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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevetion
Editor in Chief :
Malcolm A Moore
Volume & Issues
Volume 12, Issue 12 - Dec 2011
Volume 12, Issue 11 - Nov 2011
Volume 12, Issue 10 - Oct 2011
Volume 12, Issue 9 - Sep 2011
Volume 12, Issue 8 - Aug 2011
Volume 12, Issue 7 - Jul 2011
Volume 12, Issue 6 - Jun 2011
Volume 12, Issue 5 - May 2011
Volume 12, Issue 4 - Apr 2011
Volume 12, Issue 3 - Mar 2011
Volume 12, Issue 2 - Feb 2011
Volume 12, Issue 1 - Jan 2011
Selecting the target year
Potential Role of the Alcohol and Smoking in the Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head And Neck: Review of the Current Literature and New Perspectives
Zygoianni, Anna ; Kyrgias, George ; Mystakidou, Kyriaki ; Antypas, Christos ; Kouvaris, John ; Papadimitriou, Christos ; Armonis, Vassilis ; Alkati, Hassan ; Kouloulias, Vassilis ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 339~344
Alcohol and tobacco are responsible for a very large proportion of chronic disease and some tumors in particular may be the result of interactions between the two risk factors. The present systematic literature review was conducted to judge combined effects of alcohol drinking and tobacco, as well as and genetic polymorphisms on alcohol-related cancer risk. We can conclude that the interaction of smoking and alcohol significantly increases the risk for aero-digestive cancers. Unfortunately, little is known about mechanisms and details of interaction with regard to disease outcomes, which is why particular questions must be targeted in future research efforts.
Improvement in Survival of Breast Cancer Patients - Trends in Survival over Two Time Periods in a Single Institution in an Asia Pacific Country, Malaysia
Taib, Nur Aishah ; Akmal, MN ; Mohamed, I ; Yip, Cheng-Har ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 345~349
Background: There is improvement in breast cancer survival in the developed world, but information on breast cancer survival trends in the Asia Pacific region is limited. The aim of the study was to evaluate survival trends and factors that affect survival in Malaysia. Methods : Two prospective groups of 423 and 965 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients in University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia diagnosed in two time periods ie. 1993 to 1997 and in 1998 to 2002 were studied. Vital status was obtained from the National Registry of Births and Deaths. The overall survival was calculated from the date of diagnosis to the date of death from any cause. The survival differences between the two groups were analysed using the log-rank or Peto-Wilcoxon method. Survival estimates and independent prognostic factors were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate analysis using Cox proportional hazard models. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Analyses were performed using SPlus 2000 Professional Release 2. Results and Discussion : Median follow-up for the two groups were 55 months (SD 29.2 months) in the first group and 52 months(SD 24.43) in the second group. There was improvement in 5-year observed survival from 58.4% (CI 0.54-0.63) to 75.7% (CI 0.73-0.79). The improvement in survival was significantly seen in all co-variates (p<0.05) except for those aged 40 years and below(p= 0.27), tumour size 2 to 5 cm (p=0.11), grade 3 (p=0.32) and patients with Stage IV disease(p= 0.80). Stage of disease, lymph node (LN) involvement, size and grade were identified as independent prognostic factors in cohort one. For the second cohort; stage and LN involvement remained independent factors with the addition of ER status and ethnicity. Conclusions : There was improvement in 5-year observed survival. Besides known prognostic factors, Malay ethnicity was an independent prognostic factor.
Microvessel Density in Follicular Cysts, Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumours and Ameloblastomas
Seifi, Safora ; Shafaie, Shahryar ; Ghadiri, Siavash ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 351~356
Purpose: Multicystic ameloblastoma is a benign epithelial odontogenic tumor that exhibits a more aggressive behavior than follicular cyst and keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT). The aim of this study was to perform an immunohistochemical evaluation of the mean microvessel density (MVD) effect on clinical behavior of odontogenic lesions and to determine whether peritumoral or intratumoral MVD has a more prominent role in clinical behavior of odontogenic lesions. Methods: In a descriptive-analytic cross-sectional study, 45 paraffin blocks of mentioned lesions were selected and stained immunohistochemically with CD34. Mean MVD, peritumoral and intratumoral MVD for each odontogenic lesion was investigated and compared with each other. ANOVA and Kruskal Wallis were used for the statistical analysis of the results.Results:Mean MVD was
in ameloblastoma, keratocystic odontogenic tumor , and follicular cyst, respectively. Mean MVD difference between the above mentioned lesions was statistically significant. (p<0.001) In all the odontogenic lesions, Intratumoral MVD was higher than peritumoral (pericystic) areas. (p=0.001) Conclusion: There was an increase of mean MVD in multicystic ameloblastoma in comparison to keratocystic odontogenic tumor and follicular cyst and it may be concluded as one of the main factors in multicystic ameloblastoma aggressive behavior. Intratumoral (intracystic MVD) has a more prominent role in growth and clinical behavior of mentioned odontogenic lesions. This supports the hypothesis that the early stages of growth and development of follicular cyst, KCOT and multicystic ameloblastoma may share some similarities regarding angiogenesis.
A Case-control Study of Risk Factors for Lung Cancer in Mumbai, India
Ganesh, B ; Sushama, S ; Monika, S ; Suvarna, P ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 357~362
In the year 2010, it is estimated that nearly 1.35 million new cases and 1.18 million deaths with lung cancer occurred. In India, among males, lung cancer rates vary across the country which has encouraged us to conduct a case-control study to study the risk factors. The present unmatched hospital-based case-control study conducted at Tata Memorial Hospital included subjects registered between the years 1997-99. There were 408 lung 'cancer cases' and 1383 'normal controls. Data on age, tobacco habits, occupational history, dietary factors, tea, coffee were collected by the social investigators. Univariate and regression analysis were applied for obtaining the odds ratio for risk factors. In the study, cigarette smoking (OR=5.2) and bidi smoking (OR=8.3), as well as alcohol consumption (OR=1.8), demonstrated dose-response relationships with lung cancer risk. Among the dietary items, only red-meat consumption showed 2.2-fold significant excess risk. Consumption of milk showed a 60% reduction in risk; while coffee showed a 2-fold excess risk for lung cancer. In addition, exposure to use of pesticides showed a 2.5-fold significant excess risk for lung cancer.
Prognostic Factors in Patients with Malignant Salivary Gland Neoplasms in a Brazilian Population
Oliveira, Lucinei Roberto ; Soave, Danilo Figueiredo ; Oliveira-Costa, Joao Paulo ; Zorgetto, Veronica Assalin ; Ribeiro-Silva, Alfredo ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 363~368
Due to the difficulty of follow-up for long periods, information about the survival rates of malignant salivary gland tumors is deficient in the global scientific literature. This study was aimed at investigating the epidemiological profile and prognostic factors that might affect survival in patients with primary malignant salivary gland tumors in Brazil. Patients were investigated regarding histopathological subtypes, age, gender, anatomic localization, smoking and alcohol intake, tumor size, clinical stage, histological grade, recurrence, metastasis, and treatment on clinicopathological outcomes. Survival curves were generated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and both univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using the log rank test and Cox regression, respectively. A total of 63 cases were analyzed, females beingslightly predominant (50.8%), with ages ranging from 13 to 87 years. The most common diagnosis was adenoid cystic carcinoma and the most affected anatomical location was the parotid. Tumors were predominantly classified as stage I and high-grade at the diagnosis. The 5- and 10-year overall survival rates were 84.6% and 74.7%, respectively. Disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 71.6% (5 years) and 56.6% (10 years). Univariate analysis showed significant effects of tumor size and clinical stage on the DFS (P < 0.0001 for both), and Cox regression analysis confirmed clinical stage as an independent prognostic factor (P = 0.035). Our results highlight the relevance of clinical stage as an independent prognostic parameter for malignant salivary gland tumors.
