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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Fashion & Textile Research Journal
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society for ClothIng Industry
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 6 - Dec 2013
Volume 15, Issue 5 - Oct 2013
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Aug 2013
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Jun 2013
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Apr 2013
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Feb 2013
Selecting the target year
A Study of Expression Methods and Aesthetic Meanings of Maximalism Appeared in Modern Hair Ornaments
Moon, Ji Ae ; Kwon, Gi Young ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 15, issue 4, 2013, Pages 493~503
DOI : 10.5805/SFTI.2013.15.4.493
This study analyzes expression methodology and aesthetic meanings in modern hair ornaments that adopt maximalism. Maximalism has appeared in various hair ornaments throughout history. Hair dresses are used for many reasons related to class, social position, religious beliefs, and occupation throughout the Eastern and Western hemispheres. A higher class and social position was often denoted by a fancier and bigger hairdress. In modern society maximalism is expressed in literature, expressionism, maxi-marketing, exaggerative advertisements, and symbolic architecture. Formative expression methodologies in modern hair ornaments that adopt maximalism are transform, overlapping & exaggeration, and mixing & edition. The aesthetic meanings of maximalism in hair ornaments are the reinterpretation of retro ornaments, the exaggeration of internal self-expression, humorous symbolic objects, and the conveyance of a social critical message. The advantages of maximalism help people communicate and co-provide an abundant life. These are expected to create significant and numerous positive impacts in society. In addition, the continued efforts on the investment in hair ornaments that express Maximalism well as a fashion trend shows that further study on the persistence, practicality and recognized design inconvenience in the aesthetic value are needed.
A Visual Effect according to Pants Style and Geometric Pattern - Using a 3D Virtual Garment System -
Park, Woo Mee ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 15, issue 4, 2013, Pages 504~513
DOI : 10.5805/SFTI.2013.15.4.504
This study evaluates the difference of visual effect according to pant style and geometric pattern. The researcher made 28 stimuli-combination of four pant Stiles (classic, baggy, skinny, and bell-bottom) and seven geometric pattern (large vertical stripe, small vertical stripe, large horizontal stripe, small horizontal stripe, large check, small check, and hound's tooth check). The test involved 96 female college students. The stimuli were made with the i-Designer computer program. The panels tested the computer screen images of all manikins wearing pants. A 7-point scale was used to evaluate each image. For the data analysis, ANOVA and Duncan-test were applied along with an SPSS program. The results of this study are as follows. Three factors (lower-body compensation, abdomen highlight, and length compensation) influenced the visual effect pant styles and geometric patterns. The skinny style and large vertical stripe evaluated positively in elongated height and leg length and a slimmer overall body. It was shown that the vertical stripe pattern was evaluated as more positive than the horizontal stripe pattern in the visual effect; particularly, the results showed distinct aspects in the classic pants style. The mutual influence of the visual effect (according to pants style and geometric pattern) were indicated as two factors of lower-body compensation and length compensation. A more positive visual effects resulted in a higher mutual influence on pant style and geometric pattern.
An Analysis of Fashion Designs Based on the Laws of the Screen Equivalent of Impressionist Paintings
Lee, Shin-Young ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 15, issue 4, 2013, Pages 514~522
DOI : 10.5805/SFTI.2013.15.4.514
This study reviews the principles for the techniques of Impressionist paintings as well as analyzed contemporary fashion designs with a focus on a motif-building technique based on the laws of a screen equivalent as a visual formative approach. We provide design principles based on fashion design painting techniques. Previous research on the laws of the screen equivalent of Impressionist paintings were studied and a qualitative analysis was conducted on fashion design cases from 2011, 2012 S/S and F/W collections. The analysis resulted in the following outcomes. First, the development of new motifs were found directly correlated to the creativity of design if it was a motif-building design. Second, in the selected fashion design cases, cutting lines and details were covered by motifs and their shapes collapsed in regards to overall visual uniformity so that specific details were hard to identify. Third, clothing shapes are recognized the changing colors of motifs and not through construction pattern lines; therefore, the expressions of diverse visual forms were available without being disturbed by construction pattern lines. This is deemed equivalent to an Impressionist painting style that depicts shapes with colors instead of lines. Lastly, the cases covered in this study have created new visual aspects that replace the stereoscopic spatial depth of clothes with a 'sensuous surface'. The pleasures derived from the sensuous surface are deemed equivalent to the visual pleasures created by Impressionist paintings.
