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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevetion
Editor in Chief :
Malcolm A Moore
Volume & Issues
Volume 12, Issue 12 - Dec 2011
Volume 12, Issue 11 - Nov 2011
Volume 12, Issue 10 - Oct 2011
Volume 12, Issue 9 - Sep 2011
Volume 12, Issue 8 - Aug 2011
Volume 12, Issue 7 - Jul 2011
Volume 12, Issue 6 - Jun 2011
Volume 12, Issue 5 - May 2011
Volume 12, Issue 4 - Apr 2011
Volume 12, Issue 3 - Mar 2011
Volume 12, Issue 2 - Feb 2011
Volume 12, Issue 1 - Jan 2011
Selecting the target year
Novel Chemotherapy using Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors in Cervical Cancer
Takai, Noriyuki ; Kira, Naoko ; Ishii, Terukazu ; Nishida, Masakazu ; Nasu, Kaei ; Narahara, Hisashi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 575~580
Since epigenetic alterations are believed to be involved in the repression of tumor suppressor genes and promotion of tumorigenesis in cervical cancers, novel compounds endowed with a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitory activity are an attractive therapeutic approach. In this review, we discuss the biologic and therapeutic effects of HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs) in treating cervical cancer. HDACIs were able to mediate inhibition of cell growth, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and the expression of genes related to the malignant phenotype in a variety of cervical cancer cell lines. Furthermore, HDACIs were able to induce the accumulation of acetylated histones in the chromatin of the p21WAF1 gene in human cervical carcinoma cells. In xenograft models, some HDACIs have demonstrated antitumor activity with only few side effects. Some clinical trials demonstrate that HDACI drugs provide an important class of new mechanism-based therapeutics for cervical cancer. In this review, we discuss the biologic and therapeutic effects of HDACIs in treating cervical cancer, especially focusing on preclinical studies and clinical trials.
Unsuspected Genital Tract Malignancy Discovered During or After Gynecologic Surgery
Kietpeerakool, Chumnan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 581~587
Preoperative counseling is a fundamental process in surgical practice. Although uncommon, discordance between preoperative and postoperative diagnoses has been observed in surgical practice. This would be a major concern if a serious condition such as malignant disease is noted incidentally. Encountering unexpected cancers during or after an operation may result in suboptimal treatment performed because of the potential of failure to follow standard treatment guidelines for such cancer. In addition, failing to prepare patients for a possibility of unsuspected cancer is an extremely difficult situation and may complicate the relationship with the surgeon. This article focused on the incidence and major causes of unsuspected genital tract malignancies found during or after gynecologic surgery.
Causative Relationship between Diabetes Mellitus and Breast Cancer in Various Regions of Saudi Arabia: An Overview
Arif, Jamal M ; Al-Saif, Ahmad M ; Al-Karrawi, Mohammed A ; Al-Sagair, Othman A ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 589~592
The unwarranted connection between diabetes mellitus and breast cancer has gained new ground in recent years. Breast cancer in Saudi females accounts for approximately 21% of all cancers and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Saudi females is also 21.5%. DM is diagnosed in the age group of 30+ years with possible exposure to predisposing factors like hyperinsulinemia and obesity at younger age. Further, 12% of the breast cancer cases are diagnosed in the young females aged 20-34 years. Despite the readily available access to healthcare facilities in the Kingdom, a large number of diabetics, approximately 27.9%, were unaware of having diabetes mellitus. This subpopulation is quite susceptible of developing breast cancer at later age. This review discusses common etiological and predisposing factors for breast cancer and diabetes, regional distribution and possible correlation of diabetes and cancer in Saudi Arabia.
4'-Hydroxycinnamaldehyde from Alpinia galanga (Linn.) Induces Human Leukemic Cell Apoptosis via Mitochondrial and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Pathways
Banjerdpongchai, Ratana ; Punyati, Pimpinun ; Nakrob, Aree ; Pompimon, Wilart ; Kongtawelert, Prachya ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 593~598
Rhizomes of Alpinia galanga (Linn.) or 'Kha' in Thai are used in food and as folk medicine in South and Southeast Asia. The aims of this study were to identify the mechanism of cell death of human leukemic HL-60 and U937 cells induced by 4'-hydroxycinnamaldehyde (4'-HCA) isolated from A. galanga. 4'-HCA was cytotoxic to both cell lines in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05) as demonstrated by MTT assay. Apoptosis induced by 4'-HCA was demonstrated by a variety of methods: visualization of propidium iodide (PI)-stained cells under fluorescence microscope, detection of subdiploid cells by PI-staining and flow cytometry, and assay of active caspase-3 using a specific fluorogenic substrate. 4'-HCA-treated cells (10 and
for 4 h) showed significant increase in reactive oxygen species production and decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potential as detected by dichlorohydrofluorescein diacetate and 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide respectively, together with flow cytometry. The apoptotic death involved cytochrome c release, increase in Bax level and concomitant decreases in levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL (using Western blotting), and elevation in cytosolic and mitochondrial
contents (using compartment-specific fluorescent
dyes). These results indicate that 4'-HCA induces apoptosis of human leukemic cell through a combination of mitochondrial and ER stress pathways.
Impact of Lymph Node Metastases in Esophageal Carcinoma Patients is Independent of Patient Age
Sehitogullari, Abidin ; Cikman, Oztekin ; Sayir, Fuat ; Cobanoglu, Ufuk ; Demir, Cengiz ; Demir, Halit ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 599~603
Objective: The purpose of the present study was to define the clinicopathological features and prognosis of esophageal cancer. Methods: Between 2004 and 2009, 128 patients with esophageal cancer were enrolled in a retrospective database and divided into two groups on the basis of number positive lymph nodes with the cutoff as four. Results: The findings for 18 patients (14.0%) Group A were compared with those of 110 patients Group B. In the group A, there were significantly more women (12/6 vs. 54/56, P < 0.001). In both groups, the most frequent histological morphology was squamous cell carcinoma (83% and 75%, respectively), although the percentages were significantly different (P < 0.005). In the group A, lesions were more frequently located in the middle one-third of the esophagus than in the group B (61% vs. 28%, P < 0.001). Group A was more likely to be Stage IIa. Survival rates in group A patients at 5 years after resection were 15.8%, similar to those in group B patients (12.1%, difference not significant). Local lymph node metastases and microscopic residual tumor at the line of resection were also more prevalent in the young patients, but not to a statistically significant degree. Conclusions: These findings suggested that the clinical and pathologic features of carcinomas of the esophagus in young patients do not significantly differ from those in older patients.
Roles of Diet, Lifetime Physical Activity and Oxidative DNA Damage in the Occurrence of Prostate Cancer among Men in Klang Valley, Malaysia
Shahar, Suzana ; Shafurah, Siti ; Hasan Shaari, Nur Suraiya Abu ; Rajikan, Roslee ; Rajab, Nor Fadilah ; Golkhalkhali, Babak ; Zainuddin, Zulkifli Md ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 605~611
Background: There is a paucity of information on risk factors of prostate cancer, especially those related to dietary and lifestyle among Asian populations. Objective: This study aimed to determine the relationship between dietary intake (macronutrients, fruits, vegetables and lycopene), lifetime physical activity and oxidative DNA damage with prostate cancer. Design: A case control study was carried out among 105 subjects (case n=35, control n=70), matched for age and ethnicity. Data on sociodemographic, medical, dietary intake, consumption of lycopene rich food and lifetime physical activity were obtained through an interview based questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements including weight, height and waist hip circumferences were also carried out on subjects. A total of 3mL fasting venous blood was drawn to assess lymphocyte oxidative DNA damage using the alkaline comet assay. Results: Cases had a significantly higher intake of fat (
) as compared to controls (
) (p < 0.05). Mean intaks of fruits and vegetables (
servings/d)(p<0.05), fruits (
servings/d) (p<0.05) and vegetables (1.97+0.94 servings/d) were higher in controls than cases (
servings/d). A total of 71% of cases did not met the recommendation of a minimum of three servings of fruits and vegetables daily, as compared to 34% of controls (p<0.05) (Adjusted OR 6.52 (95% CI 2.3-17.8)) (p<0.05). Estimated lycopene intake among cases (2,339 + 1,312 mcg/d) were lower than controls (
mcg/d) (p< 0.01). Estimated lycopene intake of less than 2,498 mcg/day (50th percentile) increased risk of prostate cancer by double [Adjusted OR 2.5 (95%CI 0.99-6.31)]. Intake of tomatoes, watermelon, guava, pomelo, papaya, mango, oranges, dragon fruit, carrot, tomato sauce and barbeque sauce were higher in controls compared to cases. Intake of tomato sauce of more than 2.24g/d (25th percentile), papaya more than 22.7g/d (50th percentile) and oranges more than 19.1g/h (50th percentile) reduced prostate cancer risk by 7.4 (Adjusted OR 7.4 (95% CI 1.17-46.77)), 2.7 (Adjusted OR 2.75 (95% CI 1.03-7.39)) and 2.6 times (Adjusted OR = 2.6 (95% CI=1.01-6.67)), respectively (p<0.05 for all parameters). No oxidative damage was observed among subjects. Past history of not engaging with any physical activities at the age of 45 to 54 years old increased risk of prostate cancer by approximately three folds (Adjusted OR 2.9(95% CI = 0.8-10.8)) (p < 0.05). In conclusion, low fat diet, high intake of fruits, vegetables and lycopene rich foods and being physical active at middle age were found to be protective. Thus, it is essential for Malaysian men to consume adequate fruits and vegetables, reduce fat intake and engage in physical activity in order to reduce prostate cancer risk.
