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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Fashion & Textile Research Journal
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society for ClothIng Industry
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 6 - Dec 2015
Volume 17, Issue 5 - Oct 2015
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Aug 2015
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Jun 2015
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Apr 2015
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Feb 2015
Selecting the target year
Design Development of Fashion Cultural Products using the Sari Container of Baekje’s Sabi Period Temples
Jeon, Hee-Kwan ; Kim, Hye-Kyung ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 17, issue 6, 2015, Pages 871~880
DOI : 10.5805/SFTI.2015.17.6.871
Buddhist culture had a significant impact on the entire mode of Korean living after the introduction of Buddhism to Korea in the Three Kingdom Period. Baekje embraced Buddhism in 384 A.D.; subsequently, diverse artifacts have now been excavated from the temples. Various research on Korean temples are now in progress; however there is inadequate research on the relics and patterns excavated from the temples due to the focus on the temples’ architectural form. There is limited research on the development of fashion cultural products that use relics excavated from the temples. This study develops designs for fashion cultural products using Baekje Sabi Period relics; specifically, the sari container excavated from Buyeo’s Wangheungsaji, Neungsanrisaji, and Iksan’s Mireuksaji. The sari container’s original form, patterns, and writing were developed into patterns and applied to fashion products such as t-shirts, bags and scarves. Traditional multicolored paintwork exhibited on the temples, ‘dancheong’, was selected as the color for products that can symbolically express the nature of their origin. Adobe Illustrator CC and Adobe Photoshop CC were used to extract the motifs and develop the designs. Six patterns and nine fashion products were designed, accounting for a total of fifteen developed items. We hope that the fashion cultural product design expresses the distinct characteristics of Baekje’s Sabi Period and can be applied to various products and related fields.
Design Suggestion of Active T-shirt According to the Exercise Types in the Silver Generation
Kim, Young-Soon ; Koo, Young-Seok ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 17, issue 6, 2015, Pages 881~894
DOI : 10.5805/SFTI.2015.17.6.881
The silver generation have clothing style of optimal daily life comparing than young generation because they do not participate a specific sport event but daily- life exercise. As the human body ages, the figure of the silver generation shows different body shape because upper body changes to curved figure including the belly and waist part. Therefore, clothing characteristics for the silver generation should be considered with proper function, design and textiles to optimize body movement. This study investigated various exercise types according to motion analysis of the silver generation in order to develop the design of the active T-shirts reflecting the structural properties and providing the optimum exercise circumstance. The results to consider design needs are as followed; As the T-shirts design for the flexible exercise which required frequent movement of upper body such as bending and waist twisting during body stretching, a stretch fabric applied to the waist part considering T-shirts allowance and length to make extreme elongation and support for well-fitting appearance of the T-shirts. As the T-shirts design for the instantaneous reactionary exercise, high elastic four-way stretch fabric is applied to the part of arm hole to optimize skeletal and muscle movement for entire body and arm work. As the T-shirts design for the endurance exercise such as climbing, cycling, and walking, the shoulder line of the back part has cutting line allowance to make optimum movement of the upper body but no change of the waist part.
An Analysis of the Strengths and Weaknesses of Seoul Fashion Week with a Focus on Organisational Issues
Kim, Hye Eun ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 17, issue 6, 2015, Pages 895~906
DOI : 10.5805/SFTI.2015.17.6.895
Seoul Fashion Week aims to be the world’s fifth Fashion Week from the year after 2000. This has involved significant labour and investment, not all of which has been successful. This study analyses the strengths and weaknesses of SFW based on the London Fashion Week as a successful model. By identifying its obvious and less obvious characteristics, this analysis aims to diagnose SFW’s current status in order to upgrade the event at an international level. Key factors are organisational body, designers, visitors, sponsors, schedule, venue, main events and supportive events. The following points have emerged from the research: the success of Seoul Fashion Week was based on the combination of separate collections, an appropriate fashion show venue, and the active role of new designers. The problems were: lack of an independent organisation, non-professional staff, lack of diverse visitors, exclusive governmental funding, late timing, excessive distance from the main European and American fashion markets, lack of sustainability of the main events, a limited variety of supportive events, the absence of online promotion and, last but not least, no distinctive features. The study concludes that Seoul Fashion Week has great potential with its fast growth and young designers. This should be complemented with an independent organisation and effective administration and strategy.
