Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevetion
Editor in Chief :
Malcolm A Moore
Volume & Issues
Volume 12, Issue 12 - Dec 2011
Volume 12, Issue 11 - Nov 2011
Volume 12, Issue 10 - Oct 2011
Volume 12, Issue 9 - Sep 2011
Volume 12, Issue 8 - Aug 2011
Volume 12, Issue 7 - Jul 2011
Volume 12, Issue 6 - Jun 2011
Volume 12, Issue 5 - May 2011
Volume 12, Issue 4 - Apr 2011
Volume 12, Issue 3 - Mar 2011
Volume 12, Issue 2 - Feb 2011
Volume 12, Issue 1 - Jan 2011
Selecting the target year
Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs and Cancer, with an Especial Focus on Esophageal Cancer
Liu, Jun-Feng ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3159~3168
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been extensively used for relief of pain and fever, and prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases for several decades. Recently, the use of these compounds has been reported to be associated with reduction in occurrence of a variety of cancers. In this paper, we reviewed anti-cancer mechanisms of NSAIDs and their potential preventive and even theraputic effects on cancer, focusing on esophageal cancer in particular.
Dietary Turmeric Potentially Reduces the Risk of Cancer
Hutchins-Wolfbrandt, Amanda ; Mistry, Anahita M ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3169~3173
Turmeric, a plant rhizome that is often dried, ground and used as a cooking spice, has also been used medicinally for several thousand years. Curcumin, the phytochemical that gives turmeric its golden color, is responsible for most of the therapeutic effects of turmeric. In recent years curcumin has been studied for its effects on chronic diseases such as diabetes, Alzheimer's, and cancer. Though many researchers are investigating turmeric/curcumin in cancer therapy, there is little epidemiologic information on the effects of turmeric consumption. With limited availability of pharmacologic interventions in many areas of the world, use of turmeric in the diet may help to alleviate some of the disease burden through prevention. Here we provide a brief overview of turmeric consumption in different parts of the world, cancer rates in those regions, possible biochemical mechanisms by which turmeric acts and practical recommendations based on the information available.
Role of miRNAs in Breast Cancer
Kayani, Masood Ur Rehman ; Kayani, Mahmood Akthar ; Malik, Faraz Arshad ; Faryal, Rani ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3175~3180
miRNAs belong to an important class of endogenous molecules which are present in a wide range of organisms including animals, plants and viruses. They are involved in regulating expression of several genes inside a cell due to presence of complementary region against specific mRNA molecules. Altered expression patterns cause progression of multiple diseases inside an organism. They have also been confirmed to be involved in different cancers including breast cancer. In this review, we discuss role of miRNAs with respect to uncontrolled division of cells, promotion, progression and metastasis in breast cancer.
Evaluation of the Efficacy of Modified De Gramont and Modified FOLFOX4 Regimens for Adjuvant Therapy of Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer
Koca, Dogan ; Oztop, Ilhan ; Yavuzsen, Tugba ; Ellidokuz, Hulya ; Yilmaz, Ugur ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3181~3186
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of modified De Gramont (mDG) and FOLFOX4 (mFOLFOX4) regimens in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Methods: Patients that received adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) for the treatment of LARC (stage II and III) were retrospectively evaluated. Results: A total of 231 patients were examined. Median age was 58 (range, 18-83) and, of these patients, 36 (15.6%) had stage II and 195 (84.4%) had stage III disease. While the patients with stage II disease received only mDG regimen (36, 100.0%), of the patients with stage III disease, 71 (36.5%) received mDG and 124 (63.5%) received mFOLFOX4 regimen. Patients with stage III disease showed recurrences more often, but this difference was not statistically significant. Similarly, for the patients with stage III disease, there was no statistically significant relation between the adjuvant CT regimen received and the rate of recurrence. In patients with stage II disease, who received mDG, median DFS was 101 months and median OS was 106 months. For the patients with stage III disease, the patients that received mDG showed a median DFS of 78 months and a median OS of 96 months, while the patients that received mFOLFOX4 had a median DFS of 51 months and a median OS of 78 months. Although, for the patients with stage III disease, there are major differences between the two different regimens of CT in terms of DFS and OS, this difference was not statistically significant. When the results were evaluated from the perspective of toxicity, the patients that received mFOLFOX4 showed more toxicity. Neurotoxicity, which was seen in the patients that were given mFOLFOX4, was the most prominent toxicity. Conclusions: mDG and mFOLFOX4 regimens are applicable regimens as adjuvant CT for the treatment of LARC.
Lack of Diagnostic Potential of Dickkopf-1 in Colon and Rectum Cancers
Soydinc, Hilal Oguz ; Duranyildiz, Derya ; Camlica, Hakan ; Oral, Ethem Nezih ; Yasasever, Vildan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3187~3189
The Wnt/b-catenin signalling pathway plays crucial roles in development and its aberrant activation is an initial and crucial event in the majority of colon cancers. The Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1) gene encodes an extracellular Wnt inhibitor that blocks the formation of signalling receptor complexes at the plasma membrane. Here, we report the serum levels of Dkk1 in colorectal cancer patients without any therapy. The levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 135 colon and 160 rectum cancer patients, as well as 90 healthy subjects. Data analyses were performed using SPSS software (SPSS 16, Chicago, IL). There were no significant differences among the groups for Dkk-1 (p=0.363). In conclusion, the present study did not confirm that serum Dkk-1 levels could have any diagnostic potential in colon and rectum cancers.
A Community Based Smoking Cessation Intervention Trial for Rural Kerala, India
Jayakrishnan, R ; Mathew, Aleyamma ; Uutela, Antti ; Finne, Patrik ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3191~3195
Objectives: An attempt was made to compare tobacco prevalence and socioeconomic factors of two groups (intervention and control) from a selected rural community in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Methods: Data were collected from resident males in the age group of 18.0 to 60.0 years from 4 randomly allocated Community Development Blocks of rural Thiruvananthapuram district (2 intervention & control groups).Trained Accredited Social Health Activists workers were utilised to collect data from both the groups through a face to face interview. Results: Among 3304 subjects were interviewed, the overall prevalence of smokers was 28% (n=928) (mean age=44.4 years, SD=9.2 years). Socio-economic status (SES) score points indicated that majority of smokers belonged to the upper lower SES category (61%) (mean SES score =10, SD=3) and among non-smokers, the participants mainly belonged to the lower middle SES score (45%) (mean SES score =12, SD=3) (p-value=0.0001). Among the 928 smokers, 474 subjects were in the intervention area (mean age =44.56 years, SD =9.66 years) and 454 in the control area (mean age= 44.47 years, SD =10.30 years). No significant difference was found between the intervention and control groups according to age (p=0.89) and SES (p=0.11). Majority of smokers in the intervention and control areas were from the upper lower SES group (64.14% and 57.17%). Conclusion: Smoking continues to be a predominant public health problem among males in rural Kerala particularly among lower socio-economic population. Apart from strengthening legislation, multiple cost effective intervention approaches are required to reduce tobacco consumption in the community.
Retrospective Analysis of Results of Treatment for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Penang General Hospital from 2001-2005
Phua, CE ; Tan, BS ; Yong, TK ; Govindasamy, M ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3197~3200
Background: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the commonest cancers encountered in Malaysia. This study aimed to evaluate the treatment outcomes for patients with NPC treated in Penang General Hospital with specific analysis of prognostic clinicopathological features and treatment modalities. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study examined NPC patients between 1st January 2001 and 31st December 2005 in Penang General Hospital. Survival analyses were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and comparisons between groups were made using the log-rank test. Important prognostic factors including patient demographics, tumour and treatment factors were analysed using the Cox proportional hazard model. Results: A total of 285 patients were identified with a median age of 51 years, 72.6% being males. The majority were Chinese (66%) followed by Malays (31.9%). Primary tumour stages (T stages) 3 and 4 were present in 18.6% and 34% of patients respectively, and nodal disease was present in 80.4%. On overall AJCC staging, 29.1% had stage III and 50.2% had stage IV disease. Some 39.6% of patients had WHO type 3 histology and 7.4% had WHO type 1-2 histology with the remainder having NPC with no subtype reported. Concurrent chemo-irradiation was the commonest treatment received by patients (51.9%) followed by radiotherapy alone (41.8%). The 5 year overall survival and cause specific survival were 33.3% and 42.7% respectively. Age group, T stage, N stage and WHO histological subtype were independent prognostic factors for overall survival on multivariate analysis. For cause specific survival they were T stage and N stage. Conclusion: The 5 years overall survival rate was 33.3%. This low figure is primarily due to late presentation. Efforts to detect NPC at earlier stages in Malaysia are urgently needed. These should include public education to increase awareness of the prevalence of this highly treatable disease.
Effects of ABO and FUT2 Genetic Transcription Absence on ABH Histo-blood Group Antigen Expression in Lung Cancer Patients
Li, Jun ; Li, Shuhai ; Liu, Qian ; Li, Yu ; Zhou, Qinghua ; Yuan, Shuanghu ; Wang, Zhou ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3201~3206
Purpose: To investigate the effect of alterations in mRNAs of ABO and FUT2 genes on the expression of ABH histo-blood group antigens in lung cancer patients. Methods: Totals of 18 patients with blood group A, 14 with group B, 8 with group AB and 9 with group O, were assessed for blood group A/B/H antigens by immunohistochemical staining. Expression of A/B enzyme and FUT2 mRNA was detected in tumor tissues and corresponding lung tissues adjacent to tumors from lung cancer patients using RT-PCR. Results: Expression of FUT2 and A/B enzyme mRNA in lung tissue adjacent to tumors was statistically greater than that in tumor tissues (
=14.118, P<0.001). Expression of FUT2 mRNA was statistically lower than that of A/B enzyme in tumor tissues from lung cancer patients whose blood group was A/B/AB (
=7.813, P=0.005). Only tumor tissues from 9 patients with mRNA expression of A/B enzyme and FUT2 gene lacked blood group antigens. In particular, expression of A/B antigens was not detected in five cases with A/B mRNA expression, a significant association being observed between the expression of enzyme and antigens (Pearson's R=0.867;kappa's coefficient =0.858, P<0.001). Conclusion: Expression of A/B/H blood group antigens was not detected in lung cancer tissues, which may have resulted from down-regulation of ABO/FUT2 gene transcription. Furthermore, the FUT2 gene may indirectly regulate expression of A/B blood group antigens by influencing H antigen expression.
