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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Institute of Surface Engineering
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 6 - Dec 1996
Volume 29, Issue 5 - Oct 1996
Volume 29, Issue 4 - Aug 1996
Volume 29, Issue 3 - Jun 1996
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Apr 1996
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Feb 1996
Selecting the target year
TEXTURE AND RELATED MICROSTRUCTURE AND SURF ACE TOPOGRAPHY OF VAPOR DEPOSITS
Lee, Dong-Nyung ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 29, issue 5, 1996, Pages 301~313
The texture of vapor deposits(PVD and CVD) changes from the orientation that places the lowest energy lattice plane parallel to the substrate under the condition of low atom or ion concentration adjacent to the deposit, to the orientation that places the higher energy crystal planes parallel to the substrate as the atom or ion concentration adjacent to the deposit increases. However, in the early stage of deposition, the deposit-substrate interface energy and the surface energy constitute the most important energies of the system. Therefore, if the lattice match is established between the substrate and the deposit without generating much strain energy, the epitaxial growth takes place to reduce the interfacial energy. When the epitaxial growth does not take place, the surface energy is dominant in the early stage of deposition and the lowest energy crystal plane tends to be placed parallel to the substrate up to a critial thickness. The thickness depends on the deposition condition. If the deposition condition does not favor placing the lowest energy crystal plane parallel to the substrate, the initial texture will change to that compatible with the deposition condition as the film thickness increases, and the texture turnover thickness will be short. The microstructure and surface topography of deposits are related to their texture.
SCANNING PROBE NANOPROCESSING
Sugimura, Hiroyuki ; Nakagiri, Nobuyuki ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 29, issue 5, 1996, Pages 314~324
Scanning probe microscopes (SPMs) such as the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and the atomic force microscope (AFM) were used for surface modification tools at the nanometer scale. Material surfaces, i. e., titanium, hydrogen-terminated silicon and trimethylsilyl organosilane monolayer on silicon, were locally oxidized with the best lateral spatial resolution of 20nm. The principle behind this proximal probe oxidation method is scanning probe anodization, that is, the SPM tip-sample junction connected through a water column acting as a minute electrochemical cell. An SPM-nanolithogrphy process was demonstrated using the organosilane monolayer as a resist. Area-selective chemical modifications, i. e., etching, electroless plating with gold, monolayer deposition and immobilization of latex nanoparticles; were achieved in nano-scale resolution. The area-selectivity was based on the differences in chemical properties between the SPM-modified and unmodified regions.
MOVPE GROWTH OF HgCdTe EPILAYER WITH ARSENIC DOPING
Suh, Sang-Hee ; Kim, Jin-Sang ; Song, Jong-Hyeong ; Kim, Je-Won ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 29, issue 5, 1996, Pages 325~329
We report on p-type arsenic doping of metalorganic vapor phase epitaxially (MOVPE) grown HgCdTe on (100) GaAs. HgCdTe was grown at
in a horizontal reactor with using dimethy-cadmium, diisoprophyltelluride, and elemental Hg. We used tris-dimethylaminoarsenic (DMAAs) as the metalorganic for p-doping. 4micron thick CdTe and subsequently 10micron thick HgCdTe were grown on (100) GaAs substrate. Interdiffused multilayer process in which thin CdTe and HgTe layers are grown alternately and interdiffused to obtain homogeneous HgCdTe alloys was used. Arsenic was doped during CdTe growth cycle. After growth HgCdTe was annealed at
for 15 min and then annealed again at
for 3 hr, both with Hg-saturate condition. We could obtain p-doping from 2.5
, depending on the DMAAs partial pressure. With the dual Hg-annealing, activation of arsenic was aboutt 90%, which was confirmed by SIMS measurement. With only low temperature annealing at
for 3hr, activation efficiency was about 50%.
PROPOSE NEW MIXTURE TARGET FOR LOW-TEMPERATURE AND HIGH- RATE DEPOSITION OF PZT THIN FILMS BY REACTIVE SPUTTERING
Hata, Tomonobu ; Zhang, WeiXiao ; Sasaki, Kimihiro ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 29, issue 5, 1996, Pages 330~337
A rf reactive sputter deposition technique was adopted to deposit ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films with high rate from a ZrTi alloy target combined with PbO pellets. Deposition characterisitics including the effects of PbO are ratio were discussed. A new deposition mode called the quasi-metallic mode was observed. Perovskite PZT films were prepared at a growth temperature as low as
. However, because the target structure is unstable, weproposed a mixture target consisted of Zr, Ti and PbO. Fundamental experiments were investigated using the powder target. Perovskite PZT film could be obtained at
with better electrical properties also.
COMPARISON OF PLASMA-INDUCED SURFACE DAMAGES IN VARIOUS PLASMA SOURCES
Yi, Dong-Hyen ; Lee, Jun-Sik ; Kim, Sang-Kyun ; Kim, Jae-Jeong ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 29, issue 5, 1996, Pages 338~344
This study was an investigation of plasma-induced damages on silicon substrate in the semiconductor manufacturing technology. The plasma-induced damage level on silicon substrate was analyzed and compared in various plasma etching systems. The analysis methods were therma wave, life-time recovery, SCA (Surface Charge Analyzer) and TRXF (Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence) measurements, and the measured values were compared for each systems. In the comparison of the values which were obtained by a system that had low life-time recovery, there was not any differences in DC parameters. However, the reflesh time distribution of device of that system had decreased about 10 to 20m sec compared to a system which had high life-time recovery.
