Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevetion
Editor in Chief :
Malcolm A Moore
Volume & Issues
Volume 12, Issue 12 - Dec 2011
Volume 12, Issue 11 - Nov 2011
Volume 12, Issue 10 - Oct 2011
Volume 12, Issue 9 - Sep 2011
Volume 12, Issue 8 - Aug 2011
Volume 12, Issue 7 - Jul 2011
Volume 12, Issue 6 - Jun 2011
Volume 12, Issue 5 - May 2011
Volume 12, Issue 4 - Apr 2011
Volume 12, Issue 3 - Mar 2011
Volume 12, Issue 2 - Feb 2011
Volume 12, Issue 1 - Jan 2011
Selecting the target year
Enhanced Induction of Anti-tumor CTLs in Vitro by a Lentivirus-transduced dendritic Cell Vaccine Expressing Secondary Lymphoid Tissue Chemokine and Mucin 1
Wang, Bin ; Zhu, Yi ; Zhang, Jing-Jing ; Chen, Zheng ; Liang, Wen-Biao ; Xu, Ze-Kuan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 2811~2817
Aims: Dendritic cell (DC)-based cancer immunotherapy requires an immunogenic tumor associated antigen (TAA) and an effective strategy for its presentation to lymphocytes. Here, we explored whether transduction of DCs with lentiviruses (LVs) expressing a fusion protein of secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine (SLC) and mucin 1 (MUC1) could stimulate antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) to human cancer cells in vitro. Materials and methods: HLA-A2+ peripheral blood monocyte-derived DCs were transduced with recombinant lentiviruses at different multiplicities of infection (MOI), and MUC1, SLC or SLC-MUC1 mRNA and protein were detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Transduction efficiencies and phenotypes of DCs were evaluated by flow cytometry. Induction of T lymphocyte proliferation by DCs was examined with a Cell Count Kit-8 (CCK-8). CTL activities against tumor cells were analyzed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) cytotoxicity and enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays. Results: Stable expression of MUC1, SLC and SLC-MUC1 was obtained in DCs transduced with recombinant LVs, and the transduction efficiencies were dose-dependent. Transduction with LVs did not appreciably change the DC phenotype. CTL induced by LV MUC1 DCs potently and specifically lysed the HLA-A2+, MUC1+ colon cancer cell line HCT-116. Moreover, this cytolytic activity against HCT-116 was enhanced with CTL stimulated by LV SLC-MUC1 DCs. Conclusions: DCs transduced with MUC1 could induce effective cytolytic activity against tumor cells in an antigen-specific and HLA-restricted fashion in vitro, and SLC promoted MUC1-specific anti-tumor activity. The transduction of DCs with LV SLC-MUC1 may be a promising strategy in DC-based cancer immunotherapy.
MicroRNA-663 Targets TGFB1 and Regulates Lung Cancer Proliferation
Liu, Zhi-Yong ; Zhang, Guang-Ling ; Wang, Mei-Mei ; Xiong, Ya-Nan ; Cui, He-Qin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 2819~2823
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in many different cellular processes, including metabolism, apoptosis, differentiation, and development. In this study, miR-663 was shown to be highly expressed in patients with lung cancer. Furthermore, miR-663 contributed to lung cancer cell proliferation of by regulating TGFB1, P53, Bax, and Fas directly or indirectly. Our results demonstrated that miR-663 plays an important role in the biology of lung cancer and may be useful in developing therapies targeting genes.
Prevalence and Characteristics of Anemia in Patients with Solid Cancers at Diagnosis in Southwest China
Gao, Feng ; Cheng, Ke ; Zhao, Feng ; Chen, Ye ; Li, Long-Hao ; Dong, Hang ; Men, Hai-Tao ; Ge, Jun ; Tang, Jie ; Ding, Jing ; Chen, Xin ; Su, Jing-Mei ; Liu, Ji-Yan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 2825~2828
Purpose: Cancer-related anemia is common and may have myriad causes, but the physiological consequences of a low hemoglobin level are similar. Besides chemotherapy-induced anemia, it is also important to understand the anemia in treatment-naive patients, which may represent a consequence of cancer itself and/or cancer complications, and this may help assess anemia risk and facilitate appropriate treatment. The purpose of this study was to analyze the prevalence and characteristics of anemia in solid cancer patients at diagnosis in a Chinese population. Methods: 1133 patients with newly diagnosed cancers who were admitted to West China Hospital of Sichuan University during January 2010 to May 2011 met the inclusion criteria. Data on age, gender, change of food intake, the diagnosis and the stage of the tumor, bleeding history, the locations of metastasis, and blood cell analysis were searched and analyzed. Results: Prevalence of anemia at diagnosis of cancers was 18.98% in unclassified cancers. Gastric cancers, colorectal cancers, and hepatopancreatobiliary cancers occupied the first three ranks in the cohort. Age, decreased food intake, and bleeding history were identified as independent risk factors for anemia occurrence. Furthermore, decreased food intake was found to be also associated with the severity of anemia. Conclusion: Our analysis described the prevalence and risk factors of anemia in new diagnosed solid cancer patients in China. To deal with cancer-related anemia, we suggest that it should be important to improve food intake and nutrition, while controlling bleeding, especially in elderly patients.
Quercetin Mediated Reduction of Angiogenic Markers and Chaperones in DLA-Induced Solid Tumours
Anand, Kushi ; Asthana, Pallavi ; Kumar, Anup ; Ambasta, Rashmi K ; Kumar, Pravir ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 2829~2835
Diet-derived flavonoids, in particular quercetin, may play advantageous roles by preventing or/and inhibiting oncogenesis. Evidence suggests that quercetin can elicit various properties depending on the cell type. The aim of this study was to evaluate its effects on Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA) induced solid tumours and to identify the target(s) of action. We addressed this question by inducing subcutaneous solid tumours in Swiss albino mice and investigated whether the quercetin affects essential biological processes that are responsible for tumour growth, morphology, angiogenesis and apoptosis. We also studied influence on several heat shock proteins (HSPs). Our findings demonstrate that intra-tumour administration of quercetin results in decreased volume/weight. Furthermore, we demonstrate that quercetin promotes apoptosis of cancer cells by down-regulating the levels of Hsp90 and Hsp70. Depletion of these two chaperones by quercetin might result in triggering of caspase-3 in treated tumours. Moreover, it also down-regulated the expression of major key angiogenic or pro-angiogenic factors, like HIF-
and VEGF In addition, H&E staining together with immunofluorescence of fixed tumour tissue provided evidence in support of increased cell death in quercetin -treated mice.
Relationship Between Soy Food Intake and Breast Cancer in China
Zhu, Yan-Yun ; Zhou, Lei ; Jiao, Shun-Chang ; Xu, Liang-Zhi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 2837~2840
Aims: Soy food intake may be associated with reduced risk of breast cancer, by far the most frequent cancer among women, but the results are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the relationship further in Chinese population and to assess the importance of hormone receptor status. Methods: A case-control study was conducted with totals of 183 cases and 192 controls recruited from January 2008 to January 2011 among patients admitted to the General Hospital of PLA and the Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, China. Trained interviewers conducted face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire to collect information on dietary habits and potential confounding factors. Results: The highest relative to lowest soy isoflavone intake was associated with a 58% decrease risk of breast cancer (OR=0.42, 95% CI=0.22-0.80). Higher consumption of soy protein also decreased breast cancer risk, and the highest consumption reduced 54% cancer risk compared with the lowest (OR=0.46, 95%CI=0.24-0.88). The inverse association between highest intake of soy isoflavone and soy protein with the risk of breast cancer was statistically in postmenpausal women (OR=0.57, 95%CI=0.29-0.83; OR=0.50, 95%CI=0.38-0.95). In the ER/PR status stratified analysis, a significantly reduced risk was observed for ER+/PR+ breast cancer among highest intake of soy isoflavone and soy protein, with ORs of 0.47 and 0.63, respectively. Conclusion: Our study suggested that a high intake of soy food is inversely associated with breast cancer risk, the effect depending to some extent on the hormone receptor status.
Treatment Patterns and Outcomes in Management of Solid Cancer Patients Suffering from Thrombocytopenia in Penang Hospital
Hassan, Bassam Abdul Rasool ; Yusoff, Zuraidah Binti Mohd ; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi ; Othman, Saad Bin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 2841~2845
Introduction: Thrombocytopenia denotes abnormal decreases in platelet numbers and is a major detrimental side effect of the chemotherapy or cancer disease itself which cal lead to hemorrhage from vital organ. This is particularly a problem for the brain specifically within solid cancer patients and has a great negative effect on cancer patients quality of life (QOL). It ranges from mild bleeding from small blood vessels to severe bleeding from large blood vessels. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment guidelines for thrombocytopenia among solid cancer patients in Penang hospital and to find associations between these treatments and thrombocytopenia onset and severity and to suggest changes in the guidelines. Methods: This retrospective observational study, conducted in a government hospital on Penang island included 341 cancer patients with thrombocytopenia who were admitted in the period between 2003 to 2009. The main statistical tests used were Chi-square test and Logistic regression test. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: Of the total of 341, 21 (6.2%) showed thrombocytopenia before receiving chemotherapy and the remaining 320 (93.8%) after chemotherapy. The majority suffered from moderate thrombocytopenia (n=172; 53.8%), followed by mild a (n=97; 30.3%) and finally severe (n=51; 15.9%). For treatment, chemotherapy was delayed/reduced (n=223; 65.4%) or platelets were transfused (n=51; 34.6%). However, thrombocytopenia problems were only temporarily solved. Conclusion: Effectiveness of thrombocytopenia treatment guidelines was found to be insufficient. It is advisable that thrombopoietin be used as a cornerstone even for patients who suffer from moderate thrombocytopenia and platelets transfusion should be used just for emergency cases when thrombocytopenia leads to a critical situation.
Prognostic Analysis for Treatment Modalities in Hepatocellular Carcinomas with Portal Vein Tumor Thrombi
Zhou, Qi ; Wang, Yafeng ; Zhou, Xiangbing ; Peng, Baogang ; Yang, Jianyong ; Liang, Lijian ; Li, Jiaping ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 2847~2850
Objective: To assess prognostic aspects of treatment modalities for cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein tumor thrombi (PVTT). Method: 121 treated cases were retrospectively divided into five groups: 1 (liver transplantation); 2 (transcatheter arterial chemoembolization); 3 (hepatectomy plus thrombectomy); 4 (hepatectomy plus thrombectomy combined with adjuvant chemobiotherapy via portal vein); and 5 (conservative treatment). The Kaplan-Meier method with difference in survival estimated by Log-rank test was used to compare between groups. Result: Groups 1-5 had a significantly differing median survival times of 7, 7, 10, 16, 3 months (P<0.05), respectively. One- and three-year survival rates were 30.0% and 10.0%, 20.0% and 0.0%, 47.0% and 22.0%, 70% and 20%, and 12% and 4%. Conclusion: Surgical resection combined with adjuvant chemotherapy via the portal vein is an effective and safe treatment modality for hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombi.
More than Half of Senior Residents in Tehran Have Never Heard about Colorectal Cancer Screening
Salimzadeh, Hamideh ; Eftekhar, Hassan ; Majdzadeh, Reza ; Montazeri, Ali ; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud ; Delavari, Alireza ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 2851~2856
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most prevalent malignancy in Iran. Although adequate knowledge about CRC and screening tests has a significant effect on screening behavior, there is still no clear information in this regard in Iran. The aim of the study was therefore to identify knowledge toward CRC and obstacles to screening tests among an Iranian population. Methods: We conducted a preliminary analysis with baseline data drawn from an ongoing randomized community trial among people aged 50 years and over in municipal district 6 in Tehran. A total of 360 members of health houses, who were not being exposed to CRC screening tests, completed the baseline survey and randomized to two study groups. Data were collected via personal interviews by 12 trained interviewers for demographics, knowledge related to CRC, and barriers to screening tests. Results: The mean age was 58.0 (
) ranging from 50 to 86 years; 69% were female, 52% were unemployed, 65% had completed high school, and 90% had medical insurance. A considerable number of respondents stated that they had never heard about fecal occult blood test (61%) and colonoscopy (51%) as CRC screening tests. In general, participants were more likely to respond the knowledge items inaccurately. Four commonly stated reasons for not being screened were "absence of clinical symptoms" (29%); "doctor did not recommend the test" (26%); "never think of the test" (22%); and "did not think it was needed" (11%). Conclusion: Our findings indicated that lack of knowledge about CRC and various barriers to screening tests exist among Iranians. Our results may facilitate the development of effective educational strategies primarily aimed at high-risk people.