ICT Development and Customer Participation in Fashion Industry
Kim, Yun Jeong ; Rha, Jong-Youn ; Lee, Yuri ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 17, issue 6, 2015, Pages 907~918
DOI : 10.5805/SFTI.2015.17.6.907
With the pervasiveness of digital environment and expansion of new media, ICT (Information and Communication Technology) leads the role of consumer to change from a passive customer into an active co-producer. As customer participation in the fashion industry increases, this study attempts to explore the cases of customer participation as a co-producer in fashion industry through analyzing business models of companies, including Threadless, Blank label, Cut on Your Bias, Acustom Apparel, Thinkgivers. The results show that customer participation is mainly facilitated through design participation in fashion industry, with different level of participation and IT as well as different contribution target. Compared to the past, consumer’s preference is reflected through participation before the stage of production. Results indicate three main characteristics of customer participation in fashion industry. First, value co-creations using customer experiences and understanding customer needs are important. Second, active online communication among customers are critical. Third, it is important to ensure customer’s own item. From a customer perspective, participation enables them to purchase their own distinctive product and offers exciting experience and satisfaction over the production processes, and compensation can be used to increase customer participation. On the other hand, companies using customer participation can take advantage of cost reduction in product development, inventory, and marketing. Customer participation, as a win-win strategy for business and consumer, is expected to expand further in the future with the development of ICT.
Analysis of Multichannel Choice Behavior based on Apparel items
Kim, Jie-yurn ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 17, issue 6, 2015, Pages 919~931
DOI : 10.5805/SFTI.2015.17.6.919
Recently, with the rapid development of the Internet, the importance of the multi-channel retailing strategy including online channel has been emphasized in fashion business. The purpose of this research is to give some practical ideas of multichannel strategy for fashion retailers through comparison for multichannel choice behaviors between Korean and US consumers. The online survey was conducted on the 400 fashion customers aged between 20s and 50s living in Korea and America. The survey consisted of measurement items about channel choice behaviors for purchase or information search, risk perception on channel, repurchase intention at same channel, perception on experience or search goods among apparel items. The data were analyzed by frequency, regression, t-test using SPSS 18.0 program. The ratio of utilization multichannel was higher in fashion goods area in Korea fashion business. Also, most of Top-ranked fashion or accessory retailers in America were taking advantage of multichannel strategy. There were some differences between Korea and US consumers in channel choice behaviors for purchase or information search, risk perception for retail channel, repurchase intention at same channel, perception on experience or search goods among apparel items, etc. Some suggestion for the future research for multichannel strategy in fashion retailing was given.
Effects of Shopping Orientation and Store Attributes on Impulse Buying Behavior for Cosmeceuticals
Park, Eun Joo ; Kim, Yu Mi ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 17, issue 6, 2015, Pages 932~941
DOI : 10.5805/SFTI.2015.17.6.932
An aging population and increasing consumer demand for high-quality and innovative new products are key drivers for growth in the cosmeceutical industry. Cosmeceuticals are defined as products with biologically active ingredients that have a measurable effect on the user. This study explored the effects of shopping orientation and store attributes on impulse buying behavior for cosmeceuticals. We obtained 437 usable questionnaires from university students who had purchased cosmeceutical products. Data analysis was conducted using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling analysis via AMOS 18.0. The findings were: 1) hedonic shopping orientation and convenience shopping orientation had positive effects on product efficacy and promotion of the cosmeceutical store 2) brand shopping orientation had a positive effects on store atmospheric, skin care service, and brand of the cosmeceuticals store and 3) product efficacy and promotion of store attributes had a direct effect on impulse buying behavior for cosmeceuticals. Consumers who tended to enjoy the shopping to refresh themselves and to experience convenient shopping were likely to purchase cosmeceuticals impulsively, which mediated by the store attributes (product efficacy and promotion). Therefore, we confirmed partly causal relationships among the shopping orientation, store attributes, and impulse buying behavior of cosmeceuticals. Both managerial and theoretical implication for practitioners and researchers were discussed for managing product information more efficiently along with promotion strategies to trigger cosmeceuticals consumers in the context of shopping.
