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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevetion
Editor in Chief :
Malcolm A Moore
Volume & Issues
Volume 12, Issue 12 - Dec 2011
Volume 12, Issue 11 - Nov 2011
Volume 12, Issue 10 - Oct 2011
Volume 12, Issue 9 - Sep 2011
Volume 12, Issue 8 - Aug 2011
Volume 12, Issue 7 - Jul 2011
Volume 12, Issue 6 - Jun 2011
Volume 12, Issue 5 - May 2011
Volume 12, Issue 4 - Apr 2011
Volume 12, Issue 3 - Mar 2011
Volume 12, Issue 2 - Feb 2011
Volume 12, Issue 1 - Jan 2011
Selecting the target year
Epidemiologic Risk Factors for Esophageal Cancer Development
Mao, Wei-Min ; Zheng, Wei-Hui ; Ling, Zhi-Qiang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2461~2466
In retrospective studies of esophageal cancer (EC), cigarettes and hookah smoking, nass use (a chewing tobacco product), opium consumption, hot tea drinking, poor oral health, low intake of fresh fruit and vegetables, and low socioeconomic status have been associated with a higher risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Barrett's esophagus is clearly recognized as a risk factor for EC, and dysplasia remains the only factor useful for identifying patients at increased risk, for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma in clinical practice. Here, we review the epidemiologic studies that have investigated the epidemiologic patterns and causes of EC.
Opportunity for Breast Cancer Screening in Limited Resource Countries: a Literature Review and Implications for Iran
Asadzadeh, Vostakolaei F ; Broeders, MJM ; Kiemeney, LALM ; Verbeek, ALM ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2467~2475
Young age at occurrence and advanced tumour stage at diagnosis should urge health policy makers to focus on strategies that will help to reduce breast cancer burden in Iran. However, fundamental knowledge to select the optimal control strategy is limited. In this review paper we summarize considerations for launching a successful mass screening program in Iran using a thorough search of the literature focusing on screening activities for breast cancer in limited resource countries (LRCs). The Pubmed and Web of Knowledge databases were used for literature searches with the terms "breast neoplasm" and "screening" in combination with "limited resource countries", or "developing countries". In addition, the bibliographies of selected references were also searched and utilized. More than 200 articles were found from 2005 to June 2011, of which 96 met the inclusion criteria. Papers were reviewed and categorized as follows: necessity and adoption of screening guidelines in LRCs (n=44); pilot implementation and barriers to screening program in LRCs (n=25); knowledge and attitudes on breast cancer and screening behaviour in LRCs (n=27). The results of the reviewed studies show that the rising trend of breast cancer incidence in LRCs has made it a health priority. Financial constraints to implement mammography screening in LRCs promote the use of alternative but less accurate screening modalities such as physical breast examination. Starting a breast cancer screening program in LRCs faces several challenges related to country's resources status, health service capacity and community awareness. Conservative attitudes toward women, fatalism and misconception on breast cancer risk factors and screening behaviour could seriously prohibit women's participation. In conclusion, given the lack of quantitative information and implementation research on breast cancer control in Iran, our ability to give a clear advice for breast cancer screening in Iran is limited. Iran should adopt a tailor-made strategy for mass screening with great emphasis on reducing the number of advanced stage tumours or "down-staging". Combination of two approaches, clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography would be promising given the increased competence of health care professional and public awareness. Equally important, a control plan should be started small and expanded gradually.
Clinical Observations on Safety and Efficacy of OxyContin
Administered by Rectal Route in Treating Cancer Related Pain
Li, Cheng-Guang ; Huang, Xin-En ; Li, Ying ; Lu, Yan-Yan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2477~2478
Objective: To determine the efficacy and adverse reactions of OxyContin
administered by rectal route in advanced cancer patients. Methods: Patients were enrolled into this study in which OxyContin was administered by the rectal route. The visual analogue scale (VAS) was applied to score pain intensity, separated into five degrees. National Cancer Institute-Common Toxicity Criteria (NCI-CTC) were adopted to record the side effects. Results: VAS scores were 10 before treatment, and decreased to 5-6 after OxyContin application by the rectal route. The main side effects were constipation, flatulence and fatigue, with no elevation of transaminases and creatinine. Conclusion: OxyContin admistered by rectal route is safe for advanced cancer patients with satisfactory pain control effects, thus deserving further clinical observation.
Updated Meta-Analysis of the
-94ins/Delattg Promoter Polymorphism and Cancer Risk Based on 19 Case-Control Studies
Wang, Xiefeng ; Lu, Pi ; Xu, Lu ; Xu, Yanjie ; Shi, Zhumei ; Xu, Jiali ; Wang, Yingyi ; Zhang, Junxia ; Wang, Xirui ; Cao, Lei ; Liu, Ning ; Yin, Yongmei ; You, Yongping ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2479~2484
Objective: Recently, a common insertion/deletion (-94insertion/deletion ATTG, rs28362491) polymorphism in the
promoter region has been extensively investigated for association with cancer risk but the results have been inconsistent. In order to clarify the effect of the promoter polymorphism we performed an update meta-analysis of published case-control studies to better compare the results between studies. Methods: Relevant studies were identified via a thorough literature search on Medline and Embase database (up to August 10, 2011). The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were used to investigate the strength of the association. Results: A total of 5,196 cases and 6,614 controls in 19 case-control studies from 16 publications were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, the variant genotypes were associated with a moderately decreased risk of all cancer types (OR =0.74, 95%CI =0.57-0.97 for DD versus II; OR =0.79, 95%CI =0.66-0.95 for DD versus II/ID). In the stratified analyses, significantly decreased risk was found among Asians (OR =0.52, 95%CI =0.42-0.65 for DD versus II; OR =0.74, 95%CI =0.66-0.83 for ID versus II; OR =0.64, 95%CI =0.53-0.78 for DD versus II/ID; OR =0.68, 95%CI =0.61-0.75 for DD/ID versus II). The validity of this association was further strengthened by the sensitivity analysis. No publication bias was observed in this study. Conclusions: Our results suggested that the -94deletion ATTG promoter polymorphism in
gene might be associated with a decreased cancer risk, especially for Asian population.
Awareness about Pictorial Warnings on Tobacco Products and its Impact on Tobacco Consumers in Bellary, India
Karinagannanavar, Aravind ; Raghavendra, Bellara ; Hemagiri, K ; Goud, T Gangadhara ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2485~2489
Background: In India, 800,000-900,000 people will die annually due to diseases attributable to tobacco. The government of India has taken several measures, including legislation to control tobacco intake. Display of pictorial warnings on tobacco products was one of the legislative measures taken under The Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA) enacted in 2003, intended to discourage the consumption of tobacco. Objectives: 1) To study the factors influencing awareness among tobacco consumers about the pictorial warnings used on tobacco products; 2) To study the impact of the current pictorial warnings on tobacco consumers. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted from January 2011 to June 2011 at Bellary city, Karnataka. Data were collected with pre-tested and pre-designed semi-structured proforma. Univariate and multivariate analyses were condiucted using Epi-info version 3.4.3. Results: In our study out of 600 subjects 435 (72.5%) had seen the pictorial warnings. Among them 111 (25.5%) had interpreted correctly and 63 (14.5%) had given a thought/ tried to reduce or quit tobacco consumption. Younger age group, better educational status, people from urban area, upper socio economic class, lesser duration (< 5 years) of tobacco usage were found to have significant association with awareness about pictorial warnings on tobacco products. However, the impact of pictures on reducing/quitting tobacco consumption was very low. Conclusion: Awareness and its impact on tobacco consumption are poor among our study subjects. There is an urgent need for reconsideration for more effective pictorial warnings.
HOGG1 Ser326Cys Polymorphism and Susceptibility to Head and Neck Cancer: a Meta-analysis
Liu, Jun ; Cao, Xiao-Lin ; Zhang, Zhen ; Lei, Da-Peng ; Jin, Tong ; Yu, Xue-Min ; Pan, Xin-Liang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2491~2494
Purpose: Several research groups have investigated the influence of the human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (hOGG1) Ser326Cys polymorphism on head and neck cancer (HNC) susceptibility. However, the results remain inconclusive and controversial. We therefore conducted the present meta-analysis. Methods: Relevant studies were identified through a search of PubMed databases until July 2011 and selected on the basis of established inclusion criteria for publications. Results: A total of 8 case-control studies on the association of hOGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism with HNC risk were included in the present meta-analysis. Overall significant associations were observed (G allele vs. C allele: OR=1.49, 95%CI=1.08-2.05, P<0.01 for heterogeneity; GG vs.CC: OR=2.30, 95%CI=1.05-5.05, P<0.01 for heterogeneity; CG vs. CC: OR=1.40, 95%CI=1.03-1.90, P<0.01 for heterogeneity; dominant model (GG+CG vs. CC): OR=1.52, 95%CI=1.06-2.16, P<0.01 for heterogeneity; recessive model (GG vs. CG+CC): OR=2.04, 95%CI=1.05-3.96, P=0.01 for heterogeneity) after excluding the studies that were not in agreement with HWE. On performance of a subgroup meta-analysis by ethnicity, significant associations were found (G allele vs. C allele: OR=1.40, 95%CI=1.001-1.95, P<0.01 for heterogeneity; GG vs.CC: OR=2.30, 95%CI=1.05-5.05, P<0.01 for heterogeneity; recessive model (GG vs. CG+CC): OR=2.04, 95%CI=1.05-3.96, P=0.01 for heterogeneity) in Caucasian populations after excluding one study not in agreement with HWE. Conclusions: Our results suggested that the G allele might be associated with an increased risk of HNC in Caucasian populations.
Survey-based Cancer Mortality in the Lao PDR, 2007-08
Lua, Nguyen Thi ; Chinh, Nguyen Duc ; Hue, Nguyen Thi ; Van, Vu Thi Tuong ; Hang, Lai Thi Minh ; Linh, Le Thuy ; Boupha, Boungnong ; Sengsounthone, Latsamy ; Sengngam, Khanpaseuth ; Akiba, Suminori ; Tung, Hoang Trong ; Chuong, Le Hoai ; Ngoan, Le Tran ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2495~2498
Background: The Lao PDR is a landlocked country with 5,920,000 inhabitants for which very few epidemiological studies on cancer have been performed. The aim of the present study was to examine cancer mortality in 2007-2008. Methods: A descriptive cancer epidemiology protocol was designed with a data collection form and guideline for both demographics and list of all deaths from all 757 local Health Centers of 17 provinces/cities. Five indicators, name, age, sex, date of death and the cause of death (ICD-10), were collected for each case. The age-specific cancer mortality rate and ASRs per 100,000 were estimated. Results: There were 448 cancer cases reported from Health Centers within 7 of 17 provinces/cities. Number of person-years was 654,459 for the two-year period. Cancer mortality rates of all sites (ASR) were 116.7 and 97.2 per 100,000 in males and females, respectively. The five most common cancers causing mortality per 100,000 were liver (52.2), followed by colorectal (19.0), lung (17.3), stomach (6.9), and leukemia-lymphoma (7.2) in males and liver (28.4); followed by colorectal (19.0), lung (14.0), cervical uteri (9.2) and stomach (7.1) in females. Conclusions: Liver and colorectal cancers were the first and second most common, respectively, in both males and female.