Antitumor and Cytotoxic Activities of Methanol Extract of Indigofera linnaei Ali.
Kumar, Raju Senthil ; Rajkapoor, Balasubramanian ; Perumal, Perumal ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 613~618
Methanol extract of Indigofera linnaei (MEIL) was investigated for antitumor, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities against transplantable tumors and human cancer cell lines. In vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated in HeLa, Hep-2, HepG-2, MCF-7, HT-29, Vero and NIH 3T3 cells by MTT assay and in vivo antitumor activity with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) and Dalton's ascites lymphoma (DLA) tumor-bearing mice. Activity was measured by monitoring the mean survival time, effect on hematological parameters, antioxidant enzyme levels and solid tumor volume. The extract exhibited strong in vitro cytotoxicity against all the tested cancer cell lines, but it was found to be safe with normal cells. MEIL at the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg, significantly increase the mean survival time (P<0.001), exerted a protective effect on the hemopoietic system, demonstrated in vivo antioxidant activity and significantly reduce solid tumor volume (P<0.01). These results show a significant antitumor and cytotoxic effect of MEIL against EAC, DLA and human cancer cell lines and support the ethnomedical use of Indigofera linnaei.
Prevalence and Associated Factors of Smoking among Malaysian University Students
Al-Naggar, Redhwan Ahmed ; Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman ; Al-Naggar, Thekra Hamoud ; Chen, Robert ; Al-Jashamy, Karim ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 619~624
Objective: The objectives were to determine the prevalence and associated factors for smoking among university students in Malaysia. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 199 students in the period from December of academic year 2009 until April of academic year 2010 in Management and Science University (MSU), Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia. The questionnaire was distributed randomly to all faculties of MSU by choosing one of every 3 lecture rooms, as well as the library and cafeterias of the campus randomly by choosing one from every 3 tables. Questions concerned socio-demographic variables, knowledge, attitudes and practice toward smoking. Participant's consent was obtained and ethical approval was provided by the ethics committee of the University. Data entry and analysis were performed using descriptive statistics, chi square test, Student t- test and logistic multiple regression with the SPSS version 13.0, statistical significance being concluded at p<0.05. Results: About one third of students were smokers (29%). The most important reason of smoking was stress (20%) followed by 'influenced by friends' (16 %). Prevalence of smoking was significantly higher among male and those in advanced semesters (p= >0.001, p=0.047). Smokers had low level of knowledge (p<0.05), had wrong beliefs on smoking (p<0.05), and negative attitude toward tobacco control policies compared to non smokers (p<0.05). On multiple logistic regression, significant predictors of smoking in the model were gender (p=0.025), age (p=0.037), semester of study (p= 0.025) and attitude toward smoking (p<0.001). Conclusion: This study found that 29% of university students were smokers. Males and students in advanced semesters were more likely to smoke. The results provide baseline data to develop an anti-smoking program to limit smoking in the university by implementing policies against smoking.
Immunohistochemical Profile of Breast Cancer Patients at a Tertiary Care Hospital in South India
Ambroise, Moses ; Ghosh, Mitra ; Mallikarjuna, VS ; Kurian, Ann ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 625~629
Aims: 1) To evaluate the estrogen receptor(ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and Her-2 /neu expression in invasive breast carcinomas by immunohistochemistry and 2) to compare the pattern of expression with clinico-pathological parameters like patient's age, tumor size, mitotic index, histological type and grade and lymph node metastasis. Methods: This is a retrospective study of 321 female invasive breast carcinomas diagnosed in the Department of Histopathology, Apollo Speciality Hospital, Chennai from January 2009 to June 2010. Results: The age of the patients ranged from 24 to 99 years, with a mean of 53.8, and the majority of the tumors were T2 (83.8% in range of 2-5 cms), predominantly histological grade 2 (57.3%), followed by grade 3 (33.3%). ER, PR and Her-2/neu expression was seen in 59, 51 and 27% of cases respectively. Triple-negative breast cancers constituted 25 % of our cases. We also found characteristic associations between hormonal receptor and Her-2/neu expression and various clinico-pathological parameters. Conclusions: The hormonal receptor expression appears to be lower in the Indian population compared to the West. A significant proportion of tumors in our study with Her2/neu overexpression also showed ER and PR positivity. Triple-negative breast tumors were most commonly grade 3, in women aged more than 50 years.
Risk of the Contralateral Mucosa in Patients with Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders
Siar, Chong Huat ; Mah, Michelle Clare ; Gill, Praveen Preet ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 631~635
Background: It is known that abnormal changes may occur in any part of the oral mucous membrane exposed to a carcinogen. Therefore patients with oral potentially malignant disorders (PMDs) are at risk of developing similar lesions at multiple sites. Objectives: To determine the risk of the contralateral mucosa in patients presenting with oral PMDs. Materials and methods: Sixty individuals with PMDs were selected for this study. These comprised 32 (53.3%) Indians, 23 (38.3%) Chinese, four (6.7%) Malays and one (1.7%) Nepalese. All selected cases had histopathological confirmation of their primary existing lesion as inclusion criteria. Cases that subsequently presented with a lesion in the corresponding anatomical site also underwent scalpel incisional biopsy on this second lesion to verify its diagnosis. The remaining cases that presented with unilateral PMDs at the time of study were subjected to a cytobrush biopsy on the normal looking contralateral mucosa. Results: A total of 70 primary PMDs were detected in 60 patients. The most common PMD found was oral lichen planus (n=40, 57.1%). Of the 60 patients studied, 28 (46.6%) exhibited bilateral lesions either synchronously (n=21, 35.0%) or metachronously (n=7, 11.6%). The remaining cases that had undergone cytobrush biopsy on the corresponding anatomical site yielded normal cytological results. Conclusions: Present findings demonstrated that patients presenting with PMDs in the upper aerodigestive tract are at a greater risk of developing a second lesion most probably in the contralateral anatomical site.
Measuring Quality of Life in Thai Women with Breast Cancer
Glangkarn, Sumattana ; Promasatayaprot, Vorapoj ; Porock, Davina ; Edgley, Alison ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 637~644
Breast cancer has become a commonly diagnosed disease among Thai women in the last decade, despite the fact that Thai women generally have a lower rates than their Western counterparts. With the rising incidence and survival rates, it is crucial for nurses to look at the long term quality of life of these patients. A broad range of instruments have been used in clinical trials among breast cancer patients in oncology, like the EORTC questionnaire including the general quality of life questions (QLQ-C30) and the breast cancer module (QLQ-BR23), and the FACT-B questionnaire consisting of both a generic part (FACT-G) and a breast cancer specific module. They have been shown to have good validity and reliability properties both for the English original and translations into various languages including Thai. A few studies on quality of life in Thai context exist, covering quality of life in women with breast cancer. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to find which standard measure of common Western quality of life scales is appropriate to assess quality of life in Thai women with breast cancer. Results revealed the Thai version of EORTC QLQ-C30 and FACT-G questionnaires to be reliable and valid to assess quality of life in general. The best fit for measuring quality of life in Thai women with breast cancer during adjuvant treatment should be the EORTC QLQ-C30/-BR23.