POLYMER SURFACE MODIFICATION WITH PLASMA SOURCE ION IMPLANTATION TECHNIQUE
Han, Seung-Hee ; Lee, Yeon-Hee ; Lee, Jung-Hye ; Yoon, Jung-Hyeon ; Kim, Hai-Dong ; Kim, Gon-ho ; Kim, GunWoo ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 29, issue 5, 1996, Pages 345~349
The wetting property of polymer surfaces is very important for practical applications. Plasma source ion implantation technique was used to improve the wetting properties of polymer surfaces. Poly(ethylene terephtalate) and other polymer sheets were mounted on the target stage and an RF plasma was generated by means of an antenna located inside the vacuum chamber. High voltage pulses of up to -10kV, 10
sec, and up to 1 kHz were applied to the stage. The samples were implanted for 5 minutes with using Ar,
and their mixture as source gases. A contact angle meter was used to measure the water contact angles of the implanted samples and of the samples stored in ambient conditions after implantation. The modified surfaces were analysed with Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (TOF-SIMS) and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES). The oxygen-implanted samples showed extremely low water contact angles of
of unimplanted ones. Furthermore, the modified surfaces were relatively stable with respect to aging in ambient conditions, which is one of the major concerns of the other surface treatment techniques. From TOF-SIMS analysis it was found that oxygen-containing functional groups had been formed on the implanted surfaces. On the other hand, the
-implanted samples turned out to be more hydro-phobic than unimplanted ones, giving water contact angles exceeding
. The experiment showed that plasma source ion implantation is a very promising technique for polymer surface modification especially for large area treatment.
VHF-PECVD OF Ti/TiN WITH SILANE REDUCTION PROCESS
Mizuno, Shigeru ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 29, issue 5, 1996, Pages 350~356
This paper presents VHF-Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (VHF-PECVD) of Ti/TiN with silne reduction process, using
source. VHF plasma, which is denser than a conventional RF plasma, produces a large number of radicals. Silane reduction process, which supplies silane radicals, more promotes dissociation of Ti-Cl bond than a conventional hydrogen reduction process. therefore, the VHF-PECVD with silane reduction process forms high quality Ti/TiN films, which have low level of Cl content(<0.2 at.%). In result, the resistivity for Ti or TiN is less than 200
cm. The surface morphology of Ti film is very smooth. The structure of TiN film is amorphous. Furthermore, excellent step coverage for the films is obtained.
APPLICATION OF RADIO-FREQUENCY (RF) THERMAL PLASMA TO FILM FORMATION
Terashima, Kazuo ; Yoshida, Toyonobu ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 29, issue 5, 1996, Pages 357~362
Several applications of radio-frequency (RF) thermal plasma to film formation are reviewed. Three types of injection plasma processing (IPP) technique are first introduced for the deposition of materials. Those are thermal plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD), plasma flash evaporation, and plasma spraying. Radio-frequency (RF) plasma and hybrid (combination of RF and direct current(DC)) plasma are next introduced as promising thermal plasma sources in the IPP technique. Experimental data for three kinds of processing are demonstrated mainly based on our recent researches of depositions of functional materials, such as high temperature semiconductor SiC and diamond, ionic conductor
and high critical temperature superconductor
. Special emphasis is given to thermal plasma flash evaporation, in which nanometer-scaled clusters generated in plasma flame play important roles as nanometer-scaled clusters as deposition species. A novel epitaxial growth mechanism from the "hot" clusters namely "hot cluster epitaxy (HCE)" is proposed.)" is proposed.osed.
SYNTHESIS OF CARBON NITRIDE THIN FILMS BY PLASMA PROCESSING
Takai, Osamu ; Taki, Yusuke ; Kitagawa, Toshihisa ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 29, issue 5, 1996, Pages 363~370
Carbon nitride is one of the new carbon materials which show interesting properties. After the theoretical calculation by LIu and Cohen, many researchers are trying to prepare
which may be harder than diamond. Many carbon nitride films synthesized till now by various methods are amorphous and the N/C ratios in the films are usually below 0.5. First we review shortly the synthesis of carbon nitride thin films by plasma, ion and laser processing. Second we report on the preparation of amorphous carbon nitride thin films by shielded arc ion plating and the structural and mechanical properties of the films.
NEW APPLICATIONS OF R.F. PLASMA TO MATERIALS PROCESSING
Akashi, Kazuo ; Ito, Shigru ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 29, issue 5, 1996, Pages 371~378
An RF inductively coupled plasma (ICP) torch has been developed as a typical thermal plasma generator and reactor. It has been applied to various materials processings such as plasma flash evaporation, thermal plasma CVD, plasma spraying, and plasma waste disposal. The RF ICP reactor has been generally operated under one atmospheric pressure. Lately the characteristics of low pressure RF ICP is attracting a great deal of attention in the field of plasma application. In our researches of RF plasma applications, low pressure RF ICP is mainly used. In many cases, the plasma generated by the ICP torch under low pressure seems to be rather capacitive, but high density ICP can be easily generated by our RF plasma torch with 3 turns coil and a suitable maching circuiit, using 13.56 MHz RF generator. Plasma surface modification (surface hardening by plasma nitriding and plasma carbo-nitriding), plasma synthesis of AIN, and plasma CVD of BN, B-C-N compound and diamond were practiced by using low pressure RF plasma, and the effects of negative and positive bias voltage impression to the substrate on surface modification and CVD were investigated in details. Only a part of the interesting results obtained is reported in this paper.