The Effects of Usage Motivation of Hashtag of Fashion Brands’ Image Based SNS on Customer Social Participation and Brand Equity : Focusing on Moderating Effect of SNS Involvement
Chae, Heeju ; Shin, Jiye ; Ko, Eunju ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 17, issue 6, 2015, Pages 942~955
DOI : 10.5805/SFTI.2015.17.6.942
Hashtag has emerged and become one of cultural trend. Given that more and more firms in the fashion industry are using hashtag on images based on SNS to provide information of their products and to communicate with their customers. Especially, hashtags through voluntary participation of users provides the perspective of how customers consume their products. Therefore, this study focused on the using motives of hashtag in image based SNS with customer social participation as mediator towards brand equity. The purpose of this study is (1) to investigate the usage motivation of hashtag of image contents based SNS, (2) to expose how each usage motive affects customer social participation and (3) to find out how customer social participation has an effect on brand equity. In order to achieve the objectives of this study, first we conducted an in-depth interview on 8 image based SNS heavy users to understand the using motives of hashtags. Furthermore, we conducted online surveys amongst people aged between 20s and 30s of image contents based SNS users. As a result of this study, followings were figured out. First, four of usage motivation of hashtag were examined through in-depth interview and previous studies; interest sharing, social interaction, ease of use and enjoyment. Second, usage motivation of hashtag has a significant effect on customer social participation. Third, customer-media participation and customer-customer participation impact positively on brand equity. Lastly, level of customer social participation has the moderating effect on the relationship between motivation of hashtag and customer social participation.
The Effects of Clothing Consumption Value and Demographic Features on Clothing Disposal Behaviors
Ahn, Soo-kyoung ; Ryou, Eunjeong ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 17, issue 6, 2015, Pages 956~964
DOI : 10.5805/SFTI.2015.17.6.956
This study aims to investigate the relationship between consumers’ clothing consumption values, demographic features, and clothing disposal behaviors. The data were collected from 300 women aged between 20 and 59 through the online survey with the self-administered questionnaire. A series of exploratory and confirmative factor analysis was conducted to identify the dimensions of clothing consumption values and clothing disposition behaviors. Clothing consumption values consisted of six dimensions including conditional value, individuality value, fashion value, social value, practical value, and self-expression value. Clothing disposition behaviors were discovered as four dimensions such as discarding, giving, selling, and donating. A structural equation modeling analysis was employed to examine the relationship between clothing consumption values and disposition behaviors. While individuality value, fashion value, and practical value had a significantly positive impact on donating, giving, and discarding behaviors, both practical value and self-expression value negatively influenced discarding behavior. Fashion value negatively affected giving behavior. Employing a series of MANOVA, one-way ANOVA and sheffe's multiple range test, this study found that there were significant effects of age, marital status, monthly income, and monthly clothing expenses on giving and donating behaviors. This study suggests that fashion firms should be aware of clothing disposition in terms of social and environmental concerns and understand diverse consumer disposal behaviors and utilize them as a social marketing strategy.
Determinants of Eco-friendly Outdoor Wear Products Purchase Intention : Exploring Value-Belief-Norm Theory
Kim, Young Hwa ; Oh, Kyung Wha ; Jung, Hye Jung ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 17, issue 6, 2015, Pages 965~977
DOI : 10.5805/SFTI.2015.17.6.965
This study aims to investigate determinants that included personal values, pro-environmental beliefs, and proenvironmental norms for enhancing consumers' purchase intention of eco-friendly outdoor wear exploring Stern(2000)’s the value-belief-norm theory. A survey was conducted with females and males between the ages of 20 and 60 who have experienced buying outdoor wear products. A total of 300 responses were analyzed by descriptive analysis, factor analysis, a reliability test, an independent samples t-test, and regression analysis. The results of this study were as follows: 1) The results of exploratory factor analysis and reliability test on the personal value clearly showed factorial structures including the social power, ecologic value, openness, equality, and altruistic value. 2) There are significant differences in personal value sub-dimensions, pro-environmental beliefs, pro-environmental norm, and purchase intention of eco-friendly outdoor wear products according to respondents' gender and age. 3) Personal values, but not social power, affect pro-environmental beliefs; in turn, pro-environmental beliefs affect pro-environmental norms, which then affects purchase intentions of eco-friendly outdoor wear. The findings support the conclusion that there is significant causality among personal value such as ecologic, openness, equality, and altruistic, pro-environmental belief, and pro-environmental norm. This study suggests pragmatic implications to understand outdoor wear consumers' socio-psychological and demographic factors and to augment purchase intentions of eco-friendly outdoor wear products.