Induction of Mitochondria-mediated Apoptosis in Human Gastric Adenocarcinoma SGC-7901 Cells by Kuraridin and Nor-kurarinone Isolated from Sophora Flavescens
Rasul, Azhar ; Yu, Bo ; Yang, Long-Fei ; Ali, Muhammad ; Khan, Muhammad ; Ma, Tonghui ; Yang, Hong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2499~2504
The study was designed as one of a series to find novel anticancer compounds from Chinese herbs. For this purpose, we screened an ethanol extract of 300 herbs against SGC-7901 cells. Sophora flavescen was included in those showing potential cytotoxic activity. Target compounds were therefore isolated and analyzed on analytical HPLC. Chromatography showed only one peak with a purity of 97%. The ESI-MS spectrum showed two molecular ions: m/z 424(M+) and 438(M+). Furthermore, combining the data of 1HNMR and 13CNMR, it was deduced that this product was a mixture of two compounds; kuraridin (1) and nor-kurarinone (2). The concentration was :=9:10, the chemical structural formulae are C25H28O6 and C26H30O6. In this study, mechanisms involved by the mixture of compounds 1 and 2-induced growth inhibition including apoptosis and G2/M phase arrest in human gastric adenocarcinoma SGC-7901 cells were examined for the first time. Triggering of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway was demonstrated by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, reduction in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, and significant activation and cleavage of caspase-3. Additionally, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also increased. Taken together, our results indicated that the cytotoxic efficacy of the mixture of compounds 1 and 2 is mainly due to induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.
Epidemiology of Oral and Pharyngeal Cancers in Khon Kaen, Thailand: a High Incidence in Females
Vatanasapt, Patravoot ; Suwanrungruang, Krittika ; Kamsa-Ard, Supot ; Promthet, Supannee ; Parkin, Max DM ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2505~2508
Background: This study was aimed to describe incidence, trends, and survival of oral and pharyngeal cancers in Khon Kaen, the province situated in the northeast of Thai-land. Methods: Data on oral and pharyngeal cancer cases diagnosed during 1985 - 2001 were retrieved from the population-based cancer registry of Khon Kaen. The final status of the patients was verified by database linkage and follow-up using postcards. Results: Of 1,038 cases, 62.6% were female and 37.4% were male, with a mean age of 63 years. The age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) in females (6.2 per 100 000; 95%CI 5.7-6.7) was significantly higher than in males (3.9 per 100 000; 95%CI 3.5-4.4). Annual percent changes in ASR were 1.7 in females (p<0.05), but 1.2 in males. Lip and buccal cancers were the most common sites respectively; however, the incidence of tongue cancer was increasing in the last period. Eighty five percent of all cases were diagnosed in advanced stage (stage III and IV). The overall five-year relative survival was 43.1%. We found stage distribution and survival did not change during the study period. Conclusion: The considerably high incidence in female suggests a need for research on specific risk factors. Moreover, attempts should be made to detect oral cancers earlier in order to improve the outcomes of cancer control.
Effects of Aging and Ethnicity on Serum Free Prostate Specific Antigen
Shah, Sudip ; Jha, Bharat ; Khanal, Madhav Prashad ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2509~2512
Understanding the relationship between ethnicity and free prostate specific antigen (fPSA) could identify the population that should be targeted for intervention and prevention program regarding prostate disease. In this study, we therefore examine the effects of aging and ethnicity on fPSA, measured in serum by chemiluminescent assay (CLIA) method of 351 men visiting Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital (TUTH) for fPSA test from December to March. Medicinal records abstracts were used to obtain information regarding the ethnicity and age of the cases. Those cases whose age and surname could not be obtained were excluded in our study. The subjects were stratified in four ethnic groups viz; Indo-Nepalese, Tibeto-Nepalese, Indigenous and Other based on the origin. The relationship between age and fPSA level was analysed using bivariate coorelation. The age and the fPSA level of the cases were expressed in Mean
SEM. The association among different age-group and ethnicity with fPSA were analysed using one way ANOVA. The mean fPSA and mean age of the subjects were
respectively. fPSA level was fairly correlated with the age (r=0.146, p=<0.01). The mean fPSA level (ng/ml) among the four age category (<45, 45-60, 60-75 and >75) were
respectively. The difference in mean fPSA level among four different age-groups was statistically significant (p=0.031). Analysis showed no correlation between the fPSA level and the ethnicity. These data suggest that the fPSA level is associated with the age.
Cytoprotective Activity of a Trans-chalcone Against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Toxicity in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HepG2) Cells
Sikander, Mohammad ; Malik, Shabnam ; Yadav, Deepak ; Biswas, Sahabuddin ; Katare, Deepshikha Pande ; Jain, Swatantar Kumar ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2513~2516
Dietary flavonoids have attracted attention as chemopreventive agents. Chalcones are abundantly present in nature starting from ferns to higher plants. Chemically 1,3-diphenyl-2-propen-1-ones, these are often cytotoxic in vitro. The cellular defense system (including glutathione, glutathione-related enzymes, and antioxidant and redox enzymes) plays a crucial role in cell survival and growth in aerobic organisms. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the modulatory effect of trans-chalcone on protection from oxidative stress caused by hydrogen peroxide (
) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. Cell growth was evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Sub-toxic concentrations of compound (20uM) increased cell survival and a decreased lipid peroxidation. The drug also decreased the
induction of glutathione related enzymes. Our results support the efficacy of trans-chalcone in offering protection against oxidative stress.
Lateral Lymph Node Dissection with Radical Surgery versus Single Radical Surgery for Rectal Cancer: a Meta-analysis
Cheng, Huan ; Deng, Zhonglei ; Wang, Zeng-Jun ; Zhang, Wei ; Su, Jian-Tang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2517~2521
Objectives: To assess the value of lateral lymph node dissection( LLND) in the radical surgery of rectal cancer. Methods: The published Chinese and English literature was retrieved. A total of 15 papers fitted the selection criteria, including 4,858 patients. Among them 2,401 were in the LLND group and 2,457 in the non-LLND (NLLND) group. Evaluation parameters included 5-year survival rate recurrence rate, peri-operative outcomes, postoperative urinary and sexual functions. Results: The operating time was significantly shorter in the NLLND group than that in the LLND group (weighted mean difference (WMD)=109 min, 95 confidence interval(CI):90-129, P <0.001). Intra-operative blood loss was greater in the LLND group, but the difference was not significant (WMD=429 mL, 95 CI:325-854, P = 0.05).The frequency of peri-operative morbidity(OR, 1.57 95 CI:1.06-2.33, P = 0.02) was also significantly higher in the LLND group. There were no significant differences in 5-year survival rateand recurrence rate between the two groups. Data from individual studies(three)showed that the frequency of male urinary dysfunction (OR=5.12, 95CI 2.15-12.19, P=0.0002) and sexual dysfunction (P < 0.05) were greatly lower in the NLLND group. Conclusion: Meta analysis showed that LLND did not have specific advantage in decreasing postoperative recurrence and prolonging survival time. Furthermore it was associated with prolonged operation time, increased blood loss and elevated incidence of peri-operative complications and urinary and sexual dysfunction.
Interaction of Social Support and Psychological Stress on Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms in Breast Cancer Patients
Liu, Dong-Gen ; Wang, Shu-Sen ; Peng, Rou-Jun ; Qin, Tao ; Shi, Yan-Xia ; Teng, Xiao-Yu ; Wang, Xi ; Chen, Wei-Qing ; Yuan, Zhong-Yu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2523~2529
Purpose: The aim of the present study was to assess the association of psychological stress and social support with anxiety and depressive symptoms in Chinese newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. Methods: Four hundred and one patients with breast cancer were recruited. Their demographic characteristics, psychological stress and social support were determined with a structured questionnaire, and their anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results: Psychological stressors caused by breast cancer diagnosed originated from five major sources, as determined by factor analysis. These included "Worrying about health being harmed," "Fear of decline of physical function," "Fear of work being harmed," "Worry about daily life and social relationship being restricted," and "Fear of family being harmed." Hierarchical linear regression analysis indicated that, after adjusting for gender, age, marital status, educational level, and duration of illness, solid social support can alleviate such symptoms. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that there are strong associations between patients' needs and psychological distress with newly diagnosed breast cancer. Social support might affect these associations in Chinese women with breast cancer.
Awareness and Knowledge of Breast Cancer and Mammography among a Group of Malaysian Women in Shah Alam
Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman ; Qureshi, Ahmad Munir ; Saif-Ali, Riyadh ; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran ; Alwan, Mohanad Rahman ; Hadi, Jalal Ibrahim Shawqi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2531~2538
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess awareness and knowledge of breast cancer and mammography among Malaysian women in Shah Alam. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted among 250 Malaysian women. Data were collected using a self administrated questionnaire which included questions on socio-demographic data, knowledge of breast cancer and awareness of mammography. Results: Mean age of respondents was
with 69.2% aged 18 to 29 years. The majority had heard about breast cancer (81.2%) and indicated books, magazines and brochures as their source of information (55.2%). However, most did not know about signs and symptoms of breast cancer and many of its risk factors. On multivariate analysis, significant predictors of breast cancer knowledge were age, race, marital status, level of education, occupation, family size and family history of other cancers (p<0.05). Fifty percent of women were aware of mammography, significant predictors being age, occupation, marital status and knowledge of breast cancer (p<0.05). Conclusion: Most women were aware of breast cancer. However, the knowledge about signs and symptoms of breast cancer and awareness of mammography were inadequate. It is recommended that the level of knowledge should be raised among Malaysian women, particularly in the young and less educated women.
A Qualitative Study on HPV Vaccination from a Nursing Perspective in Hong Kong
Chan, CYZ ; Lam, CH ; Lam, DY ; Lee, LY ; Ng, KK ; Wong, ML ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2539~2545
Objective: To identify the perception on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among female nursing students in Hong Kong. Data Sources: Data were collected through focus group discussions and semi-structured in-depth interviews. All participants (n=28) were female nursing students of a university in Hong Kong. Tape recordings of individual interviews and focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim in Chinese, translated into English, and analyzed according to Colaizzi's phenomenological analysis. Study Design: Four major themes emerged from the data: nursing students' understanding about HPV vaccine, nursing students' attitude on HPV vaccine, nursing students' perspective on HPV vaccination promotion, and nursing role on HPV vaccination. Conclusions: Government should take initiative in promotion with vaccine suppliers. The awareness and knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccination among women should be increased in order to raise the positive attitude of women towards HPV vaccination and prevention of cervical cancer. Health professionals should work together on HPV promotion among women and increase the HPV vaccination rates. Moreover, further studies regarding attitude and awareness of HPV vaccination among women in different age groups are needed in order to identify more associated factors affecting their perceptions towards HPV vaccination.
Polymorphisms of DNA Repair gene XRCC1 and Risk of Glioma: a Case-control Study in Southern China
Zhou, Lu-Qiu ; Ma, Zhen ; Shi, Xiao-Feng ; Yin, Xi-Long ; Huang, Kai-Xiong ; Jiu, Zhi-Song ; Kong, Wen-Long ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2547~2550
Objective: This study aimed to examine associations between polymorphisms in the X-ray cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC 1) gene and risk of glioma in a Chinese population. Methods: We performed a hospital-based case-control study with 271 cases and 289 controls in Guangdong province, China. Cases were patients newly diagnosed with pathologically confirmed glioma in two hospitals between June 2006 and May 2010. Controls were individuals without cancer, frequency matched by sex and age. Three SNPs in XRCC1 gene, Arg399Gln (rs25487), Arg194Trp (rs1799782) and Arg280His (rs25489), were analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) based method. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) of polymorphisms in XRCC1 gene for glioma. Results: The Arg399Gln polymorphism was significantly associated with risk of glioma. Individuals with the Gln/Gln genotype had a significantly increased likelihood of developing glioma compared with those with the Arg/Arg genotype (adjusted OR = 1.93, 95% CI: 1.04 - 3.58), especially among males and individuals aged 50 years or older. Conclusion: The XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphism may be a useful susceptibility biomarker for glioma. Further studies in Chinese populations with larger sample sizes are now warranted.