Functional SNPs in Human C20orf54 Gene Influence Susceptibility to Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Ji, Aifang ; Wang, Jinsheng ; Yang, Jianzhou ; Wei, Zibai ; Lian, Changhong ; Ma, Liang ; Ma, Li ; Chen, Jinjing ; Qin, Xiaoqi ; Wang, Li dong ; Wei, Wu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3207~3212
Objectives: C20orf54, also known as a human riboflavin transporter 2 (RFT2), encodes an open reading frame protein RFT2 newly identified to play an important role in esophageal carcinogenesis by modulating riboflavin uptake. Missense cSNPs on exon 3,1172 C>A (T391M) and 1246A>G (I416V) have been suggested to modulate protein expression. The aim of present study was to explore the association of C20orf54 functional SNPs with susceptibility to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in a northern Chinese population. Methods: 240 patients with ESCC and 198 healthy individuals without overt cancer were chosen as our experimental subjects. Information about family address, sex, age, BMI, smoking and drinking habits and family history of cancer were collected. Blood samples were taken from all subjects and tumor tissues were freshly sampled from resected specimens. After DNA was extracted and amplified, the C20orf54 SNPs were sequenced by ABI 3730XL in BGI China. Freqencies were then calculated and associated with the collected suspicous risk factors. Results: Drinking status, a family history of ESCC, blood type and BMI were found to have great influence on the risk of developing ESCC. Overall genotype frequencies of the RFT2 SNP 1172 C>A (rs3746803) and 1246A>G (rs3746802) in ESCC patients are significantly different from that in healthy controls (x2=13.10, P=0.001 and x2=7.97, P=0.019, respectively). For RFT2 rs3746803, C/T+T/T genotype did not show a relationship with the risk of ESCC (the age and gender adjusted OR=0.66, 95% CI=0.41-1.05) when using C/C genotype as the reference. For RFT2 rs3746802, the A/G+G/G genotype demonstrated a significantly decreased risk to the development of ESCC (the age and sex adjusted OR=0.53, 95% CI=0.34-0.84) with A/A as the reference. Conclusions: The present study suggests that the C20orf54 functional SNPs might be associated with a risk of ESCC development.
Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Intention among Young Women in Thailand
Juntasopeepun, Phanida ; Davidson, Patricia M ; Suwan, Natthawan ; Phianmongkhol, Yupin ; Srisomboon, Jatupol ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3213~3219
Aims: The aims of this study were to examine knowledge and beliefs regarding HPV and cervical cancer and to predict HPV vaccination intention among young women in Thailand using a cross-sectional descriptive study design. Methods: A sample of young women aged 18-24 years (n = 391) were recruited from universities/colleges located in Chiang Mai, Thailand. An online survey was carried out to obtain young women's demographic, HPV and cervical cancer-related health characteristics, knowledge, and beliefs toward HPV and cervical cancer. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine significant independent predictors of HPV vaccination intention. Findings: Five participants (1.2%) had received at least one shot of the HPV vaccine. Of 386 participants, 218 (56.5%) reported high intention to obtain the HPV vaccine. Young women's knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer was moderate. The mean knowledge score was 7.89 (SD, 3.99; range, 0-15). Knowledge was significantly and positively related to perceived susceptibility, perceived seriousness, and perceived benefits of HPV vaccination, but negatively related to perceived barriers to HPV vaccination. Participants with a higher level of knowledge were significantly more likely to obtain the vaccine. A multivariate logistic regression model identified predictors of HPV vaccination intention: recommendations from significant others, perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, and feeling embarrassed about getting the HPV vaccine. Conclusions: Health education efforts are needed to promote further understanding of HPV and cervical cancer, particularly with more attention to the HPV vaccination.
Suppressive Effects of Moringa oleifera Lam Pod Against Mouse Colon Carcinogenesis Induced by Azoxymethane and Dextran Sodium Sulfate
Budda, Sirintip ; Butryee, Chaniphun ; Tuntipopipat, Siriporn ; Rungsipipat, Anudep ; Wangnaithum, Supradit ; Lee, Jeong-Sang ; Kupradinun, Piengchai ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3221~3228
Moringa oleifera Lam (horseradish tree; tender pod or fruits) is a major ingredient in Thai cuisine and has some medicinal properties. Previous studies have shown potentially antioxidant, antitumor promoter, anticlastogen and anticarcinogen activities both in vitro and in vivo. The present study was conducted to investigate chemopreventive effects on azoxymethane (AOM)-initiated and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-promoted colon carcinogenesis in mice. Male ICR mice were divided into 8 groups: Group 1 served as a negative control; Group 2 received AOM/DSS as a positive control; Groups 3-5 were fed boiled freeze-dried M. oleifera (bMO) at 1.5%, 3.0% and 6.0%, respectively supplemented in basal diets for 5 weeks; Groups 6-8 were fed with bMO diets at the designed doses above for 2 weeks prior to AOM, during and 1 week after DSS administration. At the end of the study, colon samples were processed for histopathological examination. PCNA indices, iNOS and COX-2 expression were assessed by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrated the incidences and multiplicities of tumors in Groups 6-8 to be decreased when compared to Group 2 in a dose dependent manner, but this was significant only in Group 8. The PCNA index was also significantly decreased in Group 8 whereas iNOS and COX-2 protein expression were significantly decreased in Groups 7 and 8. The findings suggest that M. oleifera Lam pod exerts suppressive effects in a colitis-related colon carcinogenesis model induced by AOM/DSS and could serve as a chemopreventive agent.
KISS1 Expression in Osteosarcoma: High in Chinese Clinical Cases, but Lower in Cell Lines
Wang, Fa-Sheng ; Chen, Hui ; Wu, Zhao-Yang ; Lin, Jian-Hua ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3229~3234
Purpose: Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone malignancy with a notorious feature of high metastasis. KISS1 has been identified as a putative human metastasis suppressor gene in numerous types of cancer. This study was aimed to evaluate the relationship between expression of KISS1 and invasion ability in osteosarcoma cell lines, and the relationships between KISS1 expression levels and prognosis of clincial cases. Methods: Expression levels of KISS1 in 3 types of osteosarcoma cell lines (MG-63, Saos-2 and U-2 OS) and a normal osteoblast cell line (hF-OB 1.19) were examined using semi-quantitative RT-PCR and immunochemistry staining. Transwell assays were used to detect the cell invasion ability. The osteosarcoma cell lines and specimen sections of osteosarcoma together with control were immuno-stained with KISS1 antibody. The relationship between the clinical data and the expression of KISS1 was evaluated. Results: KISS1 mRNA expression was moderate in U-2 OS, weak in Saos-2 and lost in MG-63. Transwell assays displayed a gradually increased aggressive phenomenon in osteosarcoma cell lines U-2 OS, Saos-2 and MG-63. However, a contrary conclusion was obtained with clinical specimen, a higher positive rate of KISS1 expression being displayed in osteosarcoma patients, especially in metastastic cases, compared to the benign osteochondroma patients. Furthermore, significant earlier distant metastasis was observed in KISS1 positive than negative cases. Conclusion: KISS1 expression levels were found to be decreased with the increasing aggressive ability in osteosarcoma cell lines. However, expression of KISS1 positively correlated with metastasis in osteosarcoma patients.
Jaceosidin Induces p53-dependent G2/M Phase Arrest in U87 Glioblastoma Cells
Khan, Muhammad ; Rasul, Azhar ; Yi, Fei ; Zhong, Lili ; Ma, Tonghui ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3235~3238
Flavonoid compounds have been shown to trigger cell cycle arrest at G0/G1, S and G2/M checkpoints, allowing cells to repair DNA damage before entry into mitosis. Jaceosidin, a flavonoid compound has been reported to induce apoptosis in various cancer cell lines. In our previous study, we have shown that jaceosidin induces apoptosis in U87 glioblastoma cells through G2/M phase arrest. However, the molecular mechanisms of jaceosidin-induced cell cycle arrest remained unclear. In the present study, mRNA and protein expression levels of major cell cycle regulatory genes were analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot studies respectively. The results demonstrated that jaceosidin-induced G2/M phase arrest in U87 cells is associated with DNA fragmentation, up-regulation of p53 and p21 and subsequent down-regulation of cyclin B1 and CDK1 expression at mRNA as well as at protein level. These findings provide insights into jaceosidin-induced G2/M phase arrest in U87 glioblastoma cells.
Lack of Associations of Polymorphisms of IL-7R, IL-13 and IL-15 with NSCLCs in Non-smoking Chinese
Bao, Wen-Long ; Shi, Hua ; Zhang, Ai-Qin ; Kong, Xiang-Ming ; Deng, De-Hou ; Zhang, Yong-Jun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3239~3244
Studies have shown that immune cells play a key role in lung cancer development. Five SNPs (rs1494555, rs7737000, rs20541, rs1057972 and rs2857261) are associated with lung cancer risk among Caucasians and/or African-Americans, but the polymorphisms may be implicated in different susceptibilities for lung cancer across different populations because of underlying genetic heterogeneity. We therefore conducted a study to examine this relationship in non-smoking Chinese. As a result , no significant associations were observed between SNPs and NSCLCs, whetehr of squamous cell or adenocarcinoma type. Results indicated polymorphisms of IL-7R, IL-13 and IL-15 are not major contributors to NSCLC susceptibility, although we can not rule out synergistic effects with cigarette smoke in NSCLC development in smoking Chinese.