Is Breast Self Examination (BSE) Still Relevant? A Study on BSE Performance among Female Staff of University of Malaya
Dahlui, M ; Ng, CW ; Al Sadat, N ; Ismail, S ; Bulgiba, AM ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 369~372
Objectives: This study aimed to determine the rate of breast self examination (BSE) among the female staff of University of Malaya and to determine the role of BSE in detecting breast abnormalities. Methods: A total of 1598 questionnaires were posted to all female staff, aged 35 years and above. Their knowledge on breast cancer, practice of BSE and detection rate of breast abnormality as confirmed by CBE was determined. Results: The response rate for this study was 45 percent (714 respondents). The rate of respondents having awareness on breast cancer was 98.7 percent. Eighty four percent (598) of the respondents had performed BSE in their lifetime. However, in only 41% was it regular at the recommended time. Forty seven percent (334) had undergone CBE at least once in a lifetime but only 26% (185) had CBE at least once in the past 3 years, while 23% (165) had had a mammogram. There was a significant relationship between CBE and BSE whereby those who had CBE were twice more likely to do BSE. Nineteen percent (84 respondents) of those who did BSE claimed they had detected a breast lump. Of these, 87% (73) had gone for CBE and all were confirmed as such. Conclusion: BSE is still relevant as a screening tool of breast cancer since those who detect breast lump by BSE will most probably go for further check up. CBE should be done to all women, especially those at highest risk of breast cancer, to encourage and train for BSE.
Diagnostic Challenges and Role of Immunohistochemistry in Metastatic Liver Disease
Khadim, Muhammad Tahir ; Jamal, Shahid ; Ali, Zafar ; Akhtar, Farhan ; Atique, Muhammad ; Sarfraz, Tariq ; Ayaz, Bushra ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 373~376
Objective: To evaluate the role of Immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the diagnosis of metastatic liver disease, with a descriptive, cross-sectional study at the Department of Histopathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi. Material and Methods: A total of 130 cases of metastatic liver disease were retrieved from the tumor registry data. Eosin-haematoxylin stained sections and Immunohistochemistry panels applied to ascertain the site of primary tumor were evaluated. The panels of detailed immunohistochemical markers were applied. Frequency and percentages were calculated for qualitative variables. Mean and standard deviations were calculated for quantitative variables Results: Males were 87 (67%) and were females 43 (33.07%). The most common site of primary was in GIT (45%), followed by neuroendocrine carcinoma and gall bladder. The other less common sites were lung, breast, ovary and thyroid. Conclusion: There is no specific singular panel of immunohistochemistry markers which can be used in all cases of metastatic liver tumors. The best use and selection of IHC markers depend upon morphological features, clinical history and results of other relevant investigations.
Expression of Xenobiotic Metabolizing Genes in Head and Neck Cancer Tissues
Masood, Nosheen ; Malik, Fraz Arshad ; Kayani, Mahmood Akhtar ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 377~382
Background: Xenobiotic metabolizing genes are involved in detoxification of carcinogens. Expression of these enzymes may be one of the reasons for interindividual differences in head and neck cancer risks. The aim of current study was first to evaluate the expression of CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 and second to observe its relationship with stages of head and neck cancer in Pakistani population. Methodology: Fresh biopsy tissues were taken from oncology institutional hospitals. Semi quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used to investigate CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 expression in 49 head and neck cancer tumor tissue and 49 normal healthy tissues. Statistical analysis was performed to explore its association with head and neck cancer risk. Results: The current study revealed that the CYP1A1 mRNA expression was markedly reduced in tissues of head and neck carcinoma compared to adjacent normal tissue (OR 4.5, CI 1.5-13.4). CYP1A1 expression was downregulated in 62.5% tissues of stage 1, 72.7% tissues of stage 2, 60% tissues of stage 3 and 100% tissues of stage 4. Undetectable or partial loss of expression of GSTM1 and GSTT1 mRNA was also observed at a higher rate in head and neck cancer tissue compared to control (OR 4.5, CI 1.5- 13.4 and OR 3.2, CI 1.1- 9.6 respectively). GSTM1 and GSTT1 expression was also downregulated in stage wise pattern; stage 1 had 50% and 12.5% tissues showing down regulation of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes respectively, both GSTM1 and GSTT1 had 55% tissues with down regulation in stage 2, similarly stage 3 had 60% tissues showing down regulation of these genes and stage 4 had 86% and 71% tumors. GSTP1 mRNA expression was significantly higher in cancer tissue as in control tissue (OR 4.2, CI 1.2- 15.3). GSTP1 over expression also revealed related to stages with 36.4%, 60% and 71% tumor of stage 2, 3 and 4 respectively. Conclusion: Our results revealed that CYP1A1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 are downregulated in the head and neck cancer progression while GSTP1 is upregulated. These down regulations and up regulation were more marked in advanced stages of head and neck cancer. Therefore, CYP and GST expression may be an important mechanism involved in the carcinogenesis but the underlying mechanisms leading to such regulations in expression deserve further investigations.
Preliminary Data about Female Malignant Breast Tumours in Cambodia
Serey, Vannak Hou ; Kim, Eng Sok ; Monchy, Didier ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 383~385
Background: Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer among women and the most frequent cause of cancer death in women in both developing and developed countries. However, little is known about the situation in Cambodian women living in Cambodia. Objectives: To describe the different histological types of invasive breast cancer, their frequency, grade and stage and their surgical management in Cambodia. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of female breast primary invasive malignant lesions processed during 2003 and 2004 in the pathology laboratory of the 'Institut Pasteur du Cambodge', in Phnom Penh, was carried out with conventional histology techniques. Results: A total of 102 patients were included, with an average age of 47. Most specimens were tumour excisions or mastectomies. Tumours were generally large (37.5 % at least T3), distributed into carcinomas (94.2 %), phyllodes tumours (3.9 %) and lymphomas (1.9 %). Most cases of carcinoma presented with histological grade III (76.6%) and were invasive ductal (82.3%) or medullary (11.4%) in type. Lymphadenectomy was not systematic but nodal metastases were observed in 26 of 31 (83.9%). Conclusions: Late diagnosis of the disease is due to absence of systematic breast cancer screening and awareness. Apparent rarity of lobular carcinoma and over frequency of medullary carcinoma and phyllodes tumours should be confirmed on a larger series of patients using immunohistochemistry. Its use for other markers to help oncologists to decide whether anti-hormone treatment is indicated is also recommended, together with more standardized surgery.
