion Style (Part 1)
Kim, Hyang-Ja ; Kwon, Mi-Jeong ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 14, issue 4, 2012, Pages 519~531
DOI : 10.5805/KSCI.2012.14.4.519
This study comprehends the various expressions of Lady Gaga's fashion style based on Craig Owens's Allegory theory. This study analyzed four application elements of Borrow, Site Specificity, Accumulate of Strategy, and Hybridization in addition, it studied all aspects of the aesthetic value of Lady GaGa (an influential popular culture icon). It was classified in the external representation of the fashion style for the aesthetic value. The results are summarized as follows: First, 'Borrow' of the singers of the 80's music and fashion style present from her elders and visual homage to shock artists. It influenced her fans with a difference in viewpoint for a star's fashion that subsequently resulted in a deformation of form, playful kitsch style, and mixed gender. Second, 'Site specificity' presents an extreme make over through an intentional and grotesques fashion style to extend physical territory and defenseless. The results remove stereotypes and reveal deconstructive performances. Third, 'Accumulate of strategy' simultaneously presents voluptuous beauty, futurism, and avant-garde style. This shows the countercultural tendency through the random repetition of fashion images and layerd coordination. Finally, 'Hybridization' presents multiful fashion style through a collaboration with world-famous designers and cosmetic brands. She expressed a diverse and complex fashion style composed of an art form that combines a high-tech cyborg image. The aesthetic values of Lady Gaga' fashion style are 'ambivalence virtuality', 'Transcendental mixed gender', 'plural textuality', and 'unexpected play culture'.
The Image and Preference of School Uniform in a Girls' High School in Ulsan - Focused on a Category and a Grade Type -
Han, Mi-Hee ; Lee, Eun-Sook ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 14, issue 4, 2012, Pages 532~543
DOI : 10.5805/KSCI.2012.14.4.532
This research is aimed at analyzing the image and preference of the school uniform of a girls' high school located in Ulsan. The analysis of 396 data were measured by the frequency, the t-test through SPSS 12.0. The results show that first, in the image, they associated a cold color, short v zone, necktie with mannish image, a coordination between boxy jacket and flared skirt or silhouette mixture of mannish image and feminie image with unfashionable. Second, sensibility images that they prefers differed significantly in mature, soft, and practical images between different academic spheres, and in terms of refined image between different grades. Third, in preference of school uniform wearing, photo 9 showed the significance by groups and photo 6 showed it by grade. As a result of uniform design preference analysis, significant differences were by academic shown on photo 2 in total harmony and color combination, on photo 3 in details, on photo 7 in lower garment design, on photo 8 in upper garment design, on photo 9 in total harmony, upper garment design, lower garment design, color combination and details. Meanwhile, photo 1 showed the significance by grade in color combination, photo 4 in total harmony and upper garment design, photo 7 in upper garment design, respectively. Through this study, we could assume schoolgirls' attitude toward school uniform currently worn by them and it is considered to be used for resolving diverse problems which have been raised when school uniform design is being planned to satisfy students' desires.
Influence of Consumer Self-confidence and Self-confidence in Fashion Coordination on Attitude toward Secondhand Fashion Goods and Purchase Intention of Secondhand Fashion Goods
Park, Hyun-Hee ; Choo, Tae-Gue ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 14, issue 4, 2012, Pages 544~553
DOI : 10.5805/KSCI.2012.14.4.544
This study examined the influence of consumer self-confidence and self-confidence in fashion coordination on the attitude toward secondhand fashion goods and the purchase intention of secondhand fashion goods. Questionnaire data from 346 university students were analyzed and the results were summarized as follows. First, there were five factor solutions in consumer self-confidence: information acquisition, personal outcomes decision making, social outcomes decision making, consideration-set information, persuasion knowledge. Second, information acquisition, social outcomes decision making, and consideration-set information had significant effects on self-confidence in fashion coordination, while personal outcomes decision making and persuasion knowledge had no effect on self-confidence in fashion coordination. Third, self-confidence in fashion coordination had a significant effect on attitude toward secondhand fashion goods however, it had no effect on purchase intention of secondhand fashion goods. Fourth, attitude toward secondhand fashion goods had a significant effect on the purchase intention of secondhand fashion goods. The results show diverse implications for marketers and managers of secondhand fashion goods.