THIN FILM ADHESION IN Cu/Cr/POLYIMIDE AND Cu/Cu-Cr/POLYIMIDE SYSTEMS
Joh, Cheol-Ho ; Kim, Young-Ho ; Oh, Tae-Sung ; Park, Ik-Sung ; Yu, Jin ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 29, issue 5, 1996, Pages 379~385
Adhesion of Cu/Cr and Cu/
thin films onto polyimide substrates has been studied. For an adhesion layer, Cr or Cu-Cr alloy films were deposited onto polyimide using DC magnetron sputtering machine. Then Cu was sputter-deposited and finally, Cu was electroplated. Adhesion was evaluated using
peel test or T-peel test. Plastic deformation of the peeled metal layer was qualitatively measured using XRD technique. It is confirmed that high interfacial fracture energy and large plastic deformation are important to enhance the peel adhesion strength. High peel strength is obtained when the interface is strongly bonded. More ductile film has higher peel strength. In Cu-Cr alloy films, opposite effects of the Cr addition in the alloy film on the peel strength are operative: a beneficial effect of strong interfacial bonding and a negative effect of smaller plastic deformation.
MAGNETORESISTANCE OF EPITAXIALLY GROWN METALLIC MULTILAYERS
Kamada, Yasuhiro ; Saza, Yasuyuki ; Matsui, Masaaki ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 29, issue 5, 1996, Pages 386~392
The epitaxial TM/bcc-Cr(001) (TM=Fe, Co, Ni) multilayers have been prepared using MBE. The crystal structure, interlayer exchange coupling and magnetoresistance of those multilayers have been discussed. The structure of Fe, Co and Ni grown on bcc-Cr(001) exhibited bcc(001), distorted hcp(1120) and fcc(110), respectively. In Fe/Cr multilayes, an oscillatory exchange coupling has been observed, but not observed in Ni/Cr system, which may come from the large mixing at interfaces. Large MR ratio (116%, 4.2K) has been obtained in Fe/Cr system, but only 2% in Co/Cr system. This difference can be understood from the view point of the relative potential geight for down spin electrons between TM and Cr.
SOFT MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF FeTaNC NANOCRYSTALLINE FILMS
Koh, Tae-Hyuk ; Shin, Dong-Hoon ; Choi, Woon ; Ahn, Dong-Hoon ; Nam, Seoung-Eui ; Kim, Hyoung-June ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 29, issue 5, 1996, Pages 393~398
Soft magnetic properties and microstructural evolution of FeTaNC films were investigated, and compared with FeTaN and FeTaC films. Effects of substrate species (glass vs.
) on the magnetic properties were also investigated. Co-addition of N and C significantly enhance the grain refinments and magnetism, compared with N or C addition only. Good soft magnetic characteristics of coercivity of 0.17 Oe, permeability of 4000 (5MHz), and saturation flux density of 17 kG can be obtained in the FeTaNC in the relatively wide process windows. While these values appears to be similar to those of FeTaN on glass substrate, most distinctive difference between FeTaNC and FeTaN(or C) is in the effects of substrate. Whereas FeTaNC films show good magnetic characteristics for both glass and
substrates, FeTaN(or C) films show significant degradation on the
PREFERRED ORIENTATION OF TIN FILM STUDIED BT A REAL TIME SYNCHROTRON X-RAY SCATTERING
Je, J.H. ; Noh, D.Y. ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 29, issue 5, 1996, Pages 399~406
The orientational cross-over phenomena in an RF sputtering growth of TiN films were studied in an in-situ, real-time synchrotron x-ray scattering experiment. For the films grown with pure Ar sputtering gas, the cross-over from the more strained (002)-oriented grains to the less strained (111)-oriented grains occurred as the film thickness was increased. As the sputtering power was increased, the cross-over thickness, at which the growth orientation changes from the <002> to the <111> direction, was decreased. The addition of
besides Ar as sputtering gas suppressed the cross-over, and consequently resulted in the (002) preferred orientation without exhibiting the cross-over. We attribute the observed cross-over phenomena to the competition between the surface and the strain energy. The x-ray powder diffraction, the x-ray reflectivity, and the ex-situ AFM surface topology study consistently suggest that the microscopic growth front was in fact always the (002) planes. In the initial stage of growth, the (002) planes were aligned to the substrate surface to minimize the surface energy. At later stages, however, the (002) growth front tilted away from the surface by about
to relax the strain, which caused the cross-over of the preferred growth direction to the <111> direction.
THIN FILM GROWTH AND SURFACE REACTION ON H-TERMINATED SILICON SURFACE
Yasuda, Yukio ; Zaima, Shigeaki ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 29, issue 5, 1996, Pages 407~414
We have investigated the effects of H atoms on thin film growth processes and surface reactions. In the oxidation of Si, Si surfaces are passivated against the
adsorption by terminating dangling bonds with H atoms. Moreover, the existence of Si-H bonds on Si(100) surfaces enhances the structural relaxation of Si-O-Si bonds due to a charge transfer from Si-Si back bonds. In the heteroepitaxial growth of a Si/Ge/Si(100) system, H atoms suppress the segregation of Ge atoms into Si overlayers since the exchange of Ge atoms with Si atoms bound with H must be accompanied with breaking of Si-H bonds. However, 3-dimensional island growth is also promoted by atomic H irradiation, which is considered to result from the suppression of surface migration of adsorbed reaction species and from the lowering of step energies by the H termination of dangling bonds.