Risk of Cancer Development in India
Murthy, Nandagudi Srinivasa ; Rajaram, Dinesh ; Gautham, MS ; Shivaraj, NS ; Nandakumar, BS ; Pruthvish, Sreekantaiah ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 387~391
Incidence as a measure of risk for development of cancer is a well accepted epidemiological concept which can be precisely defined. The present communication documents an estimate of the current probability of development of cancer for specific age groups as well as for entire life time risk at the India country level for several cancers and "all sites together". The published data on age specific cancer incidence rates from 12 population based registries located at various parts of the country along with the abridged life tables relating to the Indian population formed the basic material for computation. Employing life table methodology for estimates, the current probability (*100) of developing cancer of all sites from 35-64 years is 4.67% in males and 6.55% in females while life time risk was found to be 9.05% and 10.2% respectively. The greater risk in females was mainly due to the high risk of development of cancer of the uterine cervix and breast. When the age-period of 35 to 70+ years were considered, the probability percentage was found to be 9.94 % in males whereas it was 11.6% in females. According to these estimates 1 in 10 men and 1 in 8 women in India can expect develop cancer of any form, in their life span after the age of 35 years. The probability of developing tobacco related cancers from 35 to 70+ years was found to be 4.75% and 2.16% in males and females respectively. Estimation in terms of probability will be useful in evaluating the changes in the disease spectrum as a result of change in mortality experience and population structure over a period of time.
Establishment of a Fluorescent Implantation Metastasis Model of Bladder Cancer and Real-time Microscopic Detection in Nude Mice
Yang, Delin ; Wang, Haifeng ; Wang, Jiansong ; Zhang, Chao ; Xu, Hongyi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 393~396
Objective: To establish a fluorescent implantation metastasis model of bladder carcinoma with high metastatic potential in nude mice and observe development and metastasis. Methods: Human bladder cancer EJ cells with high invasive ability were screened and transfected with GFP plasmid to screen stable enhanced GFP-expressing clones instilled into the bladders of nude mice. Subsequent growth, invasion, and metastasis of the implanted tumors were observed and evaluated with a whole-body fluorescence optical imaging system. Results: The transfected bladder cancer EJ cells stably and efficiently expressed EGFP. The growth, invasion and metastasis of the implant bladder tumor were readily observed and accurately evaluated by fluorescent microscopy. In the bladders of nude mice, the rates of EGFP expression detected by flow cytometry at weeks 1-4 were 22.6%, 46.7%, 62.3% and 72.7%, respectively, with clear increase over time. Conclusion: GFP-labeled bladder cancer EJ cells display green fluorescence under fluorescent microscopy and show stable GFP expression. The model will provide a simple and reliable means for studying the mechanism of implantation metastasis of human bladder cancers in vivo.
RNA Interference of Caveolin-1 Via Lentiviral Vector Inhibits Growth of Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma FaDu Cells In Vitro and In Vivo
Zhao, Xuening ; Ma, Chao ; Cai, Xiaolan ; Lei, Dapeng ; Liu, Dayu ; Xu, Fenglei ; Jin, Tong ; Liu, Jun ; Pan, Xinliang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 397~401
Objective: To investigate the effects of caveolin-1 (CAV1) on the growth of hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HSCC) FaDu cells in vitro and in vivo. Methods: A CAV1-RNAi-lentivirus construct was transfected into FaDu cells and expression of caveolin-1 was tested by RT-PCR and western blotting analysis. Cell apoptosis was analyzed by transferase-medisated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Tumor inhibition effects were investigated by injecting rCAV1-RNAi-lentivirus construct into tumors created with FaDu cells in the HSCC mouse model, with the empty-vector lentivirus as a control. CAV1 expression in xenografts was tested by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results: RT-PCR and western blot analysis demonstrated successful construction of the CAV1-RNAi-lentivirus construct producing small hairpin RNA. The average weights and volumes of tumor in mice treated with CAV1-RNAi-lentivirus were lower than in mice with control treatment (P<0.05). RT-PCR revealed weak positive expression of CAV1 in CAV1-construct-treated xenografts and immunohistochemistry confirmed lower CAV1 expression than in controls.(P<0.05). In addition, downregulation of CAV1 increased cell apoptosis in vitro. Conclusion: The growth of HSCCs could be inhibited by recombinant CAV1-RNAi-lentivirus in vitro and in vivo.
Oleanolic Acid from Prunella Vulgaris L. Induces SPC-A-1 Cell Line Apoptosis Via Regulation of Bax, Bad and Bcl-2 Expression
Feng, Liang ; Au-Yeung, Wai ; Xu, You-Hua ; Wang, Shan-Shan ; Zhu, Quan ; Xiang, Ping ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 403~408
Prunella vulgaris L. (PV) has been used as a herb for chemoprevention of lung cancer. In this study, the main active compound, oleanolic acid (OA) was isolated from an ethanol extract and its chemical structure was identified according to the results of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrography (LC-MS). Results for cell viability indictated no notable differences between OA and ethanol extract of PV in lung adenocarcinoma SPC-A-1 cells measured by MTT assay. Consistent concentration-response curves. Fluorescence detection with acridine orange-ethidium bromide was used to evaluate apoptosis of SPC-A-1 cells. OA at 16 and
group increased significantly the apoptosis rate compared with normal and 1% DMSO groups (
). In addition, immunocytochemistry assays showed increase in Bax and Bad protein expression while Bcl-2 decreased. Moreover, the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 was heightened by OA treatment. The results suggest OA induced apoptosis of lung adenocarcinoma cells through down-regulating Bcl-2 expression, and up-regulating Bax and Bad expression.
Major Cancer Mortality and Changes in Yanting, 2004-2009: Introduction to Cancer Challenges in a High Risk Area
Li, Jun ; Song, Qingkun ; Zhou, Xiaoqiao ; Jiang, Cuiping ; Wang, Dong ; Wang, Xiaorong ; Huang, Chengyu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 409~413
Yanting County is one of high risk areas of esophageal cancer in China. Recently, the economic level has improved to a new standard, but cancer issues have not been updated. This study aimed to describe the main cancer mortalities and change from 2004 to 2009 and provide an evidence base for future active strategies. Yanting Cancer Research Institute provided all cancer mortality data and age-standardized rates were calculated based on the world standard population 2000. Annual percentage change was used to estimate the time trend for each cancer. Mortality from upper gastrointestinal cancers, but not other cancers, was much higher than worldwide average figures. Rates for esophageal cancer declined over the 6 years, but lung cancer mortality showed an upward trend. For gastric and liver cancer, no obvious change was observed. Considering the high mortality from upper gastrointestinal cancers, it is necessary to take actions investigating the risk factors and addressing the issues of prevalent cancer challenges.
Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery for Malignant Pleural Effusions
Sayir, Fuat ; Cobanoglu, Ufuk ; Mergan, Duygu ; Demir, Halit ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 415~418
Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) in the diagnosis and treatment of malignant pleural effusions (MPE) and to assess the results and complications of the procedure. Methods: A total of 61 patients with the diagnosis of malignant pleural effusion were assessed retrospectively between 2004 - 2010, 25 women (40.9%) and 36 men (59.1%), with an age range of 18-78 (mean: 61.3). Video-thoracoscopic surgery was performed under general anesthesia or with local anesthesia in sedated patients. Results: No intraoperative complications were observed. In 6 cases, prolonged air leak developed. Pleurodesis was successfully implemented in malignant cases. The chest tube was removed when the amount of fluid was less 50cc/24h. The duration of drainage was significantly shorter in patients in whom VATS was performed. Conclusion: We believe that VATS is an effective method in the diagnosis and palliative treatment of cases with malignant pleural effusions.