Purchase Behaviors on Imported Fashion Luxury Brand's Bag according to the Types of Consumption Values of Female Consumers in 20's and 30's
Lee, Ga-Na ; Shin, Su-Yun ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 14, issue 4, 2012, Pages 554~566
DOI : 10.5805/KSCI.2012.14.4.554
The purpose of this study was to classify the consumption values of 20's and 30's female consumers, identify the differences among the consumption value groups, and analyze purchase behaviors of imported fashion luxury brands according to the consumption value types. The subjects were 518 women who purchased luxury bags. The results of the study were as follows. First, as a result of cluster analysis to classify the consumption values of 20's and 30's female consumers, 4 groups were identified as "rare and emotional pursuit group", "functional pursuit group", "fashion pursuit group", and "social and conspicuous pursuit group". Second, 4 groups showed different luxury bag purchase behaviors, such as purchase motivation, purchase selection criteria, information source, purchase frequency, purchase cost of one time, purchase cost of year, the number of possession, purchase place, and store selection criteria. Third, rare and emotional pursuit group ranked the first in terms of product, price, and store satisfaction. Therefore, consumption values were identified as the important factor suggesting purchase behaviors of female consumers in 20's and 30's.
The Influences of Shopping Orientation on Selection Criteria, Attitudes, and Preference of Collaborated Fashion Products
Yang, Hyo-Jin ; Kim, Chil-Soon ; Kim, You-Young ; Kim, Tae-Eun ; Bae, Yeon-Jin ; Chan, Sun ; Yang, Hee-Soon ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 14, issue 4, 2012, Pages 567~577
DOI : 10.5805/KSCI.2012.14.4.567
This study investigates how the type of fashion shopping orientation influence the selection criteria, attitudes, and preference of fashion products developed through collaboration. For data collection, the study conducted a survey in the Seoul and Metropolitan areas. The results are as follows: 1. Shopping orientation was identified with seven factors: pursuit of pleasure, trend, planning, uniqueness, famous brand, economic efficiency, and conspicuous consumption. Attitudes toward the collaborated of fashion products could be classified into two factors of reasonable ostentation and aesthetic value orientation. 2. The shopping orientation of the pursuit of trend is related to reasonable ostentation; in addition, the shopping orientation for the pursuit of uniqueness and economy is positively associated with an aesthetic value orientation. 3. The factors of fashion pursuit had a great positive effect on their preference for collaboration type among fashion brands and the factors of uniqueness and pleasure pursuit had a positive effect on the preference for collaboration type with fashion designers and artists. This showed that the pleasure pursuit factor had a positive effect on the collaboration type preference for celebrities. Fashion companies may be able to establish effective merchandising and marketing strategies that fit the characteristics and types of fashion collaboration.
Impact of Consumer Innovativeness on Fashion Consumption Propensity and Clothing Satisfaction - Focusing on Female Smart Phone Users in 20's and 30's -
Je, Eun-Suk ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 14, issue 4, 2012, Pages 578~587
DOI : 10.5805/KSCI.2012.14.4.578
This study explored an impact of consumer innovativeness on fashion consumption propensity and clothing satisfaction, focusing on female consumers in 20's and 30's. Specifically, the smart phone users had been the subjects of study because they accept new things earlier than others. The collection of data was carried out for one month in September 2011, and a total of 390 copies were used for final analysis. A statistical package SPSS 16.0 was used for analysis of data. First, the impact of innovativeness on fashion consumption propensity was explored. It was found that the innovativeness has impact on ostentation-seeking propensity and personality-seeking propensity. The impact of innovativeness on the clothing satisfaction was explored. It was found that the innovativeness has negative impacts on tangible value satisfaction and intangible value satisfaction. Second, it was found that if an innovative consumer has less ostentation-seeking propensity and less personality-seeking propensity, the innovative consumer gets more satisfaction from tangible value of clothes. On the other hand, if an innovative consumer has less ostentation-seeking propensity, the innovative consumer gets more satisfaction from intangible value of clothes. Third, the differences in consumer innovativeness, fashion consumption propensity and satisfaction dependent on the age of consumers were explored. In innovativeness and fashion consumption propensity, fashion-seeking propensity and personality-seeking propensity had significant differences between different age groups. In satisfaction, tangible value satisfaction had significant difference between different age groups. However, there was no significant differences between different age groups in ostentation-seeking propensity, economy-seeking propensity and intangible value satisfaction.
