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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Institute of Surface Engineering
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 36, Issue 6 - Dec 2003
Volume 36, Issue 5 - Oct 2003
Volume 36, Issue 4 - Aug 2003
Volume 36, Issue 3 - Jun 2003
Volume 36, Issue 2 - Apr 2003
Volume 36, Issue 1 - Feb 2003
Selecting the target year
Microstructure and Residual Stress of Metallic Thin Films According to Deposition Parameters
Park, Byung-Jun ; Kim, Young-Man ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 36, issue 1, 2003, Pages 1~8
In general, the microstructure in thin films was known to evolve in similar manner according to the energy striking the condensing film at similar homologous temperature, Th for the materials of the same crystal structure. The fundamental factors affecting particle energy are a function of processing parameters such as working pressure, bias voltage, target/sputtering gas mass ratio, cathode shape, and substrate orientation. In this study, Al, Cu, Pt films of the same crystal structure of face centered cubic (FCC) have been prepared under various processing parameters. The influence of processing variables on the microstructures and residual stress states in the films has been studied.
Polymerized Organic Thin Films and Comparison on their Physical and Electrochemical Properties
Cho, S.H. ; You, Y.J. ; Kim, J.G. ; Boo, J.H. ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 36, issue 1, 2003, Pages 9~13
Plasma polymerized organic thin films were deposited on Si(100), glass and metal substrates at
using thiophene and toluene precursors by PECVD method. In order to compare physical and electrochemical properties of the as-grown thin films, the effects of the RF plasma power in the range of 30∼100 W and deposition temperature on both corrosion protection efficiency and physical properties were studied. We found that the corrosion protection efficiency (
), which is one of the important factors for corrosion protection in the interlayer dielectrics of microelectronic devices application, was increased with increasing RF power. The highest
value of plasma polymerized toluene film (85.27% at 70 W) was higher than that of the plasma polymerized thiophene film (65.17% at 100 W), indicating inhibition of oxygen reduction. The densely packed and tightly interconnected toluene film could act as an efficient barrier layer to the diffusion of molecular oxygen. The result of contact angle measurement showed that the plasma polymerized toluene films have more hydrophobic surface than those of the plasma polymerized thiophene films.
Deposition of ZrO
Thin Films Using RF Magnet ron Sputtering Method and Study on Their Structural Characteristics
Shin, Y.S. ; Jeong, S.H. ; Heo, C.H. ; Bae, I.S. ; Kwak, H.T. ; Lee, S.B. ; Boo, J.H. ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 36, issue 1, 2003, Pages 14~21
Thin films of ZrO
were deposited on Si(100) substrates using RF magnetron sputtering technique. To study an influence of the sputtering parameters, systematic experiments were carried out in this work. XRD data show that the
films were mainly grown in the  orientation at the annealing temperature between 800 and
while the crystal growth direction was changed to be  at above
. FT-IR spectra show that the oxygen stretching peaks become strong due to
layer formation between film layers and silicon surface after annealing, and proved that a diffusion caused by either oxygen atoms of
layers or air into the interface during annealing. Different crystal growth directions were observed with the various deposition parameters such as annealing temperature, RF power magnitude, and added
amounts. The growth rate of
thin films was increased with RF power magnitude up to 150 watt, and was then decreased due to a sputtering effect. The maximum growth rate observed at 150 watt was 1500 nm/hr. Highly oriented, crack-free, stoichiometric polycrystalline
<110> thin film with Rutile phase was obtained after annealing at
for 1 hour.
Superhard Mo-Al-N films Composed of Grains with Different Crystallographic Orientations and/or Lattice Structures
Musil, J. ; Stadnik, T. ; Cernansky, M. ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 36, issue 1, 2003, Pages 22~26
This short communication reports on the experiment which demonstrates that superhard nanostructured films with hardness of about 40 GPa and greater can be composed not only of two or more nanocrystalline and/or amorphous phases of different materials, as it is in the case of nanocomposite coatings, but also that can be formed by a mixture of small (<10 nm) nanocrystalline grains of the same material with different crystallographic orientation and/or lattice structures. This finding opens new possibilities to develop advanced nanostructured materials with enhanced physical and functional properties.
Pulsed Magnetron Sputtering Deposit ion of DLC Films Part I : Low-Voltage Bias-Assisted Deposition
Oskomov, Konstantin V. ; Chun, Hui-Gon ; You, Yong-Zoo ; Lee, Jing-Hyuk ; Kim, Kwang-Bok ; Cho, Tong-Yul ; Sochogov, Nikolay S. ; Zakharov, Alexender N. ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 36, issue 1, 2003, Pages 27~33
Pulsed magnetron sputtering of graphite target was employed for deposition of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. Time-resolved probe measurements of magnetron discharge plasma have been performed. It was shown that the pulsed magnetron discharge plasma density (
) is close to that of vacuum arc cathode sputtering of graphite. Raman spectroscopy was sed to examine DLC films produced at low (
/ < 1 kV) pulsed bias voltages applied to the substrate. It has been shown that maximum content of diamond-like carbon in the coating (50-60%) is achieved at energy per deposited carbon atom of
=100 eV. In spite of rather high percentage of
-bonded carbon atoms and good scratch-resistance, the films showed poor adhesion because of absence of ion mixing between the film and the substrates. Electric breakdowns occurring during the deposition of the insulating DLC film also thought to decrease its adhesion.