Predictive Role of Adenosine Deaminase for Differential Diagnosis of Tuberculosis and Malignant Pleural Effusion in Turkey
Yildiz, Pinar Birsen ; Yazar, Esra Ertan ; Gorgun, Didem ; Secik, Funda ; Cakir, Gulsun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 419~423
Tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) is a common problem for differential diagnosis from malignant effusion (MPE) in epidemic areas of tuberculosis (TB). Prediction based on adenosine deaminase (ADA) is dependent on age as well as the tuberculosis incidence. The aim of the study was to evaluate cutoff values for ADA with sensitivity and specificity results for the differential diagnosis of MPE and TPE in a population with intermediate incidence of TB. We retrospectively analysed 196 patients with a definitive diagnosis of TPE (n=114) and MPE (n= 82). The optimal cutoff value of ADA was determined using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. There was a statistically significant difference according to the levels of pleural fluid ADA between TPE and MPE groups (p<0.0001). The cutoff value for diagnosing TPE was >55U/L, with a sensitivity = 86.8%, specificity = 86.6%, positive predictive value (PPV) = 90%, negative predictive value (NPV) = 82.6% and accuracy = 82.6%. We then combined ADA>55U/L and age<50 and were able to discriminate the TPE group with increased specifity (95.7 %) and PPV (98.8%) results. The model could correctly classify 21 MPE out of 23 and 82 TPE out of 94 patients. A pleural fluid ADA value <31U/L suggests that TPE is highly unlikely with a sensitivity = 43.9 %, specificity = 100%, PPV = 100%, NPV = 71.3% and accuracy = 76.6%. It can be concluded that ADA is a very useful parameter for the differential diagnosis of TPE and MPE, specifically in youngers with a higher incidence of tuberculosis.
Turkish Hysterectomy and Mastectomy Patients - Depression, Body Image, Sexual Problems and Spouse Relationships
Keskin, Gulseren ; Gumus, Aysun Babacan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 425~432
The aim of this study was to compare hysterectomy and mastectomy patients in terms of depression, body image, sexual problems and spouse relations. The study group comprised 94 patients being treated in Ege University Radiation Oncology Clinic, T
lay Aktaş Oncology Hospital,
zmir Aegean Obstetrics and Gynecology Training and Research Hospital for breast and gynecological cancer (42 patients underwent mastectomy, 52 patient underwent hysterectomy). Five scales were used in the study: Sociodemographic Data Form, Beck Depression Scale, Body Image Scale, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, Golombok Rust Sexual Functions Scale. Mastectomy patients were more depressive than hysterectomy patients (t=2.78, p<0.01). Body image levels of the patients were bad but there was no significant difference between the two patient groups (p>0.05). Hysterectomy patients had more problems in terms of vaginismus (t=2.32, p<0.05), avoidance of sexual intercourse (t=2.31, p<0.05), communication (t=2.06, p<0.05), and frequency of sexual intercourse than mastectomy patients (t=2.10, p<0.05). As compared with compliance levels between patients and spouses; hysterectomy patients had more problems related to expression of emotions than mastectomy patients (t=2.12, p<0.05). In conclusion, body image was negative, mastectomy was associated with more depression and hysterectomy with greater sexual problems and difficulties with spouse relationships.
Relationships Between Psychosocial Adjustment and Hopelessness in Women with Breast Cancer
Gumus, Aysun Babacan ; Cam, Olcay ; Malak, Arzu Tuna ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 433~438
Objective: Several physical, psychological and social variables influence women with breast cancer. This study was designed to analyze the relationship between psychosocial adjustment and hopelessness in a group of such women in Turkey. Method: The subjects were 90 women with breast cancer recruited at i Ege University School of Medicine Department of Radiation Oncology Nurse Counsellor Unit and T
lay Aktaş Oncology Hospital Outpatient Chemotherapy Unit. Data were collected using an Introductory Information Form and Psychosocial Adjustment to the Illness Scale - Self-Report (PAIS-SR) and the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) and analyzed by Pearson Correlation Analysis. Results: The mean age of the women was
. It was found that the level of psychosocial adjustment of 63.3% of the women was "poor". A positive relationship was determined between PAIS-SR mean score and BHS mean score of the women with breast cancer (r =0.731, p<0.01). Conclusion: It was observed that as the psychosocial adjustment worsens, as the level of hopelessness of the women increases. In the light of this relationship, it was concluded that the attempts to increase hope and therefore the support for the psychosocial adjustment of patients should play a vital role in increasing their quality of life.
Information Needs of Patients with Meningiomas
Ozbayir, Turkan ; Malak, Arzu Tuna ; Bektas, Murat ; Ilce, Arzu Ozcan ; Celik, Gulay Oyur ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 439~441
The aim of this descriptive, cross-sectional study was to determine information requirements of patients with typical meningiomas after surgery. The study sample consisted of 20 patients who underwent surgery for brain tumours in neurosurgery clinics of a university hospital. Permission to conduct research was obtained from all patients and from the hospital. Before the surgery, a booklet was given to patients for training. Patients were followed up one, three, six and 12 months later by the phone after the surgery and asked to report their problems. All questions were recorded and answered. Data were collected by the socio-demographic, patient symptom and health status questionnaire. Descriptive data were analyzed using percentage and arithmetic averages. Comparative statistics were evaluated using chi-square. Patients wanted information about diet, physical therapy and rehabilitation, quick thinking difficulties, fasting, headache, irritability, personality change, fatigue, driving, deep vein thrombosis during the follow up. There was a significant difference between their health status and fear of seizures and recurrent tumor, forgetfulness, lack of concentration (p<0.05). Although they received health education and booklet, patients needed more information during the 12 months after surgery. Therefore it suggested that monitoring the patient's needs is necessary.
Thyroid Dysfunction Following Therapeutic External Radiation to Head and Neck Cancer
Chougule, Arun ; Kochar, Bhawani ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 443~445
Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in thyroid function in patients with head and neck cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted on ninety patients with non-thyroid head and neck cancer who were referred to the department of radiotherapy. Thyroid function tests were conducted before, midway during and after EBRT, with follow up at monthly intervals up to 6 months after the completion of therapy. Results: Serum
levels were decreased at completion of EBRT and remained so after 6 months follow up. However, serum TSH levels did not significantly vary. Conclusion: EBRT to the neck region for treatment of head and neck cancer induces hypothyroidism and therefore utmost care must be taken to exclude the thyroid from radiation beams without sparing the tumor as far as possible. The clinical protocol in such cases should include monitoring of
and TSH levels during and after the EBRT.