Prototype of Smart Foundation with Heating Devices
Hwang, Young-Mi ; Lee, Jeong-Ran ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 14, issue 4, 2012, Pages 588~596
DOI : 10.5805/KSCI.2012.14.4.588
This research was intended to design an experimental girdle with thermal insulation function for adult women in their 20s. The design of the experimental girdle was based on the pattern of commercially available girdle. The final pattern of the experimental girdle was established according to the drawing equations determined based on the result of appearance evaluation. The equations were (waist circumference
)/2 for waist circumference, (hip circumference
)/2 for hip circumference, and (thigh circumference
) for thigh circumference. In order to develop a heating device, the most effective fabric heater was adopted based on the experiments about the number of caron fibers, heater size and attachment site. Three heaters-one with a size of
cm, and the other two with the size of
cm-were attached to the areas corresponding to the lower abdomen and the hip, 5 cm below the waist. A heater was developed by connecting these heaters to a controller, 2 batteries (7.4 V 2000 mAh lithium polymer batteries) and a switch (for mode conversion between high/medium/low temperatures). The heater was integrated into the inside of the girdle, so that attachment and detachment were possible without the change of appearance. The tentative configuration plan was proposed for the development of a functional smart girdle with an excellent thermal insulation effect.
Process Control Analysis for Efficient Production Management of Customized Baseball Uniforms
Choi, Kueng-Mi ; Hwang, Hyun-Jung ; Jun, Jung-Il ; Park, Yong-Soo ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 14, issue 4, 2012, Pages 597~606
DOI : 10.5805/KSCI.2012.14.4.597
To increase the productivity and product quality of customized baseball jerseys, this study developed a multi-variable system for a production process that efficiently controls diverse production management factors. The working time was measured through the establishment of a standard process where skilled workers and Chinese factory workers manufactured 5 sets of the same basic design jerseys. Based on the measured working time (1,136 seconds/per unit), the multi-variable process control system was developed, where hourly production management is possible according to the involved workers and equipment types. Each process was assigned accoding to the production management factors for a total of 28 standard processes. The processes were developed based on consideration of work characteristics according to the order of needlework of open-type set baseball jerseys with sleeves(the basic design of baseball jerseys)to result in a customized production system structure that could be set up with multi-variables. As a result, a total 12 types of systems were developed in consideration of the personnel involved and the number of equipments. The optimal production management system (with the highest efficiency compared to the number of workers)was A-2, B-1, C-1. D-2, E-2, F-1, and G-1. This system had extremely high efficiency and showed 99% assignment efficiency for the 7-person team. Though not optimal, possible process assignment for each working personnel is proposed as a reserve process in case work modification is inevitable due to malfunctions and the absence of equipments.
A Development of Hanbok Jeogori Pattern from Virtual Garment Simulation - With a Focus on Women in their 50s -
Lim, Ji-Young ; Lee, Hae-Young ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 14, issue 4, 2012, Pages 607~613
DOI : 10.5805/KSCI.2012.14.4.607
This study develops a Hanbok Jeogori pattern for middle-aged women with a 3D virtual-twin and virtual-garment simulation system. The including criteria for subjects in this study was a focus on women in their 50s, and a total of 345 females satisfying them were enrolled for 3D virtual model. Comparative Jeogori pattern, Baik & Choi's(2004) pattern, was selected for the development of Jeogori pattern. The results were: first, a new Jeogori pattern considerate of middle-aged women was developed. The basic numerical formula were: Front and back bust girth B/4+1.5, armhole depth B/4, sleeve width B/4, goedae width B/10-1.5 and git width 5.5. Second, according to the results of the new Jeogori patterns appearance evaluation, the new Jeogori pattern scored higher than the existing pattern in silhouette and ease amount, this confirmed that the new Jeogori pattern is appropriate for middle-aged women. Virtual models of production through data from 3D body scan, pattern draft, and virtual garment digital program were applied to a prototypic design method to enhance the fitness of ready-made Hanbok garments. This study serves as important basic data for ensuing studies that may utilize 3D Virtual Garment Simulation System with 2D patterns and for the future 3D Pattern Production Program development of Hanbok patterns.