Study on Risk Reduction Behavior According to Participation Motivation of Mountain Climbing Activity and Level of Risk Perception
Bang, Gi Seong ; Yoo, Shin Jung ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 15, issue 4, 2013, Pages 523~532
DOI : 10.5805/SFTI.2013.15.4.523
This study investigates risk reduction behavior with risk perception in outdoor wear purchase situations. Data were collected via a questionnaire from 400 consumers between the ages of 20 to 50 residing in Seoul and Kyonggi-do. Data analysis were conducted with SPSS 20 program on the reliability test, factor analysis, cluster analysis, t-test, ANOVA, and Duncan's multiple range test. Factor analyses were employed for the participation motivation of mountain climbing activities, risk reduction behavior and risk perception. Five factors were for the participation motivation of mountain climbing activities (health and fitness, external ostentation, achievement and excitement, improvement of climbing skills, and society). Five factors were for risk perception (fashionability loss and social risk, time and convenience loss, economic risk, performance risk, and psychological risk). Five factors were for the risk reduction behavior (interpersonal information sources use, marketer-dominated information sources use, professional information sources use, pre-purchase deliberation/observation/experience, and brand dependence). Three clusters were identified based on the motivation of outdoor activities (the affiliation/display, the health/internal informativeness and low motivation). The participation motivation for mountain climbing activities were varied. Manufacturers should increase efforts to develop products with good qualities at a reasonable cost as well as establish new marketing strategies since the risk of product performance and economic efficiency in the purchase of outdoor wear was a significant consumer perception.
The Effects of Flow on Consumer Satisfaction through E-impulse Buying for Fashion Products
Park, Shin-Young ; Park, Eun-Joo ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 15, issue 4, 2013, Pages 533~542
DOI : 10.5805/SFTI.2013.15.4.533
Fashion products are frequently purchased on impulse and are also one of the most popular product categories sold online. Online environment attributes can facilitate flow experiences that are described as an optimal psychological state reached during an engagement in activities (e.g., games and e-shopping). This study estimated the path model to examine the causal relationships among shopping mall attributes, flow, e-impulse buying, and consumer satisfaction for fashion products. A total of 598 usable questionnaires were obtained from college students who had purchased fashion products through the Internet. Data were analyzed by exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and path analysis using SPSS 18.0 and AMOS 18.0. The results showed that e-shopping mall attributes (visual attributes and product attributes) significantly influenced e-impulse buying (fashion-oriented impulse buying and promotion-oriented impulse buying) which was mediated by the consumer flow experience and then influenced by consumer satisfaction. In the path model, the flow was stimulated by shopping mall attributes, the e-impulse buying was influenced by flow, and the consumer satisfaction was influenced by e-impulse buying. Flow was the most highly related to the fashion-oriented impulse buying, and followed by the relationship of the flow and promotion-oriented impulse buying in the context of e-shopping for fashion products. A managerial implication was discussed for fashion product e-retailers to develop strategies on visual attributes and product attributes that could stimulate and increase the consumer flow to trigger impulse buying as well as consumer satisfaction.
The Influences of Price, Product and Promotion on Clothing Impulse Buying by the Internet Shopping Mall Types
Ji, Hye-Kyung ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 15, issue 4, 2013, Pages 543~553
DOI : 10.5805/SFTI.2013.15.4.543
This study analyzes the influence of price, product and promotion on clothing impulse buying according to internet shopping mall type. This study conducted a survey of 346 male and female consumers in their 20s-40s who have experienced clothing impulse buying from an internet shopping mall. Respondents were selected using convenience sampling through an online survey conducted in August 2012. For statistical analysis, descriptive statistics, reliability analysis,
-test, factor analysis, and regression analysis where carried out using SPSS for Windows 12.0. The results were as follows. First, there were significant differences for consumer gender, age, marital status, and education on clothing impulse buying according to shopping mall type. Second, there were differences for the influence of each component (price, product and promotion) on clothing impulse buying according to shopping mall type. Third, it was identified that influence of components (price, product and promotion) on clothing impulse buying were in the following order: low price, freshness, prize promotion, scarcity, open market price discount, prize promotion, freshness, fashionability, low price in general shopping malls, payment term benefit, freshness, and scarcity in fashion SOHO shopping malls. This study provides information for consumer management and promotion strategies according to each shopping mall type by understanding clothing impulse buying by consumers and factors according to shopping mall type.