THIN FILM TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO THE HIGH T
Ri, Eui-Jae ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 29, issue 5, 1996, Pages 415~423
Thin film technologies for fabricating SQUIDs involve etching and deposition procedures with the proper substrate materials and
(YBCO) as the high
superconductor. YBCO were prepared on various substrates of MgO,
by using off-axis magnetron sputtering methods and annealing in-situ. The parameters of film fabrication processes had been optimized to yield good quality films in terms of the critical temperature
and the critical current density
. The optimized processes yielded
>90K along with
at 77K and>
at 5K. We fabricated step-edge type dc-SQUIDs and directly coupled magnetometers, producing step edges on MgO(100) substrates by etching with Ar-ion beam, depositing YBCO material on them, then patterning them by using ion-milling technique. Circuitizing washer-shape SQUIDs to possess a pair of step-edge junctions of 2-5
line width with a high angle>
, we examined their I-V characteristics thoroughly and Shapiro steps clearly as we irradiate microwaves of 8-20 GHz frequency.
SHAPE MEMORY THIN FILM OF TITANIUM-NICKEL FOR MICROACTUATOR FORMED BY SPUTTERING
Takei, A. ; Ishida, A. ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 29, issue 5, 1996, Pages 424~429
Thin films of Ti-Ni alloy were formed by sputtering under various Ar gas pressures and r. f. powers to investigate the optimum sputtering conditions and to demonstrate their shape memory effect. The composition and structure of the films were examined by electron micro-probe analysis and scanning electron microscope. These films were annealed in order to crystallize them. The mechanical property of the annealed films was evaluated by a conventional bending test. The transformation tmeperatures were determined by differential scanning calorimetry. The shape memory behaviour was examined quantiatatively by changing in sample temperature under various constant loads. It was found that the Ar gas pressure had a critical effect on the mechanical property of the thin film,s although the r.f. power also affected it. The films formed at a high Ar gas pressure were too brittle to be bent successfully. However, the films formed at a low Ar gas pressur could be bent and their shape memory behavior was found to be comparable with that of bulk Ti-Ni alloys.
HIGH TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTING THIN FILMS PREP ARED BY PULSED LASER DEPOSITION
Park, Yong-Ki ; Kim, In-Seon ; Ha, Dong-Han ; Hwang, Doo-Sup ; Huh, Yun-Sung ; Park, Jong-Chul ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 29, issue 5, 1996, Pages 430~436
We have grown superconducting thin films on various substrates using a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method.
(YBCO) superconducting thin films with the superconducting transition temperature (
) of 87K were grown on Si substrates using yittria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and
double buffer layers. We have developed a large area pulsed laser deposition system. The system was designed to deposit up to 6 different materials on a large area substrate up to 7.5cm in diameter without breaking a vacuum. The preliminary runs of the deposition of YBCO superconducting thin films on
substrate using this system showed a very uniform thickness profile over the entire substrate holder area.
of the deposited YBCO thin film, however, was scattered depending on the position and the highest value was 85K.
FABRICATION OF HIGH QUALITY YBa
THIN FILMS USING PULSED LASER DEPOSITION
Lee, Eun-Hong ; Park, Sang-Jin ; Song, I-Hun ; Song, In-Sang ; Gohng, Jun-Ho ; Sok, Jung-Hyun ; Lee, Jo-Won ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 29, issue 5, 1996, Pages 437~442
(YBCO) thin films for directly coupled dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) were fabricated by pulsed laser deposition. Several critical parameters have been optimized through systematic studies. Thus, the films showing the
of above 91K and
at 77K were routinely obtained. Extensive AFM and X-ray diffraction studies have been conducted for morphological and structural analyses. The directly coupled DC-SQUIDs were fabricated from the YBCO thin films deposited on
bicrystals under the optimized conditions. The measurement on
and swing voltage give 200
A and 17
V at 77K, respectively.
PLASMA-SULFNITRIDING USING HOLLOW CATHODE DISCHARGE
Urao, Ryoichi ; Hong, Sung-pill ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 29, issue 5, 1996, Pages 443~448
In order to plasma-sulfnitride by combining ion-nitriding of a steel and sputtering of MoS
, chromium-molybdenum steel was plasma-sulfritrided using hollow cathode discharge with parallel electrodes which are a main of the steel and a subsidiary cathode of
. The treatment was carried out at 823K for 10.8ks under 665Pa in a 30%
gas atmosphere. Plasma-sulfnitriding layers formed of the steel were characterized with EDX, XRD, micrographic structure observation and hardness measurement. A compound layer of 8-15
and nitrogen diffusion layer of about 400
were formed on the surface of plasma-sulfnitrided steel. The compound layer consisted of FeS containing Mo and iron nitrides. The nitrides of
formed under the FeS. The thickness of compound layer and surface hardness were different with the gaps between main and subsidiary cathodes even in the same sulfnitriding temperature. The surface hardnesses after plasma-sulfnitriding were distributed from 640 to 830Hv. The surface hardness was higher in the plasma-sulfnitriding than the usual sulfnitriding in molten salt. This may be due to Mo in sulfnitriding layer.