Expression of Type IV Collagen, Metalloproteinase-2, Metalloproteinase-9 and Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 in Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinomas
Cao, Xiao-Lin ; Xu, Ru-Jun ; Zheng, You-Yang ; Liu, Jun ; Teng, Yao-Shu ; Li, Yong ; Zhu, Jin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3245~3249
Objective: To investigate the significance of type IV collagen, metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) expression in laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas (LSCCs). Methods: Expression was quantified in 44 LSCC and 22 adjacent non-cancer normal tissues using a streptavidin-peroxidase conjugated immunohistochemistry and associations between the levels of the four proteins and clinicopathological characteristics in LSCC were analyzed. Results: Significantly different expression of all four proteins was observed in LSCC and adjacent non-cancer normal tissues (P<0.05). Expression of type IV collagen correlated with primary cancer status (P = 0.04), clinical stage (P = 0.04) and histological grade (P = 0.01). Expression of MMP-9 correlated with the location of the tumor (P = 0.04), cervical node metastasis (P = 0.02) and prognosis (P = 0.02). The (MMP-2+MMP-9)/TIMP-1 score was associated with the prognosis of LSCC (P < 0.01). Conclusions: This study suggests that expression of type IV collagen and its regulators is strongly associated with the development of LSCC. Type IV collagen and MMP-9 may be more valuable than MMP-2 and TIMP-1 for the evaluation of clinical characteristics. Regulation of type IV collagen may contribute to the balance of MMPs and TIMPs in LSCC.
Evaluating Knowledge about Human Papillomavirus Infection among Brazilian Health Professionals
Villar, Livia Melo ; Rabello, Aline Dutra ; De Paula, Vanessa Salete ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3251~3256
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. Although two safe and clinically effective vaccines against HPV have been developed, they are not available to the public health network in Brazil. This study was performed to assess knowledge about HPV among seventy-nine professionals who completed a questionnaire about diagnosis, transmission, symptoms, prevention and general information. General knowledge about HPV was high, as most of them recognized that HPV is transmitted sexually (98.7%), the disease can be asymptomatic (82.3%) or warts can be present on the genitals (84.8 ) and the Pap smear is the screening method to identify cellular changes on the cervix (88.6%). However, many professionals did not know that there are now vaccines available for many HPV variants (38.0%) and that not all of them are oncogenic (44.3%). These data show that further educational programs, especially about HPV prevention, are needed in Brazil.
Genetic Analysis of Liver Metastatic Cell Lines with Different Metastatic Potential
Sun, Hong-Hua ; Cui, Hai ; Jin, Yong-Min ; Cui, Xiong ; Piao, Long-Zhen ; Zhang, Song-Nan ; Chung, Hyun-Cheol ; Shen, Xiong-Hu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3257~3264
Metastasis is the major feature of malignant tumors that causes 90% of cancer deaths. Our laboratory has already established liver metastatic clones with YCC-16, isolated from the blood of a gastric cancer patient and expanded in vitro culture using a repeated orthotopic implantation method, and had reported biologic behaviour of the parental YCC-16, the orthotopic primary S1L0, and S1L1, S2L2 and S3L3 liver metastatic clones. Here, using these cell lines, we screened from chromosomal abnormalities using karyotype analysis and micro-CGH matching. There were 31 genes screened using PCA method which were functionally related to cell adhesion. Also, there were 23 genes selected which were related to the liver specific metastasis but excluded genes related to adhesion. There were 4 genes which demonstrated reduced or increased expression stepwise with passage. In conclusion, our results should contribute to exploring the mechanisms of liver metastasis by gastric cancer.
Talin1, a Valuable Marker for Diagnosis and Prognostic Assessment of Human Hepatocelluar Carcinomas
Zhang, Jian-Lin ; Qian, Ye-Ben ; Zhu, Li-Xin ; Xiong, Qi-Ru ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3265~3269
Background/Aims: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most lethal and prevalent cancers in the human population. Despite its significance, there is only limited understanding of pathological mechanisms and therapeutic options. Talin1, a focal adhesion complex protein that is required for cell adhesion and motility, regulates integrin interactions with extracellular matrix (ECM). In the present study, we aimed to study the possible role of Talin1 in diagnosis and prognosis of HCC. Methods: Expression of Talin1 protein was detected in normal liver tissues (n=10), HCC tissues (n=32) and adjacent non-cancerous tissues (n=32) by immunohistochemistry and real time PCR. Results: While Talin1 was observed in all tissues, the protein and mRNA expression of Talin1 in HCC tissues was significantly lower than that in the adjacent non-cancerous tissues and normal liver tissues(P<0.05). In addition, the expression of Talin1 in HCCs was significantly correlated with pathological differentiation, integrity of the tumor capsule, portal vein tumor thrombus and tumor size (P<0.05). Conclusions: Talin1 is possibly involved in the process of the carcinogenesis, infiltration and metastasis of HCC and has potential as a marker for diagnosis and prognostic assessment.
Evaluation of Genotoxic and Anti-Mutagenic Properties of Cleistanthin A and Cleistanthoside A Tetraacetate
Himakoun, Lakana ; Tuchinda, Patoomratana ; Puchadapirom, Pranom ; Tammasakchai, Ratigon ; Leardkamolkarn, Vijittra ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3271~3275
Cleistanthin A (CleinA) and cleistanthoside A (CleisA) isolated from plant Phyllanthus taxodiifolius Beille have previously shown potent anticancer effects. To promote their medicinal benefits, CleisA was modified to cleistanthoside A tetraacetate (CleisTA) and evaluated for genotoxic and anti-mutagenic properties in comparison with CleinA. Both compounds showed no significant mutagenic activity to S. typhimulium bacteria and no cytotoxic effect to normal mammalian cells. The non genotoxic effect of CleinA was further confirmed by un-alteration of cytokinesis-block proliferation index (CBPI) and micronucleus (MN) frequency assays in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79) cells, and of CleisTA was confirmed by un-changes of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBL) chromosomal structure assay. Moreover, the metabolic form of CleinA efficiently demonstrated cytostasis effect to V79 cell and prevented mutagen induced Salmonella TA98 and TA100 reversion, whereas both metabolic and non-metabolic forms of CleisTA reduced HPBL mitotic index (%M.I) in a concentration-dependent relationship. The results support CleinA and CleisTA as the new lead compounds for anti-cancer drug development.
Clinico-Pathological Pattern of Extranodal Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in Saudi Arabia
Al Diab, Abdul Rahman ; Aleem, Aamer ; Qayum, Abdul ; Al Askar, Ahmed S ; Ajarim, Dahish S ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3277~3282
Objectives: The incidence of primary extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is variable in different regions of world but there is a paucity of literature on various demographic aspects of extranodal NHL as a group. This study was conducted to evaluate the clinico-pathological pattern of extranodal NHL in Saudi patients. Methods: We retrospectively studied a cohort of 855 NHL patients in four tertiary care centres in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia over a period of 5 years. Results: Extranodal NHL constituted 41.4% of the total. The mean age of affected patients was
years and a male to female ratio of 1.5:1.0. Most presented in the age range of 41-60 years. NHL of gastro-intestinal (GI) tract was the most common extranodal variety, followed by head and neck NHL (18%), primary cutaneous lymphoma (14.4%), primary CNS lymphoma (5.6%), and primary bone, thyroid and soft tissue lymphoma (4.5% each). In the GI tract, stomach was the most common site involved, accounting for more than 81% of GI NHL. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was the most common histologic type, comprising around 72% of all extranodal lymphomas. Conclusions: Extranodal NHL is common in Saudi Arabia and diffuse large B cell lymphoma is the most common histologic subtype. We found significant differences in the pattern of extranodal NHL in Saudi patients compared to those reported from other parts of the world. Further studies focused on the risk factors and treatment outcome are needed to better understand the biology of a disease common in this population.
Appropriateness of the Standard Mortality/Incidence Ratio in Evaluation of Completeness of Population-Based Cancer Registry Data
Suwanrungruang, Krittika ; Sriplung, Hutcha ; Temiyasathit, Somnuk ; Waisri, Narate ; Daoprasert, Karnchana ; Kamsa-Ard, Supot ; Tasanapitak, Cheamchit ; McNeil, Edward ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3283~3288
Background: The magnitude of differences in mortality incidence (M:I) ratios derived from the national mortality source and those derived from cancer registry (CR) databases may be used to determine associated factors. Methods: All information on cancer incidence cases and mortality cases from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2007 were retrieved from 5 population-based cancer registries in four regions of Thailand. Two sources of mortality were used: death cases within the cancer registries and mortality statistics obtained from the Ministry of Public Health (MOPH). Plots of percentage M:I ratios from cancer registry databases and from national mortality sources against 1 minus 5 years relative survival (1-5yrRS) were used to visualize the correlation between the two mortality sources. A Poisson regression model was used to determine the influence of cancer sites and registries on the M:I ratio/[1-5yrRS]. Results: There was high variability between the standard M:I ratio derived from national mortality compared with 1-5 year RS. The factors affecting M:I ratios are sources of mortality data and misclassification of topographic site as the cause of death. Conclusions: Use of the M:I ratio is not recommended to evaluate completeness of cancer registry data when the quality of mortality data is poor.
Prognostic Significance of the Metastatic Lymph Node Ratio in T3 Gastric Cancer Patients Undergoing Total Gastrectomy
Feng, Jun ; Wu, Yun-Fei ; Xu, Hui-Mian ; Wang, Shu-Bao ; Chen, Jun-Qing ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3289~3292
Aims and background: The International Union Against Cancer tumor node metastasis classification is routinely applied for evaluating the prognosis of patients with gastric cancer. However, results are still heterogeneous. This study was therefore carried out to evaluate the prognostic significance of the metastatic lymph node (LN) ratio in T3 gastric cancer patients undergoing gastrectomy. Methods: Clinical data of 109 LN-positive cases were retrospectively analyzed. Spearman correlation analysis was used to determine the correlation coefficiency. Survival time was determined by Kaplan-Meier and Log-rank test. Multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox model. ROC curves were used to compare the accuracy of the number of metastatic LN and metastatic LN ratio. Results: The metastatic LN ratio did not correlate with the number of LN when at least 15 nodes were dissected, whereas the number of metastatic LN did. Univariate analysis showed that the metastatic LN ratio influenced significantly the survival time, while multivariate analysis revelaed it to be a major independent prognostic factor. Conclusions: The metastatic LN ratio can be used as a major independent prognostic factor for the patients with T3 gastric cancer.