Using Salivary Cotinine to Validate Self-Reports of Tobacco Use by Indian Youth Living in Low-Income Neighborhoods
Dhavan, Poonam ; Bassi, Shalini ; Stigler, Melissa H ; Arora, Monika ; Gupta, Vinay K ; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmy ; Perry, Cheryl L ; Reddy, K Srinath ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2551~2554
Background: Self-reported tobacco use among young people can underestimate the actual prevalence of tobacco use. Biochemical validation of self-reports is particularly recommended for intervention studies where cessation outcomes are to be measured. Literature on biochemical validation of self-reports of multiple forms of tobacco use in India is sparse, particularly among young people. Methods: The study was conducted during the baseline household survey of a community-based tobacco prevention and cessation intervention trial for youth (10-19 years old) residing in slum communities in Delhi, India in 2009. Salivary cotinine measurement on 1,224 samples showed that youth were under-reporting use of chewing and smoking tobacco. Results: Self-reports had a low sensitivity (36.3%) and a positive predictive value of 72.6%. No statistically significant difference in under-reporting was found between youth in the control and intervention conditions of the trial, which will be taken into consideration in assessing intervention outcomes at a later time point. Conclusion: Biochemical validation of self-reported tobacco use should be considered during prevention and cessation studies among youth living in low-income settings in developing countries like India. Impact: The future results of biochemical validation from Project ACTIVITY (Advancing Cessation of Tobacco In Vulnerable Indian Tobacco consuming Youth) will be useful to design validation studies in resource-poor settings.
Effect of Health Belief Model and Health Promotion Model on Breast Cancer Early Diagnosis Behavior: A Systematic Review
Ersin, Fatma ; Bahar, Zuhal ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2555~2562
Breast cancer is an important public health problem on the grounds that it is frequently seen and it is a fatal disease. The objective of this systematic analysis is to indicate the effects of interventions performed by nurses by using the Health Belief Model (HBM) and Health Promotion Model (HPM) on the breast cancer early diagnosis behaviors and on the components of the Health Belief Model and Health Promotion Model. The reveiw was created in line with the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination guide dated 2009 (CRD) and developed by York University National Institute of Health Researches. Review was conducted by using PUBMED, OVID, EBSCO and COCHRANE databases. Six hundred seventy eight studies (PUBMED: 236, OVID: 162, EBSCO: 175, COCHRANE:105) were found in total at the end of the review. Abstracts and full texts of these six hundred seventy eight studies were evaluated in terms of inclusion and exclusion criteria and 9 studies were determined to meet the criteria. Samplings of the studies varied between ninety four and one thousand six hundred fifty five. It was detected in the studies that educations provided by taking the theories as basis became effective on the breast cancer early diagnosis behaviors. When the literature is examined, it is observed that the experimental researches which compare the concepts of Health Belief Model (HBM) and Health Promotion Model (HPM) preoperatively and postoperatively and show the effect of these concepts on education and are conducted by nurses are limited in number. Randomized controlled studies which compare HBM and HPM concepts preoperatively and postoperatively and show the efficiency of the interventions can be useful in evaluating the efficiency of the interventions.
The Health Seeking Trajectories of Malaysian Women and their Husbands in Delay Cases of Breast Cancer: A Qualitative Study
Yusoff, Nasir ; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd ; Ahmad, Aini ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2563~2570
The aim of this study was to assess why women delay in getting treatment (i.e. surgery) for breast cancer, as well as to explore on what type of issues are involved in such delay cases. Basic interpretative of qualitative methodology was applied to construct the reality of delay phenomena, and its interaction with social worlds. Six themes were identified: new conception of breast cancer treatment, psychological defenses, health support system, symtomatology experience, model and barriers. The delay issue in breast cancer requires attention as a multidimensional problem as this will facilitate more comprehensive and effective intervention to reduce delay.
Patient Satisfaction Survey of a Self-Paid Physical Checkup Program for Cancer Screening
Lu, Jui-Hsuan ; Cheung, Bruno MH ; Hsia, Shan ; Chou, Hung-Huan ; Tsai, Jaw-Ji ; Liu, Pi-Haw ; Jeng, Kee-Ching ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2571~2574
Introduction: Early disease detection is an effective way to control diseases. Government sponsored health screening programs show their health value by increasing numbers of participants each year. Self-paid physical checkup programs may complement these programs. The purpose of this study was to examine participants' satisfaction with a self-paid physical checkup program for cancer screening. Methods: This cross-sectional study consisted of two surveys with qualitative and quantitative questionnaires. A random sample of 1000 participants was collected from those who attended the self-paid physical checkup program in two periods. Their needs and expectations with the program with five point scores were analyzed. Results: Data were collected during the period of January to June, 2001 and again in 2011. The response rates were 93.8% and 59%, and the effective rates were 94% and 71.4%, respectively. The results indicated that participants' items needed and items wished to cancel were similar in both surveys. The self-paid physical checkup program met the needs of participants concerning gastrointestinal, colorectal and abdomen examinations. In contrast, dental, eye and physical examinations, and HIV screening were viewed as less interesting by participants, because of the lack of immediate post-checkup cares or they were not at high risk. Conclusions: Self-paid physical checkup programs add value to free cancer screening for health maintenance and help provide good physician-patient relationships, health education and post-checkup cares.
Overexpression of Snail Accelerates Adriamycin Induction of Multidrug Resistance in Breast Cancer Cells
Li, Wentong ; Liu, Chuanliang ; Tang, Yong ; Li, Hongli ; Zhou, Fenghua ; Lv, Shijun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2575~2580
In addition to several molecular and morphologic changes, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) cells also show variation in sensitivity to chemotherapeutics agents. The aim of this study was to investigate whether overexpression of Snail in MCF-7 cells is associated with facilitated acquisition of P-gp mediated multidrug resistance (MDR). The results demonstrated that over-expression of Snail indeed resulted in slight enhancement of adriamycin-induced MDR in MCF-7/Snail cells without detectable increase of P-gp. However, in the longer term, MCF-7 cells overexpressing Snail were prone to be resistant to adriamycin, in this case with increased expression of P-gp. These results provide evidence that a strategy involving Snail inhibition may be a useful and promising therapeutic aspect in modulating MDR.
Clinical Significance of mTOR and p-mTOR Protein Expression in Human Colorectal Carcinomas
Wang, Di ; Chen, Jian ; Guo, Fengjie ; Chen, Hui ; Duan, Zhi ; Wei, Mei-Yan ; Xu, Qi-Mei ; Wang, Liang-Hua ; Zhong, Mei-Zuo ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2581~2584
Aim: To investigate the significance of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its active form, p-mTOR in colorectal carcinomas. Methods: Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of mTOR and p-mTOR proteins in 108, 40 and 40 tissue samples from colorectal carcinoma, normal colonic mucosa and adenomatous polyps samples, respectively. The correlation of mTOR and p-mTOR expression with clinicopathological characteristics of colorectal carcinoma was analyzed. Results: The positive rates of mTOR and p-mTOR were significantly higher in colorectal carcinoma (61.1% and 61.1%, respectively, p<0.05) than in normal colonic mucosa (7.5% and 2.5%) and adenomatous polyps (27.5% and 20%). Overexpression of total mTOR protein was significantly associated with T1/T2 stage tumors, lymph node metastasis, distal metastasis) and degree of differentiation. p-mTOR overexpression was additionaly linked with degree of differentiation and TNM stage. Conclusion: The overexpression of mTOR and p-mTOR may play important roles in colorectal carcinogenesis with relations to the degree of differentiation, invasiveness and metastasis.
Needs for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Control Policy in the Asia-Pacific Region
Bridges, John FP ; Joy, Susan M ; Gallego, Gisselle ; Kudo, Masatoshi ; Ye, Sheng-Long ; Han, Kwang-Hyub ; Cheng, Ann-Lii ; Blauvelt, Barri M ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2585~2591
Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is particularly burdensome in the Asia-Pacific region, however, cross-country comparisons have been limited to somewhat unreliable epidemiological measures. We conducted a comparative needs assessment for HCC control policy to inform HCC control efforts in the Asia-Pacific region. The aims were to identify regional needs, to compare overall competence across the region, and to identify which needs were concordant across the region. Method: Using the self-explicated method, a stated-preference approach, clinical experts from Australia, China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and the United States valued ten previously identified dimensions of HCC control: clinical education; risk assessment; HBV strategy; HCV strategy; life-style risk factors; national statistics; funding for screening; funding for treatment; political awareness; and public awareness. Results were normalized and analyzed using Z-scores and ANOVA, with concordance of need across the region tested via the F-test. Results: Seventy-two respondents, equally drawn from the study sites, completed the survey (response rate: 36%). Respondents were hepatologists (39%), oncologists (21%), radiologists (17%), surgeons (17%), and other specialists (7%) who were involved in liver cancer control at local/regional (35%) national (44%) or international (21%) levels. In aggregate, the most significant needs were political awareness, public awareness, and life-style risk factors (all p<0.001). Significant differences in aggregate competence were observed across the region (p<0.001), with better than expected competence reported by respondents from Taiwan (p<0.001), Japan (p=0.006), and Korea (0.041), and close to expected competence reported by respondents from Australia, China, and USA (all p>0.05). There were differences in the extent of needs across the region (p<0.05) on all dimensions except funding for screening, clinical education and life style risk factors. Conclusions: As the first comparative needs assessment for HCC for the Asia-Pacific region, our results can inform national and cross-national priorities for intervention and facilitate the identification of best practices. Regional efforts to control HCC should adopt as objectives the needs for greater political and public awareness and improved management of lifestyle risk factors because these are the most significant needs, and are shared concerns across the region.
Radioprotective Effects of Troxerutin against Gamma Irradiation in V79 Cells and Mice
Xu, Ping ; Jia, Junqing ; Jia, Junfeng ; Jiang, Enjin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2593~2596
The purpose of this study was to determine radioprotective effects of troxerutin. Cell experiments were carried out to test the cytotoxicity of troxerutin on V79 cells and to observe effects on apoptosis caused by 60Co
rays. A model of 8 Gy ray-caused damage of mice was established to observe the effect that troxerutin has on the physical symptom of irradiated mice and to calculate the 30-day survival rate. It showed that troxerutin had no obvious cytotoxicity at the level of less than
; but had a redioprotective effect in dose-dependence on viability of V79 cells at the range of
irradiated by 5 Gy ray of 60Co
ray. After the 8 Gy irradiation, the mice lost some weight, were dried up in fur and feather, low spirit, awkward in movement, shrinking in body and handicapped in sight, while mice with troxerutin were much better. So it was clear that troxerutin could increase the 30-day survival rates of irradiated mice dramatically. These results collectively indicate that troxerutin is an effective radioprotective agent.
is a High Risk Allele for Familial Cervical Cancer
Qiu, Xiaoping ; Zhang, Fan ; Chen, Dangxiao ; Azad, Abul Kalam ; Zhang, Li ; Yuan, Yulin ; Jiang, Zhongqing ; Liu, Wenhui ; Tan, Yun ; Tao, Ning ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2597~2600
Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate 50 women from eight families with familial cervical cancer in Wufeng County, Hubei Province, China, a region with a high incidence of cervical cancer. Eighty-nine healthy women, of similar age, location and ethnicity, were selected as a control group. Methods: Blood samples were collected from both groups, and HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-DRB1 genotypes were profiled with the Multi-Analyte Profiling system (xMAP) (Luminex HLA-SSO) using a WAKFlow HLA typing kit. Results were analyzed with Luminex HLA typing software and showed good stability, reproducibility and specificity. Results: We found several high risk alleles in women with familial cervical cancer, that associated with the highest risk being HLA-
(OR = 8.7, 95% CI = 1.8-41.1). Conclusions: HLA-
is a high risk allele for cervical cancer, and has strong potential for use as a molecular biomarker.