Effect of Additives and Plating Conditions on Sn-Pb Alloy Film of Semiconductor Formed by High Speed Electroplating
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 36, issue 1, 2003, Pages 34~41
Effects of additives and plating conditions of high speed electroplating were investigated. The Sn content in electrodeposit was highly decreased with increasing current density from
, and the current efficiency on the cathode was decreased. The carbon content in the electrodeposit was decreased with increasing current density from
, however the carbon content was highly increased in the range of
. The formation of tetravalent tin and stannic oxide sludge was prevented by the addition of gallic acid in the bath. The changing of Sn content in the electrodeposit is caused by the addition of gallic acid.
Effect of Bismuth Addition on the Zinc Consumption in Hot-Dip Galvanizing
Kim, S.K. ; Yoo, J.S. ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 36, issue 1, 2003, Pages 42~47
Hot-dip galvanizing process is used widely in industry to achieve corrosion resistant coatings. Poor drainage during this process often leads to problems such as icicle formation and bridging In this work, mild steel specimens were hot-dip galvanized. Influence of the addition of bismuth, aluminum and both (bismuth and aluminum) to the zinc bath on the zinc drainage were determined. Bismuth additions improved the drainage significantly. Zinc bath containing 0.1 wt.% Bi and 0.025∼0.05 wt.% Al showed uniformity of coatings. Industrial trials with this bath composition showed reduction in zinc consumption, reduction of ash and dross, and good luster of workpiece.
Plasma Aided Process As Alternative to Hard Chromium Electroplating
Kwon, Sik-Chol ; Lee, K.H. ; Kim, J.K. ; Kim, M. ; Lee, G.H. ; Nam, K.S. ; Kim, D. ; Chang, D.Y. ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 36, issue 1, 2003, Pages 48~58
This paper will present an overview of toxicity of hexavalent chromium as well as effort for its replacement by a wide spectrum of alternative materials and technologies. Cr-based materials such as trivalent electrodeposit will be one of strong candidates for hard chromium by surface modification of its surface hardness. Ni-base alloy deposits has proved its application in specific mold for glass. HVOF has been studied in aircraft and military sector. There are still under way of development for commercially available alternatives. To date, no single coating has been identified as universal process as comparable to conventional hard chromium electroplating.
A Study on Low Temperature Phosphating for Cold Forming
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 36, issue 1, 2003, Pages 59~68
Zinc phosphating for cold forming of steel was studied with emphasis on decreasing phosphating temperature. To lower phosphating temperature, some techniques, such as adding Cu ion into bath, using activator in the form of pre-dip, and aeration in bath, instead of using conventional accelerator, namely oxidizing agent, have been tried. It was revealed that phosphating, leading to coatings of improved uniformity and fine crystal size, can be carried out using above techniques at lower temperature (55
) compared to conventional phosphating temperature (
). Under present condition, it was seen that optimum concentrations of Cu ion in phosphating bath and activator in pre-dip are 0.015 % (w/w) and 2.0 g/1, respectively. The coating weight was within the range of
. When lubricant was applied into phosphating coatings, the amount of lubricating component (total soap) was found to be
and the lubricated panel revealed excellent lubricating properties.
Flow Characteristics of An Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Torch
Moon, Jang-H. ; Kim, Youn-J. ; Han, Jeon-G. ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 36, issue 1, 2003, Pages 69~73
The atmospheric pressure plasma is regarded as an effective method for surface treatments because it can reduce the period of process and doesn't need expensive vacuum apparatus. The performance of non-transferred plasma torches is significantly depended on jet flow characteristics out of the nozzle. In order to produce the high performance of a torch, the maximum discharge velocity near an annular gap in the torch should be maintained. Also, the compulsory swirl is being produced to gain the shape that can concentrate the plasma at the center of gas flow. In this work, the distribution of gas flow that goes out to atmosphere through a plenum chamber and nozzle is analyzed to evaluate the performance of atmospheric pressure plasma torch which can present the optimum design of the torch. Numerical analysis is carried out with various angles of an inlet flow velocity. Especially, three-dimensional model of the torch is investigated to estimate swirl effect. We also investigate the stabilization of plasma distribution. For analyzing the swirl in the plenum chamber and the flow distribution, FVM (finite volume method) and SIMPLE algorithm are used for solving the governing equations. The standard k-model is used for simulating the turbulence.