A Study on Awareness and Responses of Korean Textile Firms against Korea-US FTA
Ha, Ju-Young ; Lee, Hyun-Ok ; Ku, Yang-Suk ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 17, issue 6, 2015, Pages 978~987
DOI : 10.5805/SFTI.2015.17.6.978
This study investigates the awareness levels of Korean textile companies and develops appropriate response plans for the Korea-US Free Trade Agreement. The study also explores practical and realistic directions that the Korean textile industry must initiate. A qualitative study was conducted on 10 individuals for a more in-depth and demonstrative understanding that provide a better awareness on the responses of the textile industry towards the Korea-US FTA. The results of this study are as follows. First, the effect of the Korea-US FTA on the textile industry was insignificant. Second, industry members determined that fabric sectors and specialized fabrics (such as industrial materials and finished clothing products) could realize benefits through the Korea-US FTA. Third, industry members emphasize that the current focus is on FTAs by countries that have solidified their positions as manufacturing and sewing bases for the US and Europe (such as Southeast Asia) and not the Korea-US FTA. Based on results acquired through this study, the response measures to enter the U.S. market are as follows. First, the industry must develop high-performance and high value-adding direct export products suited to the needs of the US market in order to realize the benefits of the Korea-US FTA. Second, the industry and government must cooperate to actively host and participate in overseas trade shows that can actively open sales channels within the US. Third, the self-sustainability of textile companies must be cultivated through continuous and focused government training.
Shape Design Method of Mold Brassiere Cup for Small-breasted Women in their Twenties
Lee, Hyun-Young ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 17, issue 6, 2015, Pages 988~995
DOI : 10.5805/SFTI.2015.17.6.988
Gaps between the upper edges of brassiere mold cups and the breasts are one of the most serious issues in realizing comfort wearing of commercial brassieres for small-breasted women. The surplus ease amounts causing the fit problem were measured from 3D wearing images of the small-breasted women's brassieres. The effect after the removing the surplus ease amounts from the upper edge of mold cup was approved by subjective wearing evaluation. Since the volume distribution of mold cup can also affect the wearing sensation of brassiere, the subjective wearing sensation was compared for two brassieres of different volume distributions, V
, of which volume was concentrated at the lower cup, and V
, which has the thickest part at the nipple. As the results, the suitable sensation for cup volume and the natural wearing silhouette could be accomplished by removing the surplus ease amounts from the upper edge of mold cup to reduce the gaps between brassieres and the breasts, which could be accomplished through an approach reducing the volume near the upper edge of mold brassiere cup and making the volume concentrated at the lower cup. These works provide a useful information on the design of the brassiere mold cups for small-breasted women. Moreover, modeling methods of 3D scan data and 3D printing technique for making more accurate mold cases used in this research can be helpful to develop and evaluate clothing products in future.
A Study on Appropriate Cutting Amount at the Waistline of Men's Jackets in Their 30's
Kim, Myoung-Ok ; Kim, Kyung-A ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 17, issue 6, 2015, Pages 996~1003
DOI : 10.5805/SFTI.2015.17.6.996
This study aims to examine the effects of the cutting amount at the waistline on the jacket appearance evaluation and movement functionality, and to suggest a proper waistline cutting amount when designing the men's casual jacket for those in their 30's. The researchers prepared 4 kinds of experimental jackets varying the waistline cutting amount: 0.0cm, 0.5cm, 1.0cm, and 1.5cm. The results of the study are as follows: Regarding the front view appearance, the jacket with the 0.5cm cutting amount achieved the highest score (6 out of 9). On the side view and the back view, there was no meaningful difference. However, the jacket with 0.5cm cutting amount achieved the highest score (4 out of 5). On the other hand, on the movement functionality, there was small statistical difference; the 1.5cm experimental jacket received the highest score in the most areas. This is resulted because if the cutting amount was increased, equally with the V-zone area which gives room for movements. This result showed the difference from the previous research of men in their 20’s,where 0.0cm achieved the highest test score for both appearance and movement functionality. Therefore, this study suggests using the 0.5cm and 1.5cm for the waistline cutting amount; for the jacket appearance 0.5cm is the best while the 1.5cm is better for the movement.