Molecular Mechanisms of Celery Seed Extract Induced Apoptosis via S Phase Cell Cycle Arrest in the BGC-823 Human Stomach Cancer Cell Line
Gao, Lin-Lin ; Feng, Lei ; Yao, Shu-Tong ; Jiao, Peng ; Qin, Shu-Cun ; Zhang, Wei ; Zhang, Ya-Bin ; Li, Fu-Rong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2601~2606
Background: Mechanisms of apoptosis in tumor cells is an important field of tumor therapy and cancer molecular biology. Loss of cell cycle control, leading to uncontrolled proliferation, is common in cancer. Therefore, the identification of potent and selective cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors is a priority for anti-cancer drug discovery. There are at least two major apoptotic pathways, initiated by caspase-8 and caspase-9, respectively, which can activate caspase cascades. Apoptosis triggered by activation of the mitochondrial-dependent caspase pathway represents the main programmed cell death mechanism. This is activated by various intracellular stresses that induce permeabilization of the mitochondrial membrane. Anti-tumor effects of celery seed extract (CSE) and related mechanisms regarding apoptosis were here investigated in human gastric cancer BGC-823 cells. Methods: CSE was produced by supercritical fluid extraction. Cell viability was analyzed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and apoptosis by flow cytometry using Annexin/PI staining and DAPI staining and a laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM). Cell cycling was evaluated using PI staining with flow cytometry and expression of cell cycle and apoptosis-related proteins cyclin A, CDK2, bcl-2 and bax was assessed by immunohistochemical staining. Results: CSE had an anti-proliferation effect on human gastric cancer BGC-823 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. After treatment, the apoptotic rate significantly increased, with morphological changes typical of apoptosis observed with LSCM by DAPI staining. Cell cycle and apoptosis related proteins, such as cyclin A, CDK2 and bcl-2 were all down-regulated, whereas bax was up-regulated. Conclusions: The molecular determinants of inhibition of cell proliferation as well as apoptosis of CSE may be associated with cycle arrest in the S phase.
Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the p21 and bcl2 Cancer Susceptibility Genes and Breast Cancer Risk in Saudi Arabia
Alshatwi, Ali A ; Shafi, Gowhar ; Hasan, Tarique N ; Alsaif, Adulaziz A ; Al-Hazzani, Amal A ; Alsaif, Mohammed A ; Lei, David KY ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2607~2610
Certain single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes like p21 or bcl2 increase susceptibility to breast cancer but it has not, until now, been clear whether common polymorphic variants in the same genes also increase risk in Saudi Arabian population. The aim of this study was therefore to determine whether polymorphisms of p21 or Bcl2 might be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in Saudi women. p21 (rs733590) C/T SNP was not found to be associated with breast cancer pathogenesis. However, we found that a reverse mutation T/C might be linked with breast cancer occurrence. Bcl2 genotypes were marginally associated overall with breast cancer risk. In addition, the alleles of this gene were significantly associated with risk of breast cancer. The allelic frequency of G was higher (0.68) in patients than in healthy women. AA vs. AG+GG genotype [OR=3.56 (1.24-10.68); P=0.008] was the dominant genotype. It is likely that these genes conferring measurably increased risks of breast cancer in our study population.
Beginning Level Nursing Students' Experiences with Cancer Patients in their First Clinical Placement: a Qualitative Appraisal in Turkey
Yildiz, Hicran ; Akansel, Neriman ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2611~2615
Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate beginning nursing students' point of view related to caring cancer patients in their first clinical placement. Methods: Data were collected by evaluating the diaries kept by four beginning level nursing students who were assigned to do their fundamentals of nursing clinical practice in hematology clinic from February to May 2011. A qualitative research method was used and data were analyzed using inductive method. Findings: Nursing students experienced anxiety, had difficulties while communicating with cancer patients and observed some negative practices related to patient care and treatment. Conclusions: During their clinical placement nursing students were able to differentiate right and wrong practices in clinical environment, they tried to tailor their theoretical knowledge to the clinical practice and reported decrease in their anxiety by the end of clinical rotation. Being assigned to care for cancer patients was a stressful experience for the first year students. According to these results, it can be said that clinics such as hematology can be used as a clinical placement only in mandatory conditions for beginning level nursing students because of their limited clinical experience and the knowledge requirement related to these patients.
Methylation of Secreted Frizzled Related Protein Gene in Acute Leukemia Patients in China
Shen, Jian-Zhen ; Xu, Cheng-Bo ; Fu, Hai-Ying ; Wu, Dang-Sen ; Zhou, Hua-Rong ; Fan, Li-Ping ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2617~2621
Background: DNA methylation of CpG islands within the promoters of specific genes may play roles in tumor initiation and progression. It has been suggested such events may serve as critical check points. Methods: The present study analyzed the methylation status of CpG islands within the promoters of secreted frizzled-related proteins (SFRPs) in 87 acute leukemia (AL) patients, 20 normal controls, and four AL cell lines. 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR), an inhibitor of DNA methylation, was employed to determine its effect on SFRP expression. Result: Methylation of at least one SFRP promoter was observed in 69% of the AL patients analyzed. In addition, methylation of all four SFRP promoters was observed in Molt-4, Jurkat, HL60 and NB4 cells. In Jurkat cells, methylation levels of four SFRP promoters decreased in a dose-dependent manner upon treatment with 5-Aza-CdR, which coincided with increased mRNA expression. With increasing 5-Aza-CdR concentrations, the expression of DNA methyltransferases, DNMT3A and DNMT3B, significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that SFRP gene methylation may be involved in AL progression, with a possible epigenetic mechanism influencing Wnt signaling.
Meta-analysis of ALDH2 Variants and Esophageal Cancer in Asians
Fang, Ping ; Jiao, Shunchang ; Zhang, Xin ; Liu, Zhefeng ; Wang, Hongzhen ; Gao, Yan ; Luo, Hao ; Chen, Tao ; Shi, Li ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2623~2627
Alcohol drinking is considered a risk factor for esophageal cancer, and exposure to high levels of acetaldehyde, the principal metabolite of alcohol, may be responsible. Individuals homozygous for the
variant allele of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) are unable to metabolize acetaldehyde, which prevents them from alcohol drinking, whereas those with
have a 6-fold higher blood acetaldehyde concentration postalcohol consumption with respect to
. We carried out a meta-analysis of ALDH2 and esophageal cancer searching for relevant studies on Asians in Medline and EMbase up to May 2011, and investigated the association between this genotype variation and esophageal cancer risk. A total of 2,697 cases and ,6344 controls were retained for the analysis. The pooled OR (95% CI) for
was 2.47 (95%CI: 1.76-3.46) compared with
showed a non-significant decreased risk for esophageal cancer with OR of 0.6 (0.26-1.38).
individuals showed a higher risk of esophageal cancer among moderate and heavy alcohol users [2.17(1.95-2.43) and 3.20(2.78-3.70), respectively]. Moderate drinkers with
showed strong esophageal cancer risk [OR(95%CI)=8.52(3.81-19.04)] compared with
carriers among heavy drinkers than non-drinkers and moderate drinkers (OR=7.05). Our finding showed that
genotype increases the risk of esophageal cancer, while the
genotype reduces the risk, presumably preventing people from consumption due to discomfort. Drinking clearly modifies the effect of ALDH2 on esophageal cancer risk in Asians.
A Higher Number of Circulating Tumor Cells (CTC) in Peripheral Blood Indicates Poor Prognosis in Prostate Cancer Patients - A Meta-analysis
Wang, Fu-Bin ; Yang, Xue-Qin ; Yang, Shuo ; Wang, Bi-Cheng ; Feng, Mao-Hui ; Tu, Jian-Cheng ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2629~2635
Objective: The prevalence of prostate cancer (PCa) is high and PCa is the most common cutaneous cancer in men worldwide. Despite extensive research efforts, very few biomarkers of PCa have been introduced to date in clinical practice. A meta-analysis was performed on the most recently reported CTC to assess its prognostic effect and to elucidate whether its detection in the peripheral blood of patients diagnosed with metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer (CPRC) and Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer (HRPC) can be used as a prognostic factor for survival. Methods: We searched Science Direct, EMBASE, PubMed, and Cell Research databases for studies that assessed the prognostic relevance of the presence number of circulating tumor cells (CTC) detection in the peripheral blood (PB). A fixed effects model with relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) is used for analysis. Results: A total of 4 studies, including 486 patients, were eligible for final analysis. Pooled analysis indicated the presence number of CTC per 7.5 ml peripheral blood is associated with a poor survival rate (RR=2.51, 95% CI 1.96-3.21). Conclusion: The unfavorable count (presence of 5 or more CTCs per 7.5 ml peripheral blood) was associated with poor overall survival in patients with PCa. CTC counts can be used as an accurate and independent predictor of survival rate in patients with PCa.
Changes in Biological and Virulent Characteristics of Helicobacter pylori Exposed to High Salt
Xu, Ying ; Jing, Jing-Jing ; Gong, Yue-Hua ; Xu, Qian ; Zhang, Wen-Lu ; Piao, Ying ; Wang, Yan-Li ; Yuan, Yuan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2637~2641
The effect of high salt environments on biological characteristics of Helicobacter pylori is still unclear. In the present study, we therefore investigated biological characteristics of the bacterium exposed to high salt concentrations. H. pylori strain, L301, was cultured in media supplemented with different concentrations (3%, 15% and 30%) of sodium chloride (NaCl) under microaerophilic conditions for 48 h. Morphology was assessed by light microscopy, the ATP content was quantitated by single-tube fluorescent light-emission and the levels of CagA and UreB proteins were determined by Western blotting. After exposure to NaCl, H. pylori transformed from common spiral shape to U or even coccoid shapes. The ATP content was significantly higher in 30% NaCl group than in 15% and 3% NaCl group and the level of CagA protein increased with the salt concentration. The urease reaction was all strongly positive in H. pylori exposed to different salt concentrations. The level of 8-OHdG expression was significantly increased in GES-1 cells co-cultured with H.pylori exposed to high salt, compared with the level in uninfected cells. H.pylori survives under exposure to high salt concentrations up to 30%, exhibiting changes in mobility, morphology and CagA expression, associated with increased 8-OHdG in the gastric epithelial cells, indicative of DNA damage.
Mammography Screening Uptake among Hospital Personnel in Kuala Lumpur Tertiary Hospital
Abdullah, NN ; Aziz, N Abd ; Rampal, S ; Al-Sadat, N ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2643~2647
Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Malaysia. Of the total cancer cases registered in the National Cancer Registry for 2006, 3,525 were female breast cancer cases. The overall age standardized rate was 39.3 per 100,000 population in 2006. An estimated 30%-40% were diagnosed in the late stages and this had resulted in poor survival rates. The purpose of the study was to determine the factors and barriers related to mammography screening uptake among hospital personnel. Methods: This mixed method explanatory study was carried out on a universal sampling of 707 female personnel aged 40 and above, from June 2007 until November 2007. The study was conducted at University Malaya Medical Centre, a tertiary hospital in Kuala Lumpur. Pre-tested self-administered questionnaires were mailed to eligible personnel. Results: The prevalence of mammography screening uptake was 80.3% (95%CI: 76.8%, 83.5%) among 534 respondents. Personnel who had physician recommendation had significantly higher odds of mammography screening uptake compared to those who did not have recommendation, adjusted odds ratio of 21.25 (95%CI:12.71, 36.56). Reported barriers can be grouped into several themes; negative perception of the procedure like embarrassment due to the presence of male technicians/radiographers; low confidence with radiologist/radiographers in detecting abnormality; lack of coping skills in dealing with expected results and pain during procedure. Conclusions: The findings of this study highlighted that 20% of personnel did not undertake mammography screening although there is no cost incurred and the procedure is fully accessible to them. Opportunistic recommendation by physician and concerns on the procedure should be addressed.