Combination of IL-24 and Cisplatin Inhibits Cervical Cancer Growth in a Xenograft Nude Mice Model
Li, Li ; Wang, Zhao-Xia ; Wang, Zan-Hong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3293~3298
IL-24/mda-7 delivery augments the sensitivity of several tumor types to cisplatin but the underlying mechanism(s) are unclear. Here, we used a cervical cancer xenograft model in nude mice to further elucidate the interaction between IL-24 and cisplatin. Nude mice were inoculated subcutaneously in the left axilla with Hela cells and randomly grouped into 5 treatment schedules: PBS (I); pDC316 vector (II); pDC316-hIL-24 (III); cisplatin (IV); and pDC316-hIL-24 combined with cisplatin (V). Groups III, IV and V showed significant reduction at mean tumor weight by 43%, 50% and 72%, respectively, after 4 weeks in comparison to thePBS and vector control groups. Mitotic counts in groups III, IV and V were also significantly reduced and expression of tumor suppressor gene nm23-H1 protein was significantly higher in groups III and V than in the cisplatin (IV), PBS (1), and vector (II) cases. The cisplatin group exhibited significantly greater weight loss than the other four groups. The mean weight loss of the combined group, while significantly more than in the controls and the IL-24 group, was significantly less than that of the cisplatin group. The IL-24 group and the combined therapy group exhibited enhancing effects on the tumor suppressor gene nm23H1expression.
Fenugreek, a Naturally Occurring Edible Spice, Kills MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells via an Apoptotic Pathway
Khoja, Kholoud K ; Shafi, Gowhar ; Hasan, Tarique N ; Syed, Naveed Ahmed ; Al-Khalifa, Abdrohman S ; Al-Assaf, Abdullah H ; Alshatwi, Ali A ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3299~3304
There is growing use of anticancer complementary and alternative medicines worldwide. Trigonella foenum graecum (Fenugreek) is traditionally applied to treat disorders such as diabetes, high cholesterol, wounds, inflammation, and gastrointestinal ailments. Fenugreek is also reported to have anticancer properties due to its active beneficial chemical constituents. The mechanism of action of several anticancer drugs is based on their ability to induce apoptosis. The objective of the study was to characterize the downstream apoptotic genes targeted by FCE in MCF-7 human immortalized breast cells. FCE effectively killed MCF-7 cells through induction of apoptosis, confirmed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and RT-PCR assays. When cells were exposed to
FCE for 24 hours, 23.2% apoptotic cells resulted, while a 48-hour exposure to
caused 73.8% apoptosis. This was associated with increased expression of Caspase 3, 8, 9, p53, Fas, FADD, Bax and Bak in a time-and dose-dependent manner, as determined by real-time quantitative PCR. In summary, the induction of apoptosis by FCE is effected by its ability to increase the expression of pro-apoptotic genes and the spice holds promise for consideration in complementary therapy forbreast cancer patients.
Chemopreventive Potential and Safety Profile of a Curcuma longa Extract in Women with Cervical Low-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Neoplasia
Joshi, JV ; Paradkar, PH ; Jagtap, SS ; Agashe, SV ; Soman, G ; Vaidya, AB ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3305~3311
Objective: To determine whether Curcuma longa Linn extract, NBFR-03, can arrest low-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (LSIL) a 12 week intervention study was performed. Methods: Of a total of 1473 women undergoing Pap smear screening, 88 cases had LSIL. Only those with persistent LSIL subsequent to antimicrobial therapy, and willing to follow the protocol (N=21), were included for clinical examination, Pap smears, colposcopy, clinical biochemistry, urinalysis and assessment of serum IL-6, being condcuted before and after treatment. Standardised NBFR-03 (0.2gm) capsules were administered, twice daily, for 12 weeks. Results: None progressed to higher grade lesion as assessed by Pap smears and colposcopy. Sixteen cases regressed to atypia, ASCUS or inflammatory pattern; 3 persisted as LSIL, 1 discontinued early because of itching, and 1 did not start. None developed any significant abnormality clinically or biochemically. Micrometry showed a significant reduction in nuclear diameter and nucleocytoplasmic ratio after treatment (p<0.02, and <0.05 respectively). Serum IL-6 levels showed a significant decline (mean
(SEM) pg/ml; p<0.05). Conclusion: Use of NBFR-03 for 12 weeks was associated with an arrest or regression of LSIL in Pap smears and colposcopy, with reduction in the circulating IL-6 levels.
CXCR4 Expression in Patients with High-risk Locally Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma Can Independently Predict Increased Risk of Disease Progression and Poor Overall Survival
Li, Xiong ; Huang, Ying ; Xia, Juan ; Chen, Ni ; Wei, Qiang ; Li, Xiang ; Zhang, Peng ; Shen, Peng-Fei ; Wang, Jia ; Zeng, Hao ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3313~3318
Aims and background: CXC receptor 4 (CXCR4), one of chemokine receptor family, plays important roles in metastasis of solid malignancies. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the potential predictive value of CXCR4 in the metastasis of patients with high-risk locally advanced renal cell carcinoma (LARCC). Materials and Methods: From 2001 to 2005, the expression of CXCR4 in 117 high-risk LARCCs was evaluated with immunohistochemical staining and assessed for correlations with clinical characteristics, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of the patients. Results: Mean duration of follow-up was 51 months. 4-year PFS and OS of patients was 55.6% and 69.2%, respectively. High expression of CXCR4 was associated with not only increased risk for disease progression (p=0.001), but also worse OS of high-risk LARCC patients (p=0.001). Further analysis also suggested that CXCR4 expression had a significant negative predictive value for the effect of interferon alpha (IFN-
) on PFS (p=0.003). Conclusions: CXCR4 is a novel biomarker for prognosis in high-risk LARCC, which might furthermore have promise to predict clinical response to adjuvant therapy.
Increasing Incidence of Brain and Nervous Tumours in Urban Shanghai, China, 1983-2007
Ding, Li-Xiang ; Wang, You-Xin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3319~3322
Background: Wide use of cellular telephones has given rise to concerns about adverse health effects, especially in the brain, which might caused by the low power microwave-frequency signal transmitted by the antennas on handsets. Subscribers to cellular telephone services increased from mid-1990s in Shanghai; time trends in brain and nervous tumour after 2000 may supply information about possible associations between tumour risk and cellular telephones use. Methods: We investigated time trends in the incidence of brain and nervous tumour in urban Shanghai, from 1983 to 2007, applying joinpoint regression models to analyze the annual incidence rates and to predict future trends. Results: from 1983 to 2007, the age-adjusted incidence rate of brain and nervous tumours increased gradually by 1.2% per year (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.4% to 1.9%) among men and 2.8% per year (95% CI =2.1 to 3.4) among women. Age-adjusted incidences of brain and nervous tumours in urban Shanghai for 2020 were estimated to 7.4 and 10.9 per 100,000 person-years. Conclusion: The study did not support an association between cellular telephone use and increased risk of brain and nervous tumours. However, considering of the increasing incidence rate of brain and nervous tumours now and in the future, in addition to the high prevalence of mobile phone exposure in the population and worldwide, assessment of longer follow-up time trends in brain tumour incidence rates is warranted.
Differences in Behavioral Outcomes Between First-Year and Second-Year Participants in a Community-based Colorectal Cancer Education Intervention
Huang, Jia-Yan ; Shi, Lu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3323~3329
Introduction: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most prevalent cancer in China, and the fifth most lethal among all cancers. Community-based health education is helpful for health planners to promote cancer screening, yet relatively few studies tapped the temporal pattern of intervention effectiveness in a multiyear CRC education program. Using data from a two-year CRC community education, this study was aimed at exploring whether the health education intervention effectiveness differs between first-year and the second-year participants. Method: A two-year health education intervention was carried out in four communities in Shanghai, China. The health education focused on raising awareness about CRC, the principles of fecal occult blood test (FOBT) screening, and instruction about use of the FOBT kit. Local community health service centers conducted the lectures once a month. All adult residents were invited to attend these lectures. At the end of the first year and the second year, structured in-person interviews were conducted for the residents who attended the lectures. There were 205 enrollees who completed the first-year interviews and 836 enrollees who completed the second-year interviews. Logistic regression was used to compare the attitudinal and behavioral outcomes of enrollees in years 1 and 2. Result: Of the 1041 respondents, 24.5% had received FOBT during the program period, while 12% had received colonoscopy check, both substantially higher than the background screening rate in Shanghai. Respondents in year 2 were less willing to take FOBT than those in year 1 (O.R.=0.618, p<0.01), but there was no significant difference in terms of willingness to take colonoscopy after adjustment for covariates in logistic regression. Multiple logistic regression also showed that respondents in year 2 were significantly less likely to take FOBT than those in year 1 (O.R.=0.263, p<0.01) and a similar tendency was noted for colonoscopy (O.R.=0.600, p=0.074). Conclusion: The CRC screening rate after the health education compared favorably with the background screening rate, yet the decline in screening rate in year 2 indicates that further study is needed to understand the determinants of intervention effectiveness.
Pharmacodynamics of Fish Oil: Protective Effects Against Prostate Cancer in TRAMP Mice Fed with a High Fat Western Diet
Saw, Constance Lay Lay ; Wu, Tien-Yuan ; Paredes-Gonzalez, Ximena ; Khor, Tin Oo ; Pung, Douglas ; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3331~3334
Numerous epidemiological studies suggest that frequent consumption of fish would decrease certain major inflammatory-related chronic diseases including cancer. Aims: To investigate the cancer chemoprotective effect of fish oil (FO) in Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) mice fed a FO diet (10% Menhaden fish oil; FO group) versus a 20% high fat diet (HF group; typical of a Western diet), both with a total content of 20% fat and equal calories. Methods: For each diet, two experimental arms were performed. The mice were put on diet at
week of age for periods of 14 and 10 weeks, the experiments being terminated when the mice reached 22 weeks of age. The animals were monitored weekly for health, and upon necropsy were examined for whole body metastasis, and prostate tissues were confirmed with histopathology. Results: At the end of the study, the FO group had significantly reduced prostate tumor weight (p<0.05) compared to the HF group. The incidence of palpable tumors and carcinomas was also lowered. Finally, there was no metastasis found in the FO group, whereas in the HF group, 16.7% of the mice were found to have metastases. Conclusions: This is the first study showing the beneficial effects of FO against prostate cancer having a HF diet, suggesting potential beneficial effects of FO in humans consuming HF in their diet.