Loess Dyeing of Soybean Fabrics
Lee, Sol ; Lee, Shin-Hee ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 17, issue 6, 2015, Pages 1004~1012
DOI : 10.5805/SFTI.2015.17.6.1004
The purpose of this study is to investigate the loess dyeability of soybean fabric using loess as colorants. Recent days, various textile products such as inner wears, sheets and interior goods are manufactured using materials dyed with loess emphasizing its improved metabolism, anti-bacterial, deodorizing properties, and far infrared ray emissions. Soybean fabric was dyed with loess solution according to concentration of loess, dyeing temperature and dyeing time. To improve washing fastness, soybean fabric and dyed soybean fabric with loess were mordanted by mordanting agents such as sodium chloride(NaCl), Acetic acid(CH
COOH) and Aluminium Potassium Sulfate(AlK(SO
O). Dyeability and color characteristics of dyed soybean fabric were obtained by CCM observation. Particle size distribution of loess, the dyeability(K/S) of soybean fabric, morphology and washing durability of loess dyed soybean fabric were investigated. The results obtained were as follows; Mean average diameter of loess was 1.08µm. The main components of loess used in this study were silicon dioxide(SiO
), aluminium oxide(Al
), and iron oxide(Fe
). The content of these three component was above 75 weight %. The dyeability of soybean fabric was increased gradually with increasing concentration of loess. The optimum dyeing temperature and dyeing time were 90℃ and 60minutes expectively. The fastness to washing according to concentration of loess and mordanting method indicated good grade result as more than 4 degree in all conditions.
Garments Waterproofness Test Using Rain Tower System
Cha, Hee Chul ; Park, Jun Ho ; Lim, Jee Young ; Shim, Huen Sup ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 17, issue 6, 2015, Pages 1013~1019
DOI : 10.5805/SFTI.2015.17.6.1013
As the interest in leisure and health increases, the domestic outdoor wear industry becomes bigger. The waterproofness of fabrics does not ensure the waterproofness of garments because of the stitch holes during the sewing process even with the seam sealing tapes. Thus the water leakage often becomes a problem during the end use. Still companies use fabrics waterproofness data for garments marketing because they are simple to run the test, less expensive than the whole garment testing, and easy to achieve the quality control. In this study the rain tower system for evaluating the waterproofness of garments has been developed and the waterproofness of the selected waterproof and breathable garments in the market were tested. The rain tower was consisted of rain tower room, rainfall forming system and measurement system. Two different levels of rainfall can be simulated with this system(100l/m
/hr and 450l/m
/hr). Jackets in the market have been tested at two different rainfall conditions. The temperature and humidity data inside jackets didn't provide much information on the waterproofness at severe rainfall condition(450l/m
/hr, 1 hour). However, water leakage was detected on the cotton undershirt inside jacket. 5 out of 8 jackets passed the normal rainfall condition(100l/m
/hr, 30 minutes). The newly developed rain tower system was able to evaluate the waterproofness of the jacket seams. It is recommended the further study on the detailed test conditions for the end use of the waterproof and breathable garments.