Prognosis of Gingival Squamous Cell Carcinoma Diagnosed after Invasive Procedures
Choi, Eun-Joo ; Zhang, Xianglan ; Kim, Hyung-Jun ; Nam, Woong ; Cha, In-Ho ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2649~2652
Gingival squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has a relatively poor prognosis, because differential diagnoses ofperiodontitis and osteomyelitis are difficult to exclude. As such, gingival SCC is usually diagnosed late, following invasive procedures such as extraction or curettage. The purpose of this study was to classify gingival SCC patients into two groups according to the location of their primary lesion: dentate and edentulous, and to determine the appropriate treatment strategy by comparing clinical and histological features as well as treatment results. The medical records of 76 patients diagnosed with gingival SCC andtreated at one institute from 1 January 1993 to 31 December 2007 were reviewed. The overall 5-year survival rate was 60.7%, and the mean survival was 98 months. Factors affecting survival included bone invasion of the primary lesion (p = 0.035), neck node metastasis (p = 0.001), and local recurrence (p = 0.000). The results suggest that more aggressive treatment, such as setting a broad surgical field and enforcing preventive neck dissection, can improve outcome, although they are associated with increased rate of cancer bone invasion and neck metastasis in patients diagnosed with cancer after receiving invasive procedures.
Altered Expression of miR-21 and PTEN in Human Laryngeal and Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinomas
Liu, Jun ; Lei, Da-Peng ; Jin, Tong ; Zhao, Xue-Ning ; Li, Guojun ; Pan, Xin-Liang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2653~2657
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the expression of mir-21 and phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) in laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas (LSCCs) and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (HSCCs), and assess correlations between the two as well as with clinical characteristics of patients. Methods: The expression of mir-21 in tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissues was investigated by real-time RT-PCR. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was carried out to analyze PTEN protein levels. Results: Mir-21 was up-regulated in LSCCs and HSCCs compared to adjacent non-tumor tissues (P < 0.05), and the up-regulated expression of mir-21 was associated with clinical stage (P = 0.001), T classification (P = 0.007), pathologic differentiation (P = 0.025), and lymph node positivity (P = 0.002). In contrast, PTEN IHC staining was notably weaker in tumor tissues than in matched non-tumor tissues (P < 0.05), and the down-regulated expression of PTEN was correlated with tumor staging (P = 0.025), the extent of tumor (P = 0.017), and lymph node positivity (P = 0.040). Furthermore, the level of mir-21 was reversely correlated with PTEN expression (P = 0.006). Conclusion: mir-21 and PTEN might play important roles in the progression of LSCC and HSCC, the two fcators demonstrating a negative correlation.
Feature Selection Methods for Optimizing Clinicopathologic Input Variables in Oral Cancer Prognosis
Chang, Siow-Wee ; Kareem, Sameem Abdul ; Kallarakkal, Thomas George ; Merican, Amir Feisal Merican Aljunid ; Abraham, Mannil Thomas ; Zain, Rosnah Binti ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2659~2664
The incidence of oral cancer is high for those of Indian ethnic origin in Malaysia. Various clinical and pathological data are usually used in oral cancer prognosis. However, due to time, cost and tissue limitations, the number of prognosis variables need to be reduced. In this research, we demonstrated the use of feature selection methods to select a subset of variables that is highly predictive of oral cancer prognosis. The objective is to reduce the number of input variables, thus to identify the key clinicopathologic (input) variables of oral cancer prognosis based on the data collected in the Malaysian scenario. Two feature selection methods, genetic algorithm (wrapper approach) and Pearson's correlation coefficient (filter approach) were implemented and compared with single-input models and a full-input model. The results showed that the reduced models with feature selection method are able to produce more accurate prognosis results than the full-input model and single-input model, with the Pearson's correlation coefficient achieving the most promising results.
Comparing Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid Plus Random Cervical Biopsy Plus Endocervical Curettage to Colposcopic Directed Biopsy Plus Endocervical Curettage in Detecting Cervical Lesions in Low-resource Settings
Puntachai, Pongsun ; Darojn, Darigar ; Chumworathayi, Bandit ; Chaousrikul, Wichian ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2665~2668
Objective: To compare the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of visual inspection with acetic acid directed cervical biopsy (VDB) in combination with random cervical biopsy (VRB) and endocervical curettage (ECC) to colposcopic directed biopsy (CDB) plus ECC in detecting cervical lesions (HSIL or more) in Thailand. Materials and Methods: A diagnostic-test study was carried out on 164 women with abnormal Pap smear at a tertiary care teaching hospital from March 2011 to June 2011. The women with abnormal Pap smears had further investigations such as; VDB and/or VRB, and CDB plus ECC, and/or loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP). Either VDB plus VRB plus ECC or CDB plus ECC, sometimes LEEP, were used to diagnose cervical lesions. Severest histopathology from any means was taken as the gold standard. Results: There were 158 patients included in analyses. The sensitivity of VDB plus VRB plus ECC to detect cervical lesions was 95.9% (95%CI, 91.4%-98.1%) compared to the sensitivity of CDB plus ECC of 97.3% (95%CI, 93.2%-98.9%). The two were very similar (mean difference -1.4%, 95%CI, -5.4%-2.6%, by Z-test). Conclusions: Thus VDB plus VRB plus ECC can substitute for CDB plus ECC in detecting cervical lesions in low-resource settings.
Impact of Body Image on Quality of Life and Mood in Mastectomized Patients and Amputees in Turkey
Akkaya, Nuray ; Atalay, Nilgun Simsir ; Selcuk, Selin Taflan ; Akkaya, Semih ; Ardıc, Fusun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2669~2673
Background: The aim was to investigate the impact of loss of the breast on body image, as well as the relationship of the body image with quality of life and severity of the depression, comparing mastectomized patients with those with an apparent limb loss (extremity amputation). Methods: Demographic data, and the side of the tissue/limb loss for mastectomy and transtibial amputation patients were recorded. Postoperative shoulder range of motion limitations of the operated-side in mastectomized patients, and postoperative knee flexion contracture in patients with amputation were evaluated. All patients were asked to complete Body Image Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and Short Form-36. Results: All of the 40 patients in the mastectomized group were female. In the amputation group, 4 (10.8%) patients were female and 33 (89.2%) were male. Body-image scores in mastectomized and amputation groups were
, respectively (p<0.05). Physical-function scores of quality-of-life were significantly lower in the amputation group. For both groups, a significant positive relationship was evident between body-image and depression (r=0.327 and r=0.574, respectively). There were also significant negative relationships between body-image and physical role limitations (r=-0.395) and mental health (r=-0.335) in the mastectomized group, and between body-image, and emotional role limitations in the amputation group (p<0.05). Conclusions: Although mastectomy does not result in loss of physical function, distortion of body image perception is worse than that caused by extremity amputation, and distortion of the body image affects the quality of life and mood negatively in mastectomized patients.
Mechanisms of TRAIL and Gemcitabine Induction of Pancreatic Cancer Cell Apoptosis
Zhao, Bin ; Li, Lu ; Cui, Kai ; Wang, Chang-Liang ; Wang, Ai-Liang ; Sun, Zi-Qiang ; Zhang, Bo ; Zhou, Wu-Yuan ; Niu, Zuo-Xing ; Tian, He ; Xue, Yan ; Li, Sheng ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2675~2678
The aim of this study was to investigate induction of apoptosis by the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and gemcitabine in the pancreatic cancer cell line SW1990. The sensitivity of SW1990 cells to TRAIL and/or gemcitabine-induced apoptosis and the rate of apoptosis were assessed by MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. We used Hoechst 33342 staining to observe apoptotic morphology and expression levels of proteins were analyzed by Western blottin. Growth inhibition and apoptosis rates on treatment with the combination of TRAIL and gemcitabine were significantly higher than with each drug alone (p<0.05). Pancreatic cancer cells exhibited a typical apoptosis morphology after treatment with TRAIL or gemcitabine. The levels of cellular apoptosis-associated proteins such as Smac/DIABLO, Cyto C, and the activated fragment of caspase-3 (P17) increased, but the expression of XIAP was significantly decreased after 24 h (p<0.05). SW1990 cells responded to TRAIL and/or gemcitabine-induction of apoptosis in a time and concentration-dependent manner. The mechanism of the apoptosis-sensitization effect appeared associated with significant up-regulation of Smac/DIABLO and cytochrome C, down-regulation of XIAP, and activation of caspase-3.
Crocin Inhibits Proliferation and Nucleic Acid Synthesis and Induces Apoptosis in the Human Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Line Tca8113
Sun, Jun ; Xu, Xiao-Meng ; Ni, Chen-Zhong ; Zhang, Hong ; Li, Xiao-Yu ; Zhang, Chao-Liang ; Liu, Yu-Rong ; Li, Sheng-Fu ; Zhou, Qi-Zhi ; Zhou, Hong-Mei ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2679~2683
Background: Cancer chemoprevention is a proven effective strategy for oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). The present study was designed to investigate the effects of crocin, a potential chemopreventive agent, on growth and DNA and RNA content in a human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line, Tca8113. Methods: Tca8113 cells were treated with crocin for 24, 48, 72, and 96 h at concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 mM. Tumor cell viability was investigated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. In addition, Tca8113 cells were treated with 0.4 mM crocin and cytotoxic effects as an inducer of apoptosis were analyzed using flow cytometry. Furthermore, acridine orange (AO) staining and observation using laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) were used to determine the effects of the drug on nucleic acid synthesis. Results: Crocin decreased Tca8113 cell viability and growth remarkably at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h, in a concentration-dependent manner (P<0.05). In addition, 0.4 mM crocin significantly induced both early and late apoptosis of Tca8113 cells. Moreover, the cellular DNA and RNA content was significantly downregulated by 0.4 mM crocin compared with the negative control (P<0.01). Conclusions: Our observations support the feasibility of applying crocin as a chemoprophylactic agent and treatment for OSCCs.
Vascular Events in Lung Cancer
Demirci, Nilgun Yilmaz ; Turay, Ulku Yilmaz ; Yilmaz, Aydin ; Erdogan, Yurdanur ; Biber, Cigdem ; Yucel, Havva ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2685~2687
Background and aims: In lung cancer, many factors have prognostic significance, including thrombocytosis, which is frequently observed. Associations between vascular events, which are the outcomes of paraneoplastic symptoms, and mortality and morbidity has been evaluated in many studies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between thrombocytosis and vascular events. Materials and Methods: In total, 281 patients, who were histopathologically diagnosed with lung cancer between March 2007 and August 2009, were evaluated retrospectively. Data analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software (ver. 11.5 for Windows). Analysis of the distribution of constant variance for normality was assessed using the Shapiro-Wilk test. Nominal variables were evaluated using Pearson's chi-squared or Fisher's exact chi-squared tests. Significant correlations between continuous variables were investigated using Spearman's correlation test. Results: Of the 281 patients, 234 (83.3%) were males and 47 (16.7%) were females, with a median age of 60.6 (31-83 years). Histopathologically, 40 (14.2%) were diagnosed with small-cell lung cancer and 241 (85.8%) with non-small cell lung cancer. In total, 17 (6.04%) vascular events were identified: 11 (64.7%) deep vein thromboses, three (17.6%) pulmonary thromboembolisms, one (5.9%) cerebral arterial thrombosis, and one (5.9%) vena cava superior thrombosis. Thrombocytosis was not determined during thrombosis, but during subsequent visits. Conclusions: Thrombocytosis is frequently observed in patients with lung cancer. Further prospective studies are required to evaluate the need for prophylactic anticoagulants in these patients. The association between vascular events and survival, the next step of the present study, will be evaluated prospectively.