Efficacy and Safety of Vandetanib, a Dual VEGFR and EGFR Inhibitor, in Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Zhang, Xinji ; Qin, Yingyi ; Li, Hui ; Bai, Chong ; Zhu, Tianyi ; Xu, Jinfang ; Wu, Cheng ; Wu, Mengjie ; Wang, Chaoxiang ; Song, Hualing ; Wei, Lixin ; He, Jia ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 2857~2863
Background: Vandetanib, an oral inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor signaling, has attracted wide interest in treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We aimed to assess its efficacy and safety via a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: Trials comparing vandetanib-based therapy and non-vandetanib therapy for advanced NSCLC were identified. Endpoints evaluated were progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), objective tumor response rate (ORR), and toxicity. Results: Seven trials including 4,492 patients were included in the analysis. As compared with placebo, vandetanib yielded a clear benefit for ORR (odds ratio (OR) = 2.04; 95% CI, 1.60-2.61; P < 0.001), and a clinically and statistically significant 25% improvement in PFS (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.75; 95% CI, 0.66-0.85; P < 0.001). However, these benefits did not translate into a significant improvement in OS (HR = 0.95; 95% CI, 0.88-1.04; P = 0.291). Subgroup analyses showed that vandetanib 100mg/d was associated with greater antitumor activity than 300mg/d when given in combination with chemotherapy. In addition, the pooled results demonstrated no statistically significant difference between vandetanib and single-targeted agents in PFS, ORR or OS. Vandetanib was associated with more frequent adverse events. Conclusions: Vandetanib, as compared with placebo, significantly increases ORR and PFS, but does not improve OS in the treatment of advanced NSCLC. As compared with single-targeted agent, vandetanib does not provide any efficacy advantage. Furthermore grade 3 or greater toxicity proved greater in the vandetanib arm.
On-schedule Mammography Rescreening in the National Cancer Screening Program for Breast Cancer in Korea
Oh, Dongkwan ; Jung, Da Won ; Jun, Jae Kwan ; Jung, Kyu-Won ; Lee, Hoo-Yeon ; Park, Eun-Cheol ; Choi, Kui Son ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 2865~2870
Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women in the Republic of Korea. However, many women are not aware of the importance of on-schedule mammography screening for breast cancer. The objectives of this study were to estimate the percentage of women that attended on-schedule mammography rescreening, and to examine the factors associated with rescreening, among the target screening population (women aged
years) in Korea. The study population was derived from the National Health Insurance (NHI) Corporation database for the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP), and included 2,511,976 women from the target screening population who attended the NCSP for breast cancer in 2005-2006 (baseline). Study participants were followed-up to determine whether they attended mammography rescreening after 2 years as recommended. Among those who attended mammography screening in 2005-2006, 61.3% were rescreened on schedule 2 years later. The odds of being rescreened were the highest in study participants aged 60-69 years. NHI beneficiaries with a higher premium were significantly more likely to be rescreened than Medical Aid Program recipients. A false-positive screening result at baseline adversely affected subsequent screening behavior. Furthermore, those who had a history of mammography screening before baseline were more likely to return for rescreening. Therefore, assessment of a woman's screening history and socioeconomic status, in combination with interventions to reduce anxiety, such as involving primary care physicians or better informing women about breast cancer and mammography screening, are needed. Efforts to reduce false-positive results and improve the quality of mammography may also increase compliance with breast cancer screening recommendations.
Ethanolic Extract of Fermented Thunb Induces Human Leukemic HL-60 and Molt-4 Cell Apoptosis Via Oxidative Stress and a Mitochondrial Pathway
Banjerdpongchai, Ratana ; Kongtawelert, Prachya ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 2871~2874
Houttuynia cordata Thunb (HCT) is a medicinal plant of the Saururaceae family which features antimutagenic and antiviral properties. For extraction, the whole plants were fermented or non-fermented with yeast and ethanol then the whole plants were dried, ground and extracted with 95% ethanol or water. The aims of this study were to compare cytotoxic effects, apoptosis induction, and mechanism(s) with the ethanolic and water extracts of fermented and non-fermented HCT. Cytotoxicity was assessed using the MTT assay in human leukemic HL-60, Molt-4 and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Apoptotic death was characterized by staining with propidium iodide and examined under a fluorescence microscope. Peroxide radical production and reduction of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) were determined using 2',7'-dichlorohydrofluorescein diacetate and 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide and flow cytometry, respectively. The expression of caspase-9 was identified by immunoblotting. The ethanolic extract of fermented HCT was cytotoxic to HL-60 > Molt-4 > PBMCs, to a greater extent than the non-fermented preparation and the number of apoptotic cells was higher. The alcoholic (fermented) extract produced more radicals than the non-fermented in HL-60 cells but the converse was observed in Molt-4 cells. Reduction of MTP was found in HL-60 and Molt-4 cells treated with the alcoholic (fermented) extract and caspase-9 was cleaved dose-dependently in both cells. In conclusion, the alcoholic extract of fermented HCT was more toxic to human leukemic cells than the non-fermented and both cell lines underwent apoptosis via oxidative stress and a mitochondrial pathway.
Binding Capacity of ER-
, Ligands and SERMs: Comparison of the Human, Dog and Cat
Toniti, Waraphan ; Suthiyotha, Nareuthorn ; Puchadapirom, Pranom ; Jenwitheesuk, Ekachai ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 2875~2879
The estrogen molecule is the major risk factor related to mammary gland tumors, with estrogen receptor alpha (ER-
) as the important target stimulating growth. Therefore one alternative approach to treatment of breast cancer is to use selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), hormonal therapy. In this study, the structures of ER-
in humans, dogs and cats were predicted using the amino acid sequencing data bank and corrected for general protein structures, receptor sites and docking by adding 2,344 ligands with 15 SERMs into the database and calculating estimated inhibition constants (Ki). Thereby, ranking of best ligands of SERMs in humans, dogs and cats could be achieved. The results show that the shapes of ER-
differ between species but the major pocket sites are the same. Bazedoxifene, a new SERM proved to be the best estrogen antagonist and ER-
inhibitor in all species (human, dog, cat) with the lowest Ki. The other good ligands for dogs and cats are Neohesperidin, Dihydrochalcone, and Schreiber2. The differences in these protein structures may explain why there are only a few SERMs or other ligands which can be used as anti-cancer drugs.
Secondhand Smoke Concentrations in Hospitality Venues in the Pacific Basin: Findings from American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Guam
King, Brian A ; Dube, Shanta R ; Ko, Jean Y ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 2881~2885
Introduction: Secondhand smoke (SHS) from burning tobacco products causes disease and premature death among nonsmokers. Although the number of laws prohibiting smoking in indoor public places continues to increase, millions of nonsmokers in the United States (US) and its territories remain exposed to SHS. This study assessed indoor air pollution from SHS in hospitality venues in three US Pacific Basin territories. Methods: Air monitors were used to assess
, an environmental marker for SHS, in 19 smoke-permitted and 18 smoke-free bars and restaurants in American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), and Guam. Observational logs were used to record smoking and other sources of air pollution. Differences in average
concentrations were determined using bivariate statistics. Results: The average
level in venues where smoking was always permitted [arithmetic mean (AM)=
; geometric mean (GM)=
] was significantly higher (p<0.001) than smoke-free venues [AM=
]. In venues where smoking was allowed only during certain times, the average level outside these times [AM=
] was also significantly higher (p<0.001) than smoke-free venues. Conclusions: Employees and patrons of smoke-permitted bars and restaurants are exposed to dangerous levels of air pollution from SHS, even during periods when active smoking is not occurring. Prohibiting smoking in all public indoor areas, irrespective of the venue type or time of day, is the only way to fully protect nonsmokers from SHS exposure in these environments.
A Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction-logistic Regression Model of Gene Polymorphisms and an Environmental Interaction Analysis in Cancer Research
Wu, Yazhou ; Zhang, Ling ; Liu, Ling ; Zhang, Yanqi ; Zhao, Zengwei ; Liu, Xiaoyu ; Yi, Dong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 2887~2892
Background: Analysis of interactions between genes and the environment with complex multifactorial human disease faces important challenges. Limitations of parametric-statistical methods for detection of gene effects that are dependent solely or partially on interactions with other genes or environmental exposures are key problems. The aim of the study was to investigate the use of multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) and logistic regression models to analyze the effects of interactions between complex disease genes with other genes and with environmental factors and to compare the results of these two methods in interaction analysis. Methods: In this case-control study, the two methods were applied to analog data of samples from 486 cancer patients and 514 control individuals by computer simulation, including 4 environment factors (E1~E4) and 8 gene polymorphism factors (G1~G8). Non-conditional logistic regression was used to analyze risk factors for cancer, and MDR and logistic regression were employed to analyze interactions under various conditions. Results: MDR could find high-level interactions between genes and the environment (E3*G1*G7), but it could not find a main effect; conversely, logistic regression better analyzed the main effects (E3, G1, and G4) but was limited in its analysis of high-level interactions (E3*G1*G7). The results of these two methods with analog data show that the gene G1 site, the G4 site, E3, and the E3*G1*G7 interaction may be risk factors for occurrence of cancer. Conclusions: MDR and logistic regression, which are the two complementary methods, can be combined to analyze gene-gene (gene-environment) interactions with good results. This approach should help to determine the causes of diseases, such as chronic non-transmittable diseases like cancer.
Epidemiology of Cancers of the Kidney in an Australian Population
Luke, Colin ; Sargent, Nicole ; Pittman, Ken ; Price, Tim ; Roder, David ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 2893~2899
Background. Kidney cancer has a high incidence in Australia by world standards but has attracted little public health attention because of its low ranking among other cancers as a cause of death. Incidence, mortality and survival trends were investigated in this study for an Australian population and cancer control opportunities considered. Design. Age-standardized incidence and mortality rates were analyzed by broad age category using data from an Australian cancer registry. Disease-specific survivals were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier product limit estimate and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Results. Incidence rates approximately doubled during 1980-2008, with large increases affecting both sexes. Increases were more evident for renal cell and other histology types occurring predominantly in adulthood than childhood nephroblastomas. The male to female incidence ratio approximated 2:1 but decreased over time and was lower in younger than older age groups. The increase in mortality rate was smaller (at 25%) and higher in males (at 36%) than females (at 7%). Mortality increases were restricted to the age range of 70 years and over. Five-year survivals increased from 47% for 1980-84 to 66% for 2000-08 and multivariate predictors of high case fatality were older age at diagnosis and less recent diagnostic period. Country cases had lower survivals than metropolitan cases, although the difference was small. Conclusions. Increases in mortality were smaller than incidence increases, evidently due to offsetting increases in case survival, and did not affect the younger age groups. Further reductions in tobacco smoking and reducing the prevalence of obesity will be important to prevent renal cell carcinomas. Molecular research is advocated to develop targeted therapies and potentially, an effective screening technology. Cancer registries need to routinely publish their data by histology type to enable more detailed global trend analyses. Population registries also need to record stage of cancer at diagnosis to facilitate interpretation of changes in survival.