Prevalence and Distribution of High Risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Types 16 and 18 in Carcinoma of Cervix, Saliva of Patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and in the General Population in Karnataka, India
Kulkarni, Suyamindra S ; Kulkarni, Sujayendra S ; Vastrad, Priyanka P ; Kulkarni, Bhushan B ; Markande, Amruta R ; Kadakol, G.S. ; Hiremath, S.V. ; Kaliwal, S. ; Patil, B.R. ; Gai, Pramod B ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 645~648
Background: In view of conducting HPV vaccination in India it is most important to understand the prevalence of HPV genotypes in this population, not only in squamous cell carcinoma of cervix and oral cavity but also in the general population. In this study we explored the prevalence and distribution of high-risk HPV types 16 and 18 in carcinoma of cervix, saliva of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and in general population in Karnataka. Methods: Cervical cancer specimens after punch biopsy (n=60) were obtained from women attending Karnataka Institute of Medical Sciences and Karnataka Cancer Therapy and Research Institute, Hubli (KCTRI). Saliva rinse of (n=34) OSCC patients from KCTRI and (n=396) normal individuals from different regions of North Karnataka, were collected and PCR based high-risk HPV genotyping was carried out. Results: Using consensus PCR primers it was observed that 96.7% patients were infected with HPV irrespective of specific type in cervical cancer. Among them, HPV 16 was observed in 89.7%, HPV 18 in 86.2% and both HPV 16 and 18 in 79.3% patients. In OSCC, 70.6% were positive for HPV, among which HPV 16 prevalence was observed in 45.8%, HPV 18 in 54.2%, and HPV 16 and 18 multiple infection in 4.18%. In general population, HPV prevalence was observed in 84.4%. Among them, HPV 16 was observed in 2.75% and HPV 18 in 22.0% patients. In general population, multiple infection with HPV 16 and 18 was not observed but 75.3% were found to be infected by HPV genotypes other than HPV 16 & 18. Conclusions: Our study reveals that multiple infection of HPV 16 and 18 is quite high in cervical cancer and in case of OSCC, it was in conformity with the other studies. In general population HPV 18 prevalence was observed to be high. With this, we can conclude that both HPV 16 and 18 vaccinations will reduce the burden of cervical cancer and OSCC in Karnataka.
High p16 Expression Predicts a Positive Response to Chemoradiotherapy in Stage IVa/b Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Chen, Yi-Ju ; Rau, Kun-Ming ; Chien, Chih-Yen ; Fang, Fu-Min ; Huang, Tai-Lin ; Chiu, Tai-Jan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 649~655
Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of p16 expression on response to chemoradiation in stage IVa/b head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients. Methods: We retrospectively identified 64 patients with stage IVa/b HNSCC who received chemoradiation. Eligibility criteria included presence of biopsy-proven stage IVa/b HNSCC without a prior history of chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess p16 protein expression in pretreatment biopsy specimens. Results: Of the 64 patients, 38 showed high p16 expression, and 50 patients responded to chemoradiotherapy, 32 exhibiting a complete and 18 a partial response. Response was significantly associated with p16 expression (P<0.001) and multivariate analysis indicated that that p16 expression (HR: 2.62, 95%C.I.: 1.14-6.06; P=0.024) was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival. Conclusions: High p16 expression predicts a better response to chemoradiation in patients with stage IVa/b HNSCC.
High Expression of CXCR7 Combined with Alpha Fetoprotein in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Correlates with Extra-hepatic Metastasis to Lung after Hepatectomy
Xue, TC ; Han, D ; Chen, RX ; Zou, JH ; Wang, Y ; Tang, ZY ; Ye, SL ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 657~663
The lung is the most frequent metastatic site of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), negatively impacting on survival rates. In this study, we evaluated the prognostic role of the chemokine receptor CXCR7 in lung metastasis of HCC after hepatectomy, using immunohistochemical detection on tissue microarrays of HCCs, with and without lung metastasis. Using three categories based on staining characteristics, patients with high CXCR7 expression demonstrated a shorter time to development of lung metastasis compared with patients with low CXCR7 expression (log-rank test) with no effet on overall survival. Analysis of tissue adjacent to tumor showed patients with microvascular invasion to have higher CXCR7. Stratification based on alpha fetoprotein level >20 ng/ml also showed high expression of CXCR7 to be a strong independent prognostic factor. These findings suggest that high expression of CXCR7 in HCCs with elevated alpha fetoprotein levels correlates with metastasis to lung and poor survival after hepatectomy, indicating potential use as a prognostic factor.
Suppression of DMBA/Croton Oil-induced Mouse Skin Tumor Promotion by Ardisia Crispa Root Hexane Extract
Roslida, AH ; Fezah, O ; Yeong, LT ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 665~669
Ardisia crispa (Family: Myrsinaceae) has been used as a traditional medicine for various ailments. Previous studies showed that Ardisia crispa possesses antimetastatic and anti-inflammatory properties. Nevertheless, research done on the plant is still limited. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the suppression effect of Ardisia crispa root hexane (ACRH) extract on 7, 12-dimethylbenz (
) anthracene (DMBA)-induced mice skin tumor promotion in ICR mice with topical application twice weekly for 10 weeks. Results showed significant difference between treatment groups (mice treated with 30 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg of ACRH extract; denoted as group I, II and III respectively) for tumor incidence and tumor burden (P<0.05). Significant reduction in tumor incidence (20%), tumor burden (
), tumor volume (
) and delayed latency period of tumor formation was observed in group I (30 mg/kg) in comparison to carcinogen control. This study indicates that ACRH extract could be a promising skin tumor promotion suppressing agent at a lower dosage (30 mg/kg). Further studies are required to elucidate the underlying mechanism(s) leading to this effect.
Prevalence and Risk of Leukemia in the Multi-ethnic Population of North Karnataka
Modak, Harendra ; Kulkarni, Suyamindra S ; Kadakol, GS ; Hiremath, S.V. ; Patil, B.R. ; Hallikeri, Umesh ; Gai, Pramod B ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 671~675
Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the trends in the incidence rates of four major types of leukemia in the population of North Karnataka, which accounts for the 2.5% of the whole population of India. Due to the lack of any nationwide leukemia screening program, the majority of the people are not aware of the disease. Epidemiological study can play a vital role in understanding the occurrence and outcome of the disease. Patients and Methods: Focusing on variables like age, sex, race, blood group and lifestyle habits, detailed reports of 417 males and 230 females (M:F ratio 1.8:1) were collected from different hospitals of North Karnataka and analyzed for their risk of leukemia. Results: Compared to female patients, Hindu males were found to have greater risk of occurrence of leukemia (p=0.0333). The males of scheduled caste (SC) and Lingayat communities showed a high risk than other communities (p=0.000). The occurrence of AML showed a significant relationship with ABO blood groups (p=0.0090). The frequency of leukemia is quite high in Belgaum district when compared to others districts of North Karnataka and totally absent in Bidar district. The reasons need precise molecular and genetical studies of the populaton. Conclusions: The localized communities of Lingayat and SCs needs to be further studied to get a better understanding for the higher risk of occurrence of leukemia in males. Moreover, since the spectrum of cancer epidemiology seen in India is different from that in developed countries more emphasis should be placed on better development of regional and national registries.
Chemopreventive Effect of Hydroethanolic Extract of Euphorbia neriifolia Leaves Against DENA-Induced Renal Carcinogenesis in Mice
Janmeda, Pracheta ; Sharma, Veena ; Singh, Lokendra ; Paliwal, Ritu ; Sharma, Sadhana ; Yadav, Sachdev ; Sharma, Shatruhan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 677~683
The present study was conducted to investigate the chemopreventive effects of hydro-ethanolic extract of Euphorbia neriifolia (EN) on N-nitrosodiethylamine (DENA) induced renal cancer in male Swiss albino mice. Animals were pretreated with EN extract (150 and 400 mg/kg body weight; p.o) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) as a standard (0.5% and 1% BHA p.o) both for two week prior to the administration of single dose of DENA (50 mg/kg body weight; p.o). Various in vivo antioxidant biochemical parameters like lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) were evaluated to determine the reno-protective and antioxidant activity of EN. DENA increased oxidative stress through increase in LPO and decrease in antioxidant enzymes (SOD, and CAT). The EN extract significantly restored the antioxidant enzyme level in the kidney and exhibited significant dose dependant protective effect against DENA induced nephrotoxicity, which can be mainly attributed to the antioxidant property of the extract. This study rationalized the ethno-medicinal use of EN for protection against renal cancer.
Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma: the Most Common T-Cell Lymphoma in Pakistan
Syed, Sahr ; Khalil, Sarwat ; Pervez, Shahid ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 685~689
Objective: To study the prevalence and immunohistochemical profile of the subtypes of anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCLs) at a major referral center of Pakistan. Methods: Epidemiological data for all mature T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) diagnosed between 1st January 2005 and 30th June 2010 at the Aga Khan University Department of Histopathology were reviewed and analyzed with SPSS v17.0. Results: A total of 178 specimens were diagnosed as mature T- and NK- cell NHL during the period. Of these 100 (56.2%) were diagnosed as systemic ALCL. These tumors were of either T- or null-cell type with consistent (100%) expression of CD30 (Ki-1). Forty three (43%) cases were further classified as ALK positive, fifty (50%) as ALK negative and seven (7%) were not tested for ALK expression. The mean age of the ALK positive group was 26.7 years as compared to the ALK negative of 35.6 years. The gender ratio of ALK positive cases was 2.3:1 (M:F) as compared to the 2.5:1 ratio seen in the ALK negative cases. There were no significant differences in the nodal and extra-nodal involvement patterns between ALK+ and ALK- groups but epithelial membrane antigen was positive more often in the ALK positive group. Conclusion: Compared to other published studies, this proportion of ALCL within the mature T- and NK- cell lymphoma category was found to be alarmingly high and calls for attention. Further studies should be conducted in our region, which in turn would enable clinicians to successfully battle against this neoplastic disease.
Nutrition and Cancer Prevention: Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices among Young Malaysians
Al-Naggar, Redhwan Ahmed ; Chen, Robert ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 691~694
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices of university students toward nutrition related to cancer prevention. Methodology: A total of 396 students from the Management and Science University (MSU) participated during the semester of March 2010. Stratified random sampling was used and consent was obtained before the questionnaire was distributed. ANOVA and the t-test were used for the univariate analysis and multiple linear regression was used for the multivariate analysis. Results: The participants ages ranged from 18 to 27 years (
), more than half being female (62.4%). The majority were 23 years old or younger, single, Malay and from non-Medical and Health Science faculties and with a family monthly income of less than 10,000 Ringgits Malaysia(79.5%; 99%, 65.9, 52.5%, 63.9%; respectively). Only 18.4% of participants reported a family history of cancer. About 32.1% had a medical check-up in the previous 12 months and 17.4% were smokers. Multivariate analysis showed the faculty type to be significantly associated with knowledge of cancer prevention (p = 0.04). Regular medical check-ups were associated with attitudes and practices of cancer prevention (p = 0.04, p=0.003 respectively), the latter being significantly influenced by sex, family history of cancer and smoking (p = 0.034, p=0.013, p=0.002; respectively). Conclusion: The majority of participants had poor knowledge of nutrition as related to cancer prevention. Attention should be given to regular medical check-ups, awareness of family history and smoking influence.
Testicular Cancer Awareness and Testicular Self-Examination among University Students
Ugurlu, Ziyafet ; Akkuzu, Gulcihan ; Karahan, Azize ; Beder, Alper ; Dogan, Nevin ; Okdem, Seyda ; Kav, Sultan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 695~698
Background: This study was planned to determine the knowledge of testicular cancer (TC), risk factors and testicular self-examination (TSE) among university students. Methods: A survey study was conducted at a university located in Ankara, Turkey with 634 male students. Results: Almost half of them (44%) heard TC during their education and life but majority of participants has lack of knowledge about sign and symptoms of TC. Only 5.9 % of them (n=38) indicated they received information on TSE and 17.7 % have performed the practice of TSE before; only one in a forth (n=21) performed monthly. The reason for not doing TSE was mostly (83.4%) "not having knowledge" and "not seen as important" (55.7%). Conclusions: Adding the education on TC, risk factors and TSE into their curriculum is proposed.
Pretreatment Levels of Serum Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor do not Correlate with Outcome in Patients with Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer
Katanyoo, Kanyarat ; Chantarasri, Amnat ; Chongtanakon, Marisa ; Rongsriyam, Kanisa ; Tantivatana, Thanatip ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 699~702
Objective: To evaluate pretreatment levels of serum VEGF in locally advanced cervical cancer patients, and assess any association with clinocopathological parameters and response to radiotherapy. Methods: Patients with histologically proven and diagnosed locally advanced cervical cancer or stages IIB-IVA were included in this study. Blood serum was obtained by peripheral venous puncture about 24 hours before the beginning of radiotherapy. All patients were followed up at one and three month intervals from the last day of the complete treatment for evaluating the responses to radiotherapy. Results: Mean age of the 40 patients was
years. Sixty percent were in stage IIB and 90% had squamous cell carcinoma. The median pretreatment level of serum VEGF was 611.3 pg/ml (0.00-4,067.20 pg/ml). The pretreatment levels of serum VEGF did not correlate with stage (p=0.75), tumor histology (p=0.91), tumor size (p=0.46) or tumor characteristics (p=0.49). Almost all patients received concurrent chemoradiation as a curative treatment, with a complete response found in 94.9%. Values for patients who were completed response was rather lower than patients with persistent disease, but without statistical significance (581.4 pg/ml vs 759.6 pg/ml, p=0.37). Conclusion: Pretreatment levels of serum VEGF do not correlate with clinicopathological factors or response to radiation therapy.
Incidence and Current Trends of Colorectal Malignancies in an Unscreened, Low Risk Population
Bhurgri, Yasmin ; Khan, Taha ; Kayani, Naila ; Ahmad, Rashida ; Usman, Ahmed ; Bhurgri, Asif ; Bashir, Imtiaz ; Hasan, Sheema H ; Zaidi, SMH ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 703~708
Introduction: Karachi falls into a low risk region for colorectal (CRC). The incidence rate is known but detailed epidemiology and pathology data regarding the disease are not available. The aim of this study is to describe CRC with reference to incidence, gender; topographic sub-site, tumor morphology, grade and stage at diagnosis and to determine the trends of incidence. Materials and Methods: Four hundred and seventy three cases of colorectal cancer submitted to the Karachi Cancer Registry for Karachi South, years 1995-2002 were reviewed. Cases were analyzed in two time periods (1995-7 and 1998-2002) to facilitate the study of time trends. Results: A total of 151 CRC cases were registered during period one [86 (57%) males; 65 (43%) females] and 322 cases [210 (65%) males; 112 (35%) females] in period two. Age standardized rate (ASR) world per 100,000, crude incidence rate (CIR) and relative frequency in period one were 5.3, 3.2 and 4.1% in males and 5.5, 3.2 and 3.2% in females respectively. Corresponding figures for period two were 7.1, 4.5 and 4.7% for males and 5.2, 2.8 and 2.7% in females. The male, female ratio was equal for colon (1:1). Men had more rectal cancers (2:1) and overall CRC (1.7:1). The mean age of the patients varied with sub-site and gender from 43.7 years to 51.2 years. Cancers of the rectum presented at a relatively earlier age. Less then 5% of the cases were diagnosed in adolescents, 50% above 50 years of age and only 30% above 60 years. The ratio under-40 to above-40 for CRC patients was 0.3, which is much higher than the international average, indicating a younger age group at risk. The first cases were observed in adolescents (15-19 years) and a peak was observed in the seventh decade. Colon to rectum ratio was 1:1 in males and 2:1 in females. Most cases presented with advanced disease, though some down staging was observed in period 2 (1998-2002). Conclusion: The current low but increasing incidence (especially in men), the younger age and advanced stage of CRC at diagnosis reflects a low risk, unscreened population. With existing prevalence of high risk factors in Pakistan, the low CRC incidence may be an artifact. There are concerns that an aging population over the next decade and changing lifestyle patterns may translate into a higher CRC incidence. Screening must be considered as part of the health sector planning for the future and include the high risk younger age groups.