Differences of Appearance Management Behaviors and Life Satisfaction among Lifestyle Groups
Park, Kwang Hee ; Kim, In Sook ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 15, issue 4, 2013, Pages 554~564
DOI : 10.5805/SFTI.2013.15.4.554
We provide an empirical assessment that examines the differences in appearance management behavior, life satisfaction and demographic variables between groups classified by individual lifestyle. Questionnaires were administered to 513 female and male adults over 17 years of age in the Daegu and Kyungbok metropolitan regions. Descriptive statistics, cluster analysis, Cronbach's
, ANOVA, Duncan test and
test were applied to analyze data from 513 respondents. The results are as follows. First, we did a cluster analysis on the appearance management behavior of weight training, skin care, hair care, make-up and clothing selection. Four groups (passive, rational, fashion oriented, and active typed) where classified according to individual lifestyle. Second, the rational and active groups were more interested in the social life, environmental stability, health, fashion and economic seeking life. They were also more involved in appearance management behavior and in a higher level of life satisfaction. However, the differences of life satisfaction among the lifestyle group (male) were not statistically significant. Third, females with higher level of income and education (among the demographic variables) belonged to the active group. We found significant differences in appearance management behavior, life satisfaction and demographic variables among male and female groups classified by lifestyle.
A Cultural Comparison of Sex Role Identity and Attitude toward Grooming and Recreational Apparel Shopping Behavior among Male Consumers
Lee, Jaeil ; Lee, Yoon-Jung ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 15, issue 4, 2013, Pages 565~573
DOI : 10.5805/SFTI.2013.15.4.565
This study focused on the cultural differences between South Korea and the U.S. in terms of male consumers' sex role attitude and its influence on grooming and apparel shopping behavior. Purposive samples of American and South Korean males aged between 20 and 40 years were surveyed. The sample sizes were 219 and 233 for American and South Korean consumers, respectively. The data were analyzed by structural equation modeling and ANOVA using SPSS 12.0 and AMOS 14.0. The results indicated that only grooming was influenced by the perceived femininity in the case of South Korean men; however, the model for American men indicated a significant positive influence of femininity on grooming and recreational apparel shopping behavior. In other words, American male consumers who perceive themselves feminine were more likely to be engaged in grooming and recreational apparel shopping behavior. On the other hand, for South Korean men, recreational apparel shopping behavior was not influenced by their sex role attitude, or whether they considered themselves feminine or masculine. This means that recreational apparel shopping behavior is a gender-specific behavior in the U.S., but not in South Korea. The findings of this study indicated that culture has influence on consumers' approach to shopping and appearance. South Korean male consumers were more likely to acknowledge themselves as being feminine, enjoy apparel shopping and grooming compared to American male consumers.
Analysis on Hand Types of Elderly Women
Choi, Eun-Hee ; Do, Wol-Hee ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 15, issue 4, 2013, Pages 574~582
DOI : 10.5805/SFTI.2013.15.4.574
This study categorizes and analyzes hand types based on 2-Dimensional measurements of women in their 60-80's in order to establish initial data that can help develop a well-fitted glove and hand protector for elderly women. A total of 22 measurement items were selected to provide information about Size Korea (2010) 3D hand measurements. Participants in the study were 353 elderly women over the age of 60. Subjects were divided into two age groups (60's and over 70's). Statistical tests (such as Descriptive Analysis and T-test) analyzed the data and ascertained the age differences. A factor analysis and cluster analysis were conducted to classify elderly women hand types. The disparities between 20-30's and over 60's age groups were compared by T-test with the SPSS 20 program for Windows. The results in this study are follows: The hand shapes for elderly women were divided into 3 groups. Elderly women's Hand Type A is average length and the medium breadth hand type. Type B is the biggest length and breadth, Type C is the smallest length and breadth hand type. There were significant differences in the 20-30's and over 60's age groups for most hand length and breadth items. In addition, the mean measurement value of the length items decreased as the age increased; however, the diversity of items increased, so that it became shorter and wider. Further study should include the classification of hand shape dimensions for each figure type of sizing gloves for elderly women. We expect hand types to be applicable to the manufacture of gloves for elderly women.