Detection and Genotyping of High-Risk HPV and Evaluation of Anti-Oxidant Status in Cervical Carcinoma Patients in Tamil Nadu State, India - a Case Control Study
Nirmala, J Grace ; Narendhirakannan, RT ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2689~2695
Cervical cancer is the second common type of cancer among women worldwide, with the human papillomavirus (HPV) recognized as the major causative agent. The HPV 16/18 prevalance in cervical cancer patients from the Trichy and Coimbatore districts of Tamil Nadu state, India, was evaluated in addition to an assessment of oxidative stress and antioxidant status. MDA, GSH, GPx, GST, SOD, vitamin C and vitamin E were estimated in the plasma and erythrocytes of the twenty patients and an equal number of age matched normal subjects as controls. 119 paraffin embedded tissue samples were collected to perform DNA extraction and genotyping of HPV 16/18 using specific primers. Plasma and erythrocyte TBARS level was significantly elevated in the cervical cancer patients compared to normal. It was observed that SOD, GPx, GSH levels in the erythrocyte and plasma was significantly lower in cervical cancer patients, as well as GST and Vitamins E and C levels in the plasma and catalase enzyme levels in the erythrocytes. Genotyping showed 57% positive for HPV16 and 18% for HPV18, indicating that vaccination against these two will effectively reduce the burden associated with the disease. These findings suggest possible use of antioxidant supplementation as prophylactic agents for prevention and treatment of cervical cancer.
Protective Effects of Silymarin against Doxorubicin-induced Toxicity
Cecen, E ; Dost, T ; Culhaci, N ; Karul, A ; Ergur, B ; M, Birincioglu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2697~2704
Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of silymarin on doxorubicin-induced toxicity to the rat kidney, heart, and liver. Materials and methods: A single dose of 10 mg/kg doxorubicin was injected intraperitoneally (ip) in the doxorubicin group. The silymarin group received silymarin (100 mg/kg) every other day. In the doxorubicin + silymarin group, silymarin was injected ip at 100 mg/kg dose for 5 days before doxorubicin administration (10 mg/kg, single ip injection) and then continued daily thereafter until euthanization. On the seventh day after doxorubicin injection, eight animals from each group were decapitated and liver and heart samples were obtained. The remaining eight animals of each group continued to receive silymarin every other day, till euthanized on the twenty first day. Serum was separated for determination of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione perosidase (GSHPx), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), creatinine, urea, AST, ALT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) activities. Histopathological and electron microscopic examinations of heart, kidney and liver section were also performed. Results : Doxorubicin caused a significant increase in serum NO levels compared to controls. Silymarin pretreatment group lowered these. Histopathological and electron microscopic examinations of kidney, heart, and liver sections showed doxorubicin to cause myocardial and renal injury which was levv evident in silymarin treated rats. Conclusion(s): Results of the present study indicate that silymatin significantly protected doxorubicin-induced toxicities to the rat kidney, heart, and liver, thus suggesting its administration as a supportive care agent during anti-cancer treatment featuring doxorubicin.
Endostar Combined with Chemotherapy Versus Chemotherapy Alone for Advanced NSCLCs: A Meta-Analysis
Ge, Wei ; Cao, De-Dong ; Wang, Hui-Min ; Jie, Fang-Fang ; Zheng, Yong-Fa ; Chen, Yu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2705~2711
To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of rh-endostatin (Endostar) combined with chemotherapy in the treatment of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we selected data from the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Medline, SCI,CBM, CNKI, etc to obtain all clinical controlled trials, including the addition of endostar to chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC patients. The quality of included trials was evaluated by two reviewers independently. The software RevMan 5.0 was provided by Cochrane Collaboration and used for meta-analyses. Fifteen trials with 1335 patients were included according to the including criterion. All trials were randomized controlled trials, and two trials were adequate in reporting randomization. Thirteen trials didn't mention the blinding methods. Meta-analysis indicated that the NPE arm (Vinorelbine+ cisplatin+Endostar) had a different response rate compared with NP(Vinorelbine+ cisplatin) arm (OR2.16, 95%CI 1.57 to 2.99). The incidences of severe Leukopenia (OR0.94, 95%CI 0.66 to 1.32) and severe thrombocytopenia (OR 1.00, 95%CI 0.64 to 1.57) and Nausea and vomiting (OR 0.85, 95%CI 0.61 to 1.20) were similar in the NPE arm compared with those in the NP arm. The NPE plus radiotherapy(RT) arm had a similar response rate compared with NP plus RT arm (OR 2.39, 95%CI 0.99 to 5.79). The incidences of Leukopenia (OR0.83, 95%CI 0.35 to 1.94) and thrombocytopenia (OR 0.78, 95%CI 0.19 to 3.16) and radiation esophagitis (OR 1.00, 95%CI 0.40 to 2.49)were similar in the NPE plus RT arm compared with those in the NP plus RT arm. Our results suggest that in the treatment of advanced NSCLCs, Endostar in combination with platinum-based chemotherapy can improve the response rate without obviously increasing side effects.
The Antitumor Activity of Exogenous and Endogenous Canstatin on Colorectal Cancer Cells
Xing, Ya-Nan ; Liang, Hong-Wei ; Zhao, Li ; Xu, Hui-Mian ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2713~2716
Colorectal cancer is the third most common malignancy and the third-leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In the last several years, recombinant DNA technology has made cancer gene therapy feasible in the clinic. In our studies, we used both exogenous and endogenous canstatin, a type IV collagen genetically distinct product. We detected the effects of canstatin on colorectal cancer cells HCT-15 and HCT-116. DAPI staining, FCM and migration analyse were used to detect the apoptotic cells, cell cycle and mobility. As shown in the results, the apoptotic cell numbers (p<0.05) and G1 arrest cell numbers (p<0.05) were higher than in the non-treatment case. The mobility of the cells was also decreased obviously (p<0.05). Simultaneously, combination effects of exogenous and endogenous canstatin were identified.
Inhibition of Proliferation, Viability, Migration and Invasion of Gastric Cancer Cells by Aurora-A Deletion
Wang, Wei ; Zhang, Ning ; Wang, Jian ; Bu, Xian-Min ; Zhao, Cheng-Hai ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2717~2720
Accumulating evidence has demonstrated Aurora-A to be frequently overexpressed in many cancers, including gastric cancer. In order to study the effects of Aurora-A on gastric cancer cells, we detected the changes of cell phenotype after treatment with Aurora-A specific small interference RNA (siRNA). In addition, VX-680 was used simultaneously. RT-PCR and western-blot were used to determine the level of Aurora-A mRNA and protein in cells, including GES-1, SGC-7901, SGC-7901 lines treated with VX-680, SGC-7901 treated with DMSO, SGC-7901 interfered using siRNA and SGC-7901 interfered using scrambled RNAi. MTT, PI staining and transwell assays were used respectively to analyze proliferation, viability, and migration and invasion of the cells. The results showed that deletion of Aurora-A may inhibit proliferation and induce G1 arrest. The transwell assay indicated that Aurora-A may promote metastasis of gastric cancer. Collectively, our findings support Aurora-A as an oncogene in gastric cancer. Deletion of Aurora-A may have potential as a therapeutic method for gastric cancer.
Antitumor Activity of NF-
Decoy Oligodeoxynucleotides in a Prostate Cancer Cell Line
Fang, Yongqi ; Sun, Hongli ; Zhai, Jing ; Zhang, Yuanying ; Yi, Shuying ; Hao, Gangping ; Wang, Tao ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2721~2726
Background: Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-
), a transcription factor, is abundantly expressed in prostate cancer and regulates many tumor-related genes. Given the important roles of these genes in tumor control, the present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that there was different expression of NF-
in androgen-dependent or androgen-independent prostate cancer cells. In addition NF-
decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) were transfected into two prostate cancer cells to determine affects on growth and apoptosis. Methods: First, NF-
decoy ODNs were designed according to the NF-
elements in the promoter region of c-myc gene. Then, NF-
and control decoy ODNs were transfected with lipofectamine. Their influence on prostate cancer cell line proliferative activity was detected by MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was determined by flow cytometric(FCM) analysis and AO/EB study. Thirdly, nuclear extracts were prepared from PC-3M cells and DNA-protein interactions were examined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Lastly, to confirm mechanisms of action, a pGL3-C-MYC luciferase expression vector containing a fragment of the c-myc promoter was constructed and co-transfected with NF-
decoy ODNs into PC-3M cells with lipofectamineTM2000. Expression levels of related endogenous genes were assessed by western blotting. Results: We found overexpression of NF-
in the androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line PC-3M compared to the androgen-independent LNCaP. Treatment with NF-
decoy ODNs resulted in strong suppression of proliferation, especially in the PC-3M case. Induction of apoptosis of PC-3M was observed in FCM and AO/EB studies. Activity of luciferase was significantly reduced in the NF-
decoy-transfected cells, but not in cells transfected with a control decoy. Furthermore, we found that expression of some endogenous genes was reduced, while other genes transcripts were induced. EMSA demonstrated specific binding of the NF-
decoy to NF-
protein. Conclusions: These findings indicate that NF-
activation plays an important role in evolution of androgen-independent prostate cancer via manipulating expression of target genes. Inhibitors of NF-
may thus offer promise as a therapeutic approach for the treatment of androgen-independent prostate cancer. NF-
decoy ODNs may allow development of therapeutic and investigative tools for human malignancies.
Clinicopathological Features and Survival of Testicular Tumours in a Southeast Asian University Hospital: A Ten-year Review
Tan, GH ; Azrif, M ; Shamsul, AS ; Ho, CCK ; Praveen, S ; Goh, EH ; Bahadzor, B ; Ismail, F ; Zulkifli, MZ ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2727~2730
Introduction: Testicular cancer mainly affects young men worldwide. There is lack of published data on patients with this malignant condition from the Southeast Asian region. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the clinicopathologic features of testicular cancer patients treated in a Southeast Asian university hospital and their overall survival rate. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective study of testicular cancer patients treated between January 2001 and February 2011. Their epidemiological data, clinical presentation, pathologic diagnosis, stage of disease and treatment were gathered and the overall survival rate of this cohort was analyzed. Results: Thirty-one patients were included in this study. The majority of them were of Malay ethnicity. The average age at presentation was 33.7 years. The commonest testicular cancer was non-seminomatous germ cell tumour, followed by seminoma, lymphoma and rhabdomyosarcoma. More than half of all testicular germ cell tumour (GCT) patients had some form of metastasis at diagnosis. All the patients were treated with radical orchidectomy. Adjuvant chemotherapy was given to those with metastatic disease. Four seminoma patients received radiotherapy to the para-aortic lymph nodes. The 5-year survival rate for all testicular cancers in this cohort was 83.9%. The survival rate was 88.9% in 5 years when GCT were analyzed separately. Conclusion: GCT affects patients in their third and fourth decades of life while lymphoma patients are generally older. Most of the patients treated for GCT are of Malay ethnicity. The majority have late presentation for treatment. The survival rate of GCT patients treated here is comparable to other published series in other parts of the world.