Endostar Combined with Chemotherapy versus Chemotherapy alone for Advanced NSCLCs: A Meta-analysis
Ge, Wei ; Cao, De-Dong ; Wang, Hui-Min ; Jie, Fang-Fang ; Zheng, Yong-Fa ; Chen, Yu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 2901~2907
Background: Use of recombinant human endostatin combined with conventional cytotoxic therapy to treat tumors has been growing because of evidence of increased efficacy. However, whether antiangiogenic therapy combined with chemotherapy really benefits patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) remains unclear. Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of rh-endostatin (Endostar) combined with chemotherapy in the treatment of NSCLC patients. Methods: We selected data from the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Medline, SCI,CBM, CNKI, to obtain all clinical controlled trials, including the addition of endostar to chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC patients. Twenty-two trials with 1884 patients were included according to the inclusion criteria. All were randomized controlled trials, and four trials were adequate in reporting randomization. Seventeen trials did not mention the blinding methods. Results: Meta-analysis indicated that the NPE arm (Vinorelbine+cisplatin+Endostar) had a different response rate compared with NP(Vinorelbine+cisplatin) arm (OR 2.22, 95%CI 1.62 to 3.03). The incidences of severe leukopenia (OR0.94, 95%CI 0.66 to 1.32) and severe thrombocytopenia (OR 1.00, 95%CI 0.64 to 1.57) and nausea and vomiting (OR 0.85, 95%CI 0.61 to 1.20) were similar in the two arms. There were significant differences between the comparisons of TCE (Paclitaxel + carboplatin + Endostar) versus TC (OR 2.49, 95%CI 1.30 to 4.74) and GPE (Gemcitabine + cisplatin + Endostar) versus GP (OR 2.02, 95%CI 1.11 to 3.68 ) and TPE (Paclitaxel + cisplatin + Endostar) versus TP (OR 2.22, 95%CI 1.32 to 3.75 ). Conclusions: Our results suggested that in the treatment of advanced NSCLC, endostar in combination with platinum-based chemotherapy could improve the response rate without obviously increasing side effects.
Association of Arg72Pro of P53 Polymorphism with Colorectal Cancer Susceptibility Risk in Malaysian Population
Ahmad Aizat, Abdul Aziz ; Mohd Shahpudin, Siti Nurfatimah ; Mustapha, Mohd Aminudin ; Zakaria, Zaidi ; Mohd Sidek, Ahmad Shanwani ; Abu Hassan, Muhammad Radzi ; Ankathil, Ravindran ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 2909~2913
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) results from the interaction between environmental exposures and genetic predisposition factors. Aims: A case control study was designed and to investigate the genotype frequencies of P53Arg72Pro polymorphism in Malaysian CRC patients and healthy controls and to determine the associated risk of this polymorphism with CRC predisposition. Methods: In this case-control study, peripheral blood samples of 202 sporadic CRC patients and 201 normal controls were collected, DNA extracted and genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. Results: Genotype analysis showed the frequency of homozygous variant (Pro/Pro) genotype (21%) to be significantly higher in cases compared to controls (13%), (p=0.013). On examining the association between variant genotypes and CRC risk, the Pro/Pro homozygous variant genotype showed significantly higher risk association with CRC susceptibility (OR: 2.047, CI: 1.063-4.044, p=0.033). When stratified according to age, we observed that, individuals aged above 50 years and carriers of pro/pro genotype had significantly higher risk with OR: 3.642, CI: 1.166-11.378, p=0.026. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the codon 72 SNP which results in amino acid substitution of Arginine to Proline in cell cycle regulatory gene P53, is associated with sporadic CRC risk and carriers of Pro/Pro genotype and more than 50 years old may have high susceptibility.
Aberrant FHIT Expression is Linked to Bladder Carcinogenesis and Apoptosis
Han, Yi ; Zhang, Zhe ; Zhang, Guo-Jun ; Guo, Kun-Feng ; Shan, Guang-Yi ; Kong, Chui-Ze ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 2915~2920
The fragile histidine triad gene (FHIT) functions as tumor suppressor in many epithelial cell types. Although the exact mechanisms remain unclear, it is apparent that in its absence, cell cycle homeostasis is often perturbed resulting in the development of soft tissue tumors. Here, we investigated the role of FHIT expression in bladder carcinogenesis and progression using immunohistochemistry. Bladder carcinoma tissue and the 5637 cell line were also studied for FHIT expression by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. FHIT was found to be expressed in carcinoma and adjacent normal tissues at both mRNA and protein levels, but the 17kDa FHIT was lower in tumors (P<0.05), this being confirmed immunohistochemically. There was a negative correlation between FHIT expression and histological grade of bladder transitional cell carcinoma (P<0.05), but no clear relationship with clinical stage or relapse (P>0.05). Overexpression of FHIT could induce apoptosis in bladder carcinoma 5637cells, which could be enhanced by adding adriamycin (ADR). These findings suggest important roles of FHIT in bladder cancer development and provide support for the feasibility of FHIT-based gene therapy.
Detection of Serum Anti-P53 Antibodies from Patients with Colorectal Cancer in China Using a Combination of P53- and phage-ELISA: Correlation to Clinical Parameters
Wu, Jing ; Qiu, Tian ; Pan, Pengtao ; Yu, Dehai ; Ju, Zhigang ; Qu, Xuewei ; Gao, Xiang ; Mao, Chuanbin ; Wang, Li ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 2921~2924
Background: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in China. The aims of this research were to increase the sensitivity of anti-p53 antibody detection in the sera of patients with colorectal cancer and to assist in their diagnosis. Methods: Sixty-seven non-selected Chinese with colorectal cancer were involved in this study. Anti-p53 antibodies in serum were detected by ELISA using recombinant human wild-type p53 protein and hybrid phage as the coating antigen. Correlations between the anti-p53 antibodies and clinicopathological parameters were also analyzed. Results: The detection efficiency of anti-p53 antibodies in the patients with colorectal cancer was increased (46.3%, 31/67) through the combination of the two ELISA methods compared with each method alone. The titer of serum anti-p53 antibodies was not associated with clinicopathological parameters, but there was a significant correlation between their presence, the CEA level, and the stage of the patient's colorectal cancer. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that combination of the two ELISA methods increased the detection rate of anti-p53 antibodies in patients with colorectal cancer. This research may provide a useful method to complement conventional clinical diagnosis.
Viscum album L. Extract and Quercetin Reduce Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cardiotoxicity, Urotoxicity and Genotoxicity in Mice
Sekeroglu, Vedat ; Aydin, Birsen ; Sekeroglu, Zulal Atli ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 2925~2931
Possible protective effects of a methanolic extract of Viscum album (VA) and quercetin (QE) against cyclophosphamide (CP) induced cardiotoxicity, urotoxicity and genotoxicity in mice were evaluated. Mice were administered orally VA (250 mg/kg/day) and QE (50 mg/kg/day) for 10 days alone or in combination with CP. After the same doses of VA and QE given for 7 days, rats were intraperitoneally administered CP (40 mg/kg) on days 8 and 9 of the experiment. Cardiotoxic, urotoxic and genotoxic effects were examined in serum, heart, bladder and bone marrow. Significant decreases in the levels of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase), glutathione-S-transferases, reduced glutathione and mitotic index were observed. QE completely and VA partly ameliorated almost of all the examined parameters when given together with CP. Higher total nitrate/nitrite levels were observed in the myocardial tissue treated with QE and VA in combination with CP. In addition, the pre-treatment with VA and QE together with CP significantly decreased chromosome aberrations and aberrant cells compared to CP alone. Results from the current study suggest that QE and VA supplementation attenuates CP induced cardiotoxicity, urotoxicity and genotoxicity through a mechanism related to their ability to decrease oxidative stress and inflammation, and at least in part to its protective effects on the cardiovascular system. In addition, VA and QE may play a role in reducing cytogenotoxicity induced by anti-neoplastic drugs during cancer chemotherapy.
Anti-tumor Effects of pEgr-1-endostatin-TNF-
Recombinant Plasmid Expression Induced by Ionizing Radiation
Zhang, Yongchun ; Qiu, Wensheng ; Liang, Jun ; Yu, Zhuang ; Yue, Lu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 2933~2937
Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-tumor effect of a pEgr-1-endostatin-TNF-
recombinant plasmid induced by ionizing radiation. Method: Three hundred and twenty mice bearing Lewis lung carcinomas were divided into four experimental groups: blank control, irradiation treatment, plasmid treatment and plasmid combined irradiation treatment. Twenty-four hours after the recombinant plasmid was injected locally into the tumors of the mice, they were irradiated with 10 Gy
-rays. The concentration of TNF-
and endostatin in the serum of mice was measured by ELISA and tumor growth in each group was compared. The tumor microvessel density was examined by H&E staining and immunohistochemistry analysis of CD31 positive cells. Results: Radiation could induce the expression of pEgr-1-endostatin-TNF
. The levels of endostatin and TNF-
could express steadily for about 4 weeks, with concentrations of
respectively, in the second week in combined therapy group and maintained at relative higher level in the fourth week than other groups (F=29.7, P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the tumor micro vessel density was significantly depressed (P<0.05) and tumor growth was significantly inhibited (
, P <0.05). Conclusions: The expression of pEgr-1-endostatin-TNF-
could be induced in mice in vivo and exhibited more significant anti-tumor and anti-angiogenesis effects than irradiation alone.
Arm Symptoms and Overall Survival in Brazilian Patients with Advanced Breast Cancer
Bergmann, Anke ; Bourrus, Nathalia Santos ; De Carvalho, Cristiane Monteiro ; De Almeida Dias, Ricardo ; Fabro, Erica Alves Nogueira ; Sales, Nuria Silva ; De Aguiar, Suzana Sales ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 2939~2942
Introduction: Advanced breast cancer is a very frequent serious public health problem. Objective: This study aimed to analyze the prevalence of arm symptoms and overall survival in affected patients. Methodology: A retrospective cohort study was accomplished in 196 women presenting with advanced breast cancer. A descriptive analysis was carried out by and overall survival probabilities were calculated according to Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression. Results: Thes included 196 woman had a medium age of 55.9 years, the majority being obese (71.3%) and having a IIIB clinical staging (52.3%). The most prevalent arm symptoms were pain (54.6%), paresthesia in upper limb (8.5%), lymphedema (> 200 ml) (6.6%), shoulder restriction (4.7%) and axillary web syndrome (0.6%). The median follow-up was 18.7 months (SD 7,33), 4.0% of the patients had metastasis and 31.6% were dead. The mean free disease survival was 20.4 months (95% CI 18.4-22.4), and the mean survival time was 26.3 months (95% CI 24.7-28.0). After adjusted the association with arm symptom and overall survival for clinical stage and presence of distant metastasis, the shoulder restriction was a predict variable, were represents the risk 2.59 for worse survival in compared with woman with no shoulder restriction (CI 95% 1.06-5.98). Conclusion: The population studied at this study presented high prevalence of complications earlier than neo adjuvant treatment. After controlling for effects of tumor variables, the shoulder restriction was statistically associated with poor overall survival after 2 years.