A Study on the Middle-Aged Women's Body Type Changes for Clothing Construction - Focused on the 5
Size Korea's Anthropometric Data -
Nam, Young Ran ; Choi, Hei Sun ; Lee, Jin Hee ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 15, issue 4, 2013, Pages 583~595
DOI : 10.5805/SFTI.2013.15.4.583
In the women's clothing industry that targets middle aged-women, there is increased interest on middle-aged women and their appearance management and diet. It is believed that the body type of middle-aged women is becoming thinner. This study examines if middle-aged women body types have changed based on data from the
Size Korea that objectively analyzed the aspects of middle-aged women's body size change and the related fashion industry that recognize changes in middle-aged women body types by suggesting foundational data for clothing designs. According to research results, middle-aged women's body type shows an increase in items related to height and that measurement values related to obesity (such as weight and BMI index) tend to decrease. Height has increased and weight has decreased compared to the past. Most items related to width or depth tend to show decreased values and we can assume that the present middle-aged women's body type is changing more dynamically than before. It will be possible to design proper clothes for consumer body type and trends if we design clothes that afford multilateral attention to the patterns, design, or material in clothing design by applying the aspects of middle-aged women's body size and body type change.
A Study of Wearing Condition and Fit Preference Satisfaction for Females 20s-30s of Jackets - Focusing on circular knitted jackets and woven jackets -
Hwang, Song-Lee ; Choi, Hei-Sun ; Lee, Jin Hee ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 15, issue 4, 2013, Pages 596~605
DOI : 10.5805/SFTI.2013.15.4.596
This study investigates the wearing trend and purchase facts for adult females in their 20s and 30s along with their fitting satisfaction for woven jackets and circular knitted jackets. A questionnaire survey on consumers investigated satisfaction with jackets according to clothing materials and repair trend after wearing. Subsequently, a preference for circular knitted jackets was shown higher than woven jackets. Females in their 20s preferred woven jackets than those in their 30s; however, the latter preferred circular knitted jackets than the former. For woven jackets, they showed the highest satisfaction with size; however, for circular knitted jackets, they showed the highest satisfaction with fitting. In the question on their satisfaction by jacket part, satisfaction with circular knitted jackets was higher in all items except for bust measurement, bottom edge measurement, elbow circumference, shoulder width, and clothes length. Circular knitted jackets had lower repair rates than woven jackets and woven jackets had significant differences by age in satisfaction with back width. The research results indicate that females in their 20s and 30s who value fit preference and practicality will increasingly wear knit clothes. Therefore, we can address the fitting satisfaction requirement of females in their 20s and 30s by taking the clothing material properties of circular knitted clothes into consideration. In addition, further research is required on jacket patterns in consideration of clothing materials.
The Physical Property of Knitted Fabrics for High Sensible Garment according to the Spinning Method using Organic Cotton
Kim, Hyun-Ah ; Kim, Hyun-Chel ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 15, issue 4, 2013, Pages 606~612
DOI : 10.5805/SFTI.2013.15.4.606
This paper investigates the physical properties of organic cotton staple yarns manufactured by ring and siro spinning methods as well as analyzes the physical properties of fabric specimens knitted with staple yarns made by these two methods. The breaking stress and evenness of organic ring staple yarns showed the same level for the Japanese specimens as the control yarns; in addition, the same coefficient for the friction of the manufactured yarns and Japanese specimens was also shown. These results makes it possible to manufacture organic staple ring yarns from organic cotton fibers. The tenacity and breaking strain of siro staple yarns were higher than ring staple yarns. The evenness and friction coefficient of siro staple yarns were lower than the ring staple yarns; in addition, hairiness and the number of siro staple yarns was significantly lower than the ring staple yarns. The dimensional stabilities of knitted fabrics by 20 Ne and 30 Ne siro staple yarns were superior to ring staple yarns. The color fastnesses of washing, perspiration and abrasion of knitted fabrics by two spinning methods showed the same level as the 4.5 grade; however, the light fastness of knitted fabric by siro staple yarns was superior to ring staple yarns. It was shown that the siro spinning method (using eco-friendly organic cotton fibers) was applicable to a high sensible knitted garment that overcame drawbacks of organic fibers related to shrinkable properties after washing and low color fastness to light.