Clinicopathologic Evaluation of Subgroups of Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma by Immunohistochemistry
Naz, Erum ; Mirza, Talat ; Danish, Farheen ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3335~3339
Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has become an emerging epidemic in recent years. Striking heterogeneity in its clinical, biological and treatment responses prompted us to identify variation in our study group. The aim was to classify the DLBCL into prognosis-based subgroups according to the WHO classification and to evaluate their relation to clinical parameters (age, gender, anatomic location and B symptoms), as well as bcl 2 and Ki 67 status. Patients and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out on 42 DLBCL patients, classified histologically and immunophenotypically into germinal center B cell like (GCB) or non-GCB type. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed using antibodies against CD 10, MUM-1 and bcl 6; additionally anti-apoptotic protein bcl 2 and proliferative marker Ki 67 (using cutoff value of 70%) were also assayed by IHC. Results: Of the total 27/42 (64%) were males and 15/42 (36%) females, with a mean age of
years. 15/42 (36%) cases were of GCB type as compared to 27/42 (64%) of non GCB type. Extranodal involvement and B symptoms were seen in 18/27 (66.6%) and 20/27(74%) of the non GCB type, whereas bcl 2 protein expression and Ki 67 proliferative index (PI) <70% were each noted in 22/27 (81.4%). Conclusion: We document an astonishingly high number of non-GCB type DLBCL in our population. It is alarming to see such an aggressive tumor proliferating in our region. Significant association of non-GCB type with extranodal origin, B symptoms and low Ki 67 PI (<70%) is another concern.
Multivariate Survival and Outcome Analysis of 154 Patients with Gastric Cancer at a Single Chinese Institution
Wu, Han-Lin ; Tian, Qian ; Peng, Chun-Wei ; Liu, Shao-Ping ; Li, Yan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3341~3345
This study was conducted to analyze and elucidate key prognostic factors for gastric cancer (GC), and to understand the current status of GC diagnosis and treatment in Hubei Province, China. Major clinical and pathological information on 154 GC patients was retrospectively collected, including gender, age, tumor site, surgical approach, histological type, TNM stage and chemotherapy cycles. Overall survival (OS) was analyzed in relation to these factors. The median OS was 12.0 months (0.5-69.0 months), and 1-, 2-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 53.0%, 23.0%, 8.0% and 1.0%, respectively. The median OS by TNM stage was 21.0 months for stages I+II and 11.5 months in stages III+IV (P=0.043), and 1-, 2-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 72.0% vs 50.0%, 40.0% vs 19.0%, 16.0% vs 6.0% and 0% vs 1.0 %, respectively. The median OS by chemotherapy cycles was 18.0 months in chemotherapy
cycles group and 11.0 months in chemotherapy <6 cycles group (P=0.009), and 1-, 2-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 68.0% vs 49.0%, 41.0% vs 18.0%, 12.0% vs 7.0% and 0% vs 1.0%, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified tumor site, surgical approach and chemotherapy cycles as independent predictors for improved survival. Implementation of standardized radical surgery and reasonable adjuvant therapy could improve survival and prognosis of GC patients.
Special Malignancy Pattern in Chinese Renal Transplantation Recipients: A Single Center Experience and Literature Review
Sun, Qiquan ; Li, Xue ; Cheng, Dongrui ; He, Qunpeng ; Chen, Jinsong ; Ji, Shuming ; Liu, Zhihong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3347~3351
Malignancy is one of the main complications after renal transplantation but the situation in Chinese renal allograft recipients remains an enigma. We therefore reviewed 1,000 (8,531 person-years follow-up) renal allograft recipients from Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University, revealing an incidence rate of 2.4% of post-transplant malignancies, with a standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of 17.8 (95% C.I.: 16.7-18.8); the standardized rate is 1.67%, compared with 0.29% in the general population. However, our group demonstrated an extremely low incidence of skin cancer, which dominates in western countries. To confirm the findings, we reviewed the literature on post-transplant malignancies in Chinese renal allograft recipients, covering 296 malignancies in 18,548 renal transplant recipients in 21 reports. The top three most common sites of malignancies were the digestive tract, bladder and liver. The incidence of skin cancer was very low in most centers. These data show that Chinese renal allograft recipients have a unique spectrum of post-transplant malignancies, with an extremely very low incidence of skin cancer as compared to populations from western countries.
Transfer of Clinical Breast Examination Skills to Female Community Health Volunteers in Nepal
Hyoju, SK ; Agrawal, CS ; Pokhrel, PK ; Agrawal, S ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3353~3356
Objective: To observe skill transfer for detection of clinical abnormalities in the breast by determining kappa agreement, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of clinical breast examination by female community health workers (FCHVs) considering surgeon findings as the gold standard. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Dharan Municipality, Eastern Nepal for period of one year from June 2008 to May 2009. A total of 1,238 women were examined by both a FCHV and the surgeon. Result: The interobserver kappa agreement for the detection of clinical abnormalities in breast was 67% indicating a good agreement. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive values of "FCHVs' clinical breast examination" to detect clinical abnormalities in breast in comparison to the surgeon's were 70%, 95%, 74% and 94% respectively. Conclusion: In view of good clinical breast examination skill transfer to FCHVs for detection of clinical abnormalities in breast, we conclude effective training of FCHVs may be a feasble approach for diagnosis of breast abnormalities in rural Nepal.
Glutathione S-transferase Polymorphisms and Bone Tumor Risk in China
Lu, Xiao-Feng ; Yang, Wei-Liang ; Wang, Zhen-Hai ; Li, Jia ; Bi, Zheng-Gang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3357~3360
Aim: We aimed to study the potential role of GSTM1 and GSTT1 in the risk of osteosarcoma in Chinese population. Methods: We collected 110 osteosarcomas by pathologic examination and 226 controls from the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University during December 2008 to December 2010. Genotyping was based upon duplex polymerase-chain-reaction with the PCR-CTPP method. Results: Individuals carrying null GSTM1 and GSTT1 had 1.50 and 2.07 fold risks of osteosarcoma when compared with non-null genotypes, respectively. The increased risk associated with the GSTT1 polymorphism seemed more evident among males (Null GSTT1 genotype vs. non-null genotype, adjusted OR= 2.43, 95% CI: 1.29-3.30) than females (adjusted OR =1.66, 95% CI: 1.02-2.78). The increased risk was also more evident among individuals aged 15 years or less (adjusted OR for null GSTT1 genotype vs. non-null genotype = 2.24, 95% CI: 1.20-3.24) than those aged more than 15 years (adjusted OR = 1.82, 95% CI: 1.07-2.95). Conclusion: Our study of the association between polymorphisms in GSTM1 and GSTTI and the risk of osteosarcoma in a Chinese population provided evidence that null GSTTI might be a useful marker of susceptibility to osteosarcoma development, especially for male sand young age individuals.
Increased Expression of IL-6 mRNA in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Lines Correlates with Biological Characteristics
Yuan, Fang-Jun ; Zhang, You-Shun ; Wei, Ying ; Zou, Can ; Chen, Long ; Huang, Ling ; Liu, Zhishu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3361~3365
Background & aims: IL-6 has been implicated in both virus-associated and diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Generally it is produced by immune cells such as Kupffer cells inthe liver. To understand mechanisms by which IL-6 might participate in the genesis of HCCs, the production of IL-6 by cell lines under different conditions was examined to determine inducing factors. Methods: Expression of IL-6 mRNA in both hepatoma cell lines and a normal liver cell line L-02 was measured by quantitative RT-PCR. Biological molecules including liposome, dsRNA and cell debris were used to stimulate IL-6 mRNA expression in HepG2 cells and inhibition was effected by RNAi. Proliferation was assessed by MTT and clone formation and migration was determined by scratch assay. Results: All of the HCC cell lines observed expressed IL-6 mRNA, including HepG2, Bel-7402(7402), MHCC-97H and SMMC-7721. Normal liver cell line L-02 also expressed IL-6 mRNA. SiRNA to IL-6 specifically knockdowned IL-6 mRNA expression in HepG2, and liposome, dsRNA and cell debris increased it. Both proliferation and migration of HepG2 cells were related to the level of IL-6 HepG2 expressed. Conclusion: Both normal liver cell line and HCC cell lines can produce IL-6 so that Kupffer cells are noit the only source of the cytokine in the liver well as other immune cells. That the fact that HCC cells reacted to stimulation of biological molecules such as liposome, dsRNA or cell debris with increasing production of IL-6 indicates that the cytokine might play an important role not only in the period of tumor initiation but progression and recurrence as well.
Platelet-derived Growth Factor-D Promotes Ovarian Cancer Invasion by Regulating Matrix Metalloproteinases 2 and 9
Wang, Yuan ; Hu, Chaoying ; Dong, Ruofan ; Huang, Xiaoyan ; Qiu, Haifeng ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3367~3370
Objective: Platelet-derived growth factor-D (PDGF-D) can enhance invasion and metastasis in several human malignancies, though little is known about its functions in ovarian cancer. Methods: In this study, we detected expression of PDGF-D in ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines by qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blotting, investigating the influences on cellular proliferation, invasion and apoptosis by upregulating its expression. Results: 79.5% (62/78) of ovarian cancer samples proved to be PDGF-D positive, in contrast to just 38.5%(30/78) in their adjacent non-cancer tissues (p<0.001). Moreover, we found high levels of PDGF-D were correlated with lymph node metastasis (p=0.025) and positive cancer cells in abdominal washings/ascites (p=0.042). In vitro, upregulation of PDGF-D enhanced the invasiveness of SKOV3 cells (p<0.01), but had no impact on cellular proliferation or apoptosis. Furthermore, expression of matrix metalloproteinases 2/9 (MMP2 and MMP9) was positively related with PDGF-D, indicating their involvement in the invasion and metastasis of ovarian cancer. Conclusions: Our findings proved that PDGF-D could promote ovarian cancer invasion by upregulating MMPs, which might be a potential target for ovarian cancer treatment.