Corrosion Protection of Plasma-Polymerized Cyclohexane Films Deposited on Copper
Park, Z.T. ; Lee, J.H. ; Choi, Y.S. ; Ahn, S.H. ; Kim, J.G. ; Cho, S.H. ; Boo, J.H. ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 36, issue 1, 2003, Pages 74~78
The corrosion failure of electronic devices has been a major reliability concern lately. This failure is an ongoing concern because of miniaturization of integrated circuits (IC) and the increased use of polymers in electronic packaging. Recently, plasma-polymerized cyclohexane films were considered as a possible candidate for a interlayer dielectric for multilever metallization of ultra large scale integrated (ULSI) semiconductor devices. In this paper the protective ability of above films as a function of deposition temperature and RF power in an 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution were examined by polarization measurement. The film was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and contact angle measurement. The protective efficiency of the film increased with increasing deposition temperature and RF power, which induced the higher degree of cross-linking and hydrophobicity of the films.
A Study on Corrosion Characteristics of Multilayered WC-
N Coatings Deposited on AISI D2 Steel
Ahn, S.H. ; Yoo, J.H. ; Kim, J.G. ; Lee, H.Y. ; Han, J.G. ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 36, issue 1, 2003, Pages 79~84
N multilayered coatings are performed by their periodically repeated structures of lamellae of WC-Ti/
N coatings with variable Al content were deposited onto AISI D2 steel by cathodic arc deposition (CAD) method. The electrochemical behavior of multilayered
N coatings with different phases (WC- Ti
N) was investigated in deaerated 3.5% NaCl solution at room temperature. The corrosion behaviors for the multilayered coatings were investigated by electrochemical techniques (potentiodynamic polarization) and surface analyses (X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES)). In the petentiodynamic polarization test, the corrosion current density of
N was lower than others.
The Oxidation of Polymethylsiloxane/MoSi
/SiC/Si-Derived Ceramic Composite Coatings
Moon, Jae-Jin ; Lee, Dong-Bok ; Kim, Deug-Joong ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 36, issue 1, 2003, Pages 85~88
By utilization of preceramic polymer of polymethylsiloxane (PMS), a
SiOC/SiC ceramic composite was fabricated. The prepared composite displayed superior high temperature oxidation resistance by forming
on the surface. The thin
layer had some surface cracks, but they had not adversely deteriorated the oxidation resistance. The composite fabrication method employed in this study can be applied to protect any possible substrate material from aggressive oxidative attack, if the composite were coated on the substrate material.
Corrosion Characteristics of Ti, Ti/Cr Coated and Plasma-Nitrided Surface for Stainless Steel Containing Ti
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 36, issue 1, 2003, Pages 89~98
Corrosion characteristics of Ti, Ti/Cr coated and plasma-nitrided surface for stainless steel containing Ti have been studied. Stainless steels containing 0.09-0.92wt% Ti were fabricated by using vacuum furnace and solutionized for 1hr at
. Ti and Cr coatings were done on solutionized stainless steel surface by EB-PVD. The Ti coated specimen were coated by Cr and were nitrided by plasma at
for 5hr Microstructure and phase analysis were performed using SEM, OM and EDX. Corrosion behavior of the coated specimen was investigated by electrochemical test. The coated surface was of fine columnar structure. The Ti/Cr coated surface was denser than the Ti coated and the Ti coated-nitrided surfaces. The corrosion and pitting potential increased in proportion to the Ti content, coating temperature, coating thickness and formation of stable oxide film. The current density in active and passive region decreased in the case of Ti/Cr coated sample and Ti coated-nitrided samples. Especially the plasma nitrided specimen after Ti coating have a good corrosion resistance compared with the Ti coated specimen. The number and size of pits decreased as Ti content of matrix increased.
The Measurement of Diffusion Coefficient of Fission Gases in Urania with Respect to O/M Ratio
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 36, issue 1, 2003, Pages 99~107
The diffusion coefficient of Xe-133 was obtained from an annealing test. The specimens were made from a UO
single crystal powder with natural enrichment. Weight and grain size were 300mg and (
, respectively. Oxygen potentials were obtained from an oxygen sensor. Released fractions were obtained from both results of gamma scans and quantitative analysis with MCNP code, The annealing test was performed at three temperatures at once. Diffusion coefficients of Xe-133 were calculated using slope of Booth theory in each O/M ratios. Activation energy and the pre-exponential factor of the diffusion coefficient were obtained. The activation energy of near stoichiomeric
is 310 kJ/mol. The measured values of near stoichiometric
are very close to other data available. Diffusion coefficients increase with hyper-stoichiometry, due to higher concentration of cation vacancies.