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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Institute of Surface Engineering
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 36, Issue 6 - Dec 2003
Volume 36, Issue 5 - Oct 2003
Volume 36, Issue 4 - Aug 2003
Volume 36, Issue 3 - Jun 2003
Volume 36, Issue 2 - Apr 2003
Volume 36, Issue 1 - Feb 2003
Selecting the target year
Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of Nanocomposite Ti-Al-Si-N Films Prepared by a Hybrid Deposition System
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 36, issue 2, 2003, Pages 109~115
Quaternary Ti-Al-Si-N films were deposited on WC-Co substrates by a hybrid deposition system of arc ion plating (AIP) method for Ti-Al source and DC magnetron sputtering technique for Si incorporation. The synthesized Ti-Al-Si-N films were revealed to be composites of solid-solution (Ti, Al, Si)N crystallites and amorphous Si3N4 by instrumental analyses. The Si addition in Ti-Al-N films affected the refinement and uniform distribution of crystallites by percolation phenomenon of amorphous silicon nitride, similarly to Si effect in TiN film. As the Si content increased up to about 9 at.%, the hardness of Ti-Al-N film steeply increased from 30 GPa to about 50 GPa. The highest microhardness value (~50 GPa) was obtained from the Ti-Al-Si-N film haying the Si content of 9 at.%, the microstructure of which was characterized by a nanocomposite of nc-(Ti,Al,Si) N/a
Tribological Behaviors Against Counterpart Materials of Ti-Si-N Coating Layers Prepared by a Hybrid Coating System
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 36, issue 2, 2003, Pages 116~121
Ti-Si-N coating layers were deposited onto WC-Co substrates by a hybrid system of arc ion plating (AIP) and sputtering techniques. The tribological behaviors of Ti-Si-N coating layers with various Si contents were investigated by the dry sliding wear experiments, which were conducted at three different sliding speeds, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 m/s, against the steel and alumina balls. In the case of steel ball, the average friction coefficient slightly decreased with increasing the sliding speed regardless of Si content due to adhesive wear behavior between coating layer and steel ball. At constant sliding speed, the average friction coefficient decreased with increase of Si content. On the contrary, in the case of alumina ball, the average friction coefficient increased with increasing the sliding speed regardless of Si content, indicating that the abrasive wear behavior was more dominant when the coating layers slide against alumina ball. Through these experimental results, it was found that the tribological behaviors of Ti-Si-N coating layers were effected by factors such as Si content, sliding speed, and kinds of counterpart materials rather than the hardness of coating layer
Characterization of Nanocomposite Ti-Si-N Films Prepared by a Hybrid Deposition System of A If and Sputtering Techniques
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 36, issue 2, 2003, Pages 122~127
Ti - Si - N hard films were deposited on SKD11 steel substrates by a hybrid deposition system, where TiN was deposited by AIP method while Si was incorporated by sputtering one. The microstructure of Ti-Si-N films was revealed to be a composite of TiN crystallites and amorphous Si3N4 by instrumental analyses. The highest hardness value of about 45 Gpa was obtained at the Si content of around 7.7 at.%. With increase of Si content, the size of TiN crystallites was reduced and their distribution was changed from aligned to randomly orientated states. Surface roughness of Ti-Si-N film also decreased with increase of Si content.
High Temperature Oxidation of Ti-43%Al-2%W-0.1%Si Alloys
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 36, issue 2, 2003, Pages 128~134
Alloys of Ti-43%Al-2%W-0.1%Si were oxidized isothermally and cyclically between
, and their oxidation characteristics were studied. During isothermal tests, the alloys oxidized slowly up to 100
, but fast at
. Though the scale adherence was not good above
, the alloys displayed better oxidation behavior than unalloyed TiAl alloys. The oxide scales consisted primarily of an outer
-rich layer, and an inner mixed layer of (TiO
). Tungsten was present mainly at the lower part of the oxide scale, while Si over the whole oxide scale.
A TEM Study on Growth Characteristics of GaN on Si(111) Substrate using MOCVD
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 36, issue 2, 2003, Pages 135~140
The difference in lattice parameter and thermal expansion coefficient between GaN and Si which results in many defects into the grown GaN is larger than that between GaN and sapphire. In order to obtain high quality GaN films on Si substrate, it is essential to understand growth characteristics of GaN. In this study, GaN layers were grown on Si(111) substrates by MOCVD at three different GaN growth temperatures (
), using AlN and LT-GaN buffer layers. Using TEM, we carried out the comparative investigation of growth characteristics of GaN by characterizing lattice coherency, crystallinity, orientation relationship and defects formed (transition region, stacking fault, dislocation, etc). The localized region with high defect density was formed due to the lattice mismatch between AlN buffer layer and GaN. As the growth temperature of GaN increases, the defect density and surface roughness of GaN are decreased. In the case of GaN grown at
, growth thickness is decreased, and columns with out-plane misorientation are formed.