Heparanase Antisense Suppression of A-549 Lung Carcinoma Invasion
Peng, Chuanliang ; Ren, Peng ; Zhou, Qingling ; Sun, Qifeng ; Zhao, Xiaogang ; Cong, Bo ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3371~3374
Objective: Heparanase (HPSE), as the only enzyme which can degrade the extracellular matrix and heparin sulfate in basement membrane, plays an important role in invasion and metastasis of tumor cells. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of HPSE antisense oligoxydeonucleotide (ASODN) on lung carcinoma cell line A-549 invasion. Methods: Liposome-mediated ASODN was transfected into A-549 cells and expression of HPSE protein and mRNA were detected by flow cytometry and RT-PCR techniques. Matrigel invasion assays were employed to assess effects on invasiveness. Results: Lower expression of HPSE protein and mRNA and lower invasive ability to recombinate basal membrane were apparent after ASOND treatment (P<0.01). The inhibition rates of cell invasiveness were 55.6%, 82.3% and 91.2% treated by ASODN at final concentrations of 100, 200 and 400nmol/L, respectively. Conclusions: HPSE ASODN can downregulate the expression of HPSE protein and mRNA in the A-549 cell line and can obviously inhibit its invasive ability in a dose-dependent manner in vitro.
Relationships Between Epidemiological Features and Tumor Characteristics of Breast Cancer
Dogan, Lutfi ; Kalaylioglu, Zeynep ; Karaman, Niyazi ; Ozaslan, Cihangir ; Atalay, Can ; Altinok, Mehmet ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3375~3380
Objectives. Breast cancer is a histological, morphological and molecular heterogenous disease. Like clinical outcomes and prognoses of different subtypes, etiologies might also be different. Therefore, epidemiologic risk factors like sociologic, demographic, antropometric, reproductive, and menstrual factors can be considered as an entity reflected in tumor features. This study was planned to explore the relation between well known risk factors of breast cancer and histological and molecular features of the tumor. Materials and Methods. Epidemiologic data for 250 breast cancer patients followed-up by our clinic and 250 healthy individuals without any diagnosis of malignancy were obtained. The data displaying a relation to breast cancer are age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), place of birth and province, educational level, menstrual status, age of menarche and menopause, number of births, age at first childbirth, family history of breast cancer, history of smoking and hormone treatment, mammographic screening, and presence of benign lesions. The tumor characteristics of patients in the breast cancer group were recorded. Results. Advanced age, nulliparity, low educational level, irregular mammographic screening, early menarche and late menopause, and high BMI in postmenopausal period were found to be related to increased breast cancer risk. Striking results in terms of the relation between epidemiological factors and tumor features were the early diagnosis of breast cancer in patients with regular mammographic screening. Tumor size was decreased with increased age and increased with increased BMI. Advanced age, prolonged lactation, increased number of births, and high education level were found to decrease axillary involvement. Conclusions. Multiparity still continues to be the strongest protective factor against breast cancer in our society. The decrease in menarche age may be an early sign of the increased breast cancer incidence. Women should be informed about the relation between postmenopausal obesity and breast cancer and encouraged to attend physical activity and exercise programmes. Regular physical examination and mammographic screening are protective against breast cancer.
Immunophenotypic Patterns of Childhood Acute Leukemias in Indonesia
Supriyadi, Eddy ; Widjajanto, Pudjo H ; Veerman, Anjo JP ; Purwanto, Ignatius ; Nency, Yetty M ; Gunawan, Stefanus ; Nafianti, Selvi ; Purnomosari, Dewajani ; Intansari, Umi S ; Westra, Guus ; Sutaryo, Sutaryo ; Cloos, Jacqueline ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3381~3387
Background: Immunophenotyping, as suggested by WHO, may improve diagnosis of childhood leukemia since it offers a better classification of the hematopoietic lineage of malignant cells as compared to morphology. Therefore, we aimed to determine the proportion of the immunophenotypic subtypes of acute leukemia in Indonesian children. Methods. Samples were obtained from patients (0-14 years of age) in 4 hospitals in Indonesia. We analyzed 541 suspected leukemia samples presented over a 4-year period (March 2006 - July 2010) by flow cytometry. Immunophenotyping allowed classification into acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and ALL (B-lineage and T-lineage ALL). Results. Of 541 samples, 136 were tested using a single color method and 405 with a three-color method. Concordance with morphology was very good (
=0.82) using the three-color method with a panel of 15 monoclonal antibodies (n=387). A relatively high percentage of acute leukemia was classified as AML (23%). Of the ALL samples 83% were B-lineage ALL and 17% T-lineage ALL. Nine out of 239 morphological ALL were labeled AML, and 12/79 morphological AML were in fact ALL. Conclusion. Immunophenotyping in a multi-center study proved feasible and appears particularly important for prognostic assessment of childhood leukemia in low income countries such as Indonesia.
Reliability and Validity of the Turkish Version of the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale in Cancer Patients
Yildirim, Yasemin ; Tokem, Yasemin ; Bozkurt, Nilufer ; Fadiloglu, Cicek ; Uyar, Meltem ; Uslu, Ruchan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3389~3396
Aim: The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS) is a multidimensional tool developed to evaluate measure the prevalence, characteristics and distress of common symptoms related to cancer. A validated Turkish version has now become available. The aim of this study was to evaluate its reliability and validity Methods: One hundred-twenty patients were included into this study. The MSAS, The Rotterdam Symptom Checklist (RSCL), and Karnofsky Performance Status Scale (KPSS) were used for data collection. Content and criterion validities were examined. Reliability analyses of the MSAS were performed using internal consistency reliability and test-retest reliability. Results: The most frequently reported symptom (90%) was problems with sexual interest or activity. Item-total correlations ranged between 0.03 and 0.64. There was a high correlation between total MSAS and the RSCL (r=0.875, p<0.01). The internal consistency reliabilities of subscales of the MSAS and total MSAS were moderately high, with Cronbach alpha coefficients ranging from 0.71 to 0.84. The MSAS's test - re-test reliability was 0.78. Conclusion: The MSAS for cancer patients was determined to be a valid and reliable instrument for the use in the Turkish population. It is recommended that the MSAS-Turkish version can be used as a tool for comprehensive symptom assessment in planning nursing care for cancer patients.
Breast Cancer Coverage in the Media in Malaysia: A Qualitative Content Analysis of Star Newspaper Articles
Al-Naggar, Redhwan Ahmed ; Al-Jashamy, Karim ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3397~3401
Background: The media play big roles in the public understanding of many health issues, and the information relayed to the public through the media clearly influences behavior. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine whether the content of articles on breast cancer in women published in the Star newspaper in 1997 differed from that of those published in 2007 and also to determine what factors may have caused any differences. Methodology: About 45 articles were identified for the year 1997 and 97 from the year 2007. Copies of the articles were obtained through the Star newspaper library. All the articles were read an initial time. The final sample for analysis consisted of 18 newspaper articles published in 1997 and 79 in 2007. Once data collection sheets were completed for all articles, the data were transferred to two spreadsheets and analyzed manually. Results: Living with breast cancer was the main theme of many articles in both years. Family history was emphasized as a risk factor in articles from 2007, while an inapprorpiate bra, electrical power lines, stress, smoking and alcohol were emphasized in 1997 as risk factors. In general, articles in 2007 focused on overall health practices, especially exercise, while in 1997, mammography was considered as the dominant prevention method. Conclusion: The content of the articles on breast cancer that were published in the Star newspaper in Malaysia in 1997 totally differed from that of those published in 2007. The differences seem to reflect social, political, and scientific occurrences over the period studied.
CA916798 Regulates Multidrug Resistance of Lung Cancer Cells
Wang, Hai-Jing ; Yang, He-Ping ; Zhou, Xiang-Dong ; Dai, Xiao-Tian ; Chen, Yong-Feng ; Xiong, Wei ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3403~3408
Objectives: Multidrug resistance (MDR) significantly reduces the efficacy of chemotherapy for lung cancer. In this study, we characterized the significance of CA916798, a gene up-regulated in cis-dichlorodiamine platinum (CDDP)-resistant lung adenocarcinoma cells, in mediating MDR in lung cancer cells. Methods: CA916798 was stably transfected into H446 cells with low endogenous expression of CA916798, and knocked down in A549/CDDP cells with high endogenous level of CA916798. Expression was confirmed by real-time PCR, Western immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. Subsequent effects were examined on cellular growth, apoptosis and cell cycle progression. Results: Ectopic expression of CA916798 in H446 cells confered enhanced resistance to multiple chemotherapeutic agents, while its reduction rendered A549/CDDP cells less resistant to chemotherapeutic agents tested. Further analysis revealed that CA916798 regulates CDDP-induced cell growth, apoptosis and cell cycle progression. Conclusion: CA916798 may be a novel MDR-related target for lung cancer therapy.
Serum Trace Element Levels in Patients with Bladder Cancer
Gecit, Ilhan ; Kavak, Servet ; Demir, Halit ; Gunes, Mustafa ; Pirincci, Necip ; Cetin, Cigdem ; Ceylan, Kadir ; Benli, Erdal ; Yildiz, Ibrahim ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3409~3413
Trace elements are essential components of biological structures, but they can be toxic at concentrations beyond those necessary for their biological functions. In the present study, groups of 35 patients with bladder cancer and 34 healthy volunteer controls were measured for trace elements using a furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Serum levels of Cd, Ni and Co were increased (p<0.05) and Mn and Zn were decreased (p<0.05) in patients with bladder cancer. In the present study, a relationship was seen between the level of trace elements and the occurrence of bladder cancer, suggesting that an increase in the serum level of Cd, Ni, Co and a decrease in the levels of Zn and Mn might be important causes of bladder cancer occurrence; however, defining such a cause-and-effect relationship needs several prospective studies to be done, which seems necessary with regard to the high prevalence of this cancer.