Trace Elements, Heavy Metals and Other Biochemical Parameters in Malignant Glioma Patients
Arslan, Mehmet ; Demir, Halit ; Arslan, Harun ; Gokalp, A Samet ; Demir, Canan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 447~451
Aim: We aimed to assess relevance of mineral, trace element and heavy metal levels in patients with malignant gliomas. Methods: In this study, erythrocyte catalase (CAT), and carbonic anhydrase (CA), serum copper (Cu.), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn), and magnesium (Mg) levels were measured in 22 healthy humans and 22 malignant glioma patients. Metal concentrations were assessed by atomic adsorption spectrophotometry, while biochemical methods were used for CAT and CA. Results: The Cd, Fe, Mg, Mn, Pb and Zn levels were significantly elevated in the patients as a whole compared to controls(P<0.05), while Cu was decreased and Co demonstrated no change. Although mean CAT activity were significantly lowered, CA exhibited significant increase. Conclusions: The results of the current study indicate that antioxidant enzymes may have a role in the genesis of considerable oxidative stress in patients with malignant glioma. CAT and CA seem to play particular roles in the pathophysiology of this disease.
Marital Adjustment and Loneliness Status of Women With Mastectomy and Husbands Reactions
Avci, Ilknur Aydin ; Kumcagiz, Hatice ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 453~459
Aim: The present descriptive analysis of breast-cancer women with mastectomy surgery was conducted to assess husband partner compatibility and level of loneliness during the post-surgery period. Materials and methods: The study was carried out in Ondokuz Mays University, Medical Faculty surgical clinic. A sample of 48 women with mastectomy and 44 husbands were included in the study. A questionnaire form, the dyadic adjustment scale, and UCLA loneliness scale were used to process the data. Descriptive statistics, correlations, Mannhitney U and Kruskalallis tests were used for data analysis with the SPSS 13.0 statistical package for Windows. Results: It was determined that the education background of husbands influenced marital adjustment, this being better with a high school or further diploma. Husbands who described their marriage as bad after the surgery had higher marital adjustment scores (p<0.01). A connection was found between loneliness status of participant women and their marital adjustment (r=0.373; p=0.009). Similar findings were obtained for their husbands (r=0.412; p=0.005). Conclusion: At the end of this research, women with mastectomy and their husbands described their marital relations before the surgery as good but as bad after the surgery. Women with mastectomy and their husbands stated that they did not feel lonely before or after the surgery. It is critical that nursing initiatives be arranged in line with health training on marital adjustment and loneliness and psychosocial approaches and communications are adjusted to meet the needs of women and husbands.
Cancer of Corpus Uteri in Tunisia: Epidemiological and Clinicopathological Features
Missaoui, Nabiha ; Jaidene, Lilia ; Abdelkader, Atef Ben ; Abdelkrim, Soumaya Ben ; Beizig, Nadia ; Yaacoub, Lilia Ben ; Yaacoubi, Mohamed Tahar ; Hmissa, Sihem ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 461~464
Introduction: The aim of this study was to survey for the first time the burden and characteristics of corpus uteri cancers in Central Tunisia. Design: Characteristics of all cancer cases diagnosed during a 15-year period were analyzed based on the data of the Cancer Registry of the Center of Tunisia. Five-year age-specific rates, crude incidence rates, world age-standardized rates (ASR), and annual percent change (APC) were calculated using annual data on population size and its estimated age structure. Results: A total of 218 new cases of corpus uteri cancer were recorded. The ASR was 3.1 per 100,000 with a significant increase over time (APC: +7.1%; 95% CI: 3.1%, 11.1%). The median age at diagnosis was 60 years and only 20.6% of patients were less than 50 years old. The tumor size was higher than 2 cm in 83.5% of cases. Stage I was the most frequent (59.9%) followed by advanced stages (23.2%). Endometrial adenocarcinoma was the most frequent histological type (62.8%) with grade II accounting for 48.5% of cases. Conclusion: Corpus uteri cancer is an important female cancer with increasing trend over time. These findings justify the need to plan and develop effective programs aiming at the control of the spread of cancer in Tunisia.
Role of Preoperative Chemotherapy in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Esophagus in Kashmir, a Cancer Belt - A Pilot Study
Lone, Ghulam Nabi ; Sheikh, Ajaz Aziz ; Sheikh, Zahoor Ahmad ; Baba, Khalil M ; Qurieshi, Mariya Amin ; Mufti, Gowhar Nazir ; Naikoo, Zahoor Ahmed ; Syed, Abir Ahmed ; Ahangar, AG ; Lone, Reyaz A ; Sharma, ML ; Singh, Shyam ; Bhat, MA ; Dar, AM ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 465~470
Background: Esophageal carcinoma is the fifth leading gastrointestinal malignancy and is one of the leading causes of cancer related death. Despite improvements in surgical technique over the last few decades, the outcome has been dismal, with overall 5 year survival not exceeding 15%-25%. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the effect of preoperative chemotherapy on resectability, complication rate and overall survival in patients with squamous cell carcinoma esophagus. Materials and Methods: 50 patients with histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), with localised or loco-regional disease (stage 4 excluded) were divided into 2 groups. Group A patients were subjected to 2-3 cycles of pre-operative chemotherapy (5FU-CDDP), whereas Group B patients were directly operated on. Observations: 3 (12%) patients in group A showed complete pathological response to chemotherapy and 18 (72%) showed a partial response, with four patients (16%) showing resistance to chemotherapy. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of response to chemotherapy with respect to degree of differentiation of tumor. There was no significant difference in the overall resectability rates between the two groups (p>0.05), but R0 resection was achieved in 20 (80%) of group A and only 10 (40%) of group B, the difference being statistically significant (p<0.05). The rate of overall complications was also much higher in the control group. Initially there was no significant difference in the survival between the two groups, but later (20 months) the study group showed a slight non-significant advantage. Conclusion: Preoperative chemotherapy significantly increases the rate of R0 resection without significantly increasing postoperative morbidity and mortality in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus. However, to assess the impact on survival the study period needs to be extended.
Mutagenicity and Mutagens of the Red Chili Pepper as Gallbladder Cancer Risk Factor in Chilean Women
Tsuchiya, Yasuo ; Terao, Michinori ; Okano, Kiyoshi ; Nakamura, Kazutoshi ; Oyama, Mari ; Ikegami, Kikuo ; Yamamoto, Masaharu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 471~476
High consumption of red chili pepper has been shown to be a risk factor for gallbladder cancer (GBC) in Chilean women with gallstones, and included mutagens may be important in this context. We aimed to investigate the mutagenicity and mutagens in Chilean red chili pepper in the Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA1537, TA100, and TA1535 with and without metabolic activation (S9 mix). Pure capsaicin was tested for mutagenicity using strain TA98. The presence of aflatoxins was evaluated by two-dimensional thin layer chromatography, and then the concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 were measured by an HPLC system. In strain TA98, the mean numbers of revertant colonies with and without the S9 mix were 2.5- and 2.2- fold higher than those of each negative control, respectively. However, pure capsaicin did not show mutagenic activity in strain TA98. Aflatoxin contamination of red chili pepper was confirmed, and the concentrations of aflatoxins B1 and G1 were 4.4 ng/g and 0.5 ng/g, respectively. Our findings suggest that low-level but protracted exposure to aflatoxins may be associated with the development of GBC in Chilean women who carry gallstones.