Comparison of Breast Cancer in Indonesia and Malaysia - A Clinico-Pathological Study Between Dharmais Cancer Centre Jakarta and University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur
Ng, CH ; Pathy, N Bhoo ; Taib, NA ; Teh, YC ; Mun, KS ; Amiruddin, A ; S, Evlina ; Rhodes, A ; Yip, CH ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 2943~2946
Introduction: The age standardised incidence rate (ASR) of breast cancer in Malaysia which is a high middle-income country is similar to Indonesia, a low middle-income country. (Globocan 2008) It is however unknown whether the presentation of breast cancer differs between these two countries. Objective: We compared the stage, age at presentation, and pathological characteristics of breast cancer between two tertiary hospitals in Indonesia and Malaysia; Dharmais Cancer Centre (DCC), which is the national cancer referral centre in Indonesia, and University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), which is an academic hospital with established breast oncology services in Kuala Lumpur. One thousand, one hundred and fourteen consecutive women (477 in UMMC: 637 in DCC) who were newly diagnosed with breast cancer between January and December, 2010 were included. Patient's age, TNM stage at presentation, and pathological characteristics were compared. Estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) were considered positive if 10% or greater of invasive cell nuclei were stained while HER2 was considered positive with an immunohistochemostry staining intensity of 3+. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify differences. Results: Median age at diagnosis was 52 years in UMMC and 47 years in DCC, whereby patients in DCC were more likely to be very young at diagnosis (aged < 35 years) compared to their counterparts in UMMC (Odds ratio (OR): 2.09; 95%CI: 1.32-3.31). Approximately one third of patients in UMMC presented with TNM stage III or IV, compared to 63% in DCC. Patients in DCC were three times more likely to present with metastatic breast cancer compared to patients in UMMC (OR: 3.01; 95% CI: 2.02-4.48). The percentage of low grade tumours in DCC was higher than in UMMC (28% vs 11% respectively), and the difference persisted even after multivariate adjustment. Although the frequency of ER and PR positivity appeared to be higher in UMMC (65% and 55% respectively) compared to DCC (48% and 40% respectively), these differences were not statistically significant following adjustment for age, stage, HER2 status and grade. The frequency of HER2 positivity was 45% in DCC compared to 26% in UMMC, and remained significantly higher even after multivariate adjustment (multivarite OR:1.76; 95%CI:1.25-2.47, in DCC compared to UMMC). The proportion of triple negative breast cancer was however similar in the two centres (19% in UMMC vs 21% in DCC). Conclusion: Indonesian women with breast cancer seem to present at a younger age and at later stages compared to Malaysian women. Their tumors were more likely to be of low grade and HER2 positive, even after adjustment for other factors, while hormone receptor positivity proved similar in the two groups. The higher HER2 positivity rate in Indonesian patients warrants further study.
Polymorphism of DNA Repair Gene XRCC1 and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Risk in Chinese Population
Pan, Hua-Zheng ; Liang, Jun ; Yu, Zhuang ; Lun, Li-Min ; Li, Hui ; Wang, Qing ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 2947~2950
Aim: We conducted a case-control study in China to clarify the association between the XRCC1-Arg399Gln polymorphism and HCC risk. Methods: A total of 202 cases and 236 controls were selected from the the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University from May 2008 to May 2010. Assessment of the XRCC1-Arg399Gln polymorphism was based upon duplex polymerase-chain-reactions with the confronting-two-pair primer (PCR-CTPP) method. All analyses were performed using the STATA statistical package. Results: A significant increase in risk was associated with the Arg/Gln genotype (adjusted OR 1.55, 95%CI=1.03-2.57) compared with Arg/Arg. However, the Gln/Gln genotype had non-significant increased risk of HCC with adjusted OR (95%CI) of 1.34(0.67-2.38). There was also a significant increasewith the Arg/Gln genotype among HCC patients above 50 years old (OR=1.95, 95% CI=1.14-3.57). Additionally, the risk of HCC was moderately increased in drinkers with Arg/Gln genotype compared with never drinkers, and the adjusted OR (95% CI) was 1.89 (1.13-3.45). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that a polymorphism in a DNA repair gene may influence the risk of HCC. The XRCC1 codon Arg/Gln was thuis associated with an increased risk of HCC, especiallyin patients above 50 years old and/or with a drinking habit.
Combination Effects of Paclitaxel with Signaling Inhibitors in Endometrial Cancer Cells
Xu, Chengfang ; Li, Xiaomao ; Li, Tian ; Wang, Xiaoyun ; Yang, Yuebo ; Xiao, Lan ; Shen, Huimin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 2951~2957
This study was conducted to evaluate and compare molecular and cellular effects of paclitaxel in combination with epidermoid growth factor receptor (EGFR) or/and mammalian target of rapamycin( mTOR) inhibitors with two endometrial cancer lines HEC-1A and Ishikawa. Treatment was with the EGFR inhibitor RG14620, the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, and the conventional cytotoxic drug paclitaxel, alone or in combination. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) and cell viability were determined by the MTT assay. Multiple drug effect/combination indexes (CI) analysis was applied to assess interactions between paclitaxel and the two inhibitors. Apoptosis and cell cycling were evaluated by flow cytometry analysis. Western blotting was performed to evaluate the related protein alteration in PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. RG14620, rapamycin and paclitaxel showed obvious dose-dependent growth inhibition with time. The IC50 of paclitaxel at 24 hours decreased significantly when pretreated with low doses of RG14620 and Rapamycin alone or in combination. Moreover, combination index (CI) of paclitaxel with each inhibitor was larger than 1, indicating a synergistic effect between pairs of drugs in these two cell lines. FACS analysis showed the cell apoptosis rate increased with a synergistic effect. On Western blotting, activation of PI3K/AKT pathway was detected in both two cell lines in the control case. When paclitaxel was used as a single-agent or in combinations, the protein expression of PI3K/AKT pathway totally abated, especially in HEC-1A cells, suggesting a role in chemoresistance. The combination of three drugs induced the greatest over-expression of caspase-3. Combining targeted inhibitors with cytotoxic chemotherapy appears to be a promising strategy for the effective treatment of endometrial cancer which merits further clinical investigation.
Implications of Greater Short-term PSA Recurrence with Laparoscopic as Compared to Retropubic Radical Prostatectomy for Japanese Clinically localized Prostate Carcinomas
Akita, Hidetoshi ; Okamura, Takehiko ; Ando, Ryosuke ; Nagata, Daisuke ; Naruyama, Hiromichi ; Yamada, Yasuyuki ; Naiki, Taku ; Yasui, Takahiro ; Tozawa, Keiichi ; Kohri, Kenjiro ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 2959~2961
Purpose: There is ongoing discussion as to the necessity for certain surgical procedures being limited to high through-put institutions. To cast light on this question regarding use of open as compared to laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) the present study was conducted focusing on biochemical (PSA) recurrence-free survival of Japanese patients with clinically localized prostate carcinomas. Materials and Methods: From April 2004 to December 2010 we identified 579 patients undergoing LRP (n=245) and retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP) (n=334) who did not undergo immediate adjuvant therapy (radiation and/or hormonal) and whose PSA levels were lower than 25 ng/ml. Preoperative prostate specific antigen (PSA) level, clinical stage, biopsy Gleason score and pathological features were assessed and Kaplan-Meier estimates of biochemical recurrence (BCR)-free survival were compared. A Cox regression model analysis was performed to determine predictors of biochemical recurrence. Results: Median follow up was 35 months(2- 115). On univariate analysis the LRP group had a slightly lower pathological T stage (p<0.001), higher biopsy Gleason score (p<0.001), but much more organ confined disease (p=0.001) than the RRP group. BCR-free survival did not significantly differ between LRP and RRP groups with preoperative PSA <6, clinical stage T1c,T2a, pathological stage T3 or more, biopsy Gleason score of 8 or more, pathological Gleason score of 6 or less and 8 or more, extra-capsular extension and negative surgical margin. The 3-year BCR-free survival rates were 91.0%(RRP) and 82.2%(LRP) (p<0.001). Conclusion: We conclude that in general LRP may be associated with a less positive outcome than BCR for resection of low risk prostate cancers. Therefore indications for LRP should be very carefully monitored.
Performance of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Testing in the Triage of Abnormal Cervical Cytology among Chinese Younger Women in Shanghai, China
Jiang, Li ; Zeng, Yan ; Li, Jiarui ; Wang, Hong ; Xia, Yingying ; Fang, Xuhong ; Zhang, Ping ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 2963~2968
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the role of high risk HPV DNA testing in identifying Chinese younger women with abnormal cytology at risk of harboring cervical intraepithelial neoplasia at grade 2 (CIN2) or worse so as to popularize an effective triage strategy for younger women. Methods: A total of 246 younger women aged 25 - 36 years old with abnormal cytology were recruited in our study. All were assessed by liquid-based cytology, high-risk HPV DNA test, and colposcopy with directed biopsy and endocervical curettage as necessary. Residual specimens from liquid-based cytology were subjected to real-time PCR testing to identify the presence of 10 high-risk HPV types that are prevalent in China. Results: Among the 246 abnormal cytology samples, 97 (39.4%) were found to be positive for high risk HPV. A clear association was observed between cytological findings and the proportion of patients with positive high risk HPV DNA: namely 29.8% HPV positivity in the ASCUS group; 43.5% in LSIL group; and 90.0% in HSIL group (p<0.01). Overall, high risk HPV test achieved a high specificity (79.8%) and PPV (86.5%) for an endpoint of CIN2+, and higher sensitivity (91.3%) and NPV (98.7%) for an endpoint of CIN3+. For younger women with ASCUS+ cytology, high risk HPV test achieved a higher NPV for CIN2+ and CIN3+ (96.0%, 99.0%). For LISL+ cytology, high risk HPV testing had a high sensitivity with LSIL (90.0%) and HSIL (100%), but there was also a corresponding decrease in specificity. Conclusions: The results indicate that high risk HPV DNA testing is highly sensitive and moderately specific for CIN grade 2 or worse in women younger than 36 years. LBC primary testing followed by high risk HPV DNA triage improved sensitivity and the false-positive rate for cervical cancer screening and are suitable for developed regions in China.
Influence of Bladder Distension Control on Postoperative Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in Rectal Cancer Patients
Zhang, Haiqin ; Wang, Renben ; Yan, Hongjiang ; Zhao, Wei ; Feng, Rui ; Jiang, Shumei ; Yu, Jinming ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 2969~2972
Aims: A prospective study was undertaken to reduce bladder volume variation and the irradiated small bowel injury by irrigating the bladder during postoperative pelvic IMRT in rectal cancer patients. Methods: 12 consecutive patients underwent three sets of computed tomography scans during the treatment course: Group I, a distended (not empty) bladder before the radiation course; Group II, a distended bladder at the end of the fourth week; Group III, an irrigated bladder at the end of the fourth week. A seven-field coplanar intensity-modulated radiotherapy plan of 50.4 Gy was made to the clinical target volume. The total volume of regions of interest and volume within every isodose level, their maximum dose and mean dose were analysed. Results: Compared with group I, the median reduction of bladder volume was
(24.3%), and the median increment of small bowel was
in group II. The volume of small bowel within every isodose level was increased (P<0.05). Statistical analysis showed a correlation between the volume change of bladder and small bowel. The mean radiation dose (Dmean) of small bowel and bladder was increased in group II compared to groups I and III (P<0.05). Conclusions: Bladder volume declines signifi cantly during the course of radiotherapy, leading to an increment in irradiated small bowel volume. Bladder irrigation is a feasible method to guarantee a consistent bladder volume and reduce small bowel rqadiation exposure.
Primary Tobacco Prevention in China - A Systematic Review
Schroer-Gunther, MA ; Zhou, M ; Gerber, A ; Passon, AM ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 2973~2980
Objectives: This systematic review of randomized controlled trials aims to identify and describe primary tobacco prevention programs conducted in China and to evaluate their quality and effectiveness. Methods: Published studies in English or Chinese were searched in MEDLINE, EMBASE, GLOBAL HEALTH, PsycINFO, Wanfang and CNKI. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials tailored for a Chinese population. Primary preventive non-pharmacological interventions for smoking cessation or reduction were evaluated. Trials were included if they applied at least one predefined outcome suited for measuring the reduction of smoking rates or the reduction of smoking related morbidity. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion. The risk of bias in individual studies was evaluated by determining the adequacy of methodological quality criteria. Results: A total of 21 eligible studies investigating 53,520 patients (range 88 - 30,544) an age between 9.6 and 65 years were identified. All interventions were based on some kind of health education programs. In most cases standard health advice was given and booklets were distributed. The overall methodological quality of the studies was low. Seven studies (33%) showed a statistical significant effect of the described intervention in all predefined outcomes. Conclusion: The documentation of smoking prevention interventions in China is not sufficient to develop effective and reliable action programs. A lack of quality in the design can be discerned rather than a lack in starting interventions. We therefore recommend future interventions to be planned, implemented and conducted in compliance with high quality standards for example Guideline for Good Clinical Practice. Furthermore for preparing reports of RCT findings we recommend the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials.