Sevoflurane Inhibits Proliferation, Induces Apoptosis, and Blocks Cell Cycle Progression of Lung Carcinoma Cells
Liang, Hua ; Gu, Miao-Ning ; Yang, Cheng-Xiang ; Wang, Han-Bing ; Wen, Xian-Jie ; Zhou, Qiao-Ling ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3415~3420
Purpose: Sevoflurane, an inhalational anesthetic, is used extensively during lung cancer surgery. However, the effect of sevoflurane on growth of lung carcinoma cells remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate effects on proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycling in the A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell line. Methods: A549 cells were treated with 1.7%, 3.4%, and 5.1 % sevoflurane for 2, 4, and 6 hours. Cell proliferation was evaluated by the MTT assay and colony formation assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. Expression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), survivin, Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3, cyclin A, cyclin B1, and cdc2 was measured by Western blotting. Results: Sgnificant inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis were found in A549 cells after sevoflurane treatment. Simultaneously, expression of XIAP and survivin was surpressed, while that of caspase-3 increased significantly, but Bcl-2 and Bax were not altered. Sevoflurane caused cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. At the same time, data revealed that cyclin A, cyclin B1, and cdc2 expression was down-regulated after sevoflurane treatment. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that sevoflurane inhibited proliferation, and induced apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, associated with down-regulated expression of XIAP and suvivin, and activating caspase-3.
Glutathione S-transferase Gene Polymorphisms and Risk of Gastric Cancer in a Chinese Population
Zhang, An-Ping ; Liu, Bao-Hua ; Wang, Li ; Gao, Yu ; Li, Fan ; Sun, Su-Xia ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3421~3425
Aim: The potential role of GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms in risk of gastric cancer in Chinese was studied. Methods: We collected 194 gastric cancers by pathologic examination and 412 controls from southern China during January 2007 to January 2011. Genotyping was based upon duplex polymerase-chain-reaction withthe PCR-CTPP method. Results: Individuals carrying null GSTM1 and GSTT1 had 1.49 and 1.96 fold risk sof gastric cancer when compared with respective non-null genotypes. We also found a non-significant 37% excess risk of gastric cancer among carriers of GSTP1 1b/1b genotype when compared with 1a/1a genotype (OR=1.37, 95% CI=0.81-2.25). The combination of null/null GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes showed higher increased risk of gastric cancer (OR=3.17, 95% CI=1.68-4.21). Moreover, cancers in ever smokers and ever drinkers were observed to be strongly associated with null GSTM1 and GSTT1, and a significant cancer risk was observed in positive H. pylori infection individuals with null GSTT1. Conclusion: Our study provided evidence that genetic deletion of GSTM1 and GSTT1 may contribute to increased susceptibility to gastric cancer in our Chinese population, while the GSTP1a/b polymorphism may not.
Lack of Association Between the 8-oxoguanine DNA Glycosylase Gene Ser326Cys Polymorphism and Gastric Cancer: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis
Wang, Zhengting ; Hu, Jiajia ; Cai, Wei ; Zhong, Jie ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3427~3431
Objective: To evaluate the association of 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase gene (OGG1) Ser326Cys polymorphism with gastric cancer via a comprehensive meta-analysis. Methods: A total of 12 publications were identified before January 20, 2011 including 1,390 cases and 3,299 controls. A random-effects model was applied irrespective of between-study heterogeneity. Data and study quality were assessed in duplicate. Results: No significant association was found for either allele or genotype with gastric cancer (odds ratio [OR]=0.96; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.82-1.13; P=0.66), and this was also the case after combining 326Ser/Cys and 326Ser/Ser genotypes together (OR=0.87; 95% CI: 0.63-1.20; P=0.40), or 326Cys/Cys and 326Ser/Cys together (OR=1.03; 95% CI: 0.87-1.22; P=0.72). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity indicated that comparison of allele 326Ser versus 326Cys generated a weakly and non-significantl protective effect on gastric cancer in Asians (OR=0.90; 95% CI: 0.75-1.09; P=0.29) and Turks (OR=0.65; 95% CI: 0.37-1.14; P=0.13), but a non-significant risk effect in Europeans (OR=1.10; 95% CI: 0.78-1.54; P=0.60) and Brazilians (OR=1.13; 95% CI: 0.81-1.58; P=0.48). No publication bias was observed. Conclusions: Our results collectively suggest that the OGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism might not be a potential candidate risk factor for the development of gastric cancer.
Inhibition of Invasion and Metastasis of Gastric Cancer Cells Through Snail Targeting Artificial MicroRNA Interference
Guo, Hui-Min ; Zhang, Xiao-Qi ; Xu, Chun-Hong ; Zou, Xiao-Ping ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3433~3438
The zinc-finger factor Snai1 plays an important role in the down-regulation of E-cadherin expression and in the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) during cancer progression. In gastric cancer tissues, we noted that Snail is abnormally high expressed and is remarkably associated with the lymph node metastasis. Using a plasmid containing newly synthesized artificial microRNA (amiRNA), we transfected gastric cancer cells to block Snail expression. Both Snail protein and mRNA levels were significantly decreased in stably transfected cells, while protein and mRNA expression of E-cadherin was up-regulated. In addition, migration and invasion potential were significantly decreased after knockdown of Snail.
Value of Colposcopy in the Early Diagnosis of Cervical Cancer in Patients with Abnormal Pap Smears at Shahid Sadoughi Hospital, Yazd
Zarchi, Mojgan Karimi ; Binesh, Fariba ; Kazemi, Zohre ; Teimoori, Soraya ; Soltani, Hamid Reza ; Chiti, Zohre ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3439~3441
Background and objectives: Cervical cancer is preventable, although it is common in developing countries and Iran, where there is no defined approach to "atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance" (ASCUS) on Pap smears. This study determined the value of colposcopy in the early diagnosis of cervix cancer in females with ASCUS. Materials and methods: This accuracy study examined 213 ASCUS cases referred from different cities from 2007 to 2009. All patients underwent a repeated conventional Pap smear, colposcopy, endocervical curettage, and a cervical biopsy, considered the gold-standard diagnostic test. Results: There was no significant relationship between age, age of first intercourse, smoking, or number of children and a positive cervical biopsy. The sensitivity and specificity of a repeat Pap smear for ASCUS were 15 and 93%, respectively, while the respective values for diagnosing cervical cancer with colposcopy were 80 and 80%. Endocervical curettage had 64% sensitivity and 100% specificity for diagnosing cervical cancer, and 11 positive neoplastic or malignant lesions reported on endocervical curettage were confirmed by biopsy. Discussion: Based on the low accuracy of the Pap smear in Iran as a developing country and the need for an early diagnosis of cervical cancer, a cervical biopsy and colposcopy are recommended for these patients. Colposcopy and endocervical curettage alone are better diagnostic tools than a repeat Pap smear for unsatisfactory Pap smears.
Cancer Morbidity among Methyl Isocyanate Exposed Long-Term Survivors and their Offspring: a Hospital-Based Five Year Descriptive Study (2006 - 2011) and Future Directions to Predict Cancer Risk in the Affected Population
Senthilkumar, Chinnu Sugavanam ; Malla, Tahir Mohi-Ud-Din ; Sah, Nand Kishore ; Ganesh, Narayanan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3443~3452
The purpose of this study was to update both researchers and clinicians about the cancer incidence in methyl isocyanate (MIC) exposed long-term survivors and in their offspring, focusing on the etiological plausibility. In the time period 2006-2011, cancer morbidity was evaluated in the population surviving after exposure to (MIC) on December 3rd, 1984, in Bhopal. This descriptive study is based on hospital registration of 1261 cancer patients those are MIC gas victims and their subsequently born offspring. Morbidity status was studied on the basis of gender, age, organ and site with relative percentages. Cancers on specific sites, with special reference to breast (n=231) (18.31%), lung (n=103) (8.16%), tongue (n=103) (8.16%), buccal mucosa (n=94) (7.45%), cervix (n=72) (5.70%), and esophagus (n=68) (5.39%) were found in high proportions. Ovary (n=43) (3.40%), brain (n=42) (3.33%), larynx (n=40) (3.17%), non-Hodgkin's (n=31) (2.45%), gallbladder (n=29) (2.29%), stomach (n=28) (2.22%), head and neck (n=28) (2.22%), liver (n=27) (2.14%), acute lymphoid leukemia (n=24) (1.90%), rectum (n=20) (1.58%), colon (n=20) (1.58%), chronic myeloid leukemia (n=17) (1.34%), alveolus (n=17) (1.34%), Hodgkin's (n=14) (1.11%), uterus (n=14) (1.11%), multiple myeloma (n=14) (1.11%), and prostate (n=11) (0.87%) lesions were observed less frequently. Remarkably, gradual increase of cancers on different organs and sites were observed in the long-term survivors and their offspring. The present study observed some cancers which were not previously reported in this population. In addition, we also present the future research directions with systematic approaches to predict cancer risk in long-term survivors and their future generations. On the basis of this morbidity report, we suggest the need of biological surveillance through immune system biomonitoring and cytogenetic screening to predict the cancer risk in the MIC exposed population and their offspring.
Frequent Incidence of Double Minute Chromosomes in Cancers, with Special Up-to-date Reference to Leukemia
Movafagh, Abolfazl ; Mirfakhraei, Reza ; Mousavi-Jarrahi, Alireza ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3453~3456
Double minute chromosomes (DMs) are small chromatin bodies consisting of gene amplification in an extrachromosomal location. Although found in an variety of human tumor cells, their presence in hematologic malignancies is rare and their role in leukemogenesis is controversial. However, they are thought to be involved in tumorigenesis and in drug resistance, representing a mechanism for upregulated oncogene expression generally associated with a poor prognosis. The presence of DMs has been associated with a rapid disease course, low response rate, and short survival. Little knowledge is, however, available on DMs in leukemias. To elucidate this issue, a web-based search for all types of articles published was initiated using MEDLINE/PubMed, the Mitelman database and other pertinent references on websites. We found that DMs have the highest frequency in adrenal carcinoma (28.6%), and lowest rate noted as 2.6% for large intestine. The large Mitelman database and other web based pertinent reports provide novel knowledge of DMs and their association in the wide field of cancers.