Domestic Research Trends in IT Fashion
Choo, Ho-Jung ; Nam, Yun-Ja ; Lee, Yu-Ri ; Lee, Ha-Kyung ; Lee, Sung-Ji ; Lee, Sae-Eun ; Jang, Jae-Im ; Park, Jin-Hee ; Choi, Jin-Woo ; Kim, Do-Yuon ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 14, issue 4, 2012, Pages 614~628
DOI : 10.5805/KSCI.2012.14.4.614
The purpose of this study was to analyze research trends and make suggestions regarding the future of information technology (IT) in the fashion industry. In this study, 437 papers written regarding IT fashion from five major journals published between 2000 and 2011 were examined. The research areas were then organized by subject and keyword, and divided into 16 high-context categories. Two IT fashion maps were constructed, one from a fashion consumer's perspective, and the other based on the fashion industry's supply chain. This study identified important trends in IT fashion such as: 3D scanners, 3D digital renderings of the human form, 3D digital garments, smart garments, mass customization, production automation, online shopping, home shopping, online communities, e-commerce, digital media, virtual reality, e-tail, the digital generation, E-CRM, and education. Data from body scans was collected and applied to production, and research on smart textiles was also carried out. As for IT fashion's service areas, the majority of the research focused on online shopping or online communication. Additionally, research done on avatars and cyber space, and studies on social networking services are shown. The results of this study indicated that a new field of research has opened and that current research has been developing. Also, this study showed what is needed to expand and strengthen IT fashion.
Physical Properties of 1×1 Rib Knitted Fabrics Using A/W
Yea, Su-Jeong ; Kim, In-Young ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 14, issue 4, 2012, Pages 629~634
DOI : 10.5805/KSCI.2012.14.4.629
Knitted fabric using acrylic/wool blended yarn (A/W) is increasingly used in the knit industry; subsequently, research on knitted fabric using A/W has increased. This study presents an scientific database from evaluating physical properties of
rib stitch using A/W. In this study,
rib stitch using A/W were made at various knitting tensions (dial no. 2-6) and the number (4-6) of ply yarn. The physical properties of
rib stitch using A/W were measured and analyzed. The density was in the range 5.5-6.4 wales/cm and 4.0-5.6 courses/cm, respectively. The density increased when less plying yarns and more knitting tension were added during knitting. The thickness was in the range of 1.592-2.362 mm and the tensile strength was in the range 32.75-53.63 Kgf/mm. The burst strength was in the range 107.8-139.2
. Thickness, tensile strength, and burst strength increased as the number of ply yarn and the knitting tension increased. The elongation and the recovery extension rate were in the range 102.29-112.13% and 96.4-97.7%, respectively. The heat retention rate was in the range 59.3-65.1%. There was no difference of the elongation and the recovery extension rate and the heat retention rate by the knitting tension and the number of the ply yarn. The permeability was in the range 170.5-396.3
. Air permeability decreased as the number of ply yarn and the knitting tension increased. The pilling properties were excellent for all
Development of Eco-friendly Woven Floor Mat with High Resilience II - Characterization of TPU Coating Yarn and Floor Mat -
Lee, Sun-Hee ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 14, issue 4, 2012, Pages 635~640
DOI : 10.5805/KSCI.2012.14.4.635
In this study, thermoplastic urethane (TPU) coating yarns were prepared at various extruding temperatures. The fine structure and mechanical properties of resultant TPU coating yarns examined by the wide angle X-ray diffractometer (WAXD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), and tensile test. TPU coating yarns (prepared at extruding temperatures at
) were confirmed as a stable fine structure that obtained excellent tensile strength and flexibility. The C samples prepared by optimized conditions made by TPU woven floor mat. The structure of the woven mat is
basket weave and have laminated with the EVA foam to obtained final TPU woven floor mat products. The resultant TPU woven floor mat was obtained to 1.5MN of tensile strength, 22% of the elongation, and 0.2MN of tear strength. The weight loss abrasion and the resilience by the ball rebound of the TPU-woven floor mat was prior to those of the PVC subsequently, we were able to develop a woven floor mat with TPU coating yarn and produce an eco-friendly high valuable woven floor mat using an interior product.