Polymorphisms in DNA Repair Gene XRCC1 and Increased Genetic Susceptibility to Glioma
Hu, Xue-Bin ; Feng, Zhe ; Fan, Yu-Cong ; Xiong, Zhi-Yong ; Huang, Qi-Wei ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 2981~2984
Background: The XRCC1 gene encodes the XRCC1 protein, which complexes with three other DNA repair enzymes involved in the base-excision repair (BER) pathways. Different XRCC1 polymorphisms may increase the risk of cancers by impairing interaction with other enzymatic proteins and consequently altering DNA repair activity, and result in carcinogenesis. Our study aimed to investigate any association between three polymorphisms of the XRCC1 gene at codon 194, 280 and 399 and potential glioma risk. Methods: We collected 127 patients with primary glioma and 249 controls who requested general health examinations from Union Hospital of Tongji Medical College hospital from March 2007 to September 2010. A total of 5 ml venous blood was drawn from each subject. The polymorphisms of XRCC1 gene at codons 194, 280 and 399 were analyzed based on duplex polymerase-chain-reactions with the confronting-two-pair primer (PCR-CTPP) method. Results: The homozygous Trp/Trp and heterozygotes Arg/Trp variants of codon 194 had a 2.12 fold and 1.46 fold increased risk of glioma compared to the homozygous Arg/Arg wide genotypes. The same effect was found in codon 399, the codon 399 Gln/Gln and Arg/Gln genotypes being associated with a 2.24 fold and 1.67 fold increased risk in glioma. When comparing the codon 194 Arg/Arg and 399 Arg/Arg genotypes, the combination of codon 194 Trp allele and 399 Gln allele had a heavy increase in glioma risk (OR=2.87, 95%CI=1.56-6.73). Conclusion: The present study provided evidence of a potential role for XRCC1 codon 194 and 399 polymorphisms in genetic predisposition to glioma among the Chinese population. This analysis of correlation of DNA repair genes and glioma may provide a deeper insight into the genetic and environment factors for cancer risk.
Modulatory Effects of Beclin 1 on Expression of Angiopoietin and Tie-2 Receptor in Human Cervical Cancer Cells
Sun, Yang ; Liu, Jia-Hua ; Pan, Ling ; Jin, Long ; Yang, Yin ; Sui, Yu-Xia ; Shi, Hong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 2985~2990
Aim: To investigate the effect of Beclin 1, an autophagy gene, on the expression of angiopoietin (Ang) protein and the Tie-2 receptor in CaSki human cervical cancer cells. Materials and Methods: Beclin 1 overexpression (pcDNA3.1-Beclin1) and knockdown (pSUPER-Beclin1) plasmids were independently transfected into CaSki cells, and stably transfected cells were selected. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and Western blot analyses were performed to detect the mRNA and protein expression of Beclin 1, Ang-1, Ang-2, and Tie-2. MTT assays were employed to determine cell proliferation rates. Results: In the cells transfected with pcDNA3.1-Beclin1, the expression of Beclin 1, Ang-2, and Tie-2 was markedly increased, but expression of Ang-1 was dramatically reduced. MTT assays revealed that the proliferation of these cells was also significantly suppressed. In the CaSki cells transfected with pSUPER-Beclin1, the expression of Beclin 1, Ang-2, and Tie-2 was inhibited. Conclusion: Overexpression of Beclin 1 can inhibit the proliferation of CaSki cells, which may be attributed to an imbalance among the expression of Ang-1, Ang-2 and Tie-2.
Secondary Chromosomal Abnormalities of de novo Acute Myeloid Leukemia - A First Report from the Middle East
Movafagh, Abolfazl ; Hajifathali, Abbas ; Zamani, Mahdi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 2991~2994
Secondary chromosome aberrations in de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are less specific and occur in addition to the primary chromosome abnormalities. Secondary chromosome aberration in acute nonlymphocytic leukemia has been recognized for many years as the most serious long-term complication of malignant disease. Our aim in this study was to focus on patients with AML associated with secondary chromosomal abnormalities in 127 consecutive Iranian leukemia patients. Methotrexate (MTX) cell synchronization and 24h non-stimulated cultures of bone marrow cells were applied to determine the incidence of chromosomal aberrations and association of specific primary and secondary chromosome anomalies according to French American British (FAB) morphological subtypes. The distribution of the secondary changes was clearly non-random. The most frequent numerical changes were -X, - Y, -7, +8 , -10 and +22 and the most common structural aberrations were i(17q), 9q-, dicentric and marker chromosome. We believe this report is the first for de novo AML patients showing secondary chromosomal abnormalities which are quite non-random. The findings could contribute to widening knowledge of related chromosomal abnormalities.
Radiation-induced Sarcoma in the Head and Neck Region: a Clinicopathologic and Immunohistochemical Study of 13 Cases
Wei, Zhengbo ; Xu, Jian ; Zeng, Xianjie ; Luo, Yuan ; Chen, Falong ; Yang, Yunli ; Huang, Qifang ; Xie, Ying ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 2995~2999
Objectives: To study the clinical and histological features of radiation-induced sarcoma in the head and neck (RISHN). Methods: Medical records of 13 patients with RISHN treated at our institution between 1990 and 2011 were studied, and paraffin-embedded samples were analyzed by haematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry to determine mitosis counts and assess expression of Ki-67, bcl-2, and survivin. Results: Positive bcl-2 was observed in 12 (100%) and survivin in 10 (76.9%) patients. The Ki-67 labeling index ranged from 1% to 90%, and it showed significant positive correlation with mitosis count in RISHN tissues, based on Spearman analysis. Percentage of distal metastasis with T2b was significantly higher than T1b stage (P=0.035). Conclusions: Stage T2b may be a useful indicator for predicting distant metastasis of RISHN. The MIB-1 score may be used as a histological grading system for RISHN. In addition, bcl-2 and survivin protein may play an important role in pathogenesis and progression of RISHN.
MicroRNA-100 Acts as a Tumor Suppressor in Human Bladder Carcinoma 5637 Cells
Oliveira, Jaqueline C ; Brassesco, Maria S ; Morales, Andressa G ; Pezuk, Julia A ; Fedatto, Paola Fernanda ; Da Silva, Glenda N ; Scrideli, Carlos A ; Tone, Luiz G ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 3001~3004
Bladder carcinoma is one of the most common tumors in the world and, despite the therapy currently available, most of the patients relapse. Better understanding of the factors involved in disease pathogenesis would provide insights for the development of more effective strategies in treatment. Recently, differential miRNA expression profiles in bladder urothelial carcinomas identified miR-100 down-regulation and miR-708 up-regulation among the most common alterations, although the possible influence of these miRNAs in the control of basic mechanisms in bladder tumors has not been addressed. In this context, the present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro effects of miR-100 forced expression and miR-708 inhibition in the bladder carcinoma cell line 5637. Our results showed that overexpression of miR-100 significantly inhibited growth when compared to controls at both times tested (72 and 96 hours, p<0.01) with a maximum effect at 72 hours reducing proliferation in 29.6 %. Conversely, no effects on cell growth were observed after inhibition of miR-708. MiR-100 also reduced colony formation capacity of 5637 cells by 24.4%. No alterations in cell cycle progression or apoptosis induction were observed. The effects of miR-100 on growth and clonogenicity capacity in 5637 cells evince a possible role of this miRNA in bladder carcinoma pathogenesis. Further studies are necessary to corroborate our findings and examine the potential use of this microRNA in future therapeutic interventions.
Prognostic Impact of Risk Factors in Patients with Gastric Cancer in Iran
Roshanaei, Ghodratollah ; Ghannad, Masoud Sabouri ; Jafarabadi, Mohammad Asghari ; Faradmal, Javad ; Sadighi, Sanambar ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 3005~3008
Background: Gastric cancer (GC) is one the most common causes of death worldwide. Despite the decreasing rate of GC in the world through recent years, it is still the most common cancer in men and the fourth in the general population in Iran. This study aimed to assess the survival of patients with GC and to determine prognostic factors. Materials and Methods: A total of 471 patients with GC were followed from 21 March 2003 to 21 March 2007 in the Cancer Institute of Imam Khomeini Hospital. The patients' survival rate was determined by periodical refers. The survival period considered as the time from diagnosis up to death or the end of the study. The effects of gender, age at diagnosis, tumor site, pathologic stage of disease, type of treatment used, and metastasis were evaluated by log-rank test in a univariate analysis. In addition, all the variables were evaluated simultaneously by the Cox proportional hazard (PH) model. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16 software. Results: 357 (75.8%) out of 471 patients were male and 153 cases (32.5%) experienced death. The mean and median ages at diagnosis were 58.5 and 60.7 years respectively. Also, the survival mean and median were 41.8 ( 3.1) and 27 (1.7) months respectively. Gender, type of treatment, pathologic stage, the degree of differentiation were significantly related to survival. Conclusions: There was a potential effective role of age at diagnosis, gender of patients and pathologic stage of disease in cancer therapy in this part of Iran. Therefore, to reduce the risk of death in patients with GC, early diagnosis of patients at a younger age and also in primary stages must be targeted.
A Novel and Cost-Effective Method for Early Lung Cancer Detection in Immunized Serum
Chen, Yan ; Huang, Xianhe ; Shi, Huashan ; Mu, Bo ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 3009~3012
Background: The aim of this study was to detect early lung cancer rapidly with a novel and cost-effective quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) immunosensor. Materials and Methods: Murine Lewis lung carcinoma LL/2 cells were first cultured onto the surface of 10MHz 3rd overtone AT-cut quartz crystals in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium, and then the serum sample of LL/2 cell immunized rabbits was also dripped onto the quartz crystal surface center by micro-injector. In addition, non-immune rabbit serum was used as a negative control. The additional mass of the crystal which caused by specifically adsorbing antibody results in a change in resonant frequency. A frequency counter was employed to monitor the frequency variation. Then the antibody content of the LL/2 cell can be detected rapidly through changed frequency. Results: The antibody contents of the LL/2 adsorbed on the surface of six quartz crystals were 155ng, 55ng, 55ng, 32ng, 32ng, 0ng, respectively. The results showed that the LL/2 antibodies could be detected if they exist in serum at nanogram level with a high detection precision and a positive detection rate of above 80%. Conclusions: Our test results reveal that the proposed method has potential application in detection of early lung cancer. This novel detection method might be particularly suited for health screening of the general population.
Validity of Different Cytological Grading Systems of Breast Carcinoma - a Hospital-based Study in South India
Rekha, TS ; Nandini, NM ; Dhar, Murali ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 3013~3016
Introduction: With increase in the incidence of breast carcinoma, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has began to play a major role in diagnosing and grading. The study was aimed at validating the different cytological grading systems like Hunt's cytological grading (HCG), modified Black grading (MBG), Robinson's cytological grading (RCG) and Masood's cytology index (MCI) in comparison with a modified Bloom-Richardson (MBR) histopathological grading. Methods and Material: Fifty breast carcinoma cases were prospectively studied by comparing various cytological grading methods with histopathological grading over a period of three years. All statistical analyses were carried out with the Epi-info package. Results: The concordance rate of RCG was 82% which is highest of all, while that of MBG was 68%. HCG and MCI were not comparable with MBR due to insufficient grading. Conclusions: RCG for breast carcinoma is validated. A consensus for a standard cytological grading method similar to the gold standard MBR histological grading must be arrived at based on conducted comparative studies and has to be inculcated in routine cytology reports.