A Study on the Low Temperature Growth of SiC Film with a 1,3-DSB Precursor
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 36, issue 2, 2003, Pages 141~147
Silicon carbide thin film was deposited in APCVD and LPCVD system with 1,3-DSB precursor 1,3-DSB is the single precursor to deposit SiC on Si at low temperature. SiC film was deposited at
lower than ordinary temperature (
) in CVD process. SiC thin film glowed to high oriented (111) plane in APCVD system. In LPCVD system, SiC film groved to preferred (220) plane at same temperature. This discrepancy between preferred planes can be described by the difference of deposition mechanism. Amorphous phase and crystal defect were observed in APCVD system with the main growth mechanism of mass transport limited region. But in LPCVD system, we got the SIC film of uniform, faceted structure and high quality.
Pulsed Magnet ron Sputtering Deposit ion of DLC Films Part II : High-voltage Bias-assisted Deposition
Chun, Hui-Gon ; Lee, Jing-Hyuk ; You, Yong-Zoo ; Ko, Yong-Duek ; Cho, Tong-Yul ; Nikolay S. Sochugov ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 36, issue 2, 2003, Pages 148~154
) and high-voltage (
=2~8 kV) negative substrate bias pulses were used to assist pulsed magnetron sputtering DLC films deposition. Space- and time-resolved probe measurements of the plasma characteristics have been performed. It was shown that in case of high-voltage substrate bias spatial non-uniformity of the magnetron discharge plasma density greatly affected DLC deposition process. By Raman spectroscopy it was found that maximum percentage of s
-bonded carbon atoms (40 ~ 50%) in the coating was attained at energy
~700 eV per deposited carbon atom. Despite rather low diamond-like phase content these coatings are characterized by good adhesion due to ion mixing promoted by high acceleration voltage. Short duration of the bias pulses is also important to prevent electric breakdowns of insulating DLC film during its growth.wth.
Effect of Electrolysis Conditions on Hard Chromium Deposition from Trivalent Chromium Bath
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 36, issue 2, 2003, Pages 155~160
The effect of the temperature, current density and deposit time on hard chromium deposition in trivalent chromium bath was investigated. Cathode current efficiency increased with increasing current density. Increasing bath temperature from
, chromium deposits were produced in higher current density and the maximum current efficiency was increased. At the plating conditions of
, the deposition thickness increased in proportion to increasing electrolysis time The rate is
/hrs. for 2 hours. Microhardness of chromium deposits increased with increasing bath temperature and decreasing current density, and it was constant with electrolysis time. All of bath conditions, microstructure of chromium deposits has nodular structure with some cracking pattern and nodule size increased with increasing deposit thickness.
The Effect of Pulse Plating on the Current Efficiency in Trivalent Chromium Bath
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 36, issue 2, 2003, Pages 161~167
In order to investigate the effects of pulse plating conditions on the electrodeposition of trivalent chromium, electroplating experiments from bath with low concentration of trivalent chromium were performed. The variation of current efficiency of chromium electroplating with the electroplating conditions was explained. The maximum current efficiency of pulse plating is 6.4 times as high as that of direct plating at the same mean current density The nodular size increased with pulse plating time and the pulse frequency.
The Study of Solderability according to Chemical Analysis in Plating Process
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 36, issue 2, 2003, Pages 168~175
The purpose of solder plating on chip external electrode is to provide a proper solderability to chips on PCB's. The quantitative or qualitative analysis of solderability has been performed by destructive methods, reflow or flow. Evidently, the solderability tends to depend on the grain structure which is varied with additives. Research on the feasibility of employing electrochemical techniques to characterize the solderability of electroplated tin - lead, with respect to the additives, was non destructively performed. The deposit morphology and the polarization behavior of electrolytes containing proprietary additives were evaluated to investigate the soldering degradation. The plated panels from synthetic electrolyte were analyzed according to % Sn, plating thickness, deposit appearance, grain structure, solderability and cyclic voltammetry.