HADHA is a Potential Predictor of Response to Platinum-based Chemotherapy for Lung Cancer
Kageyama, Taihei ; Nagashio, Ryo ; Ryuge, Shinichiro ; Matsumoto, Toshihide ; Iyoda, Akira ; Satoh, Yukitoshi ; Masuda, Noriyuki ; Jiang, Shi-Xu ; Saegusa, Makoto ; Sato, Yuichi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3457~3463
To identify a cisplatin resistance predictor to reduce or prevent unnecessary side effects, we firstly established four cisplatin-resistant sub-lines and compared their protein profiles with cisplatin-sensitive parent lung cancer cell lines using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Between the cisplatin-resistant and -sensitive cells, a total of 359 protein spots were differently expressed (>1.5 fold), and 217 proteins (83.0%) were identified. We focused on a mitochondrial protein, hydroxyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase/3-ketoacyl-coenzyme A thiolase/enoyl-coenzyme A hydratase alpha subunit (HADHA), which was increased in all cisplatin-resistant cells. Furthermore, pre-treated biopsy specimens taken from patients who showed resistance to platinum-based treatment showed a significantly higher positive rate for HADHA in all cases (p=0.00367), including non-small cell lung carcinomas (p=0.002), small-cell lung carcinomas (p=0.038), and adenocarcinomas (p=0.008). These results suggest that the expression of HADHA may be a useful marker to predict resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with lung cancer.
Cisplatin Induce Apotosis Via Upregulating Wrap53 in Osteosarcoma Cells U-2OS
Yuan, Jian-Min ; Li, Xue-Dong ; Liu, Zhao-Yong ; Hou, Guo-Qing ; Kang, Jian-Hui ; Huang, Dong-Yang ; Du, Shi-Xin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3465~3469
, a newly identified natural antisense transcript of p53, can regulate p53 expression upon DNA damage. We sought to investigate changes in Wrap53 and p53 levels in an osteosarcoma cell line (U-2OS) exposed to cisplatin and to study apoptosis before and after knockdown of Wrap53. Our RT-PCR analysis showed a dose-dependent 3 to 40-fold increase in Wrap53 mRNA transcript levels in U-2OS exposed to 5 to
cisplatin. An approximate 2-fold increase was also observed in transcript levels of p53 mRNA. Furthermore, transient knockdown of Wrap53 by siRNAs in U-2OS cells treated with
cisplatin reduced p53 mRNA transcript levels by up to 50% of those of controls. Immunoblotting analysis showed that in U-2OS cells treated with siRNA against exon 4 of the Wrap53 gene, the protein level of p53 was also markedly reduced. Our findings suggest that cisplatin upregulates the expression of p53 in osteosarcoma cells by upregulating the transcript levels of Wrap53. Finally, measurement of apoptotic cell death by flow cytometry showed that knockdown of Wrap53 reduced apotosis in U-2OS cells induced by cisplatin.
Altered Serum Levels of Elements in Acute Leukemia Cases in Turkey
Demir, Cengiz ; Demir, Halit ; Esen, Ramazan ; Sehitogullari, Abidin ; Atmaca, Murat ; Alay, Murat ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3471~3474
Objective: The purpose of the study was to compare serum concentrations of some elements [zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), magnesium (Mg), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), cadmium (Cd) and cobalt (Co)] in acute leukemia patients with those of healthy subjects. Methods: The study group consisted of newly diagnosed acute leukemia patients and the controls were matched for socioeconomic stauts and eating habits. The elements levels in the patient group were measured before treatment with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The selection criteria for the patients and controls were the lack of recent blood transfusion history and taking any medication with mineral supplement. Results: The acute leukemia group composed of 42 patients and there were 40 persons in the control group. There was no difference between the age of the two groups (p=0.239). Serum levels of Zn, Mg and Mn were significantly lower with acute leukemia than in controls (p<0.001, p=0.011, p<0.001, respectively), while Cu, Pb and Cd were significantly elevated (p=0.003, p<0.001, p<0.001, respectively). There were no significant differences regarding Co and Fe (p=0.323 and p=0.508, respectively) Conclusion: In this study, we found levels of Zn, Mg and Mn to be lowered and of Cu, Pb and Cd to be elevated in patients with leukemia. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of these elements in pathogenesis of acute leukemia.
Diagnostic Significance of Alpha Fetoprotein in Carcinomas of Liver and Biliary Tract - A Comparative Study from Western Region of Nepal
Mittal, Ankush ; Sathian, Brijesh ; Chandrashekharan, Nishida ; Farooqui, Shamim Mohammad ; Hussain, Asraf ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3475~3478
Objective: To assess the diagnostic significance of
-fetoprotein in carcinomas of liver and biliary tract with the overall goal of reducing morbidity and mortality in Pokhara valley. Materials and Methods: It was a hospital based comparative study carried out in the Department of Biochemistry of Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal between 1st January 2009 and 31st December 2010. The variables collected were age, gender, serum alpha feto protein. Approval for the study was obtained from the institutional research ethical committee. Estimation of AFP was performed by ELISA reader for all cases. The standard procedure was followed as per manufacturer's instructions for ELISA. All these laboratory parameters were analyzed using Human reagent kits and with the help of ELISA and semi autoanalyser (Humalyser 3500, Germany). Results: Out of 1200 patients, there were 348(29%) cases of HCC. Out of that, 285 cases were found to be AFP positive with significant elevation. Furthermore, diagnosed cases were of cholangiocarcinomas (96, 8%) and secondary carcinomas of liver (216, 18%). In both of these clinical conditions, there was insignificant elevation of AFP. Another commonly diagnosed condition was cirrhosis (480, 40%) and in 90 cases, AFP values were moderately raised from the upper limit of normal reference range. The last diagnosed cases were of either Hepatitis A/E(60, 5%) and did not show any rise in levels of AFP. Conclusion: Serological markers for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are imperative for early identification, as well as scrutinizing of tumour aggressiveness, treatment responsiveness, reappearance and endurance. It is consequently justifiable to carry out the test for serum AFP to detect and differentiate at early stage of liver cell carcinomas.
Overexpression of Triosephosphate Isomerase Inhibits Proliferation of Chicken Embryonal Fibroblast Cells
Dang, Yuan ; Wang, Ze ; Guo, Yupei ; Yang, Jianxin ; Xing, Zeli ; Mu, Lianzhi ; Zhang, Xiaodong ; Ding, Zhuang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3479~3482
Triosephosphate isomerase (TPI), a glycolytic enzyme, functions in catalyzing the interconversion of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate and is generally upregulated in tumours. However, there are data suggesting loss in lymphomas. To determine its effects in chicken embryonal fibroblasts (CEF) a plasmid was constructed to allow transfection. Upon culture in a suitable medium, cells transfected with the TPI demonstrated upregulation and were significantly more susceptible to apoptosis compared to controls with decreased proliferation. These finding therefore render a novel mechanism by which CEF can be triggered to undergo death by upregulation of TPI.
Cochinchina momordica Seed Extract Induces G2/M Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer MDA-MB-231 Cells by Modulating the PI3K/Akt Pathway
Meng, Lin-Yi ; Liu, Hong-Rui ; Shen, Yang ; Yu, Yun-Qiu ; Tao, Xia ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3483~3488
Cochinchina momordica seeds are a kind of traditional Chinese herb. In this study, anticancer activity and underlying mechanisms were investigated with an extract using human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. The survival rate was reduced in a concentration- and time-dependent manner as assessed by MTT assay. After incubation for 48 h, typical apoptotic morphological changes were observed by Hoechst 33258 dye assay. Flow cytometry revealed that the treatment obviously induced G2/M arrest and apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, western blotting demonstrated downregulation of protein expression of PI3K, Akt, NF-
, Bcl-2, Cdk1 and cyclin B1, whereas Bax and caspase-3 were upregulated. Our results suggest that the extract induced cell cycle G2/M arrest and apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells by decreasing PI3K/Akt pathway. Therefore, we propose that ECMS has potential as a breast cancer chemotherapeutic agent.
Trends in the National Cancer Screening Program for Colorectal Cancer in the Republic of Korea, 2004-2009
Park, Mi Jin ; Choi, Kui Son ; Jun, Jae Kwan ; Lee, Hoo Yeon ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3489~3493
Since 2004, the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) for colorectal cancer has provided annual screening by fecal immunochemical test (FIT) for individuals aged 50 years or older in the Republic of Korea. This study was conducted to investigate trends in the participation rate of the NCSP for colorectal cancer overall and according to gender, age and health insurance type. Therefore, we analyzed participation, positivity, and follow-up rates according to these factors. Overall participation rates for the NCSP for colorectal cancer increased from 10.5% in 2004 to 26.2% in 2009. FIT positivity rates decreased from 7.9% in 2004 to 7.1% in 2009. Follow-up rates among FIT-positive participants decreased from 64.5% in 2004 to 39.4% in 2009. Although the participation rate increased each year during the study period, it remained low compared with that of other countries. The FIT positivity rate decreased, however it was relatively high compared with that of other countries. Intervention is essential to raise participation rates, maximize adherence to screening recommendations, and to make certain that all population subgroups reap the benefits of screening. Also, these data suggest that structured and standardized quality improvement activity is essential to high quality for FIT in the NCSP for colorectal cancer screening in Korea.
The Current Status of Gastric Cancer Screening in Korea: Report on the National Cancer Screening Programme, 2009
Lee, Yoon Young ; Oh, Dong Kwan ; Choi, Kui Son ; Jung, Kyu-Won ; Lee, Hoo-Yeon ; Jun, Jae Kwan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 12, 2011, Pages 3495~3500
Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of the National Cancer Screening Programme (NCSP) for gastric cancer in 2009 and provide the rates of participation in organized gastric cancer screening in Korea. Methods: The data were obtained from the National Cancer Screening Information System, and the participation rates in gastric cancer screening were calculated. Recall rates, defined as the proportion of abnormal cases among participants, were estimated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: The target population of the 2009 NCSP included 6,842,209 Korean men and women aged 40 and older. Of those adults, 2,328,715 were screened with upper endoscopy or upper gastrointestinal (UGI) series (34.0%). For the first time, the number of adults (56.3%) screened with upper endoscopy exceeded the number screened with UGI series. Participation rates varied by gender and health insurance type. Overall, the recall rates of upper endoscopy and UGI series were 0.3% (95% CI, 0.34 to 0.36) and 1.6% (95% CI, 1.62 to 1.67), respectively. Conclusions: According to our research, efforts to facilitate participation and to reduce disparities in gastric cancer screening among Korean men and women are needed.