Younger Women are Affected by Breast Cancer in South India - A Hospital-based Descriptive Study
Chauhan, Aman ; Subba, SH ; Menezes, Ritesh G ; Shetty, B Suresh Kumar ; Thakur, Vikrant ; Chabra, Sarabjeet ; Warrier, Raj ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 709~711
Introduction: Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world among women and its effective control depends upon sufficient knowledge about its epidemiology at the regional as well as global levels. Materials and methods: A record based descriptive study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital situated in coastal Karnataka in South India. Cases included were all histopathologically diagnosed cases of breast cancer not otherwise specified among females that were treated in the hospital in the 3 years period of 2005-2007. A total of 112 cases were found and their data retrieved and analyzed using SPSS. Results: Mean age of the subjects was 45 years (SD=10.4) (range 23 -70). Age distribution showed two peaks at 35-39 years and 50-54 years. Some 12 (11%) patients had a previous history of breast cancer and 9 (8%) had a family history. Among the patients who had history of breast cancer in the past, 61.5% were during the pre-menopausal age. Conclusion: The age affected by breast cancer was lower than usually seen in other parts of the world and there was more of premenopausal occurrence which has implications on their own and their relatives' chances of acquiring breast cancer later. The findings show that breast cancer control efforts and recommendations in different parts of the world have to be tailored to the regional epidemiological patterns.
Cytogenetic Biomonitoring of Road Paving Workers Occupationally Exposed to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Sellappa, Sudha ; Mani, Bhuvaneswari ; Keyan, Kripa S ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 713~717
Road pavement workers are exposed to many known carcinogens in their complex occupational environment. The study makes an attempt to investigate exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the bitumen fumes among the road pavement workers engaged in different pavement sites at Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu and to thereby determine the genotoxic effects associated with it. The study included 36 road pavers and 37control subjects with similar mean ages, smoking prevalence and alcohol consumption and was analyzed for DNA damage in blood leucocytes by Micronucleus assay (MN) and the Comet assay. The mean urinary 1-OHP concentration in road pavers (
) was significantly higher than in controls (
). The results of MN test and comet assay showed that the mean micronuclei rate in workers was significantly higher than those in controls (P <0.05). The results of our study indicated that the genetic damage was detectable in road paving workers occupationally exposed to bitumen and also demonstrate the high sensitivity of comet assay to assess early oxidative effects induced by exposure to bitumen fumes at low doses and confirm the suitability of urinary 1-OHP as a biomarker of PAH exposure.
Impact of Triple Negative Phenotype on Prognosis and Early Onset of Breast Cancer in Iranian Females
Salami, Siamak ; Ramezani, Fatemeh ; Aghazadeh, Toofan ; Afshin-Alavi, Hossein ; Ilkhanizadeh, Behrouz ; Maleki, Davood ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 719~724
Background: Breast cancer in Iranian women occurs about a decade earlier than in Western countries. This study sought to evaluate the impact of triple negative phenotype on early onset of ductal cell breast cancer and its prognosis in Iranian females. Methods: Estrogen and progesterone receptors, Her-2 overexpression and nuclear accumulation of P53 were assessed in sixty surgically resected formalin-fixed paraffin embedded breast invasive ductal carcinomas. They were divided into triple negative and non triple negative phenotypes and impact of the phenotypes were evaluated on prognostic factors of all patients and based on menopausal status. Results: The result showed that the mean age of patients with triple negative breast tumors, especially in postmenopausal group, was significantly lower than with non triple negative phenotypes. Although the latter was significantly associated with higher histological grade, it also showed a significant correlation with smaller size of tumor and a lower rate of axillary lymph node metastasis in young patients. Conclusion: The higher rate of breast cancer with triple negative phenotype in Iranian females is a feasible reason for the reported lower mean age of breast cancers. In premenopausal patients, triple negative phenotype reveals a positive impact on prognostic factors, but it is associated with a poorer prognosis in postmenopausal patients. Hence, a distinct ethnic profile of triple negative phenotype in Iranian females is suggested.
Overview of the National Cancer Screening Programme and the Cancer Screening Status in Korea
Kim, Yeonju ; Jun, Jae Kwan ; Choi, Kui Son ; Lee, Hoo-Yeon ; Park, Eun-Cheol ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 725~730
Organised cancer screening in Korea began in 1999. Operating system has been stabilised, target population have expanded and participation rate has been increased throughout its ten years. Here we present an overview of the organised cancer screening system in Korea and introduce the National Cancer Screening Programme including results from 2002 to 2008. Furthermore, we present the results of the Korea National Cancer Screening Survey, a survey that is representative of the population, from 2004 to 2009. Finally, we discuss our achievements and the future challenges.
Associations of Polymorphisms in HPC2/ELAC2 and SRD5A2 Genes with Benign Prostate Hyperplasia in Turkish Men
Izmirli, Muzeyyen ; Arikan, Burhan ; Bayazit, Yildirim ; Alptekin, Davut ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 731~733
Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common benign tumor in elderly men for which the HPC2/ELAC2 and SRD5A2 genes are known genetic factors. The HPC2/ELAC2 gene features Ser217Leu and Ala541Thr polymorphisms and the SRD5A2 gene Ala49Thr and Val89Leu polymorphisms. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between these polymorphisms and BPH in Turkish men using amplification by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Polymorphisms were determined by using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) with suitable restriction:
, Fnu4HI, Mwo I and Rsa I. We found statistically significant relationship between the SRD5A2 gene Ala49Thr (OR=2.3; CI 95%, 1.04-5.1; p=0.01<0.05) , but not the other polymorphisms, and BPH. For the first time, our data demonstrate that correlation between SRD5A2 gene Ala49Thr and polymorphism are statistically significant in Turkish men with BPH.
Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma- An Update of Treatment and Acute Radiation Induced Reactions from a Tertiary-Care Hospital in Pakistan
Abbasi, Ahmed Nadeem ; Zahid, Sumaiya ; Bhurgri, Yasmin ; Ali, Nasir ; Karsan, Farrok ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 735~738
Introduction: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a diverse entity with a multi-factorial etiology and a distinct racial and geographical distribution. It is curable if diagnosed and treated early. Methods: This descriptive study covered 30 patients who underwent radiotherapy (RT) for nasopharyngeal malignancies during February 2006 till November 2010 at the Department of Radiation Oncology, Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH), Karachi. Results: Thirty cases of nasopharyngeal tumors were registered; a case of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma and another of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma were not included in the final analyses. There were 20 (71.0%) males and 8 (29.0%) females, 2 and 5 being observed in adolescents. The mean age of the male and female patients was 43.7 [SD 20.1] and 30.3 years [SD 17.9], respectively. Nodal involvement was seen in 23 cases and cranial in 8. Almost two-thirds the patients presented with a stage IV disease and all but two received chemotherapy. Electrons or photons were used for 23 cases; low anterior neck field was used in 25 cases. The doses of radiotherapy delivered ranged between 2000cGy to 7400cGy, the lower ones being given for palliation only. Once spinal cord tolerance was reached, electron boost fields were used in order to treat the posterior neck. A nasogastric tube was required for feeding in 2 (10.0%) male and 2 (25.0%) female patients; gastrostomy was needed for 1 (5.0%) patient. Radiotherapy (RT) induced reactions were observed in 90% of the patients, but were mild in most cases. Conclusions: In the presence of clinician based expertise and technical constraints in Pakistan, nasopharyngeal tumors are still being treated optimally with the need of creating a better awareness in public for early detection.