Risk Factors of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Turkey - an Epidemiological Survey of the Anatolian Society of Medical Oncology
Turkoz, Fatma Paksoy ; Celenkoglu, Gokhan ; Dogu, Gamze Gokoz ; Kalender, Mehmet Emin ; Coskun, Ugur ; Alkis, Necati ; Ozkan, Metin ; Turk, H Mehmet ; Arslan, Ulku Yalcintas ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 3017~3021
Background: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a rare disease in most parts of the world with a multifactorial etiology involving an interaction of genetic, viral, environmental and dietary risk factors. This is the first epidemiologic study aimed to evaluate the risk factors of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the Turkish population. Methods: We conducted a multicentric, retrospective, case-control study using a standardized questionnaire which captured age, sex, occupation, household type, blood group, dietary habits, smoking, alcohol consumption and oral hygiene. The study included 183 cases and 183 healthy controls matched by sex and age. Multiple logistic regression and univariate analysis were employed. Results: The peak age incidence was 40-50 years and the male to female ratio was 2:1. We observed significant associations between elevated nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk and low socioeconomic status, rural household type (OR:3.95, p<0.001), farming (OR:4.24, p<0.001) and smoking (OR:3.15, p<0.001). Consumption of french fries (OR:1.44, p=0.024), fried meat (OR:1.05, p=0.023) and tea (OR:5.55, p<0.001) were associated with elevated risk, while fresh fruit consumption was associated with reduced risk (OR:0.59, p=0.011). An irregular meal pattern was also a risk factor (OR:1.75, p=0.012). There were no significant associations between consumption of grain, diary products, alcohol and nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk (p>0.05); furthermore salty foods had a borderline p value (OR:2.14, p=0.053). Blood type A increased the risk (OR:2.03, p=0.002) while blood type 0 was a protective factor (OR:0.53, p=0.009). Rare habit of teeth brushing (OR:6.17, p<0.001) and
decayed teeth before diagnosis (OR:2.17, p<0.001) increased the risk. Conclusions: The nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk factors described in the literature are also applicable for the Turkish population. People with type A blood are at risk in Turkey. Salted foods have also a border risk out of the endemic regions. This is the only study showing that poor oral hygene is a serious risk factor for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) Concerning Cervical Cancer and Screening among Rural and Urban Female Healthcare Practitioners in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Tran, Nguyen Toan ; Taylor, Richard ; Choe, Song Il ; Pyo, Hae Suk ; Kim, Ok Suk ; So, Hyon Chol ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 3023~3028
Background and Objective: Little is known about cervical cancer (CC) in the Democratic People'sRepublic of Korea (DPRK). This study examines the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) concerning CC and screening among female health care practitioners (HCPs), and whether differences exist between rural and urban HCPs. Method: In a descriptive cross-sectional study, a purposive sample of 200 women HCPs from 128 health care centers in 6 provinces of DPRK was interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Results: 98% of HCPs were aware of CC. Awareness of the national CC policy was significantly lower in rural (44%) than urban (62%) respondents (p<0.05). Fewer rural (71%) than urban (89%) HCPs knew of cervical cytology (p<0.05). Around 30% of HCPs were aware of the association between CC and human papillomavirus infection. Only 13% of HCPs had ever had a cervical cytology smear. Only 4% of rural and 21% of urban practitioners (p<0.05) provided cytology; all used unaided visual inspection of the cervix without staining to determine whether cytology testing was indicated. For all, screening intervals depended on presence of symptoms. Conclusion: Misconceptions and ineffective clinical practices regarding screening need to be urgently addressed among both rural and urban HCPs. There are no major differences between rural and urban HCPs regarding their KAP.
Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) Concerning Cervical Cancer and Screening among Rural and Urban Women in Six Provinces of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Tran, Nguyen Toan ; Choe, Song Il ; Taylor, Richard ; Ko, Won Suk ; Pyo, Hae Suk ; So, Hyon Chol ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 3029~3033
Background: This study assessed women from the Democratic People's Republic of Korea for: (i) their level of knowledge of cervical cancer and attitudes and practices concerning cervical screening (KAP); and (ii) differences in KAP between rural and urban groups. Methods: In a descriptive cross-sectional study, a purposive sample of 200 women in 6 provinces of DPRK (rural: n=99, urban: n=101) were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Differences between proportions were assessed using the
test. Significance was defined as p<0.05. Results: 63% of rural and 60% of urban participants had heard of cervical cancer (p>0.05). 42% knew that it is the most common cancer of the female reproductive tract, 55% knew that all women are at risk, but only 36% were aware of cervical cancer's preventability. Some 13% of rural and 29% of urban respondents had heard of cervical cytology testing (p<0.001). Only 6% of participants had ever received a cervical cytology smear. Among the reasons for not screening, 48% mentioned a lack of awareness of cervical cytology; 47% their dislike of pelvic examinations; 17% of rural and 31% of urban interviewees reported the absence of symptoms (p<0.05); and 62% of rural and 0% of urban women mentioned travelling long distances to service delivery points (p<0.001). Conclusions: There is a reasonable level of knowledge of cervical cancer among North Korean women; however, there are major gaps regarding awareness of its preventability and actual uptake of cytology screening services. There are no significant differences between rural and urban women with regard to their KAP. Large scale health promotion campaigns are needed to educate women and the community about cervical cancer and its preventability through screening. The national health care system needs to ensure that screening services are effective, accessible, feasible and acceptable to women.
Incidence and Survival of Cancers in the Elderly Population in Iran: 2001-2005
Akbari, Mohamad Esmail ; Rafiee, Mino ; Khoei, Mahtab Alizadeh ; Eshrati, Babak ; Hatami, Hosain ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 3035~3039
Objective: This study concerns the incidences of different types of registered cancers among the Iranian elderly population. The aim owas to estimate the 5-year survival of cancers between 2001 and 2005, according to elderly age groups and history. Since data on the health status of the Iranian elderly are non existent, these findings will, in part, fill the gap in geriatric knowledge in Iran. Methods: Data from the national cancer registry department of the Ministry Health and Medical Education (MOH & ME), which are pathology-based registration data, were used as the main source of information on incident types of cancers in Iran from 2001-2005. The coverage rate was nearly 80% of majority types of cancers and almost 100% of pathologically diagnosed forms of cancers in the elderly. Survival estimates calculated by Kaplan-Meier method. The survival probability was calculated for the overall cohorts, as well as gender and anatomical sites of tumor. Results: The highest incidence of cancerin five-year cohort was for skin cancer among the elderly population. The youngest aged group (60-74) years had high incidences (64.3%) of all types of cancers. Incidence rates of breast and thyroid cancers in old women were greater than in elderly men. In terms of survival rate, relative risk reflects significant association with gender (RR= 1.03; 95% CI: 0.84-0.95), P = 0.00. Conclusion: Based on the results in this study, the incidence of cancers in the elderly population increases with age. The mean age of the five-year survival cohorts was 88.2 years old. The incidence rates of cancers in old men are generally higher than in elderly wemon.
Water Pipe (Shisha) Smoking and Associated Factors Among Malaysian University Students
Al-Naggar, Redhwan Ahmed ; Saghir, Fatma SA ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 3041~3047
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of waterpipe (shisha) smoking and associated factors among Malaysian university students. Methodology: A total of 200 university students from Management and Science University participated in this study. The survey was conducted by simple random sampling by randomly distributing self-administered questionnaires to the library, cafeterias and classes. The protocol of this study was approved by the ethics committee of Management and Science University. Consent forms were obtained from the students before they answered the questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 13. with the Student's t-test for comparison of the mean practice and backward multiple linear regression for multivariate analysis. Results: The majority of the subjects were male, single, Malay and from urban areas (61.5%, 94.5%, 66%, 76.5%; respectively). In this study 30% of the study participants were shisha smokers. Regarding knowledge about shisha smoking, the majority (48.5%) mentioned that shisha is less harmful than cigarettes and 55% reported that shisha is less addictive. Univariate analysis showed that age, race, sex and income significantly influenced the practice of smoking shisha among university students (p=0.019, p=0.002, p=0.001, p=0.018; respectively). For multivariate analysis, income and gender demonstated significant influence (both p=0.001). Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of shisha smoking among Malaysian university students and knowledge about the dangers is low. Income and gender significantly influenced the practice of smoking shisha in our population. Banning of smoking including shisha smoking in public places is strongly recommended.
Low Activity of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase (MnSOD) in Blood of Lung Cancer Patients with Smoking History : Relationship to Oxidative Stress
Margaret, Ay Ly ; Syahruddin, Elisna ; Wanandi, Septelia Inawati ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 3049~3053
Lung cancer is the primary cause of cancer death in the world. Although it is well established that tobacco smoke causes lung cancer, not all smokers develop lung cancer. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), a major determinant of antioxidants in matrix mitochondria, plays a pivotal role in eliminating anion superoxide free radical generated from the tobacco smoke. The aim of this study was to analyze the enzyme activity of MnSOD in blood of lung cancer patients with a smoking history in relationship to oxidative stress. Samples were taken from leukocyte cells of 20 lung cancer patients in Persahabatan Hospital Jakarta. Control groups included 50 healthy smokers and 50 non smokers, all aged over 40 years. The MnSOD activity determined biochemically based on the inhibition of xanthin oxidase, of lung cancer patients was lower than the control group's (p<0.001). Plasma MDA levels, determined by reaction with thiobarbituric acid (TBA), were not significantly different (p=0.479), whereas plasma carbonyl levels were elevated (p=0.003). Free radical production in lung cancer patients thus appeared high. Smoker controls also tended to exhibit lower MnSOD and higher carbonyl radicals than their non-smoking counterparts. Continue cigarette smoke exposure may increase production of ROS and bring about a reduction of MnSOD, which could play a role in lunfg cancer development.
Pathological and Clinical Characteristics of 1,248 Non-hodgkin's Lymphomas from a Regional Cancer Hospital in Shandong, China
Liu, Jie ; Song, Bao ; Fan, Tingyong ; Huang, Chengsuo ; Xie, Chao ; Li, Jing ; Zhong, Weixia ; Li, Sheng ; Yu, Jinming ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 3055~3061
Introduction: Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) in China appear to have many characteristics different from those Western countries, but clinical studies to provide details have been rare so far. Methods: This study retrospectively analyzed the characteristics of clinical and pathological data for the 1248 NHL patients in the Shandong region of China between 2002 and 2010. Results: From 2002 to 2010, the number of clinical cases of NHL increased year by year. Among the total, 64.7% were B-cell NHL, 30.3% were T-cell NHL, including: diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (40.9%), extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (NK/T) (10.0%); peripheral T cell lymphoma, unspecified (PTL) (9.2%); follicular lymphoma (FL) (6.4%); extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma (MALT) (5.4%); precursor T lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (T-LBL) (4.5%); and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) (3.2%). The average age of onset was
(18-85), and the male to female ratio was 1.57:1. Compared with Shanghai and Shanxi in China, the proportion of NK/T cell lymphoma in this region was higher. In comparison with other countries, the FL and CLL/SLL in this region were significantly lower, while the incidence of T-cell lymphoma was significantly higher than that in the United States and Europe. Conclusions: The clinical and pathological distribution of NHL in Shandong region of China is consistent with that of Asian populations, but with significant difference from the Western countries. The NK/T cell lymphoma in this region was significantly higher.