Gait Analysis on the Elderly Women with Foot Scan
Kim, Seong-Suk ; Kim, Hee-Eun ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 15, issue 4, 2013, Pages 613~619
DOI : 10.5805/SFTI.2013.15.4.613
This study compares the gait characteristics of elderly women during barefoot walking and walking with sneakers. We measured foot angles, max foot pressure, peak plantar pressure of each plantar region, velocity of Center of Pressure(COP), and axis shifting of COP with an RS-scan system. Elderly women's foot angles were narrower when walking with sneakers than when barefoot walking. We found that the subtalar joint angle (representing ankle joint flexibility) affected walking stability. Regarding the peak plantar pressure of each foot region, pressures were high in the medial regions and the pressures greatly varied depending on the region measured during barefoot walking. The COP moved significantly faster when walking with sneakers than barefoot walking and suggests that elderly women walked faster in sneakers. Axis shifting of the COP decreased during walking with sneakers and indicated that gait balance improved when walking with sneakers. The findings of the present study can be utilized as foundational data for elderly women's gait characteristics as well as data for the production of functional footwear. Future research that focuses on various types of shoes, age groups, and gender are recommended for the development of more functional footwear for stable gaits.
Characteristics of Rustling Sound of Laminated Fabric Utilizing Nano-web
Jeong, Tae-Young ; Lee, Eu-Gene ; Lee, Seung-Sin ; Cho, Gil-Soo ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 15, issue 4, 2013, Pages 620~629
DOI : 10.5805/SFTI.2013.15.4.620
This study examines the rustling sound characteristics of electrospun nanofiber web laminates according to layer structures. This study assesses mechanical properties and frictional sounds (such as SPL); in addition, Zwicker's psychoacoustic parameters (such as Loudness (Z), Sharpness (Z), Roughness (Z), and Fluctuation strength (Z)) were calculated using the Sound Quality Program (ver.3.2, B&K, Denmark). The result determined how to control these characteristics and minimize rustling sounds. A total of 3 specimens' frictional sound (generated at 0.63 m/s) was recorded using a Simulator for Frictional Sound of Fabrics (Korea Patent No. 10-2008-0105524) and SPLs were analyzed with a Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT). The mechanical properties of fabrics were measured with a KES-FB system. The SPL value of the sound spectrum showed 6.84~58.47dB at 0~17,500Hz. The SPL value was 61.2dB for the 2-layer PU nanofiber web laminates layered on densely woven PET(C1) and was the highest at 65.1dB for the 3-layer PU nanofiber web laminates (C3). Based on SPSS 18.0, it was shown that there is a correlation between mechanical properties and psychoacoustic characteristics. Tensile properties (LT), weight (T), and bending properties (2HB) showed a high correlation with psychoacoustic characteristics. Tensile linearity (LT) with Loudness (Z) showed a negative correlation coefficient; however, weight (T) with Sharpness (Z) and Roughness (Z), and bending hysteresis (2HB) with Roughness (Z) indicated positive correlation coefficients, respectively.