INFLUENCE OF ANTHRECENE DOPING ON ELECTRICAL AND LIGHT-EMITTING BEHAYIOR OF 8-HYDROXYQUINOLINE-ALUMINUM BESED ELECTROLUMINESCENT DEVICES
Kinoshita, Osamu ; Yamaguchi, Ryuichi ; Masui, Masayoshi ; Takeuchi, Manabu ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 29, issue 5, 1996, Pages 449~453
In order to improve EL performance, anthracene was doped into the 8-hydroxyquinoline-aluminum (Alq
) light-emitting layer of organic double layered EL cells. The EL cells were fabricated on ITO glass substrates by vacuum deposition. Doping of anthracene to the light-emitting
layer was performed by means of co-evaporation. The doping concentration was changed in the range of 5 to 30 wt.%. It was confirmed that anthracene doping of appropriate concentration increased the available current density and brightness of the EL cells. Carrier mobility of the
layer was measured by time of flight method. The influence of anthracene doping on the cell performance was discussed.
THERMAL PROPERTIES OF SIC/C FUNCTIONALLY GRADIENT MATERIALS BY CVD
Kim, Yoo-Taek ; Auh, Keun-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 29, issue 5, 1996, Pages 454~458
The computer simulated CVD phase diagrams were completed by the stoichiometric algorithm. Three kinds of SiC/C FGMs: stepwise, semi-continuous, and continuous specimens were prepared according to the simulation. These three types of FGMs and SiC non-FGMs were compared through various thermal test and measurement. In overall judgment, the semi-continuously deposited FGM specimens out of three kinds showed excellent thermal properties as well as a good adhesion to each sub-layer.
THIN FILM SENSORS FOR AUTOMOBILE
Taga, Yasunori ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 29, issue 5, 1996, Pages 459~466
A great amount of effort has been devoted to the constant improvement of such basic performance as dirvability, safety and enviromental protection. As a result, the total combination of various technologies has made it possible to produce safer and more comfortable automobiles. Among these technologies, plasma and thin film techniques are mainly cocerned with sensors, optics, electronics and surface modification. This paper first describes a concept of thin film processing in materials synthesis for sensors based on particle-surface interaction during deposition to provide a long life sensor applicable to sutomobiles. Some examples of parctical application of thin films to sensors are then given. These include(1) a thin films strain gauge for gravity sensors, (2) a giant magneto resistance film for speen sensors, and (3) a Magneto-impedance sensors fordetection of low magnetic field. Further progress of sophisticated thin film technology must be considered in detail to explore advanced thin film materials science and to ensure the field reliability of future sensor devices for automobile.
USE OF SINGLE PRECURORS FOR THE PREP ARATION OF SILICON CARBIDE FILMS
Lee, Kyunf-Won ; Yu, Kyu-Sang ; Kim, Yun-Soo ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 29, issue 5, 1996, Pages 467~473
Heteroepitaxial growth of cubic silicon carbide films on Si(001) and Si(111) substrates at temperatures 900-
has been achieved by high vacuum chemical vapor deposition using the single precursor 1, 3-disilabutane without carrying out the carbonization process of the substrate surfaces. The deposition temperature range is much lowered compared with conventiontional chemical vapor deposition where separate sources for silicon and carbon are employed. The deposition procedure is quite simple and safe. The qualities of the films were found to be very good judging from the results obtained by various characterization techniques including reflection high energy electron diffraction, X-ray diffraction, X-ray pole figure analysis, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, Auger depth profiling, and transmission electron diffraction.
SOLID STATE CESIUM ION BEAM SPUTTER DEPOSITION
Baik, Bong-Koo ; Choi, Dong-Jun ; Han, Dong-Won ; Kim, Yong-Hwan ; Kim, Seong-In ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 29, issue 5, 1996, Pages 474~477
The solid state cesium ion beam sputter deposition system has been developed for negative carbon ion beam deposition. The negative carbon ion beams are effectively produced by cesium ion bombardment. The C-ion beam current and deposition energy can be independently controlled for the deposition of a-D films. This system is very compact, reliable and high flux without any gas discharge or plasma and has been successfully used in the studies of the ion beam deposited amorphous diamond(a-D)
APPLICATION OF DISPROPORTIONATION REACTION TO SURFACE TREATMENT
Oki, Takeo ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 29, issue 5, 1996, Pages 478~481
Disproportionation reaction is very important and interesting reaction to be applied to such surface treatment as metal, alloy, compound coating, a surface etching and so on. In gaseous system, the reaction of Al chloride is applied to Al and Al alloy coating, and the similar reaction of Ti chloride is also used for Ti, Ti alloy and Ti compound coating. As for aqueous system, this reaction is utilized to such metal coat as Sn etc. and metal etching such as Cu, Fe and so on. Also in molten salts system, this reaction has many application for surface treatment like metal, alloy and compound coatings for corrosion, wear, heat resistance and so forth. For instance, carbide film, nitride film, boride film, alloy film, quite new different film from the components of substrate material are coated in single and multiple component film system by the disproportionation reaction.
APPLICATIONS OF SOI DEVICE TECHNOLOGY
Ryoo, Kunkul ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 29, issue 5, 1996, Pages 482~486
The progress of microelectronics technology has been requiring agressive developments of device technologies. Also the requirements of the next generation devices is heading to the limits of their functions and materials, and hence asking the very specific silicon wafer such as SOI(Silicon On Insulator) wafer. The talk covers the dome stic and world-wide status of SOI device developments and applications. The presentation will also touch some predictions such as SOI device prgress schedules, impacts on the normal wafer developments, market sizes, SOI wafer prices, and so on. Finally it will cover technical aspects which are silicon oxide conditions for bonding, point defects and, surface contaminations. These points will be hopefully overcome by involved people in microelectronics industry.