Lack of any Relationship between Chemotherapy Toxicity in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Cases and Polymorphisms in XRCC1 Codon 399 or XPD Codon 751
Li, Yan ; Huang, Xin-En ; Jin, Guang-Fu ; Shen, Hong-Bin ; Xu, Lin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 739~742
Purpose: To examine the association between genetic polymorphisms (at XRCC1codon 399 or XPD codon 751) and chemotherapy related toxicities of non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: One hundred and fifteen patients with histologically or cytologically confirmed stage IIIB and IV NSCLC recruited from Department of Chemotherapy of Jiangsu Cancer Hospital and Research Institute from 2005 to 2008, to evaluated the occurrence of chemotherapy related toxicities and the association with single nucleotide polymorphisms in XRCC1codon 399 or XPD codon 751. Results: No significant association was observed between grade 0 or grade 1-4 overall toxicity and XRCC1 codon 399 (odds ratio=1.40, 95% confidence interval,0.73-2.66; adjusted odds ratio =1.43, 95% confidence interval,0.71-2.88), or XPD codon 751 genetic polymorphisms (odds ratio =0.87, 95% confidence interval,0.33-2.26; adjusted odds ratio=0.74, 95% confidence interval,0.26-2.13); similar results were found between hematologic, hepatic, gastrointestinal toxicities and XRCC1 399 or XPD 751 genetic polymorphisms. Conclusion: No statistically significant association was found between either XRCC1codon 399 or XPD codon 751 genetic polymorphisms and chemotherapy related toxicities.
Weight Gain and Family History of Prostate or Breast Cancers as Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer: Results of a Case-control Study in Japan
Mori, Mitsuru ; Masumori, Naoya ; Fukuta, Fumimasa ; Nagata, Yoshie ; Sonoda, Tomoko ; Miyanaga, Naoto ; Akaza, Hideyuki ; Tsukamoto, Taiji ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 743~747
The increase in the incidence rate of prostate cancer may be associated with changes in lifestyle in Japanese men. Accordingly, we conducted a case-control study to assess risk factors. A total of 117 (82.3%) of the 142 prostate cancer patients asked filled out the self-administrated questionnaires which included items about their lifestyle habits over the period of one or two years before their diagnosis. Four controls per case, namely 468, were randomly selected from resident registries with age and address matched with each case, and 318 controls (69.5%) filled out the same questionnaire as the cases. Data for 277 controls were used for the analysis, excluding 41 subjects with a history of previous cancer. The conditional logistic regression model was utilized for analyzing the individually age and address-matched data, and odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated for potential risk factors. Higher body mass index at 20 years of age was marginally significantly associated with a decreased risk (P for trend=0.051), and larger weight gain in adult age was significantly associated with an increased risk (P for trend=0.041). History of prostate cancer in fathers or brothers was significantly associated with an increased risk (OR=9.71, 95%CI 3.59, 26.27), and history of breast cancer in mothers or sisters was also significantly associated with an increased risk (OR=2.70, 95%CI 1.12, 6.49). The recent increase in the incidence rate of prostate cancer may possibly be brought about by an increased proportion of Japanese men with large weight gain in adult age.
Human Papillomavirus Testing for Suspected Cervical Cancer Patients from Southern Assam by Fast-PCR
Ghosh, SK ; Choudhury, B ; Hansa, J ; Mondal, R ; Singh, M ; Duttagupta, S ; Das, A ; Kumar, R ; Laskar, R S ; Kannan, R ; Ghosh, P R ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 749~751
World-wide epidemiological studies have shown that cancer of the uterine cervix is the second most common malignant disease in women. Virtually every cervical cancer (99.7%) is HPV-positive, indicating that the presence of HPV is an obligatory element in their development. The present study was conducted by Fast-PCR (within 15 min.) based diagnosis of HPV 16 and HPV 18 infection amongst patients of suspected cervical cancer, confirmed by cytological methods. Twelve women, out of a total of fifty studied cases who had positive cervical pap smears (24%) were found to be positive for HPV 16/HPV 18 infection when PCR based technique was applied. The results indicate, perhaps, a greater specificity of PCR based diagnosis, or presence of other HPV subtypes as etiological factors in the present study group confined to Southern Assam.
Dietary Patterns and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: a Factor Analysis in Uruguay
De Stefani, Eduardo ; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo ; Ronco, Alvaro L ; Correa, Pelayo ; Boffetta, Paolo ; Aune, Dagfinn ; Acosta, Gisele ; Mendilaharsu, Maria ; Luaces, Maria E ; Lando, Gabriel ; Silva, Cecilia ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 753~759
In the time period 1996-2004, a case-control study of colorectal cancer was conducted in Montevideo, Uruguay. The study included 610 cases and 1,220 controls, frequency matched for age, sex, and residence. All cases were newly diagnosed and microscopically confirmed and controls were drawn from the same hospitals. Controls were submitted to factor analysis (principal components method) and 4 dietary patterns for men (prudent, traditional, Western, drinker) and 3 for women (prudent, Western, drinker) were retained. These were rotated and normalized by the Kaiser method. Scores were applied to all participants (cases and controls) and odds ratios were estimated by logistic regression and polynomial regression. The Western pattern showed an OR of 2.62 (95 % CI 1.36-5.08) for colon cancer among men, and women displayed a similar increase in risk. However, rectal cancer was not associated with this diet, rather being inversely associated with the prudent and traditional patterns among men (OR 0.49, 95 % CI 0.28-0.57 for the traditional pattern). In conclusion, whereas the Western pattern was directly associated with colon cancer, the prudent pattern was strongly protective for rectal cancer.
Association between Alcohol Consumption and Colorectal Carcinogenesis: an Ecological Study in Korea
Cho, Young Ae ; Kim, Jeongseon ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 761~764
The sharp rise in the incidence rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) in Korea over the past decades may be partly attributed to increase in alcohol consumption. An ecological study was conducted in Korea to determine the association between alcohol consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer. We obtained the CRC incidence rates for the years 1999-2007 from the Korean Central Cancer Registry and the data on national alcohol consumption for the years 1998, 2001, 2005, and 2007 from the reports of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Pearson's correlation coefficients were determined using data for alcohol intake and CRC incidence rate. People who consumed more than 45 g alcohol/day were defined as heavy drinkers. A significant correlation between alcohol consumption and the CRC incidence rate was observed in men; Pearson's correlation coefficients were statistically significant for men (r = 0.99; P = 0.001), but not for women (r = 0.82; P = 0.180). In the <50-year age group, the age-specific incidence rate for men was comparable to that for women, but in the
-year age group, it increased rapidly in men. The increase in alcohol consumption appears to be attributable to increase in the number of heavy drinkers among men aged 25-59 years, particularly among men aged 45-49 years. Our findings may aid in predicting future CRC incidence in Korea.
Sun Protection Behavior and Individual Risk Factors of Turkish Primary School Students Associated with Skin Cancer: A Questionnaire-based Study
Ergul, Safak ; Emel, Ozeren ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 765~770
Aim: To determine the Turkish primary school students' sun protection behaviors and their individual risk factors associated with skin cancer. Methods: The sample of this descriptive study consisted of 6th-8th graders (11-14 age group) from a primary school in the western part of Turkey. A self-report questionnaire was administered. The response rate was 86.0 %. Results: The mean age of students was 12.8 years (SD =0.73). It was determined that the male students in the age group of 13-14 had more risks associated with skin cancer when compared to the female students in the same age group. In terms of the knowledge of the most dangerous hours of the sun and how to protect from their harmful effects, no significant difference was evident between females and males or across age groups. The average score of the students' frequency of use of sun protection methods is
out of 5. The most frequent methods used for sun protection were found to be seeking shade during periods of peak ultraviolet radiation and wearing light-colored clothing. The average frequency score for sun-protective behavior of the 11-12 age group was significantly high (p<0.05). Conclusion: It was determined that the students did not practise sun protection behavior frequently enough.
Detection of High-risk Human Papillomavirus Types 16 and 18 but not 33 and 52 in External Genital Warts from Iranian Females
Jaberipour, Mansooreh ; Momtahan, Mozhdeh ; Najib, Fatemehsadat ; Amooei, Sedigheh ; Saidifard, Farzaneh ; Ghaderi, Abbas ; Habibagahi, Mojtaba ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 771~774
Background: External genital warts (EGW) are relatively common sexually transmitted diseases. In the majority of cases, low-risk human papilomaviruses (HPV), such as HPV-6 and HPV-11, are responsible but, high-risk types may also be detected and this has a bearing on vaccines for cervical cancer prevention. In this study the incidence of the high-risk HPV types 16, 18, 33 and 52 in EGWs of females from the southwest of Iran was assessed. Methods: Seventy-nine women with EGWs participated in this study. Quantitative real-time PCR with gene specific primers and probes for the E6 gene of HPV-16, 18, 33 and 52, were used for the detection of HPV DNA in the tissue and blood samples. Results: Of the 79 tissue specimens, 13 (16.5%) were HPV positive, only genetic materials of HPV-16 and HPV-18 being detected, twelve patients (15.2%) were positive only for HPV-18 and the coexistence of HPV-16 and HPV-18 was shown in one patient. Only one plasma sample showed evidence of HPV-16 with very low viral load. Conclusion: Our data showed that high-risk HPV types can be found in the tissue specimens of EGW samples obtained from female patients in the Southwest of Iran, with HPV-18 as the most abundant type; however, additional studies with a larger population are required to prove the finding and help to determine the most appropriate type of virus for vaccine design for Iranian women.