Effect of Organic Photosensitizers on the Antimicrobial Property of Polyurethane coated Leather
Oh, Kyung Wha ; Lim, Ki Sub ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 15, issue 4, 2013, Pages 630~634
DOI : 10.5805/SFTI.2013.15.4.630
Cow leather coated with polyurethane film that contains various organic photosensitizers was investigated to demonstrate the antimicrobial properties in the application of the material to protective clothing and home appliances. To prepare the antimicrobial coating on leather surfaces with high potency against microbes, photoactive agents, such as benzophenone (BP), 4,4'-bis(dimethylamino) benzophenone (MK), 4,4'-dihydroxybenzophenone (DHBP) and methylene blue (MB), were incorporated into polyurethane-based coating solutions. The photoactive antimicrobial agent treated leather samples were characterized by SEM, color appearance, color fastness against abrasion, and antimicrobial tests. The optical properties of organic photosensitizers indicated that active UV absorbance ranges were different: BP (around 250 nm), MK (around 360 nm), DHBP (around 305 nm) and MB (around 295 nm &570 nm-685 nm). The intensity of the UV absorbance curve at the UVA light wavelength for the antimicrobial test showed the highest value with MK; subsequently, this was followed by MB, DHBP and BP in decreasing order. The treated-leather samples demonstrated excellent antibacterial activity under UVA light. The antimicrobial effects for the Staphylococcus aureus were superior to Escherichia coli. Moreover, the polyurethane finishing showed an effective durability to abrasion. The overall results indicated that DHBP is the most suitable PU coating additive to provide antimicrobial properties to leather as well as color and surface appearance than MK, MB, and BP.
Fungi-rice bran based Fermentation of Coptis Chinensis and Curcuma Longa Root and its Influence of Silk Dyeing
Park, Young Mi ; Choi, Jae Hong ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 15, issue 4, 2013, Pages 635~641
DOI : 10.5805/SFTI.2013.15.4.635
This study examined the dye-properties of natural fabrics dyed with Coptis chinensis and Curcuma longa root fermented with fungi. The optimum culture conditions for the fermentation of microorganisms, the relationship between natural dye color and fermentation conditions were investigated. Two different medical herbs (ground to 80-100 mesh in size) were used as a natural dyeing source. Phellinus linteus (P. linteus), which can grow in different media, such as Agarmedium (only agar containing medium), maltose extract agar (MA) and potato dextrose extract agar (PDA) culture media, were isolated from the medium. P. linteus was confirmed to be the optimum microorganism for the fermentation of Coptis chinensis and Curcuma longa, and the MA medium was confirmed to be the best for culturing. When using the microorganism as the fermenting agent,
was found to be the optimum fermenting temperature for both natural colorants. Regarding the dyeing property of the fermented natural dye, silk was dyed quite darkly in an appearance by naked eye estimation and the K/S value in the color strength of silk reached a high level of 16 after the fermenting process. The washing fastness of dyed silk after treatment washing was reduced from 4 to under4 and indicates that dyed silk with fermented plant was not unsubstantial. The light fastness was 1 to 2, showing intended to maintain due to the fermentation process.
Sensibility Evaluation of Eco-friendly Apparel Products according to Recognition of Eco-friendliness
Na, Young Joo ; Kim, Hee Jin ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 15, issue 4, 2013, Pages 642~648
DOI : 10.5805/SFTI.2013.15.4.642
This study investigates the changes inconsumer sensibility and product preferences according to theirecofriendly productperceptions. Stimulants (released by three companies of sport casual brands)include three shirts made of recycled polyester and three made of organic cotton. A surveymethod was used to respond to the emotion and image while watching the presented pictures of the clothes. The change in the reactions was analyzed before and after the presentation of eco-friendliness information. The questionnaire consists of sensibility adjectives, open-ended questions about the associated image of eco-friendliness, color attractiveness, product favorability, price satisfaction, and reasons for an eco-friendly productpurchase. The survey was conducted on 200adult male and female participants. Two factors ('eco' and 'design')were identifiedthrough the factor analysis of image adjectives. There was a statistically significant increase in the evaluation of sensibility, color attractiveness, product favorability, and price satisfactiondue to the re-evaluation of the same products after consumers recognized the eco-friendly information of apparel products. When consumers recognize products aseco-friendly, they evaluate the products more positively than before. The result of the analysis of the increases by textile materials shows no significant difference in the sensibility changes depending on the materials. However, with regard to 'eco', the increase of sensibility change for organic cotton products was larger than for recycled polyester products.