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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Institute of Surface Engineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 38, Issue 6 - Dec 2005
Volume 38, Issue 5 - Oct 2005
Volume 38, Issue 4 - Aug 2005
Volume 38, Issue 3 - Jun 2005
Volume 38, Issue 2 - Apr 2005
Volume 38, Issue 1 - Feb 2005
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High Temperature Oxidation and Sulfidation of Ni-15at.%W Coatings
Kim Chanwou ; You Teayoul ; Shapovalov Yuriy ; Ko Jaehwang ; Lee Dongbok ; Lee Kyuhwan ; Chang Doyon ; Kim Dongsoo ; Kwon Sikchol ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 38, issue 1, 2005, Pages 1~6
Ni-15at.% W coatings with film thicknesses of 20-40 ㎛ were electroplated on a steel substrate, and their oxidation behavior was investigated at 700 and 800℃ in air. For comparison, a pure Ni coating and a bulk Ni were also oxidized. The Ni-15at.%W coating displayed the worst oxidation resistance, due to the formation of less-protective NiO, Fe₂O₃, NiFe₂O₄ and NiWO₄. The corrosion behavior Ni-15at.%W coatings electroplated on a steel substrate was similarly investigated at 700 and 800℃ in the Ar-l%SO₂ atmosphere. For comparison, the uncoated steel substrate was also corrosion-tested in the Ar-l %SO₂ atmosphere. Severe scale spallation and the internal corrosion of the steel that occurred in the uncoated substrate were not observed in the coated specimen. However, it seemed that the Ni-15at.%W coating cannot be a potential candidate as a sulfidation-resistant coating, due to the formation of less-protective NiO, NiS, WO₃ and NiWO₄.
Preparation of Bismuth Thin Films by RF Magnetron Sputtering and Study on Their Electrical Transport Properties
Kim Dong-Ho ; Lee Gun-Hwan ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 38, issue 1, 2005, Pages 7~13
Bismuth thin films were prepared on glass substrate with RF magnetron sputtering and effects of substrate temperature on surface morphology and their electrical transport properties were investigated. Grain growth of bismuth after nucleation and the onset of coalescense of grains at 393 K were observed with field emission secondary electron microscopy. Continuous thin films could not be obtained above 473 K because of grain segregation and island formation. Hall effect measurements showed that substrate heating yields the decrease of carrier density and the increase of mobility. Resistivity of bismuth film has its minimum (about 0.7 x 10/sup -3/ Ωcm) in range of 403～433 K. Annealing of bismuth films deposited at room temperature was carried out in a radiation furnace with flowing hydrogen gas. The change of resistivity was not significant due to cancellation of the decrease of carrier density and the increase of mobility. The abrupt change of electrical properties of film annealed above 523 K was found to be caused by partial oxidation of bismuth layer in x-ray diffraction analysis.
Real-time Internal Stress of Nickel Sulfamate Electroform
Kim I. ; Kang K. ; Lee J. ; Kwon S.C. ; Kim M. ; Lee J.Y. ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 38, issue 1, 2005, Pages 14~20
The control of internal stress is extremely important in electroforming because of the deliberately low adhesion between the electro form and the mandrel. Excessive tensile or compressive stress can cause distortion, separation problem, curling, peeling or separation of electroform prematurely from the mandrel, buckling and blistering. Nickel sulfamate bath has been widely used in electroforming because of its low internal stress and moderate hardness. In this study, real-time stress sensor has been used for stress control in chloride-free nickel sulfamate bath for 400 mm x 300 mm x 500 ㎛ nickel electroform. It was found that compressive stress found at low current density indicated the contamination of electrolyte, which is very useful in procuring buckling and peeling of electroform. No compressive stress is allowed for plate electroform. The real-time stress can also be used for accurate stress control of nickel electroform. The tensile stress was found to be increased slightly with increase in nickel electroform thickness, i.e., from initial 1.47 ksi to 2.02 ksi at 320 ㎛.