Knowledge, Attitude about Breast Cancer and Practice of Breast Cancer Screening among Female Health Care Professionals: A Study From Turkey
Akpinar, Yeliz Yelen ; Baykan, Zeynep ; Nacar, Melis ; Gun, Iskender ; Cetinkaya, Fevziye ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 3063~3068
The awareness of health professionals about breast cancer prevention is of vital importance, since their beliefs and behaviors may have a major impact on other women. The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge, and attitudes regarding risk factors for breast cancer as well as screening such as breast self-examiation, clinical breast examination and mammography among different groups of female health professionals. In this cross-sectional study, 444 female health professionals in various health centers located in Çorum Province, Turkey, were interviewed using a self-administered questionnaire. The mean age was
and most were married (81.3%). The rate of feeling under risk regarding breast cancer among female health personnel was 31.3%. The majority (98.4 %) perceived breast self-examination as a beneficial method for the early detection of breast cancer. Although 81.3 % of the participants stated that they did breast self examination, only 27.3 % reported doing so on a regular basis (performed monthly or once per menstrual cycle). The most common reason for not doing breast self-examination was the belief that it was not necessary (45.8 %). Of the entire group, the rate of having a mammography was 10.1% and the rate of clinical breast examination was 24.8%. Health professionals are a direct source of medical information to the public. The use of breast self-examination and mammography was found lower than expected when considering the fact that participants were health care professionals.
Status of HER2 Amplification, Polysomy17 and Histopathological Features of 425 Pakistani Breast Cancer Patients
Moatter, Tariq ; Aban, Muniba ; Iqbal, Waseem ; Azam, Iqbal ; Pervaiz, Afshan ; Siddiqui, Farjad ; Murad, Farzana ; Pervez, Shahid ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 3069~3073
HER2 gene amplification in invasive breast cancer is a robust predictive marker for response to transtuzumab therapy. This study was undertaken to measure concordance between immunohistochemistry (IHC) and FISH for HER2 gene amplification in invasive breast tumors, as well as the presence of polysomy 17 and possible correlation with demographics and histopathological variables, including ER and PR positivity. A total of 425 cases of infiltrating carcinoma of breast (99% IDC-NOS) were studied. HER2 over expression was tested by IHC and FISH methods. Association between IHC and FISH in both subsets was calculated by amplification ratio including polysomy 17. Out of 425 specimens, 128 (30%) were positive for HER2 amplification by FISH test, whereas only 78 (24%) tumors with 2+ expression showed amplification. In contrast, 39 (74%) demonstrated 3+ IHC score and HER2 gene amplification. The histological variables including tumor size, tumor type, and lymph node involvement did not influence the outcome of FISH analysis. The ER and PR status showed significantly greater positivity in patients negative for HER2 amplification. Polysomy 17 was detected in 23.7% patients and was positively associated with ER and PR expression (P= <0.05). Our study showed a concordance of 24% between 2+ IHC and FISH amplification, while in 3+ IHC cases the concordance was 74%. Significant links of HER2 amplification was seen with ER andPR negativity and higher tumor grade. In addition, non-significant correlations were noted with other variables like tumor type, size and lymph node status.
HLA Class II Variants in Chinese Breast Cancer Patients
Yang, Xue-Xi ; Pan, Hua-Zheng ; Li, Pei-Yi ; Li, Fen-Xia ; Xu, Wei-Wen ; Wu, Ying-Shong ; Yao, Guang-Yu ; Li, Ming ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 3075~3079
Alterations of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecules are relevant to the development of breast cancer and metastatic progression. However, the role of HLA class II polymorphisms in the pathogenesis and progression of breast cancer is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the association between HLA class II variants and breast cancer susceptibility and prognosis in a Chinese population. Sixteen variants in HLA class II were detected with the Sequenom MassArray
iPLEX System in 216 breast cancer patients and 216 healthy controls. An association analysis based on unconditional logistic regression was carried out to determine the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for each SNP. Stratified analysis by oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status was also performed. Among 16 variants, only seven conformed to Hardy-Weinberg proportions in the controls. None of these seven variants showed statistically significant differences between the case and control groups in this Han Chinese population. However, chr6_32737733, a variant in HLA-DQB1, showed significant associations with both ER-negative and PR-negative breast cancer in the best fit to the dominant model. Furthermore, another significant correlation was seen between chr6_32606112, a variant in HLA-DRB5, and PR positivity. These results indicate that although no breast cancer risk variants in HLA class II were found in this Chinese population, HLA-DQB1 chr6_32737733 may to be involved in determining a poor prognosis, whereas HLA-DRB5 chr6_32606112 may relate to a good prognosis.
Decreasing Trends of Smoking and Smoking Cessation in Successive Thai Birth Cohorts: Age-period-cohort Analysis from 1991-2007 National Surveys
Sangthong, Rassamee ; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi ; Geater, Alan F ; Jitpiboon, Walailuk ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 3081~3085
Background: Many tobacco control policies have been implemented to reduce tobacco use throughout the world including Thailand. This study made use of surveillance data of the past two decades to examine age-period-cohort effects on smoking in Thailand. Methods: Six nationally representative datasets collected during 1991-2007 were used to determine the prevalence of current smoking, former smoking, and never smoking. Effects of age-period-cohort on current, former, and never smoking were examined using age-period-cohort analysis. Results: Overall tobacco consumption in Thailand has substantially decreased during the past two decades. However, a sluggish decline of smoking trend has been observed in the last decade. Age-period-cohort models showed significant effects of all three of these component factors on current smoking, former smoking, and never smoking, with the exception of an age effect only on former smoking in females. Age-specific prevalence of current smoking in successive birth cohorts increased with age towards 27 years in males and then fell with age while smoking cessation tended to increase with age. Newer cohorts tended to smoke less but were less likely to quit smoking than those in earlier cohorts. Conclusions: Although newer cohorts had less susceptibility to smoking, smokers in newer cohorts had lower odds of smoking cessation. Effective smoking cessation methods should be promoted.
Clinical Observation of Endostar
Combined with Chemotherapy in Advanced Colorectal Cancer Patients
Xu, Hong-Xia ; Huang, Xin-En ; Qian, Zhi-Ying ; Xu, Xia ; Li, Ying ; Li, Cheng-Guang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 3087~3090
(Rh-endostatin injection) is a new recombinant human endostatin developed by Shandong Simcere-Medgenn Bio-Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd in China. This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Endostar plus leucovorin calcium/5-fluorouracil/oxaliplatin (FOLFOX4) in treating patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Methods: Thirty-six patients with advanced colorectal cancer were retrospectively assigned to one of two treatment groups: FOLFOX4 (control) or FOLFOX4 plus Endostar (Endostar) according to patient accreditation. The observational end points were overall response rate, overall survival, progression-free survival and toxicity. Results: The response rate and progression-free survival of Endostar were significantly better than those of control group (P<0.05), but significance was not observed for median survival. In addition, gastrointestinal side effects and incidence of leucopenia were not lower than in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusions: The addition of Endostar to FOLFOX4 resulted in a higher objective response rate and longer time to disease progression. Hypertension and cardiac ischemia were the principal safety concerns, but were manageable. Endostar deserves to be further investigated by randomized controlled clinical trails.
The NQO1 C609T Polymorphism and Risk of Lung Cancer: a Meta-analysis
Liu, Yin ; Zhang, Deping ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 3091~3095
Objective: NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is a cytosolic flavoprotein that catalyzes the two-electron reduction of quinoid compounds into hydroquinones. A single base substitution (
) polymorphism at 609 in the NQO1 gene reduces quinone reductase activity. Published data on the association between NQO1 C609T polymorphism and lung cancer risk are conflicting. Methods: To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship, a meta-analysis was performed. Results: A total of 23 studies including 5,575 cases and 9,132 controls were assessed. The pooled result showed that the NQO1 polymorphism was not associated with a clear increased risk of lung cancer (OR = 1.009, 95% CI: 0.943-1.078;
=0.049). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, no clear increased risk was found among Asians for TT/CT versus CC (OR = 1.005; 95% CI = 0.890-1.135;
=0.024). However, the TT and CT genotypes combined were associated with significantly increased risk of lung cancer in Chinese (OR = 1.237, 95% CI: 1.029-1.486;
=0.061) among whom the variant allele is common. The variant genotype of NQO1 was also associated with modestly increased risk of lung cancer among white populations (OR = 1.017, 95% CI: 0.936-1.105;
=0.101). However, no significant association was found in Africans with all genetic models. Conclusions: Our meta-analysis suggests that the variant NQO1 C609T genotype may affect individual susceptibility to lung cancer. This meta- analysis suggests that the NQO1 609T allele is a low penetrant risk factor for developing lung cancer in Chinese.
Polymorphisms in GSTM1, GSTTI and GSTP1 and Nasopharyngeal Cancer in the East of China: a Case-control Study
Yan, Jiang ; Na, Li ; Pin, Dong ; Niankai, Zhang ; Yan, Sun ; Min, Han ; Junfeng, Wen ; Min, Chen ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 3097~3100
Aim: The study was performed to assess the potential role of GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms in the risk of nasopharyngeal cancer in Chinese population. Method: We collected 182 cases undergoing pathologic examination and 366 controls from the affiliated hospital of Medical College of Qingdao University from April 2006 to July 2010. Genotyping was based upon duplex polymerase-chain-reactions with the PCR-CTPP method. Results: More smokers were found in NPC patients than controls, and a higher IgA/VCA+ . Individuals carrying null GSTM1 and GSTT1 had 1.76 and 2.01 fold risk of NPC when compared with non-null genotypes, respectively. A non-significant increase risk of NPC was found in individuals with 1b/1b genotype when compared with 1a/1a genotype (OR=1.32, 95%CI=0.60-2.94). When compared with non-null GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes, the combination of null/null GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes showed moderate increased risk of NPC (OR=3.03, 95% CI=1.74-5.08). Conclusion: Our study provides evidence that genetic deletion of GSTM1 and GSTT1 may contribute to increased susceptibility to NPC in Chinese population, while GSTP1 may not. Our findings provide information relevant to the prevention of NPC.
High Ki-67 Expression is a Poor Prognostic Indicator of 5-Year Survival in Patients with Invasive Breast Cancer
Yang, Xue-Qin ; Wang, Fu-Bing ; Chen, Chuang ; Peng, Chun-Wei ; Zhang, Jing-Fang ; Li, Yan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 3101~3105
Objective: Ki-67 is a biomarker that reflects cell proliferation. Despite a clear understanding of the protein's structure and properties, its functional role remains elusive. We conducted the present study to assess the prognostic value of Ki-67 in breast cancer (BC). Method: We enrolled 164 individuals in this study: 30 patients with benign tumors and 134 with invasive BC. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to detect Ki-67 expression The prognostic value of Ki-67 for 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) could be analyzed in 134 BC patients. Results: Ki-67 expression showed significant differences with the tumor grade, lymph node (LN) status, HER2 status and hormone receptor (HR) status (all P<0.05). When Ki-67 11% was used as cutoff to divide the 134 cases into two groups, with high and low expression, the patients in former had a significantly higher 5-year recurrence rate (37.1% vs 8.1%, P=0.001) and a worse RFS (log-rank test, P=0.0017) than those in low Ki-67 expression group. Ki-67 was an independent prognostic predictor of 5-year RFS in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Conclusion: Ki-67 can be used as a negative predictor of 5-year RFS of patients with invasive BC.
Genetic Variation in the MicroRNA-499 Gene and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Risk in a Turkish Population: Lack of Any Association in a Case-Control Study
Akkiz, Hikmet ; Bayram, Suleyman ; Bekar, Aynur ; Akgollu, Ersin ; Uskudar, Oguz ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 3107~3112
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an abundant class of small non-protein-coding RNAs with posttranscriptional regulatory functions as tumor suppressors and oncogenes. It has been suggested that the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in miRNAs can alter miRNA processing, expression, and/or binding to target mRNA and represent another type of genetic variability that can contribute to susceptibility to cancer development in humans. An adenine to guanine polymorphism (rs3746444), located in the sequence of miR-499, results in a change from A:U to G:U in its stem region. To determine the association of this polymorphism with the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a Turkish population, a hospital-based case-control study was designed consisting of 222 subjects with HCC and 222 cancer-free control subjects matched for age, gender, smoking and alcohol status. The genotype frequency of the miR-499 rs3746444 polymorphism was determined using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. No statistically significant differences were found in the allele or genotype distributions of the miR-499 rs3746444 polymorphism among HCC and cancer-free control subjects (P>0.05). Our results demonstrate for the first time that the miR-499 rs3746444 polymorphism does not been any major role in genetic susceptibilty to hepatocellular carcinogenesis, at least in the population studied here. Independent studies are need to validate our findings in a larger series, as well as in patients of different ethnic origins.