Basic and Mechanical Properties by Film Type to Minimize the Sound Pressure Level of PTFE Laminated Vapor-permeable Water-repellent Fabrics
Lee, Kyu-Lin ; Lee, Jee-Hyun ; Jin, Eun-Jung ; Yang, Youn-Jung ; Cho, Gil-Soo ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 14, issue 4, 2012, Pages 641~647
DOI : 10.5805/KSCI.2012.14.4.641
This study investigates the sound properties of fabric frictional sound (SPL,
) according to the film type of PTFE laminated vapor-permeable water-repellent fabrics in order to understand the relationship between SPL and the basic properties of fabrics such as layer, yarn type, and thickness of fiber. This study accesses their mechanical properties and determines how to control them to minimize SPL. Eight PTFE laminated water-repellent fabrics, composed of four different film types (A, B, C, D) and with two different fabrics, were used as test specimens. Frictional sounds generated at 1.21m/s were recorded by using a fabric sound generator and SPLs were analyzed through Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT). The mechanical properties of fabrics were measured by KES-FB. The SPL value was lowest at 74.4dB in film type A and highest as 85.5dB in type D. Based on ANOVA and post-hoc test, specimens were classified into less Loud Group (A, B) and Loud Group (C, D). It was shown that SPL was lower when 2 layer (instead of 3 layer), filament yarn than staple, and thin fiber than thick were used. In Group I, shearing properties (G, 2HG5), geometrical roughness (SMD), compressional properties (LC, RC) and weight (W) showed high correlation with SPL however, elongation (EM) and shear stiffness (G) did with SPL in Group II.
The Effect of Mordant on the Mechanical Properties and Primary Hand Values of Fabrics Dyed with Bamboo and Pine Leaf Extracts
Lee, Jung-Soon ; Woo, Hyo-Jung ; Jung, Go-Eun ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 14, issue 4, 2012, Pages 648~659
DOI : 10.5805/KSCI.2012.14.4.648
This research categorizes fundamental data needed to develop eco-friendly fabrics treated with bamboo leaf & pine leaf extracts. The effect of mordant on those fabrics was analyzed through the measurement of mechanical properties and the estimation of primary hand values for cotton and silk fabrics dyed with bamboo leaf and pine leaf extracts that were later treated with various mordants. When cotton was dyed with bamboo leaves and pine leaves extracts, EM, WT, 2HB, 2HG, 2HG5, LC, T, and W increased however, RT, SMD, and RC decreased compared to raw cotton fabric. The B, G, and MIU increased after mordant treatment to the dyed cotton and resulted in a stiffer and rougher cotton's hand. EM, WT, RT, MIU, WC, T, and W increased (in terms of silk); however, LT, B, 2HB, G, 2HG, 2HG5, MMD, SMD, and LC decreased compared to raw silk fabric. Similar to the dyed cotton, mordant treatment increased the MIU and LC of dyed silk subsequently, the hand became stiffer and rougher. A greater tannin adsorption results in an increased mechanical property and the primary hand value. For both fabrics, mordant treatment made its smoothness drop. However, the scale of drop for cotton was significant, while the scale of the drop for silk was minor. In terms of type of mordant, femordant and natural-mordant treatment influenced the tensile, shear, surface properties of fabrics, and primary hand values more than Cu-mordant and synthetic-mordant in addition, this increased the stiffness, hardness, and roughness of fabrics.