LOW TEMPERATURE DIAMOND GROWTH USING MICROWAVE PLASMA CVD
Sakamoto, Yukihiro ; Takaya, Matsufumi ; Shinohara, Kibatsu ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 29, issue 5, 1996, Pages 487~493
Diamond films were grown at lower temperatures (630-813K) on Si, Al (1100P), and Al-Si(8A, 8B, BC) alloy substrates using improved microwave plasma CVD apparatus in a mixed methane and hydrogen plasma. Improved microwave plasma CVD apparatus equipped water cooled substrate holder and the substrates were set up lower position than bottom line of the applicator waveguide. When the methane concentration was high and growth was conducted at lower pressures the diamond films were synthesized. Moreover the deposits on the scratched substrates formed flat surfaces consisting of fine grains. XRD results, the deposits were identified to cubic diamond. An analysis using Raman spectroscopy, further confirmed that diamond films deposited on the Si substrates were high quality. The deposits on the Al substrates, in contrast, contained amorphous carbon. While the quality of the deposits on the Al-Si substrates were differed with the substrate alloys.
EFFECTS OF NITROGEN AND CARBON ION IMPLANTATION INTO AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL ON HYDROGEN ABSORPTION
Terashima, K. ; Minegishi, T. ; Matsusaka, K. ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 29, issue 5, 1996, Pages 494~497
The effect of implanted nitrogen and carbon ion into SUS 304 on the absorption of hydrogen by cathodic chaging were studied. Implantations of
were performed with doses of
, at an energy of 90 keV. Nitrides and carbide were investigatedby X-ray diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Formation of hydrides during cathodic charging were depressed by a modified surface layer. It is concluded that the both nitrides and carbides act as the barrier of hydrogen migration and the catalyst of desorption of cathodically charged hydrogen.
SPUTTER-DEPOSITION OF CARBON NITRIDE FILMS WITH HIGH NITROGEN CONCENTRATION
Taki, Yusuke ; Takai, Osamu ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 29, issue 5, 1996, Pages 498~504
The synthesis of carbon nitride thin films with high nitrgen concentration was accomplished by reactive supttering at relatively high working pressure. In conventional reactive sputter-deposition of carbon nitride films, working pressure was 0.3-5Pa and the ratio of nitrogen to carbon(N/C ratio) in the films was less than 0.5. In this study, amorphous carbon nitride films with the N/C ratio
1.0 were prepared on Si(100). substrates at higher pressure, 20-60 Pa. Structural analyses with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the films prepared consisted of triazine-like plain network.
FIELD EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF DIAMOND FILMS
Park, Kyung-Ho ; Lee, Soon-Il ; Koh, Ken-Ha ; Park, Jung-Il ; Park, Kwang-Ja ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 29, issue 5, 1996, Pages 505~511
The field emission characteristics of diamond films deposited by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) method were investigated. Diamond films were deposited on n-type Si(100) wafer using various mixtures of hydrogen and methane gas, and the I-V characteristics are measured. We observed that the field emission characteristics depend on the
concentration and the diamond film thickness. All the films show remarkable emission characteristics; low turn-on voltage, high emission current density at lower voltage, uniform stable current density, and good stability and reproducibility. The threshold field for producing a current density of 1mA/
is found as low as 7.6V/
STRUCTURE AND MACHANICAL PROPERTIES OF a-C:N MULTILAYER FILMS PREPARED BY ARC ION PLATING
Kitagawa, Toshihisa ; Taki, Yusuke ; Takai, Osamu ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 29, issue 5, 1996, Pages 512~518
Amorphous carbon nitride (a-C:N) multilayerfilms are formed by using altermating conditions during film deposition in are ion plating process. Because hard a-C:N films prepared with suitable megative bias voltages have large compressive stress, it is difficult to increase film thickness more than 200nm. Preparing multilayer films composed of hard layers and soft layers, we can grow thick multilayer films on Si and SKH steel substrate. The total thickness of multilayer films is more than 1
. The multilayer films are several times thicker than the single layer films and almost equal in hardness and internal stress to the single layer ones. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS) and Raman spectroscopy reveal that multilayer films equal to single layer films in structure, which is similar to the structure of DLC films.
XPS STUDY ON SN-DOPED DLC FILMS PREPARED BY RF PLASMA-ENHANCED CVD
Inoue, Y. ; Komoguchi, T. ; Nakata, H. ; Takai, O. ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 29, issue 5, 1996, Pages 519~524
We synthesized semiconducting Sn-doped diamondlike carbon films by rf plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition using an organotin compound as a dopung gas source. XPS quan-titative analysis for the deposited films after 60 s argon ion etching revealed that Sn concen-tration increased with the partial pressure of the organotin compound in the reactant gas. In C 1s spectra, there was a component due to C-Su bond which had a negative chemical shift. C 1s spectra also indicated that the deposited films were relatively
rich. The chemical shift of the Sn-C bond in Sn
spectra was about +1.7 eV. The electrical resistivity and the optical transmittance were also investigated.