Wearing Performance of Garment for Emotional Knitted Fabrics Made of PTT/Tencel/Cotton MVS Blended Yarns (II)
Kim, Hyun Ah ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 17, issue 6, 2015, Pages 1020~1029
DOI : 10.5805/SFTI.2015.17.6.1020
This paper investigated the wearing performance of knitted fabrics made of air vortex yarns using PTT/tencel/cotton fibres in comparison with ring and compact yarns for emotional garment. Wicking property of knitted fabric made of MVS yarns was worse than those by ring and compact yarns, however, drying property of knitted fabric made of MVS yarns was better than those by ring and compact yarns, which was explained as more water vapor transport due to larger openness between fibres in the MVS yarns than those in the ring and compact yarns. Thermal conductivity of knitted fabric made of MVS was lower than those of ring and compact yarns and maximum heat flow(Q
) at the transient state of MVS knitted fabric was lower than those of ring and compact yarns, which may be attributed to MVS yarn structure that has parallel fibres in the core part of the yarn and fasciated fibre bundles on the sheath part with roughness on the yarn surface. However, pilling of MVS knitted fabric was better than those by ring and compact yarns, which was caused by less and shorter hairy fibres protruded from MVS yarn surface than those of ring and compact yarns. It was observed that tactile hand of MVS yarn knitted fabrics was stiffer than those of ring and compact yarns knitted fabrics. It was explained by low extensibility and compressibility and high bending and shear rigidities of the MVS yarn knitted fabrics, which resulted in bad wearing performance of MVS knitted fabric.
Gallnut dyeing of Crabyon Fiber Contained Cotton Towels
Woo, Ji-Hae ; Lee, Shin-Hee ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 17, issue 6, 2015, Pages 1030~1038
DOI : 10.5805/SFTI.2015.17.6.1030
The purpose of this study is to investigate the dyeability of crabyon fiber contained cotton towels after dyeing with gallut. In this study, the colorants of gallnut were extracted with boiling water at 60℃ and 60min. Crabyon, composite fiber of Chitin/Chitosan and cellulose, is manufactured by uniformly blending Chitin/Chitosan and cellulose viscose and extruding the blended viscose into spin-bath. Cotton towels with crabyon fiber dyed with extracted solution from gallnut according to concentration, temperature and time. Crabyon fiber contained cotton towels dyed using gallnut were pre of post-mordanted using Al, Cu, and Fe. The dyeability(K/S) and color characteristics(L
, C, and h(color angle)) of dyed crabyon fiber contained cotton towels were measured by computer color matching machine and photographs. The crabyon fiber composition of cotton towels was conformed by amide peak(-CONH-) of chitin or chitosan of FT-IR spectroscopy. The results obtained were as follows; The amide peak of crabyon fiber contained cotton towels appeared at about 1652 cm
. The dyeability of crabyon fiber contained cotton towel was increased gradually with increasing concentration of gallnut dyeing solution and saturated at about 150%(o.w.f). The optimum dyeing temperature and dyeing time were 90~100℃ and 80minutes expectively. The crabyon fiber contained cotton towels were dyed reddish yellow by non, Al, and Cu mordanting, reddish blue by Fe mordanting, respectively. The fastness to washing according to concentration of gallnut in and mordanting method indicated good grade result as more than 3~4 degree in all conditions.
A Study of Electrode Locations for Design of ECG Monitoring Smart Clothing based on Body Mapping
Cho, Hakyung ; Cho, Sang woo ;
Fashion & Textile Research Journal, volume 17, issue 6, 2015, Pages 1039~1049
DOI : 10.5805/SFTI.2015.17.6.1039
The increase in the need for a 24 hour monitoring of biological signals has been accompanied by an increasing interest in wearable systems that can register ECG at any time and place. ECG-monitoring clothing is a wearable system that records heart function continuously, but there have been difficulties in making accurate measurements due to motion artifacts. Although various factors may cause noise in measurements due to motion, the variations in the body surface and clothing during movements that cause eventual the shifting and displacement of the electrodes is particularly noteworthy. Therefore, this study used biomedical body mapping and a motion-capture system to measure and analyze the changes in the body surface and garment during movements. It was deduced that the area where the friction and separation between the garment and skin is the lowest would be the appropriate location to place the ECG electrodes. For this study, 5 male and 5 female in their 20s were selected as subjects, and through their selected body movements, the changes in the garment and skin were analyzed using the motion-capture system. As a result, the area below the chest circumference and the area below the shoulder blades were proposed as the optimal location of electrode for ECG monitoring.