A Study on Changes in Thermal Performances in Ensembles Made up of Single Garments Marketed for Korean Men - In Still and Dynamic Air Conditions -
Song, Min-Kyu ; Kwon, Seo-Yoon ; Jung, Hyun-Mi ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 14, issue 4, 2012, Pages 660~668
DOI : 10.5805/KSCI.2012.14.4.660
The purpose of this study is to analyze the thermal characteristics of garments marketed for Korean males and to investigate the influence of each garment on ensemble, by measuring their insulation values(clo) using thermal manikins. The results are as follows. The total insulations(clo) of ensembles for S/S seasons are between 1.46 and 2.6 clo, with the mean of 2.12 clo. The insulation in the still air condition is 1.23 clo, which means a decrease of 42% compared to the total insulation of all the component garments. The insulation of ensembles for S/S seasons in the dynamic air condition decreased by 46.8%, compared to the still air condition. The total insulation(clo) of ensembles for F/W seasons is between 3.84 and 7.36 clo with the mean of 4.74 clo. The insulation in the still air condition is 2.26 clo, which means a decrease of 53.6% compared to the total insulation of all the component garments. The insulation of ensembles for F/W seasons in the dynamic air condition decreased by 36.2%, compared to the still air condition. As the clo value of each component garment gets higher, the insulation of ensembles gets higher. Especially, the insulation of ensembles was more influenced by outer wear than inner wear. The insulation of ensembles could be predicted by the insulation of outerwear better.
Evaluation of Natural Dye Stuffs and Positioning by Expert Groups
Roh, Eui-Kyung ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 14, issue 4, 2012, Pages 669~676
DOI : 10.5805/KSCI.2012.14.4.669
This study aims to compare the properties of natural dye stuffs, such as color, dyeability, fastness, and marketability, to analyze the differences noted by expert groups regarding the properties of the stuffs, and to make a positioning of the stuffs. A survey of experts in academia, business, and the art of natural dyeing was conducted, with an evaluation of 23 types of the stuff's properties. There is a correlation between the properties of the stuffs, and evaluating dye stuffs differs according to the group to which it belongs. X-axis relates to color and Y-axis refers to fastness in the positioning of the stuff. There are different relationships between properties according to their group. Color is significantly associated with marketability in art experts however, fastness is closely connected with marketability in business. The stuffs can be divided into five clusters. Cluster I includes indigo and persimmon, and is marked by excellent color, dyeability, fastness, and marketability, Cluster II contains safflower and sappan wood, which are excellent colors, yet suffer from low marketability on account of their medium to low fastness. Cluster III includes red, purple, and brown dyes, and onion and rhubarb, and has medium properties. Cluster IV is mugwort and yellow dyes, except onion and rhubarb, and features low properties. Cluster V is loess, featuring medium color and low fastness.
Preparation and Surface-Active Properties of Vinyl Acetate Cotelomers (I)
Lee, Eon-Pil ; Kang, Se-Mi ; Hwang, Dae-Youn ; Jung, Young-Jin ; Choi, Hae-Wook ; Choi, Young-Ho ; Lee, Jae-Ho ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 14, issue 4, 2012, Pages 677~683
DOI : 10.5805/KSCI.2012.14.4.677
1-octanethiol and vinyl acetate telomers (
-nVAc) were synthesized and hydrolyzed with sodium hydroxide subsequently, 1.2-epoxyhexane was then introduced to the telomers. In addition, we prepared cotelomers of multi-alkylated nonionic surfactants with a molecular structure of xRnMA-yVA (x; hydrophobic group, y; hydrophilic group, MA; methacrylic ester, VA; vinyl alcohol, R; and alkyl group) and cross-linked with sodium tetraborate decahydrate. Their active surface properties were investigated by several techniques such as surface tension, foaming property, and emulsification power measurements. The surface tension of
-8.8VA decreased without the introduction of 1.2-Epoxy hexane, and the degree of emulsification and foaming abilities of
-8.8VA increased without the introduction of 1.2-Epoxy hexane. However, the differences were insignificant. The epoxy groups were attached to a
-8.8VA cotelomer with a limited variation of the active surface properties. The surface tension of
-8.8VA decreased after cross-linking subsequently, the degree of emulsification and foaming abilities of
-8.8VA increased after cross-linking. However, there was no clear difference between them. The B-O bonds were attached to a
-8.8VA cotelomer with a limited variation of the active surface properties.