Effect of Organic Lubricant Film on Various Properties of Galvannealed Steel Sheets
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 36, issue 2, 2003, Pages 176~184
New lubricant film of organic and inorganic composite resin was developed to improve the press formability of galvannealed steel sheets (GA) for automotive body panels. The frictional coefficient of lubricant GA steel sheets is about 20% superior to that of uncoated GA. The current range of spot welding of lubricant GA is similar to that of the uncoated GA, but the burning trace of spot welding is inferior to that of the uncoated GA in the oiling condition. The alkaline degreasability of lubricant GA shows 100% in alkaline degreasing condition of automotive company. The size and shape of the phosphated coating layer are similar to those of the uncoated GA sheet. The powdering property of the lubricant GA gives rise to 20∼50% improved property compared with the uncoated GA sheet.
A Study on the Recycling of Metals and Removal of Organics By Electrochemical Treatment of Mixed Waste Water of Surface Finishing Industry
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 36, issue 2, 2003, Pages 184~193
Cyclic sweep voltametry was performed to investigate the electrochemical behavior of heavy metal ions and the organic additives in surface finishing process. And electrolysis using parallel plate electrode electrolyzer was carried out to simulate the treatment of real waste water. Results showed that more than 99 percent of Cu was recovered and selective recovery of Cu in mixed waste water was possible, but the possibility of economical recovery of Ni and Cr were very low due to the evolution of hydrogen gas. Electrochemical oxidation of cyanide and organic additives on anode showed very excellent removal rate. The complete removal of several hundred ppm of cynide was possible within several tens minutes and organics within 2 or 3 hours. Even in case of concentrate waste water, the complete removal of COD by using NaCl and air stirring seemed to be possible.
A Study on the Manufacture of the Cu Powder from Electrochemical Recovery of Waste Rinse Water at the Cu Electroplating Process
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 36, issue 2, 2003, Pages 194~199
Polarization measurements were peformed to investigate the electrochemical behavior of copper ions and limiting current density in waste rinse water from copper electroplating processes. A newly designed cyclone type electrolyzer was tested to recover the copper powder. Synthetic solutions were prepared using analytical grade
to the desired waste water concentration and pH was adjusted with
. Electrowinning was peformed at room temperature and the solution was cycled with a pump. Results showed that more than 99 percent of Cu was recovered and the size of the recovered Cu powder ranges from 0.1 -
. The chemical composition of the Cu powder mainly consists of
O and Cu and can be easily reduced to pure Cu powder.
Phase Transformations and Oxidation Properties of Fe
Processed by Mechanical Alloying
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 36, issue 2, 2003, Pages 200~205
bulk specimens have been produced by mechanical alloying and consolidation by vacuum hot pressing. The subsequent isothermal annealing was not able to fully transform the mestastable as -milled powders into the
phase, so that the obtained matrix consisted of not only thermoelectric semiconducting
but also some residual, untransformed metallic
-FeSi mixtures. Interestingly,
was more easily obtained in the low density specimen when compared to the high density specimen. The oxidation at 700 and
in air led to the phase transformation of the above described iron - silicides and the formation of a thin silica surface layer.
Effects of Plasma Nitriding on the Surface Characteristics of Tool Steels
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 36, issue 2, 2003, Pages 206~213
Effects of plasma nitriding on the surface characteristics of tool steels have been investigated using wear tester, micro-hardness tester and scanning electron microscope (SEM) Commercial SKD 11 and SM45 alloy were used as specimens and were plasma nitrided using a plasma nitriding equipment for 5 hr and 10hr at
. Microstructure and phase analysis were performed using SEM and XRD. It was found that plasma nitriding for lour at
, compared with plasma nitriding for 10hr at
, had a thick nitrided layer and produced a layer with good wear resistance and hardness as nitriding time increased. SKD11 alloy showed that wear resistance and hardness decreased, whereas surface roughness increased, compared with SM45 alloy.
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 36, issue 2, 2003, Pages 214~225
Trends in microelectronics packages such as low cost, miniaturization, high performance, and high reliability made area array interconnecting technologies including flip chip, CSP (Chip Scale Package) and BGA (Ball Grid Array) mainstream technologies. Underfill technology is used for the reliability of the area array technologies, thus electronics packaging industry regards it as very important technology In this paper, the underfill technology is reviewed and the recent advances in the underfill technology including new processes and materials are introduced. These includes reworkable underfills, no-flow underfills, molded underfills and wafer - level - applied underfills.