Safety and Efficacy of Argon Plasma Coagulation for Resection of Lipomas and Hamartomas in Large Airways
Dang, Bin-Wen ; Zhang, Jie ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 477~480
Aims: To describe the use of argon plasma coagulation (APC) for radical resection of lipomas and hamartomas in large airways. Methods: Eight patients (7 males and 1 female) were retrospectively reviewed. Data extracted included patient demographic characteristics, type and location of lesion, type of anesthesia used, number of APC sessions required, complications, length of hospital stay, and outcomes. All patients were followed-up for a minimum of 24 months. Results: The patients had a mean age of
years. Lipomas were diagnosed in five and hamartomas in three. Because complete removal of the tumor could not be achieved during one session, two additional APC treatments were carried out in one of the patients, and three in another. Duration of each procedure ranged from 90 to 120 minutes. For the six patients performed under general anesthesia, only one session was required, and the mean time was 110 min. All tumors were completely removed, and no perioperative or long-term complications occurred. During a minimum follow-up of 2 years, no recurrence was noted in any patient. Conclusions: Complete resection of lipomas and hamartomas inside large airways can be safely achieved via APC. Further studies regarding the use of this technique for other tumor types are warranted.
Knowledge and Applications of the Midwives and Nurses at an Educational Hospital on the Early Diagnosis of Cervix Cancer
Beydag, Kerime Derya ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 481~485
This descriptive study was made to determine the knowledge levels and application situations of 96 midwives and nurses at an educational hospital in Istanbul. Data were collected with the survey form and evaluated using frequency distribution and chi-square significance tests. Almost two-thirds of the midwives and nurses included stated that they never go for routine gynaecological tests without any sysmptoms, over 50% stated that they did not see themselves as being under risk in the aspect of cervix cancer, and 18.7% had no information about risk factors. While 54.2% had experienced at least one pap smear test, 20.8% stated that they did not see having a pap smear test as mandatory. Over 90.0 about the HPV vaccine, mostly from visual and published media, and 78.1% wanted to have HPV vaccination. A statistically significant difference was found between the the knowledge levels and application situations of the midwives and nurses and their age groups, educational status, and marital status (p<0.05). Participants in the age group 32 and over, with undergraduate or more education, and who were married, had more knowledge and practical experience.
Phase II Trial of Irinotecan plus Nedaplatin (INP) in Treating Patients with Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer
Li, Chengguang ; Huang, Xin-En ; Li, Ying ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 487~490
Purpose: We conducted a phase II study of combination chemotherapy with irinotecan (CPT-11) and nedaplatin (NDP), (INP regimen), to determine the effects and toxicities in patients with extensive stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Methods: From March 2005 to December 2010, 60 patients with histologically or cytologically confirmed extensive SCLC were enrolled into this study. All received treatment CPT-11 at a dose of
on days 1 and 8, and NDP
on days1-5, every 3-4 weeks as a cycle. Patients were treated until tumor progression or unacceptable toxicity. Results: Main toxicities included: myelosuppression, nausea or vomiting, diarrhea, elevation of alanine aminotransferase,and bilirubin. No treatment related death occurred in this study. Thirteen patients had complete response, forty-two had partial response, three remained stable, and two had progressive disease. Median progression-free survival was 13 months (95% confidence interval: 9-17) and median overall survival was 22 months (95% confidence interval: 19-25). Conclusion: INP is an effective and well tolerated regimen for treatment of extensive staged SCLC.
Genetic Variations in Carcinogen Metabolizing Genes Associated with Oral Cancer in Pakistani Population
Masood, Nosheen ; Kayani, Mahmood Akhtar ; Malik, Fraz Arshad ; Mahjabeen, Ishrat ; Baig, Ruqia Mehmood ; Faryal, Rani ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 491~495
Background: Xenobiotics are metabolized by either phase I enzymes like CYP1A1 or phase II enzymes like GSTs. Polymorphisms in the encoding genes (CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1) potentially may thererfore contribute towards risk association for oral cancer. Methodology: These genes were investigated via a case control study consisting of 228 oral cancer patients and 150 cancer free normal individuals as controls. DNA was extracted from WBCs for genotyping. Polymerase chain reaction-single stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) was used for screening CYP1A1 and GSTP1 genes mutations. Deletion of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes were analyzed by multiplex PCR. Results: Two novel mutations were found in this study in relation to oral cancer. A substitution mutation of
with C resulting in missense tyrosine to serine formation along with a frameshift mutation due to insertion of thymidine at nucleotide 2842 resulting in 495 nucleotide sequence to alter was found in oral cancer patients. GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletion polymorphism was found in significantly higher number of individuals (OR=2.08, CI 1.05-4.2; OR=1.5, CI 0.9-2.4 respectively) compared to controls. 10 patients had deletion of both GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes. GSTP1 gene was also found to have novel substitution mutations of
to T and
to A in exon 7 resulting in leucine to leucine and alanine to threonine formation respectively. Two intronic deletions of cytosine at positions 1074 and 1466 was found in intron 3 and 4 in patients and no control had these exonic or intronic variants in GSTP1 gene. Conclusion: These results suggest that accumulation of genetic changes in CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 genes are associated with increased risk of oral cancer.
Elevated Serum Thymidine Kinase 1 Predicts Risk of Pre/Early Cancerous Progression
Huang, Shouqing ; Lin, Jianzh ; Guo, Na ; Zhang, Min ; Yun, Xia ; Liu, Song ; Zhou, Ji ; He, Ellen ; Skog, Sven ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 497~505
Background: Serological thymidine kinase 1 (STK1) is a reliable proliferation marker for prognosis, monitoring tumour therapy, relapse and detection of malignancies. In this study we investigate the use of STK1 in health screening. Methods: The concentration of STK1 was determined by a sensitive dot blot ECL assay in 8,135 persons participating in a health screening program. Results: The frequency of persons with elevated STK1 (>2.0 pM) was 1.1%, representing diseases linked to pre/early cancerous progression. One person with malignancy (gastric carcinoma) was found among persons with elevated STK1, but none of persons with normal STK1 values. There was a significantly higher frequency of persons with moderate/severe type of hyperplasia of breast and prostate expressing elevated STK1, compared to persons with normal STK1 values. No significant difference was found concerning mild hyperplasia. Of persons with elevated STK1, 89.2% had diseases linked to risk for pre/early cancerous progression, compared to 41.2% of persons with normal STK1 values. Among the persons with elevated STK1 values, one developed liver carcinoma after 13 months and five persons showed progression in their disease within 19 months (breast and prostate hyperplasia, HBV infection). Conclusion: Serological TK1 may be a reliable marker for risk assessment of pre/early cancerous progression.
Expression Pattern of Tumor Endothelial Marker 8 Protein in Gallbladder Carcinomas
Maurya, Sanjeev Kumar ; Tewari, Mallika ; Kumar, Mohan ; Thakur, Mahendra Kumar ; Shukla, Hari Shanker ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 507~512
Tumor endothelial marker 8 protein (TEM8) is highly specific to tumor angiogenesis and is not required for normal adult angiogenesis and hence might prove to be a target for anti-angiogenic therapies in the future. We here evaluated protein and gene expression patterns in human endothelial cells of benign gallbladder - gallstone diseases (GSDs) and gallbladder carcinomas (GBCs) using immunostaining, immunofluorescence and western blotting techniques. Subjects comprised 175 GBC patients, 38 males and 137 females, aged 30-85 years (mean age
years) and twenty with GSDs, aged 30-75 years, (
years) for comparison (male 4/20 and females 16/20). TEM8 protein expression increased significantly (p<0.0001) with increasing stage of GBC and was mostly limited to endothelial cells, although there was no significant change with the grade. Interestingly, only 80-85 kDa and 60 kDa isoforms of TEM8 increased significantly whereas 45 kDa isoform was absent in GBCs. Conclusions- These results suggest that TEM8 plays an unknown important biological role to promote tumor angiogenesis in GBC.