Comparison of Aalen's Additive and Cox Proportional Hazards Models for Breast Cancer Survival: Analysis of Population-Based Data from British Columbia, Canada
Abadi, Alireza ; Saadat, Saeed ; Yavari, Parvin ; Bajdik, Chris ; Jalili, Parvin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 3113~3116
Background: Regression models for survival data have traditionally been based on the Cox regression model. However, its validity relies heavily on assumption of proportional hazards. Another restriction of the Cox model is insufficiency in dealing with time-varying covariate effects, since the regression coefficients are assumed constant. These weaknesses have generated interest in alternative approaches and with Aalen's additive model, the effect of the covariates acts on an absolute rather than a relative scale. We here fit the Cox and Aalen's additive models to breast cancer data for comparison through practical application. Method: The data related to 14,826 women diagnosed with breast cancer in BC during 1990-1999 and followed to 2010. Plots of the Martingale Residual Process and Arja's Plot was used to assess the fit of the additive model. The Cox-Snell residuals, Martingale residuals and scaled Schoenfeld residuals were used to check the Cox model. Results: In the category of patients younger than 65 years the proportional hazard assumption was satisfied. In this category, by the Cox model, the variables "stage", "surgery", "radiotherapy", "chemotherapy", "hormone therapy" and interaction between "stage" and "surgery" proved significant. In the same category, by the Aalen's additive model, similar significant variables are selected except for "hormone therapy". The sign of estimated coefficients from survival functions based on the both Cox and Aalen's additive models were alike although estimated coefficients in the two models differed from the viewpoint of magnitude. In the category of patients older than 65 years, the proportional hazard assumption was not satisfied, and the Stratified Cox model and Aalen's additive model gave similar results. Conclusion: Based on our findings, if the proportional hazard assumption is not satisfied, the Aalen's additive model is an appropriate alternative for the Cox model. If the proportional hazard assumption is satisfied, both models are appropriate. Generally, the two models give different pieces of information.
Family History of Cancer and Risk of Gastric Cancer in Iran
Safaee, A ; Moghimi-Dehkordi, B ; Fatemi, SR ; Maserat, E ; Zali, MR ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 3117~3120
Introduction: Gastric cancer is one of the major causes of cancer related death in the world. A number of risk factors are now known to be related to the development of the disease. Previous reports indicated that a family history is a serious risk, but there is a little information about this in Iran. The aim of this study was to explore the relation between family history of cancer in first and second degree relatives and the risk of GC in Iran. Method: The present study was designed as unmatched case control study. Cases were 746 patients with histologically confirmed GC and the 746 controls were randomly selected among the healthy participants in a health survey. Family history was extracted from a standard history form completed by the patient or from records created by a health care provider. Mantel-Heanszel odds ratios were computed for removing the confounding effect of age and sex. Results: Overall, 9.7% of cases versus 5.6% of controls reported a family history of GC. Risk increased over twofold for this group. There was no significant association among family history of other cancers and GC (P>0.05). Conclusion: In conclusion, this study showed that family history of GC, especially in first-degree relatives, increases the risk of development of the disease. Further studies are needed to better understand the roles of genetic and environmental factors and their interaction in gastric cancer development in the Iranian community.
Quality of Life in Women with Gynecologic Cancer in Turkey
Goker, A ; Guvenal, T ; Yanikkerem, E ; Turhan, A ; Koyuncu, FM ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 3121~3128
Aim: The management of gynecological cancer patients mainly aims at prolonging survival but modern therapy focuses on good survival combined with a good quality of life (QoL). The aim of this study was to evaluate QoL and identify its associated factors in Turkish women with gynecologic cancer. Method: The study included 119 women diagnosed with endometrial, cervical, ovarian or vulvar cancer and treated at the Gynecologic Oncology Department of Celal Bayar University Faculty of Medicine. The data were collected between January and June 2011. QoL was measured with EORTC QLQ-C30 version 3.0. Relationships between clinical and socio-demographic characteristics and QoL scores were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal Wallis and t-tests. Results: Global health status, physical and role function scores were found higher in women under the age of 60 years. Role function scores were found lower, and emotional and social scores were found to be higher in single women than in married women. Physical scores were found higher in women who had graduated from secondary school or above. Women with ovarian cancer had the highest while women with cervical cancer had the lowest global health score (
, respectively). Women with endometrial cancer were found to have better role function, and social well being than those with vulvar, cervical or ovarian cancer. Global, physical, role function, cognitive and social scores were found higher in women who had been treated with surgery. Conclusion: Gynecological cancer and treatment processes cause significant problems that have negative effects on physical, emotional, social and role function aspects of QoL. Health care providers play a key role in the identification and treatment of the complications of cancer therapy. Minimizing the effect of the symptoms of gynecologic cancer may positively impact on patient QoL.
Breast Cancer Research in Iran: Essential Data to Organize Research
Kaviani, Ahmad ; Ghadiri, Fereshteh ; Iranpour, Negar ; Shadloo, Zahra ; Rabbani, Abbas ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 3129~3131
Background: Considering that breast cancer is one of the most burdensome diseases our societies are facing, and given our lack of knowledge in the research field of the important disease, it is essential that we strategize research policies by identifying defects in research systems in each country. The goal of this study was to explore the published articles in this field and present the data required for the policy makers to re-organize the breast cancer research in Iran. Method: In this descriptive study, Pubmed searches were performed to find all the articles published on the title of breast "cancer", "tumor", "malignancy" and "Iran" from the beginning up to the end of January 2010. Different research categories of the articles were defined and validated by an expert panel. The abstracts of all 180 articles were reviewed and each article was put into the relevant category. Results: Based on the available evidence the majority of articles have focused on molecular science (21%) and genetics (19%), while the remainder belonged to other categories like quality of life (9%), screening protocols (8%), epidemiology (7%), risk factor studies (6%), pathology (6%), patient knowledge and behavior (5%) and other clinical research fields (19%). The most used methodologies are cross-sectional (39%) and case-control (25%). The other articles are designed in formats such as experimental (8%), cohort (6%), case-report (6%), review article (4%) and others methodologies (12%). Conclusion: Despite the increasing body of literature under the title of breast cancer since 2000 from Iran, still there are limited published articles in some important categories with strong levels of evidence of relevance, which calls for extra efforts to reassess the research system policies and budgeting standards.
Closing the Disparity Gap: Cancer Screening Interventions Among Asians - a Systematic Literature Review
Hou, Su-I ; Sealy, Diadrey-Anne ; Kabiru, Caroline W ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 3133~3139
Background: Cancer is a leading cause of deaths among Asian Americans. However, the rates of screening among Asian Americans are low. The use of effective culturally-appropriate interventions needs to be explored. Method: Electronic databases were searched for articles published between January 1995 and December 2010 for a comprehensive literature review. Interventions to increase breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening among Asians populations in the US and overseas were included. Results: A total of thirty studies were reviewed. These studies differed on study design, target population, theoretical underpinning of intervention approach and outcome measures. Effective interventions employed a variety of strategies including the use of social networks, lay health workers, media education, community-based education, reminder notices, health care provider assistance and health system changes. Fifteen studies utilized behavioral theories in intervention development. Conclusion: This review finds culturally-appropriate community-based interventions and lay health worker strategies can improve cancer screening behaviors among Asian populations. Selections of intervention strategies will depend on the characteristics of the target group and feasibility of implementation. Challenges and recommendations for tailored screening interventions for Asians are discussed.
MDR1 Gene Polymorphisms: Possible Association with its Expression and Clinicopathology Characteristics in Colorectal Cancer Patients
Samanian, Sara ; Mahjoubi, Frouzandeh ; Mahjoubi, Bahar ; Mirzaee, Rezvan ; Azizi, Rasool ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 3141~3145
Aim: Over-expression of some genes, such as MDR1, can increase the level of chemotherapy drug afflux and limit the effectiveness of treatment. We aimed to investigate the effect of MDR1 polymorphisms on its expression level and related characteristics in Iranian colorectal cancer patients. Method: Tumor, normal mucosal tissue and blood samples from CRC patients and blood samples from healthy controls (n=60) were obtained for genotyping and measuring the expression level of MDR1. Results: The expression of the MDR1 gene showed a significant increase in cancerous regions compared to adjacent normal tissue. Furthermore, the GG2677 genotype was correlated with highest while the AT 2677genotype was associated with the lowest levels of expression. In addition only the G2677T/A polymorphism showed association with histological grade of colorectal tumors. Conclusion: Our study once more emphasizes effects of MDR1 SNPs which may indirectly impact on response to drugs.
Tumor Markers and Biochemical Parameters in Colon Cancer Patients Before and After Chemotherapy
Gur, Tugba ; Demir, Halit ; Kotan, M Cetin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 3147~3150
Objective: Tumor markers and biochemical parameters were investigated in patients suffering from colon cancer and in volunteer healthy persons. Design and Method: Biochemical analyses of erythrocyte enzymes and serum values for series of established tumor markers were conducted for 40 patients diagnosed with colon cancer, before and after chemotherapy, and 29 healthy volunteers between 2008 and 2009. Results: Activities of catalase and carbonic anhydrase were lower in sick than healthy groups (p<0.05) before and after chemotherapy, while alkaline phosphatase and creatinine were increased. The patients with colon cancer showed significant (p<0.05) elevation of CRP, fibrinogen, CA125, AFP, and decrease in ferritinin, before but not after therapy. Conclusion: The results obtaining from this investigation can be useful for colon cancer risk assessment.
Exploration of Cancer Pain Treatment by Morphine Infusion through an Embedded Device
Yang, Yang ; Li, Ying ; Huang, Xin-En ; Lu, Yan-Yan ; Wu, Xue-Yan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 3151~3153
Cancer pain treatment with morphine presents particular problems in patients with renal failure needing haemodialysis. We here explore the various possibilities of intrathecal opioid administration for intractable chronic and acute cancer pain. Morphine, as the only opioid approved by the Food and Drug Agency for administration, has been increasingly utilized for this purpose. For over 3 decades, there have been numerous reports on non-nociceptive side effects associated with ever increasing long-term intrathecal morphine usage. Our review of the literature and our own experience suggests that a subarachnoid device allows good pain control effect after patient controlled intravenous infusion failure at the time of haemodialysis.
Understanding Decision and Enabling Factors Influencing Clinical Trial Participation in Australia: A View Point
McMahon, Vanessa A ; Matthews, Slade ; Capper, Hugh ; Chudleigh, Jessica B ; McLachlan, Craig S ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 3153~3156
Understanding patient decision making with respect to clinical trial participation has the potential to improve both the efficiency of recruitment for clinical trials and their management. In this mini-review we consider 3 key factors influencing clinical trial recruitment outcomes that include; 1) patient personal characteristics, 2) enabling factors that involve patient centered attitudes or circumstances, and 3) aversion. These factors are explored across both Australian rural and urban settings and contrasted to reported outcomes from research across other countries. Australia has the lowest number of publications on rural clinical trial participation when compared to rural research in America and Canada. Across Australian urban areas where all 3 factors have been studied, trends are similar to those reported in other developed countries. In conclusion we suggest that trial participation could be improved if participants are better informed about a trial as this is a valuable factor to enable recruitment.
Association of COX-2 8473T>C Gene Polymorphism with Lung Cancer Risk
Peng, Wen-Jia ; Wang, Bing-Xiang ; He, Qian ; Xiao, Chang-Chun ; Zhang, Jun-Qing ; Wang, Jing ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 11, 2011, Pages 3157~3158