Ubiquitin-specific Protease 14 Expression Associated with Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Cell Differentiation
Chuensumran, Ubol ; Saelee, Pensri ; Punyarit, Phaibul ; Wongkham, Sopit ; Pairojkul, Chawalit ; Chauin, Siri ; Petmitr, Songsak ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 775~779
The purpose of this study was to identify the gene alterations amplified from AO16 primer and examine whether the expression patterns of USP14 in clinical specimens from patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is associated with cancer cells. DNA from tumor and corresponding normal tissues of 52 patients was amplified with 33 arbitrary primers. The DNA fragment that altered most frequently in ICC was cloned, sequenced, and identified by comparison with known nucleotide sequences in the genome database. The DNA copy numbers of the allelic alterations in cholangiocarcinoma were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and interpreted as allelic loss or DNA amplification by comparison with the reference gene. Associations between allelic imbalance and clinicopathological parameters of ICC patients were evaluated by
-tests. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze survival rates. Immunohistochemically, USP14 showed weak cytoplasmic staining in normal bile duct epithelial cells. It was strongly detected in 21 cancer patients (43.8%). There were correlations between USP14 expression level and the clinicopathological features of ICC, histological grade (P < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in age, gender, tumor size, metastasis, lymph node metastasis, and staging. USP14 expression was related to cholangiocarcinoma cell differentiation. Due to their emerging role in control of multiple signaling pathways and oncoproteins, USP14 inhibitors may be useful for anticancer agents.
Life-style and Genital Human Papillomavirus in a Cross-Sectional Survey in Shanxi Province, China
Zou, Lily ; Bao, Yan-Ping ; Li, Ni ; Dai, Min ; Ma, Cong-Ping ; Zhang, Yong-Zhen ; Liu, Xin-Fu ; Feinleib, Manning ; Qiao, You-Lin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 781~786
Background: To determine the age-stratified HPV prevalence rate and the risk factors of life-style associated with HPV infection among women in rural China. Methods: An age-stratified, cross-sectional survey of 941 women between 16-59 years old was conducted in rural China. Carcinogenic HPV infection was determined using Digene's Hybrid Capture II HPV DNA test and interviews of life-style were conducted. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) from the logistic regression models were used to determine the risk factors associated with HPV. Results: Among 941 women, 745 who had sexual intercourse underwent a cervical examination. The prevalence rate of 13 carcinogenic HPV infections among women 20-59 years old was 15.97%. the rate of HPV prevalence in the 25-34 age group was statistically lower than that in 20-24 and 35-59 age groups (
=13.3, P=0.0013). The OR of bathing every 7-19 days, 20-180 days, less than once every 180 days vs. bathing at least once a week were 1.19, 1.83 and 2.29 respectively and they had a dose-response relationship (Trend Test: P=0.003). The OR of women aged 25-34 age group vs. 20-24 age group was 0.40 (0.16 - 0.97) and the OR of bathing once every 180 days or less vs. at least once weekly was 2.22 (1.14 - 4.33) adjusted for the other confounding factors,. Conclusions: The HPV prevalence rate was lowest among child bearing women aged 25-34 year. Also, personal hygiene is significantly associated with the HPV infection in this area, regardless of age.
Physiological, Reproductive Factors and Breast Cancer Risk in Jiangsu Province of China
Liu, Yan-Ting ; Gao, Chang-Ming ; Ding, Jian-Hua ; Li, Su-Ping ; Cao, Hai-Xia ; Wu, Jian-Zhong ; Tang, Jin-Hai ; Qian, Yun ; Tajima, Kazuo ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 787~790
To evaluate the relationship between physiological, reproductive factors and risk of breast cancer, we conducted a case-control study with 669 cases and 682 population-based controls in Jiangsu Province of China. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit detailed information. All subjects completed an in-person interview. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) as measures of risk for breast cancer. The results have revealed that there was an increasing risk of breast cancer, include early age at menarche(
year), late age at menopause(>50 year) and older age at first pregnancy (
year). Breastfeeding was associated significantly with a reduced risk of breast cancer. Women who had history of breastfeeding were at significantly decreased OR (0.44, 95%CI: 0.27-0.73). The protective effects of breastfeeding for breast cancer seemed greater for women who had extended duration of breastfeeding during their lifetime (p for linear trend: 0.0095). These results suggested that physiological and reproductive factors may play important roles in the development of breast cancer among Jiangsu' women of China.
SLIT2 is Epigenetically Silenced in Ovarian Cancers and Suppresses Growth when Activated
Qiu, Haifeng ; Zhu, Jiezhi ; Yu, Jinjin ; Pu, Hong ; Dong, Ruofan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 791~795
Objectives: The SLIT2 gene is a novel tumor suppressor gene, whose hypermethylation has been detected in several malignances, including breast cancer, colorectal carcinoma and gliomas. In this study, we assessed the status of SLIT2 and its functions in ovarian cancers and cell lines. Methods: Methylation-specific PCR was used to investigate the methylated promoter of SLIT2; the functions of SLIT2 in ovarian cancer cells were measured by MTT, colony formation assay and flow cytometry. Results: SLIT2 promoter hypermethylation was detected in 56 of 66 (84.8%) ovarian cancer samples and downregulation of SLIT2 expression in 52 (78.8%). The decreased expression was significantly correlated with SLIT2 promoter hypermethylation (p<0.01). Moreover, reversed expression of SLIT2 suppressed cell growth, migration, colony formation abilities and induced more apoptosis. Conclusions: These results suggest that SLIT2 is a tumor suppressor in ovarian cancer, and may be a novel target for ovarian cancer treatment.
Informational Needs of Breast Cancer Patients on Chemotherapy: Differences between Patients' and Nurses' Perceptions
Lei, Chui Ping ; Har, Yip Cheng ; Abdullah, Khatijah Lim ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 797~802
Background: Cancer and chemotherapy are sources of anxiety and worry for cancer patients. Information provision is therefore very important to empower them to overcome and adjust to the stressful experience. Thus, nurses should be aware of the informational needs of the patients throughout the course of their care. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to identify the important information required by breast cancer patients during the first and fourth cycles of chemotherapy from both the patients' and nurses' perceptions. Methodology: This is a longitudinal study used a questionnaire adapted from the Toronto Informational Needs Questionnaires-Breast Cancer (TINQ-BC). Some modifications were made to meet the specific objectives of the study. The study was conducted in the Chemotherapy Day Care at the University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Malaysia. A total of 169 breast cancer patients who met the inclusion criteria, and 39 nurses who were involved in their care were recruited into the study. Results: The overall mean scores at first and fourth cycle of chemotherapy were 3.91 and 3.85 respectively: i.e., between 3 (or important) and 4 (or very important), which indicated a high level of informational needs. There was no significant difference in information needed by the breast cancer patients between the two cycles of chemotherapy (p=0.402). The most important information was from the subscale of disease, followed closely by treatment, physical care, investigative tests and psychosocial needs. Nurses had different views on the important information needed by breast cancer patients at both time points (p = 0.023). Conclusions: Breast cancer patients on chemotherapy have high levels of informational needs with no significant differences in information needed at first cycle as opposed to fourth cycle. There were differences between the perceptions of the breast cancer patients and the nurses on important information needed. A paradigm shift, with an emphasis on patients as the central focus, is needed to enhance the information giving sessions conducted by nurses based on the perceptions of the patients themselves.