Cytotoxicity of a Plant Steroidal Saponin on Human Lung Cancer Cells
Huang, Wenfeng ; Zou, Kun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 513~517
Trillium tschonoskii Maxim has been used to treat several diseases, including cancers, in folk medicine. The primary objective of the present study was to test whether TTB2, a steroidal saponin isolated from n-BuOH extracts, might exert effects on cell survival, morphology, cell cycle, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial function in a lung cancer cell line. It was found that TTB2 had anti-proliferative and morphological influence, leading to the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in a dose-dependent manner. A significant increase in the level of intracellular ROS and an accumulation of cells in the G2/M phases of the cell cycle were also observed in treated cells. In summary, our results indicated that this compound might have potential use for the treatment of cancer.
Hookah Smoking and Lung Cancer in the Kashmir Valley of the Indian Subcontinent
Koul, Parvaiz A ; Hajni, Mubashir R ; Sheikh, Mushtaq A ; Khan, Umar H ; Shah, Azra ; Khan, Yasmin ; Ahangar, A G ; Tasleem, Reyaz A ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 519~524
Background: The literature about the causal relationship between lung cancer and tobacco smoking mostly concerns cigarettes. Hookah smoking is popular in the Kashmir valley of the Indian subcontinent, and is generally believed to be innocuous because of the passage of the smoke through water before inhalation. Objective: To determine the relationship of hookah smoking to lung cancer in Kashmir. Materials and Methods: In a case-control design, 251 cases of lung cancer and 500 age-matched controls were studied. A predefined questionnaire was administered through a personal interview regarding various smoking and dietary patterns and the results compared through statistical analyses. Results: There were 194 (178 current) ever-smokers amongst the cases and 223 (134 current) amongst controls. Smokers had a 4.2 times risk of lung cancer compared to non smokers (OR 4.23, 95% CI 3.0-5.96, p<0.0001). There were 120 hookah smokers amongst the cases and 100 amongst the controls and hookah smokers were nearly six times at risk for lung cancer as compared to nonsmokers (OR 5.83, (95% CI 3.95-8.60, p< 0.0001). Cigarette smokers were commoner amongst cases (46 vs 64 in controls; OR 3.49, 95% CI 2.18-5.60, p=0.000). The severity of smoking was associated with a higher risk of lung cancer (Chi-square 72.09, p 0.000).The practice of changing water of the hookah after each session proved non-existent. Conclusion: Hookah smoking is associated with a significantly higher risk for lung cancer in Kashmiri population, with about 6 fold elevated risk as compared to non-smoking controls.
Anti-proliferative Effects of Organic Extracts from Root Bark of Juglans Regia L. (RBJR) on MDA-MB-231 Human Breast Cancer Cells: Role of Bcl-2/Bax, Caspases and Tp53
Hasan, Tarique N ; Grace, Leena B ; Shafi, Gowhar ; Al-Hazzani, Amal A ; Alshatwi, Ali A ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 525~530
With increasing use of plant-based cancer chemotherapeutic agents, exploring the antiproliferative effects of phytochemicals has gained increasing momentum for anticancer drug design. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of root bark of Juglans regia (RBJR) organic extracts on cell proliferation, and to determine the molecular mechanism of RBJR-induced cell death by determining the expression of Bcl-2, Bax, caspases, Tp53, Mdm-2 and TNF-
in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. The results demonstrate that WNRB suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in a dose and time dependent manner by modulating expression of key genes. This involved characteristic changes in cytoplasmic and nuclear morphology, DNA fragmentation (TUNEL assay), levels of mRNA and expression of corresponding proteins. Real Time PCR and western blot analysis revealed that the expression of of Bax, caspases, tp53, and TNF-
was markedly increased in MBA-MB-231 cells treated with the RBJR extract. In contrast Bcl2 and mdm-2 expression was down regulated after exposure. In summary, our data suggest the presence of bioactive compound(s) in WNRB capable of killing breast carcinoma cells through induction of apoptosis, and therefore a candidate source of anticancer drugs.
Plantago major Protective Effects on Antioxidant Status after Administration of 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene in Rats
Oto, Gokhan ; Ekin, Suat ; Ozdemir, Hulya ; Demir, Halit ; Yasar, Semih ; Levent, Abdulkadir ; Berber, Ismet ; Kaki, Baris ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 531~535
Aim: The present study was designed to evaluate effects of Plantago major extract on oxidative status in Wistar albino rats administrated 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). Methods: Rats were divided into three equal groups of 6 animals each: Group 1 controls, group 2 treated with DMBA (100 mg/kg, single dose) and group 3 receiving the DMBA and the aqueous extract at 100 mg/kg/d for 60 days. Results: Significant decrease in catalase (P<0.05), carbonic anhydrase (
), reduced glutathione (GSH) (P<0.01) and total protein (P<0.01) values was observed in the DMBA group compared with the healthy controls and DMBA + Plantago major groups. Conclusion: The results suggest preventive effects of Plantago major on DMBA induced oxidative damage in Wistar albino rats that might be due to decreased free radical generation.
Childhood Cancer Frequency in the Center of Tunisia
Missaoui, Nabiha ; Khouzemi, Mehdi ; Landolsi, Hanene ; Jaidene, Lilia ; Abdelkrim, Soumaya Ben ; Abdelkader, Atef Ben ; Beizig, Nadia ; Yaacoubi, Mohamed Tahar ; Hmissa, Sihem ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 537~542
Objective: In this paper, we analyzed the frequency of childhood cancer in the Center of Tunisia during 1993-2006. Design: The different types of cancer were grouped according to the International Classification for Cancer in Children. The general and specific frequencies by age and by sex were analyzed. Results: A total of 727 new cases of childhood cancer were registered, with a male to-female sex ratio of 1.7/1. Leukemias had the highest frequency (27%) and, of these, lymphoid leukemias were the most prevalent (73.5%). Thereafter, in descending order of frequency, were lymphomas (25.7%), tumors of the central nervous system (CNS, 9.2%), neuroblastomas (7.7%), sarcomas (6.9%), carcinomas (6.3%), bone tumors (5.8%), nephroblastomas (5.5%), and germinal cell tumors (2.6%). The highest frequency of cancer was found at age 10-14 years (34.9%). Leukemias were the most frequent in age groups 1-4 and 5-9 years, whereas, neuroblastomas and lymphomas were the most frequent at age under one year and 10-14 years, respectively. Of those cases of solid tumors, 55.8% were diagnosed as having advanced stages of the disease. Conclusion: Leukemias, lymphomas, and CNS tumors were the principal cancers in the Center of Tunisia. A childhood cancer registry with high-resolution data collection is advocated for in-depth analysis of pediatric malignancies.