Promoter Methylation and Genetic Polymorphism of Glutathione S-Transferase P1 Gene (GSTP1) in Thai Breast-cancer Patients
Pongtheerat, Tanett ; Pakdeethai, Supparit ; Purisa, Wichai ; Chariyalertsak, Sunanta ; Petmitr, Songsak ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2731~2734
The GSTP1 gene encodes for a detoxification enzyme involved in protecting cells from carcinogens. In breast cancer, GSTP1 polymorphisms may produce lower effective enzyme detoxification properties and GSTP1 promoter hypermethylation may result in inactivation of GSTP1 expression. We therefore hypothesized an influence on progression of breast cancer. To study the effect of GSTP1 polymorphisms and CpG-island hypermethylation on GSTP1 promoter, PCR-RFLP and methylation-specific PCR techniques were used with 41 Thai breast-cancer patients. Associations between the codon 105 (A to G) genetic polymorphism, CpG-island hypermethylation, and clinico-pathological parameters were analyzed. GSTP1 hypermethylation was found in 26% of cases and the GSTP1 polymorphism in 14%. GSTP1 hypermethylation was significantly associated with breast cancer; lymph-node metastasis (P = 0.02) while GSTP1 polymorphism status significantly varied with progesterone receptor positivity (P = 0.04). No association was found between the GSTP1 polymorphism and methylation status. The results indicated that CpG-island hypermethylation of the GSTP1 promoter is associated with a biologically aggressive phenotype, but may not be related to the codon 105 (A to G) gene polymorphism in breast-cancer patients.
The Impact of Mammographic Breast Cancer Screening in Singapore: A Comparison Between Screen-detected and Symptomatic Women
Wang, Wei Vivian ; Tan, Su Ming ; Chow, Wai Leng ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2735~2740
Background: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death amongst Singapore women. There are few studies evaluating the impact of mammographic screening among Asian women. This study aimed to examine differences in disease stage at presentation and outcome between breast cancer patients who were detected by screening (screen-detected) and those who presented symptomatically (symptomatic) from the experience of a regional hospital in Singapore. We also sought to identify the demographic profile of patients who were less likely to be screen detected. Methods: Retrospective data fpr female patients diagnosed with primary breast cancer and treated from January 2002 - December 2008 were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to examine the profile of symptomatic as opposed to screen-detected patients and factors that influence presentation at an early disease stage. Survival and recurrence rates were computed by Kaplan-Meier method and compared by log rank test. Results: The study population consisted of 82 screen-detected and 679 symptomatic patients. The screen-detected patients were more likely to present at an earlier stage and have better overall cancer-specific survival as compared to symptomatic patients. Malay women and those without a family history of breast cancer were less likely to be detected by screening. Conclusions: Mammographic screening appeared to enable the detection of oncologically more favorable lesions and conferred better overall cancer-specific survival in Singapore women. There is possibly room for more targeted education efforts to reach out to Malay women and those without a family history of breast cancer to enable earlier disease detection among these individuals through regular breast cancer screening.
Loss of Heterozygosity at 6p21 and HLA Class I Expression in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinomas in China
Zhao, Xiaogang ; Sun, Qifeng ; Tian, Hui ; Cong, Bo ; Jiang, Xingtao ; Peng, Chuanliang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2741~2745
Background and objective: The loss or downregulation of human leukocyte antigen ( HLA-I) has been proposed to contribute to immune evasion by cancer cells. Since the human leukocyte antigen (HLA-I) complex is located at 6p21.3, loss of heterozygosity of this region may alter HLA class I tumor phenotypes. The aim of this study was to analysis loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of chromosome 6p in ESCC samples and correlate this with HLA class I expression. Materials and methods: A total of 87 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embeded and frozen-fresh of ECSS lesions were collected. HLA-I and antigen-processing machinery component expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry with anti-HLA class I monoclonal antibody and a panel of 49 ESCCs with downregulated HLA class I expression wereselected for LOH studies using 3 microsatellite markers located at 6p21.3 (D6S105,D6S265,D6S273). Results: HLA-I antigen, TAP1 and LMP were lost or down-regulated in 57.5, 29.8 and 47.0% of the ESCC lesions, respectively. In 23/49(46.9%) of the ESCCs, allelic loss for at least one locus at 6p21.3 was found. Conclusions: Our data show that downregulation of HLA class I expression is correlated with loss of heterozygosity regions at 6p21.3 in ESCC.
Interaction Between CYP19A1 Polymorphisms and Body Mass Index in the Risk of Endometrial Cancer in Postmenopausal Japanese Women
Hosono, Satoyo ; Matsuo, Keitaro ; Ito, Hidemi ; Watanabe, Miki ; Hirose, Kaoru ; Nakanishi, Toru ; Tajima, Kazuo ; Tanaka, Hideo ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2747~2752
Extra-ovarian sex hormone production plays an important role in endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women. Aromatase, which is encoded by CYP19A1, is a key enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis after menopause. To examine the association between polymorphisms in CYP19A1 and endometrial cancer risk among postmenopausal Japanese women, we conducted a hospital-based case control study in 48 patients with histologically diagnosed incident endometrial cancer and 253 non-cancer control subjects. Information on lifestyle factors was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. Twenty-five tag SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) of CYP19A1 were examined by TaqMan methods and haplotype blocks were identified by LD analysis. Associations were assessed by an unconditional logistic regression model adjusted for potential confounders. We found no significant association between CYP19A1 genotypes and haplotypes and endometrial cancer risk. However, among women with a BMI (body mass index) >23, significantly positive associations were observed for rs2899473, rs1865803, rs16964220, rs2008691, rs17647707, rs17647719, rs1902586, rs936306, and rs1004982, while negative associations were seen for rs1902585, rs752760 and rs2445768. These showed significant interactions with BMI. Further, of the six haplotype blocks identified, the haplotype CTT of block 1, GATA of block 5 and CA of block 6 showed statistically significant interactions with BMI. These results suggest that CYP19A1 polymorphisms might play an important role in the etiology of endometrial cancer, and that the effect of these polymorphisms might be influenced by BMI.
Association and Correlation of Different Chemotherapeutic Regimens and Doses With Onset and Severity of Anemia Among Solid Cancer Patients
Hassan, Bassam Abdul Rasool ; Yusoff, Zuraidah Binti Mohd ; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi ; Othman, Saad Bin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2753~2758
Introduction: Anemia is considered as one of the most frequent hematological demonstration of malignant diseases, which lead to momentous impairment in every tissues and organs of cancer patients and put them under serious stress. This major problem may arise because of the underlining diseases (i.e., cancer diseases) or radiotherapy or chemotherapy treatment received. This present study tries to find the association between anemia onset and severity with different chemotherapeutics regimens used in the treatment of several solid cancers and to find the association of anemia onset and severity with different doses of these chemotherapeutics drugs. Methods: This retrospective observational study was conducted in Penang General Hospital on 534 anemic solid cancer patients who were admitted between 2003 and 2009. The main statistical tests used were Chi-square test and Logistic regression test for categorical data. While for continues data the main statistical tests were Linear regression and correlation test. The significance of the result will be when the P < 0.05, while the confidence interval for this study was 95%. Results: FEC, 5-FU+5-FU, Docetaxel and Cisplatin+ 5-FU regimen has strong association and correlation with anemia onset and severity. However the associations and correlations with anemia severity were stronger than those with the onset. Different doses of 5-FU, cyclophosphamide, docetaxel and cisplatin play a critical role in anemia onset and severity. Conclusion: Monitoring and determination of hemoglobin levels for cancer patients treated with FEC, 5-FU+5-FU, Docetaxel, Cisplatin+ 5-FU specifically with high doses must be emphasized and a focus of particular attention.
Lansoprazole Induces Collagenous Colitis in the Colon of Mongolian Gerbils
Mizushima, Takashi ; Mizoshita, Tsutomu ; Sasaki, Makoto ; Tanida, Satoshi ; Tsukamoto, Hironobu ; Shimura, Takaya ; Kanematsu, Takayoshi ; Kataoka, Hiromi ; Kamiya, Takeshi ; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya ; Tatematsu, Masae ; Joh, Takashi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2759~2762
Collagenous colitis (CC) is an illness characterized by chronic diarrhea with possible effects on neoplastic development, but there have been no reports in animals. We therefore tried to establish CC development in a Mongolian gerbil (MG) model by long-term continuous lansoprazole (LPZ) administration and aimed to clarify the relationship between LPZ administration and CC occurrence. We divided 69 gerbils into 6 groups: Helicobacter pylori (Hp)-infected+high-dose LPZ, Hp-infected+low-dose-LPZ, Hp-infected, high-dose-LPZ, low-dose-LPZ, and control. The gerbils were sacrificed and entire colons were excised at experimental weeks 27, 54, and 108. We examined colonic lesions by staining of Swiss-roll intestines pathologically. A total of 3 gerbils had CC-like lesions in the proximal colon. All MGs with CC-like lesions were from LPZ treated groups (3 of 35; 8.6%). The thickened subepithelial collagen band detected in these lesions strongly resembled that of human CC lesions. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated a tendency for more chromogranin A-positive cells in the upper layer of colonic crypt following continuous LPZ administration. In conclusion, we successfully established development of CC-like lesions in an MG model by continuous LPZ administration and determined that the ectopic endocrine cells that were induced by LPZ administration may influence the occurrence of these lesions in the colon.
Mortality of Oral Cavity Cancer in Iran
Fazeli, Zeinab ; Pourhoseingholi, Mohamad Amin ; Pourhoseingholi, Asma ; Vahedi, Mohsen ; Zali, Mohammad Reza ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2763~2766
Background: Oral cavity cancer is the eighth most frequent cancer among men in the world. Its incidence varies widely geographically and two-thirds of the incident cases are diagnosed in developing countries. The aim of this study was to present the mortality trends from this cancer for Iranian population during a period of almost a decade, in order to provide update information regarding time trends for this cancer. Methods: We analyzed National death Statistics reported by the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education from 1995 to 2004, stratified by age group, sex, and cause of death. Oral cavity cancer [ICD-10; C00-08] was assessed for annual mortality rates/100,000, overall, by sex and by age group (<15, 15-49 and
years of age) and age standardized rates (ASR) were calculated. Results: The age standardized mortality rate of oral cavity cancer increased dramatically during these years from 0.09 per 100,000 in 1995 to 0.59 per 100,000 in 2002. However, a sharp decrease was observed from 2002 to 2004. Moreover the mortality of oral cavity cancer was higher for males except from 2000-2002 during which the rate of female's death was close to male's. Age specific rates for oral cavity cancer indicated higher mortality rate for older age. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study provides comprehensive projection for burden of death due to oral cavity cancer, indicating that the trend of its mortality was increased in recent decade and then would be leveled off. Whilethe burden of oral cavity cancer in Iran is lower than other Asian countries, further studies are required to establish risk factors or modifiers for this cancer in Iranian population in order to decrease its incidence and mortality.