CRYSTALLINE PHASES AND HARDNESS OF (Ti
)N COATINGS DEPOSITED BY REACTIVE SPUTTERING
Park, Chong-Kwan ; Park, Joo-Dong ; Oh, Tae-Sung ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 29, issue 5, 1996, Pages 525~531
(Ti1-xAlx)N films were deposited on high speed steel and silicon substrates by reactive sputtering in mixed
discharges. Crystalline phases and microhardness of (
)N films were investigated with variation of the film composition and substrate RF bias voltage. With Al content x of about 0.6, crystalline phase of (
N films was changed from single-phase NaCl structure to two phase mixture of NaCl and wurtzite structures: Microhardness of (
)N films was largely improved by applying RF bias voltage above 50 V during deposition. Hardness of (
)N films reached a maximum value for Al content x of about 0.4, and 1900 kg/
was obtained for 1
SPECTRO-ELLIPSOMETRIC STUDIES OF STRUCTURE AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF PLSMA-GROWN DLC FILMS
Rhee, Sung-Gyu ; Lee, Soon-Il ; Oh, Soo-Ghee ; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 29, issue 5, 1996, Pages 532~539
Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited on silicon substrates by the plasma decomposition of hydrocarbons under various conditions, and studied by the spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). We used the effective medium approximation with the dispersion model developed by Forouhi and Bloomer to determine simultaneously both the structure and the optical constants of the DLC films from their ellipsometric spectra. Especially, we investigated the variation of the multilayer structure including the interface layer, of the refractive indices, and of the extinction coefficients as the deposition conditions were varied; substrate pretreatment procedure, hydrocarbon precursors, and the substrate bias voltage were varied.
ADHESION STRENGTH OF DIAMOND COATED WC-Co TOOLS USING MICROWAVE PLASMA CVD
Kiyama, Nobumichi ; Sakamoto, Yukihiro ; Takaya, Matsufumi ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 29, issue 5, 1996, Pages 540~544
To apply the CVD diamond film to coated tools, it is necessary to make adhesion strength between diamond film and substrate stronger. So adhesion strength of diamond coated WC-Co tools using Microwave Plasma CVD and cutting test of Al-18mass%Si alloy using diamond cutting tools were studied. Diamond coating was carried out using Microwave Plasma CVD apparatus. Reaction gas was used mixture of methane and hydrogen. Substrate temperature were varied from 673K to 1173K by control of microwave output power and reaction pressure. By observation of SEM, grain size became larger and larger as substrate temperature became higher and higher. Also all deposits were covered with clear diamond crystals. XRD results, the deposits were identified to cubic diamond. An analysis using Raman spectroscopy, the deposit synthesized at lower substrate temperature (673K) showed higher quality than deposit synthesized at higher substrate temperature (1173K). As a result of scratch adhesion strength test, from 873K to 1173K adhesion strength decreased by rising of substrate temperature. The deposit synthesized at 873K showed best adhesion strength. In the cutting test of Al-18mass%Si alloy using diamond coated tools and the surface machinability of Al-Si works turned with diamond coating tools which synthesized at 873K presented uniform roughness. Cutting performance of Al-18mass%Si alloys using diamond coated WC-Co tools related to the adhesion strength.
A STUDY ON WEAR AND CORROSION RESISTANCE OF CrN
FILMS BY CATHODIC ARC ION PLATING PROCESS
Han, Jeon-G. ; Kim, Hyung-J. ; Kim, Sang-S. ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 29, issue 5, 1996, Pages 545~548
films were deposited on SKD61 and S45C by cathodic arc ion plating process. In this study, the microstructure, microhardness, a hesion, wear and corrosion properties of the CrNx films were studied for various nitrogen partial pressures and the results were compared with those from the electroplated hard Cr. The crystal structure of the films was characterized by X-ray diffraction. Wear tests were performed under no lubricant condition at atmosphere by ball-on-disc type tribotester. Corrosion resistance of the films were studied by electrochemical corrosion test, measuring current demsity-potential curves. The results indicated that the
films formed using ion plation method showed higer hardness and lower current density, friction coefficient than electroplated hard Cr. Consequently, the application of the CrNx coationgs by ion plating which is free of environmental pollution, is expected to improve lifetime of components in industrial practice.
NITROGEN DOPED DIAMOND LIKE CARBON FILM SYNTHESIZED BY MICROWAVE PLASMA CVD
Urao, Ryoichi ; Hayatsu, Osamu ; Satoh, Toshihiro ; Yokota, Hitoshi ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 29, issue 5, 1996, Pages 549~555
Diamond Like Carbon film is amorphous film which is considered to consist of three coordinate graphite structure and tetrahedron coordinate diamond structure. Its hardness, thermal conductivity and chemical stability are nearly to one of diamond. It is well known to become semi-conductor by doping of inpurity. In this study Diamond Like Carbon film was synthesized by Microwave Plasma CVD in the gas mixture of hydrogen-methan-nitrogen and doped of nitrogen on the single-crystal silicon or silica glass. The temperature of substrate and nitrogen concentration in the gas mixture had an effect on the bonding state, structural properties and conduction mechanism. The surface morphology was observed by Scanning Electron Microscope. The strucure was analyzed by laser Raman spectrometry. The bonding state was evaluated by electron spectroscopy. Diamond Like Carbon film synthesized was amorphous carbon containing the
carbon cluster. The number of
bonding increased as nitrogen concentration increased from 0 to 40 vol% in the feed gas at 1233K substrate temperature and at
Pa. Increase of nitrogen concentration made Diamond Like Carbon to be amorphous and the doze of nitragen could be controlled by nitrogen concentration of feed gas.
OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF AMORPHOUS CN FILMS
Park, Sung-Jin ; Lee, Soon-Il ; Oh, Soo-Ghee ; Bae, J.H. ; Kim, W.M. ; Cheong, B. ; Kim, S.G. ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 29, issue 5, 1996, Pages 556~562
Carbon nitride (CN) films were synthesized on silicon substrates by a combined ion-beam and laser-ablation method under various conditions; ion-beam energy and ion-beam current were varied. Raman spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) were employed to characterize respectively the structural and the optical properties of the CN films. Raman spectra show that all the CN films are amorphous independent of the ion-beam current and the ion-beam energy. Refractive indices, extinction coefficients and optical band gaps which were determined from the measured SE spectra exhibit a significant dependence on the synthesis conditions. Especially, the decrease of the refractive indices and the shrinkage of the optical band gap is noticeable as the ion-beam current and/or the ion-beam energy increase.
DEGRADATION OF Zn
FILMS PREPARED BY REACTIVE RF MAGNETRON SPUTTERING
Futsuhara, Masanobu ; Yoshioka, Katsuaki ; Takai, Osamu ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 29, issue 5, 1996, Pages 563~569
films is studied by using several analytical techniques. Polycrystalline
films prepared by reactie rf magnetron sputtering are kept in the air. Electrical and optical properties are measured by using van der Pauw technique and double-beam spectrometry. Structure and chemical bonding states are studied by X-ray diffraction(XRD), Fourier transfer infrared ray spectroscopy(FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron specroscopy (XPS). Significant differences are observed in optical properties between the degraded film and the ZnO film. XRD analysis reveals that the degraded film contains very small ZnO grains because very weak and broad ZnO peaks are observed. XPS and FT-IR measurements reveal the formation of
in the degraded film. The existence of N-H bonds in degraded films is exhibited from the N 1s spectra.
change into the mixture of ZnO,
and an ammonium salt.
PROPERTIES OF PIB-CU FILMS ACCELERATION VOLTAGE AND IONIZATION POTENTIAL
Kim, K.H. ; Jang, H.G. ; Han, S. ; Choi, S.C. ; Choi, D.J. ; Jung, H.J. ; Koh, S.K. ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 29, issue 5, 1996, Pages 570~576
Cu films for future ULSI metallization were prepared by partially ionized beam (PIB) deposition and characterized in terms of preferred orientation, grain size, roughness and resistivity. PIB-Cu films were prepared on Si (100) at pressure of
Torr. Effects of acceleration voltage and ionization potential on the properties of PIB-Cu films have been investigated. As the acceleration voltage increased at constant ionization potential of 400 V, the degree of preferred orientation and surface smoothness of the Cu film increased. At the ionization potential of 450 V, the degree of preferred orientation at the acceleration voltage higher than 2 kV decreased and surface roughness increased with acceleration voltage. Grain size of Cu films increased to 1100
initially up to applied acceleration voltage of 1 kV, above which a little increase occurred with the acceleration voltage. There was no indication of impurities such as C, O in all sample. Resistivity of Cu film had the same trends as the surface roughness with acceleration voltage and ionization potential. The increase of electrical resistivity of PIB-Cu films was explained in terms of grain size and surface roughness
EFFECTS OF SUBSTRATE TEMPERATURE ON PROPERTIES OF FLUORINE CONTAINED SILICON OXIDE FILMS PREPARED BY MICROWAVE PLASMA- ENHANCED CVD
Sugimoto, Nobuhisa ; Hozumi, Atsushi ; Takai, Osamu ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 29, issue 5, 1996, Pages 577~584
Silicon oxide films with high hardness and water repellency were prepared by microwave plasma-enhanced CVD using four kind of organosilicon compound-fluoro-alkyl silane mixtures as source gases. An argon gas was used as a carrier gas for fluoro-alkyl silane. The substrate temperatures during deposition were controlled by resistant heating at a constant value between 50 and
. The hardness of the films increased, but the deposition rate and the contact angle for a water drop decreased with increasing substrate temperature. The number of methoxy groups also affected the water repellency and hardness. The deposited films became more inorganic with increasing substrate temperature because of the thermal dissociation of reactants.
EFFECTS OF GAS PRESSURES ON GRANULAR STRUCTURE'S FOR MATION OF ALUMINUM FILMS PREPARED BY PVD PROCESS
Lee, Myeong-hoon ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 29, issue 5, 1996, Pages 585~592
In order to investigate the influence of gas pressure in PVD deposition conditions, aluminum films were prepared by vacuum evaporation and ion plating. The crystal orientation and morphology of the films affected by argon gas pressures were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron micrography (SEM) respectively. With the increasing of argon gas pressure, the preferred orientation of aluminum films exhibited (200) and the diffraction peaks of the films became less sharp and broadened. Film's morphology changed from columnar structure to granular structure with the increase of gas pressure. And the properties of these films on corrosion behaviors were estimated by measuring anodic polarization curves in deaerated 3% NaCl solution. The aluminum films which exhibited granular structure with (200) preferred orientation showed good corrosion resistance.
DECOMPOSITION OF HIGHER ORGANIC COMPOUND IN AN ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE NON-EQUILIBRIUM PLASMA
Kitokawa, Kazutoshi ; Itou, Akihito ; Sugiyama, Kazuo ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 29, issue 5, 1996, Pages 593~598
Previously, in trying to prepare perovskite type oxide powders by microwave heating, we found out a non-equilibrium argon plasma is generated around the powders and discharge continues stable at atmospheric pressure. In this study, we tried the plasma decomposition of heat-stable higher organic compound such as palmitic acid which is the principal constituent of the fimger fats. It was proved that suitable amount of coexistence of oxygen radicals into the argon flow accelerates the decomposition of palmitic acid. The argon-oxygen mixed gas plasma was able to perform a complete elimination of higher organic compound.