Tensile Properties of Nickel Electroform(l)
Kim I. ; Lee J. ; Kang K. ; Kwon S.C. ; Kim M. ; Lee J.Y. ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 38, issue 1, 2005, Pages 21~27
Tensile properties and hardness of nickel electroform from chloride-free nickel sulfamate electrolyte at 50℃ and PH 4.5 were investigated. Current density varied from 20 to 60 mA/㎠. The deposit thicknesses were 360, 480 and 980 ㎛. It was found in 480 ㎛ thick electroform that highest tensile and yield strengths and hardness of 83.7 ksi, 53.6 ksi and 216 DPH, respectively were obtained at a current density of 40 mA/㎠ and they were slightly decreased at 20 and 60 mA/㎠. However the ductility was lowest of 7.9% at 40 mA/㎠. Such a high strength and low ductility at 40 mA/㎠ seems to be related to the narrower columnar structure than those of other current densities. All the deposits exhibited pronounced necking behavior. Tensile strength, yield strength and ductility increased as the nickel electroform thickens. Initial strong (200) texture developed on stainless steel mandrel decreased and (111) and (220) textures increased as deposit thickness increased, whereas (200) texture was preferred as the current density increased.
The Effects of the Annealing on the Reflow Property of Cu Thin Film
Kim Dong-Won ; Kim Sang-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 38, issue 1, 2005, Pages 28~36
In this study, the reflow characteristics of copper thin films which is expected to be used as interconnection materials in the next generation semiconductor devices were investigated. Cu thin films were deposited on the TaN diffusion barrier by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and annealed at the temperature between 250℃ and 550℃ in various ambient gases. When the Cu thin films were annealed in the hydrogen ambience compared with oxygen ambience, sheet resistance of Cu thin films decreased and the breakdown of TaN diffusion barrier was not occurred and a stable Cu/TaN/Si structure was formed at the annealing temperature of 450℃. In addition, reflow properties of Cu thin films could be enhanced in H₂ ambient. With Cu reflow process, we could fill the trench patterns of 0.16～0.24 11m with aspect ratio of 4.17～6.25 at the annealing temperature of 450℃ in hydrogen ambience. It is expected that Cu reflow process will be applied to fill the deep pattern with ultra fine structure in metallization.
Synthesis of Nanosized Titanium-Colloid by Sol-Gel Method and Characterization of Zinc Phosphating
Lee Man Sig ; Lee Sun-Do ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 38, issue 1, 2005, Pages 37~43
Nanosized titanium-colloid particles were prepared by sol-gel method. The physical properties, such as thermal stability, crystallite size and crystallinity according to synthesis condition have been investigated by TEM, XRD, SEM, TGA and DTA. In addition, Zinc phosphating has been studied in order to compare the phosphating characterization of prepared nanosized titanium-colloid particles. The major phase of all the prepared titanium-colloid particles was an amorphous structure regardless of synthesis temperature and the structure was composed of phoshate complex and titanium. The micrographs of HR- TEM showed that nanosized titanium-colloid particles possessed a spherical morphology with a narrow size distribution. The crystallite size of the titanium-colloid particles synthesized at 80℃ was 4-5 nm and increased to 8-10 nm with an increase of synthesis temperature (150℃). In addition, the coating weight increased with an increase of temperature of phosphating solution and when the concentration of titanium-colloid was 2.0 g/l, the coating weight was 1.0 g/㎡
Color Difference Characterization on Nickel Silicides
Jung Youngsoon ; Song Ohsung ; Kim Dugjoong ; Choi Yongyun ; Kim Chongjun ;
Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering, volume 38, issue 1, 2005, Pages 44~48
We prepared nickel silicide layers from p-Si(l00)/SiO₂(2000 Å)/poly-Si(700 Å)/Ni(400 Å) structures, feasible for gates in MOSFETs, by annealing them from 500℃～900℃ for 30 minutes. We measured the color coordination in visible range, cross sectional micro-structure, and surface topology with annealing temperature by an UV-VIS-IR spectrometer, field effect scanning electron microscope(FE-SEM), and scanning probe micro-scope respectively. We conclude that we may identify the nickel silicide by color difference of 0.90 and predict the silicide process reliability by color coordination measurement. The nickel silicide layers showed similar thickness while the columnar grains size and surface roughness increased as annealing temperature increased.