Lack of Germ Line Changes in KISS1 and KAI1 Genes in Sporadic Head and Neck Cancer Patients of Pakistani Origin
Nazir, M ; Kayani, MR ; Malik, Faraz Arshad ; Masood, Nosheen ; Kayani, Mahmood Akhtar ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2767~2771
Background: Head and neck cancer is included among the top five most commonly prevailing cancers worldwide. Abnormalities of either genetic or epigenetic factors are found responsible for the development and progression of head and neck cancer. Metastasis is the leading cause of death in patients with head and neck cancer. Down regulation of metastasis suppressor genes (MSGs) expression have been frequently observed in advanced tumours. Methodology: The present study was designed to screen two of the most frequently down-regulated MSGs (KISS1and KAI1) for mutations in 120 diagnosed head and neck cancer affected Pakistani patients. The questionnaire was filled for basic information about age, gender, smoking habits and area of cancer affected and other relevant details. Primers for both genes were designed using "Primer 3" software in such a way that both intron exon boundaries were included in this region. DNA isolation and estimation was done by using organic method and agarose gel electrophoresis. Single Strand conformational polymorphism technique was used after amplification of the respective genes. Mobility patterns were analyzed using BioDoc Analyzer. Results: Data of patients were analyzed on the basis of age, sex and type of cancer as variables. The mean age of patients and controls was 44 years. There were 53% females and 47% males in this group of study, 63% nonsmokers and 37% smokers and larynx cancer was found to be most frequent type of cancer with a percentage of 64. Lack of germ line mutation was observed in the entire coding region in both coding regions as well as splice sites of the respective genes.Conclusion: Germ line mutations in KISS1 and KAI1 are thus considered to be a less frequent event in head and neck cancer patients. However, two polymorphisms in intronic region of exon 3 and exon 9 of KAI1 gene were observed in 1% of patients. In non coding region downstream of exon 3 (KAI1), there was a C 29166 T substitution and in intronic region upstream exon 9 of KAI1 gene, a C 52840 A substitution was observed. Both patients were females with ages 47 and 50 years respectively. A detailed analysis of regulatory mechanism is required to explore the genetic basis of down regulation of these MSGs for a better understanding of head and neck cancer progression.
Genetic Changes in the PTEN Gene and their Association with Breast Cancer in Pakistan
Baig, Ruqia Mehmood ; Mahjabeen, Ishrat ; Sabir, Maimoona ; Masood, Nosheen ; Hafeez, Saniya ; Malik, Faraz Arshad ; Kayani, Mahmood Akhtar ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2773~2778
The PTEN gene, a candidate tumor suppressor, is one of the more commonly inactivated and extensively studied genes in cancer. However, few data are available about the role of germ line mutations of this gene in sporadic breast cancer cases. The purpose of this study was to determine extent of involvement of this gene in breast cancer in Pakistan. To test the hypothesis that genetic variations of PTEN play a role in the etiology of breast cancer, a population based case-control study was conducted in 350 breast cancer patients along 400 healthy controls. After extracting DNA from blood, the whole coding sequence of PTEN along with intron/exon boundaries was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-single stranded conformational polymorphism. Sequencing analysis revealed nineteen different types of mutations in different regions of PTEN (in exon 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 and splicing sites of intron 2 and 4 and also in the 3' UTR region), including 3 silent, 8 missense, 2 frame shift and 6 splice site variations. Among the observed variations in this study, three missense mutations have already been reported i.e. 319G>A (Asp106Asn), 389G>A (Arg129Gln) and 482G>A (Arg160Lys) in different populations. The present results suggest that a wide range of germline PTEN mutations may play a role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer.
OGG1 Gene Sequence Variation in Head and Neck Cancer Patients in Pakistan
Mahjabeen, Ishrat ; Baig, Ruqia Mehmood ; Masood, Nosheen ; Sabir, Maimoona ; Malik, Faraz Arshad ; Kayani, Mahmood Akhtar ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2779~2783
In Pakistani culture tobacco use is very high and a well known risk factor for developing head and neck cancer (HNC), tobacco smoke containing high quantities of chemical carcinogens such as aromatic amines and reactive oxygen species. OGG1 is the primary enzyme in the base excision repair (BER) pathway, responsible for the excision of 7, 8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine, a mutagenic base byproduct that occurs as a result of exposure to reactive oxygen species. Groups of 300 already diagnosed HNC patients along with normal controls were included in this study. PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism and DNA sequencing were used to analyze the whole coding region of OGG1 gene. Sequence analysis revealed eight novel mutations (six missense and two frame shift mutations). Frequencies of missense mutations, Asp267Asn, Ser279Gly and Ile253Phe were 0.12, 0.13 and 0.06 respectively. Frequencies of other missense mutations, 1578A>T, 1582C>T and Ala399Glu (1542C>A) were 0.13, 0.13 and 0.16, whereas values for the frame shift mutations 1582insG and 1543_1544delCT were 0.13 and 0.16. In our study, incidence of these mutations was found higher in oral cancers (p<0.002) and in smokers (p<0.002) when compared with other sites of HNC and nonsmokers, respectively. Our finding suggests that these germline mutations in OGG1 gene contribute to risk of developing HNC.
Expressional Alterations and Transcript Isoforms of Metastasis Suppressor Genes (KAI1 & KiSS1) in Breast Cancer Patients
Mooez, S ; Malik, FA ; Kayani, MA ; Rashid, R ; Zahid, A ; Khan, A ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2785~2791
Background: Metastasis suppressor genes are involved in the inhibition of a cancer cell's ability to metastasize. Down expression of such genes may contribute to pathogenesis of breast cancer. The aim of current study was firstly to evaluate expression of two examples, KAI1 and KISS1, and then to determine relationships with stages of breast cancer in a Pakistani population. Methodology: Fresh biopsy tissues were collected from different hospitals and oncology research institutes. The semi quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used to investigate KAI1 and KISS1 expression in 25 breast tumor tissues and 25 normal tissues. Statistical analysis was performed to explore its association with breast cancer risk. Results: The present study revealed that KAI1 and KISS1 mRNA expression was markedly reduced in tissues of breast cancer compared to adjacent normal tissue. In present study a splice variant of KAI1 during a screen for its expression analysis was also observed. This splice variant has not been reported previously. Conclusions: Metastasis suppressor genes demonstrate reduced expression in breast cancers in Pakistan.
Biliary Brush Cytology in the Assessment of Biliary Strictures at a Tertiary Center in Iran
Alizadeh, Mohammad Amir Houshang ; Mousavi, Mirhadi ; Salehi, Babak ; Molaei, Mahsa ; Khodadoostan, Mahsa ; Afzali, Esmaeil Shamsi ; Dadvar, Zohreh ; Mirsattari, Dariush ; Aghdaei, Hamid Asadzadeh ; Lahmi, Farhad ; Zali, Mohammad Reza ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2793~2796
Background: Confirmation of cholangiocarcinoma and other malignant bile duct stenosis is challenging. The aim of the current study was to assess the accuracy of brush cytology for diagnosis of malignant biliary strictures. Methods: 105 patients with hepatic biliary strictures undergoing ERCP were included in this study. Prospectively collected data included symptoms, results of biochemical testing and imaging procedures, as well as details of ERCP. Exclusion criteria were: 1) strictures that would not permit passage of guidewire and brush accession; and 2) post-operative strictures. Brushings of the bile duct strictures were performed. All patients were followed for at least 6 months. The final diagnosis was confirmed following surgery, histopathological diagnosis of the lesion, radiological infiltration of adjacent organs or metastases, or after at least a 6-month follow-up. Results: 88 brush samples from 88 patients were of appropriate quality. The overall diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for malignant nature of biliary strictures were 40.7% and 100%, respectively. The sensitivity was 66.6 % for ampullary carcinomas, 36.3% for pancreatic cancer and 32.5% for cholangiocarcinomas. Conclusions: Despite the low sensitivity, due to the relative ease and safety, brush cytology should remain the first choice for diagnosis of causes of biliary strictures.
Weekly TP Regimen as a Postoperative Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Completely Resected Breast Cancer in China: Final Result of a Phase II Trial
Huang, Xin-En ; Li, Cheng-Guang ; Li, Yin ; Lu, Yan-Yan ; Tang, Jin-Hai ; Xiang, Jin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2797~2800
Objectives: To investigate the safety and long-term survival with weekly paclitaxel combined with cisplatin (wTP) as a postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy regimen for breast cancer. Methods: Patients with breast cancer were treated postoperatively with paclitaxel
intravenously on days 1, 8 and 15, cisplatin
also intravenously on days 1,8 and 15, repeated every 21-28 days as a cycle. Toxicity and survival rate were evaluated after chemotherapy. Results: Between September 1993 and August 2001, 20 patients were enrolled. Median age was 52 years (range, 35-71 years). According to the TNM stage system, all patients were staged II or III. Median number of chemotherapy cycles was 3 (range, 1-6), and 10 patients received 4 to 6 cycles of wTP. After a median follow-up of 83 months, 2 deaths and 6 relapses were documented. The five year overall survival rate was 90%. All patients could be evaluated with regard to toxicity. No treatment related deaths were recorded. Neutropenia occurred in 75% of patients during treatment, all recovering after G-CSF injection. Other symptoms included nausea/vomiting, elevation of transaminase, urea nitrogen/creatinine and alopecia. Conclusions: wTP is safe and effective at the doses tested. However, a randomized clinical trial is needed to compare wTP with other conventional adjuvant regimens of breast cancer postoperatively.
Insufficient Screening Knowledge in Chinese Interns: A Survey in Ten Leading Medical Schools
Deng, Lei ; Na, Fei-Fei ; Wang, Jing-Wen ; Meng, Mao-Bin ; He, Hong-Yan ; Yang, Jun-Jie ; Jian, Yu-Su ; Wu, Jun-Jiao ; Ding, Jie ; Xie, Duo ; Liu, Yue ; Mu, Xiao-Min ; Li, Yu-Fei ; Chen, Yan ; Lu, You ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2801~2806
Objective: This study aimed to investigate Chinese medical interns' cancer knowledge and associated factors, focusing on cancer screening. Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted in ten leading Chinese medical schools from June to July in 2011. Medical interns were invited to fill the questionnaire. Results: Out of the 1350 copies sent, 1135 eligible responses were returned. Around 50% of interns had positive attitude toward oncology, but the knowledge score was low, particularly in screening. The percentages of scores were 44.8% (8.95/20) for overall and only 29.6% (2.07/7) for screening. The majority of internship length in oncology department was eight to fourteen days. Screening and prevention was ranked as third most taught, following diagnosis and treatment. Multivariate analysis showed that positive attitude to oncology correlated with positive self-evaluated overall (OR = 1.76, 95% CI (1.45, 2.12)] and screening [OR = 1.62, 95% CI (1.35, 1.95)] competence, but unexpectedly predicted lower screening score [OR = 0.77, 95% CI (0.61, 0.97)]. Interns with positive self-evaluated screening competence were not found to possess higher cancer screening knowledge. Conclusion: Current medical education in Chinese medical schools fails to equip interns with optimal cancer knowledge, particularly in screening, even in interns who hold positive view to oncology. Interns' self-evaluated competence is not proportional to their knowledge scores.
Never Smokers with Lung Cancer: Analysis of Genetic Variants
Xiao, Haijun ; Ding, Jie ; Gao, Shan ; Yang, Shujuan ; Huang, Yuchuan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 10, 2011, Pages 2807~2809
It is well-known that tobacco smoke is a definite causative agent important for human health. Epidemiological research has proven that smoking is a cause of various serious and fatal diseases. However, never-smokers comprise a high proportion of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. To determine whether lung cancer patients in never smokers have different genetic mutations from their counterparts in smokers, we comprehensively searched the Cochrane Library, Medline and EMbase from 1966 to Jun 2010 for the following terms: ("non-smoker" or "never-smoker") and ("lung cancer") and ("gene") limited to English and clinical trials. Although a significant fraction of lung cancers in never smokers may also be attributable to tobacco, many such cancers arise in the absence of detectable tobacco exposure, and may follow a very different molecular pathway of malignant formation, including EGFR gene mutation, P53 mutation and metabolic gene CYP1AIIle462Val polymorphism. These genes will help doctors to separate never-smoker lung cancer from smokers, and may present promising targets for therapy of never-smoker lung cancers. Future efforts should focus on further delineation of underlying biologic differences, identifying potential non-tobacco-related risk factors, and refining treatment strategies for different groups of lung cancerpatients.