A C to T polymorphism of Urokinase Plasminogen Activator (P141L) is Associated with Helicobacter pylori Infection
Goto, Yasuyuki ; Hagikura, Shoichi ; Katsuda, Nobuyuki ; Hamajima, Nobuyuki ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 803~806
Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) plays an important role in tumor invasion and certain inflammatory diseases. However, few studies have paid attention to how the uPA is associated with Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric atrophy. This study investigated associations of a C-to-T polymorphism of uPA (P141L, rs2227564) in exon 6 in 454 Japanese health checkup examinees (126 males and 328 females) aged 35 to 85 without a history of cancer. The uPA was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction with two-pair primers. The genotype distribution was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p=0.52) and the frequency of the T allele was 0.239. The risk of H. pylori sero-positivity was significantly reduced with the T/T genotype; the odds ratio (OR) relative to the C/C genotype was 0.34 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.14 to 0.86). Of the sero-negative subjects, 21 with atrophy were infected with H. pylori but lost their sero-positivity. After reclassifying them together with the sero-positive subjects, the corresponding OR was 0.40 (95% CI: 0.16 to 1.00), confirming that the T/T genotype decreased the risk of H. pylori infection. This gene polymorphism was not associated with the risk of gastric atrophy. In conclusion, this study indicated a possibility that the uPA minor homozygous genotype was associated with a reduction of H. pylori infection risk. Further studies are required to confirm these findings.
Treatment of Cervical Carcinoma with High-Dose Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy: Two Years Follow-Up Study
Das, Diptimay ; Chaudhuri, Snehamay ; Deb, Asit Ranjan ; Aich, Ranen Kanti ; Gangopadhyay, Subir ; Ray, Amitava ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 807~810
Aims: This study focused on pelvic recurrence rate and late complications following treatment with high dose rate brachytherapy with a three fractionation scheme. Setting and design: This retrospective observational study was conducted from 1st November 2003 to 31st March 2005 at a tertiary care centre. Methods and materials: Women were treated with external beam radiotherapy and three fractions of high dose rate brachytherapy, divided into two broad groups IIB+ IIIA and IIIB+IVA. Duration of follow-up was 2 years and main outcome measures were recurrence and rectal and urinary bladder complications. Results were assessed with the Chi square test and P-values using an alpha level of 0.05 for Type I error. Results: Of the total of 286 women, 72 (25.4%) developed central-regional recurrence. Overall two year pelvic control rate was 74.6%, with values of 78.1% and 72.8% for stages IIB+ IIIA, IIIB+IVA, respectively. Five women developed distant metastasis and 21.5% suffered low grade rectal complications. After two years the prevalence of bladder complications was only 5.4%. Conclusion: Using a three fraction scheme, high dose rate brachytherapy is safe and effective in the management of cervix cancer.
Predictors of Smoking Cessation among Staff in Public Universities in Klang Valley, Malaysia
Yasin, Siti Munira ; Masilamani, Retneswari ; Ming, Moy Foong ; Koh, David ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 811~816
Smoking cessation studies are often performed in clinic based settings. The present example aimed to find predictors of success among staff in worksite smoking cessation programmes in two major public universities in Klang Valley, Malaysia. All staff from both universities received an open invitation via staff e-mail and letters to participate. At the start of treatment, participants were administered the Rhode Island Stress and Coping Questionnaire and Family Support Redding's Questionnaire. Behaviour therapy with free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) were given as treatment. After two months, they were contacted to determine their smoking status. 185 staff from University A (n=138) and University B (n=47), responded and voluntarily showed interest to quit. There was no significant difference in respondents with respect to socio demographic characteristics and smoking history. After two months of treatment, quit rates were 24% in University A vs. 38 % in University B (p>0.05). Univariate predictors of cessation were adherence to NRT (p<0.001), smoking fewer cigarettes per day (p<0.05) and the number of behaviour therapy sessions attended (p<0.001). Logistic regression identified 3 significant predictors of smoking cessation. Participants attending more than one session (OR= 27.00; 95% CI : 6.50; 111.6), and having higher pre-treatment general stress (OR= 2.15; 95% CI: 1.14; 4.05) were more likely to quit, while a higher number of cigarettes smoked (OR= 0.19: 95% CI: 0.06; 0.59) reduced the likelihood of quitting. Increasing age, ability to cope with stress and family support were not significant predictors. We conclude that factors such as the number of counseling sessions, the amount of cigarettes smoked at baseline, adherence to NRT and pretreatment stress are important considerations for success in a worksite smoking cessation programme.
Risk of Breast Cancer, Health Beliefs and Screening Behaviour among Turkish Academic Women and Housewives
Yilmaz, Meryem ; Guler, Gungor ; Bekar, Mine ; Guler, Nuran ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 817~822
Background: Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most common forms of epithelial neoplasms type of cancer affecting women worldwide. The main objective of this study was to examine health beliefs, screening behavior and risk for developing BC in academic women and housewives in Turkey. Methods: In this cross-sectional, descriptive study, a sample of 415 women were surveyed, composed of 166 academics and 249 housewives between the ages of 20-65 years. Results: Risk of developing breast cancer, both five-year and lifetime, was higher in academic women than in housewives (P <0.001). The frequency of BSE, CBE and mammography was higher in academic women than housewives. For academic women, perceptions related to benefit, self-efficacy, health motivation were significantly higher than housewives (t= 3.726, P <0.001; t=8.165, P <0.001, t=2.326; P <0.021, respectively). Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that the risk for developing BC in academic women is higher than for housewives. Although academic women had more screening performance for early diagnosis of BC, it was still lower than 50%, below the desired level. Education programs should be aimed at increasing women's BC screening behaviors and the positively affect beliefs.
Knowledge about Human Papillomavirus Infection and Cervical Cancer Prevention among Nurses in Chiang Mai University Hospital, Thailand
Phianmongkhol, Yupin ; Suwan, Nuttawan ; Srisomboon, Jatupol ; Kietpeerakool, Chumnan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 823~825
This study was undertaken to evaluate knowledge about HPV infection and cervical cancer among nurses in Chiang Mai University Hospital, Thailand. The 16 questions evaluating knowledge were "true/false/do not know" type. Two hundred and twenty nurses agreed to participate in this survey. Most knew that cervical cancer is the most common female cancer in Thailand (92.7%), HPV infection is a causal factor of cervical cancer (81.8%), early stage cervical cancer is curable (94.1%), and an adequate scale of cervical screening could prevent morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer (86.8%). The majority of participants (more than 70%) correctly acknowledged risk factors for cervical cancer as smoking, having multiple sexual partners, and sex at an early age. However, the majority of participants did not know that HPV infection and early stage cervical cancer are commonly asymptomatic. In conclusion, knowledge regarding cervical cancer among nursing staff in the author's institute is considerably favorable. However, their understanding about the natural history of HPV infection and cervical cancer is suboptimal, and requires further attention if an effective cervical cancer screening program is to be implemented.
Management of Breast Lesions by Breast Physicians in a Heavily Populated South Asian Developing Country
Badar, F ; Faruqui, ZS ; Uddin, N ; Trevan, EA ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 3, 2011, Pages 827~832
Background: In Asia, from 1998 to 2002, the highest annual-age standardized incidence rates of breast cancer per 100,000 women were recorded as follows: in the Karachi South district of Pakistan 69.0 and in the Israeli Jews 96.8. At Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Center in Lahore, Pakistan, in 15-years from Dec. 1995-Dec. 2009, among adult females, approximately 46% (8,915) of malignancies were recorded as breast tumors. Further, according to Pakistan's population estimates (2009), the total population of the country is 177 million; females 85 million (40-69 years: 13.6 million). Discussion: Screening of asymptomatic women: Basing the recommendations on biennial mammograhic screening for average-risk women in the 40-69 year age-band, about 6.8 million women will have to be screened every year. In a resource-constrained country like Pakistan, early detection by this method is not possible. As most symptomatic women present with advanced disease, clinicians skilled in breast diseases are required. The Australasian Society of Breast Physicians has developed a formal three year training model for General Practitioners to qualify as breast physicians by: i) developing their skills in the areas of clinical breast-examination, interpretation of mammography and breast ultrasound; performance of image-guided interventional procedures; counseling of and planning/coordinating treatment of females with breast cancer and assessment/monitoring of women at potentially 'high-risk' of cancer; and ii) working in consultation with surgeons, radiologists, pathologists, oncologists, and other members of the multidisciplinary team. Summary: Easily accessible one-stop breast clinics staffed by trained breast physicians can help reduce morbidity/mortality from breast cancer in developing countries, and improve the quality of life and survival.