Primary Pleuropulmonary Neoplasms in Childhood: Fourteen Cases from a Single Center
Demir, H Ahmet ; Yalcin, Bilgehan ; Ciftci, A Ozden ; Orhan, Diclehan ; Varan, Ali ; Akyuz, Canan ; Kutluk, Tezer ; Buyukpamukcu, Munevver ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 543~547
Background: We aimed to review clinical characteristics, treatment results and outcome of pediatric patients with primary pleuropulmonary neoplasms. Methods: Medical records of 14 cases diagnosed between 1972-2009 were reviewed retrospectively. Results: The male/female ratio was 5/9 and the mean age at diagnosis was 9.1 years (2-16). All but one were symptomatic, presenting with fever, coughing, dyspnea, or weight loss. One patient presented with hemoptysis, and another with digital clubbing. One mesothelioma was diagnosed incidentally. Some 8/14 patients were initially diagnosed as having pneumonia (median delay in diagnosis of 2.5 months). Diagnoses included pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB, n=5), inflammatory pseudotumor (n=3), mesothelioma (n=2), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC, n=2), and carcinoid tumor (n=2). Patients with PPB underwent surgery and received chemotherapy
radiotherapy. Two carcinoid tumor cases underwent surgery, one further received chemotherapy. Patients with mesothelioma were treated with chemotherapy. Inflammatory pseudotumors were all resected. Two cases with MEC received chemotherapy, one after surgery. 2/5 PPB patients survived without recurrence, 3 died; all carcinoid tumors and inflammatory pseudotumors were alive; 1/2 MEC patients was alive after 252 months, the other one was lost without disease; 1/2 mesothelioma patients was alive without disease, the other was died. For all cases, median follow-up was 30.5 months (0.6-252). Conclusions: Primary pleuropulmonary tumors are rare but clinical presentation can be varied and delay in diagnosis is common. Children with persistent coughs, recurrent pneumonia or hemoptysis should be considered as indicators for early diagnosis, very important because the prognosis of these tumors varies with histology and stage.
Survival of Patients with Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder in Indonesia: A Single Institution Review
Supit, Wempy ; Mochtar, Chaidir A ; Sugiono, Marto ; Umbas, Rainy ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 549~553
Objective: To describe for the first time the survival of bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) in Indonesia, according to clinicopathological characteristics. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study of bladder TCC survival in a single institution, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Indonesia's national tertiary referral centre, between the years 1995 and 2005. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine the overall survival (OS). Results: The evaluable data covered 254 cases of primary bladder TCC, in which 95 (37.4%) were non muscleinvasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), and 159 cases (62.6%) were muscle-invasive (MIBC). Of these, 105 cases (41.4%) with a follow-up period up to five years were eligible for survival analysis. The mean age was 56.5 +/- 12.1 years old, with a male to female ratio of 6:1. The 5-year OS for all bladder TCC was 27.6%, with a mean survival time of 32.6 months. For NMIBC, the 5-year OS was 53.8% with a mean survival of 54.5 months. For MIBC, the 5-year OS was 19% with a mean survival of 25.4 months. Regarding pathological stage, the 5-year OS for stage 0, I, II, III, and IV was 83.3%, 45%, 30%, 18.8%, and 9.1%, respectively. Conclusion: The overall survival of bladder TCC in Indonesia is low compared to other countries. Possible explanations include the high number of advanced-stage tumours at initial presentation, under-staging, significant number of treatment refusal by our patients, and the non-standardized use of adjuvant therapy in our centre.
Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Modulates Invasion and Apoptosis of PC-3M Prostate Cancer Cells Via Regulating Expression of VEGF, MMP9 and Caspase-3
Shi, Chao-Ling ; Yu, Chang-Hai ; Zhang, Yu ; Zhao, Dan ; Chang, Xi-Hua ; Wang, Wei-Hua ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 555~559
Prostate cancer is a form of malignancy that is most likely to develop in older males, but because of the propensity to metastasize to parts of the body, particularly the bones, can have a deleterious impact on quality of life. Recently monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) has been shown to play important role in prostate cancer progression and metastasi. In this study we aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying its functional roles. In vitro transwell invasion assays with PC-3M prostate cancer cells demonstrated MCP-1 promotion of invasion, while annexin V-FITC and TUNEL confirmed inhibition of apoptosis. Treatment MCP-1 further led to significant upregulation of VEGF and MMP-9 and downregulation of Caspase-3 at both mRNA and protein levels compared with untreated control (P<0.05), while siRNA mediated knockdown reversed these changes. Taken together, our results indicate important roles of MCP-1 in prostate cancer progression and metastasis and our finding of regulation of VEGF, MMP-9 and Caspase-3 expression open up new possibilities for targeted therapy.
Cervical Human Papilloma Virus Infection among the General Female Population in Vietnam: A Situation Analysis
Vu, Lan T H ; Le, Ha T T ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 561~566
Human papilloma virus (HPV) is the necessary cause of cervical cancer. This survey used a sample of 1,500 married women aged 15-69 to examine the prevalence of HPV infection and HPV specific types in Vietnam as well as risk factors of HPV infection. Results indicated that the prevalence of HPV infection in Hanoi and HCM was 6.13 and 8.27. The proportion of multiple HPV infection was also higher in HCM than in Hanoi (35.5% vs. 17.4%). Risk factors having significant associations with general HPV infection were early age at first sexual intercourse, number of life time sexual partners and period of use of oral contraceptives. Future implementation of HPV vaccine campaigns in Vietnam should consider the fact that HPV type 58 is common among both Hanoi and HCM populations, which none of the currently available vaccines target.
Prevention of Mammary Carcinogenesis in C3H/OuJ Mice by Green Tea and Tamoxifen
Sakata, Michio ; Ikeda, Tadashi ; Imoto, Shigeru ; Jinno, Hiromitsu ; Kitagawa, Yuko ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 567~571
Background: Tamoxifen (TAM) is useful in the chemoprevention of breast cancer, and green tea catechins, including (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), may have similar actions. In this study, we investigated their effects, alone or in combination, on mammary carcinogenesis using breast cancer cells and preneoplastic lesions inC3H/OuJ mice. Methods: Growth inhibitory effects of EGCG and TAM on MCF-7 cells were evaluated with the anchorage-independent colony forming assay. The effects on mammary tumor carcinogenesis and preneoplastic lesions were assessed in vivo using animals treated with GTE in drinking water (1%, 0.1%), or a tamoxifen pellet (10 mg/ animal, subcutaneously inoculated) or both agents in combination (1%GTE + 10 mg TAM). The number and size of mammary tumors were measured weekly during treatment. At 48 weeks of age, mice were sacrificed for the examination of hyperplastic alveolar nodules (HAN) and argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNOR). Results: In the anchorage-independent growth assay, EGCG and TAM exhibited dose-dependent antiproliferative effects on MCF-7 cells. In the tumor formation assay, tumor incidences were decreased in the GTE, TAM, and GTE+TAM groups, particularly in the latter, in which no tumors developed. AgNOR counts were also significantly lower in the 1%GTE+TAM compared with the 1%GTE group, suggesting an additional anticarcinogenic effect. Conclusion: These data suggest that GTE and TAM, individually and in combination, have potential for chemoprevention of breast cancer.
Frequency of Genetic Alterations Observed in Cell Cycle Regulatory Proteins and Microsatellite Instability in Gallbladder Adenocarcinoma: A Translational Perspective
Mishra, Pradyumna K ; Raghuram, Gorantla V ; Jatawa, Suresh K ; Bhargava, Arpit ; Varshney, Subodh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 2, 2011, Pages 573~574