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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevetion
Editor in Chief :
Malcolm A Moore
Volume & Issues
Volume 12, Issue 12 - Dec 2011
Volume 12, Issue 11 - Nov 2011
Volume 12, Issue 10 - Oct 2011
Volume 12, Issue 9 - Sep 2011
Volume 12, Issue 8 - Aug 2011
Volume 12, Issue 7 - Jul 2011
Volume 12, Issue 6 - Jun 2011
Volume 12, Issue 5 - May 2011
Volume 12, Issue 4 - Apr 2011
Volume 12, Issue 3 - Mar 2011
Volume 12, Issue 2 - Feb 2011
Volume 12, Issue 1 - Jan 2011
Selecting the target year
MicroRNAs might be Promising Biomarkers of Human Gliomas
Wang, Hui ; Yuan, Xianhou ; Zhou, Zhangming ; Hu, Juntao ; Zhang, Tao ; Hu, Shengli ; Luo, Jie ; Li, Xinjian ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 833~835
Recently, altered expression levels of several microRNAs have been observed in gliomas, the most frequent primary brain tumor in adults. To review whether microRNAs might be promising biomarkers of human gliomas, we comprehensively searched the Cochrane Library, Medline and EMbase from 1966 to 2010 with the language limitation of English. We found that further understanding of the functions of miRNAs in specific cellular events is needed; the continuous technological advances in accurate and cost-effective miRNAs detection provide the prospect of a very promising role for miRNAs as novel diagnostic biomarkers of gliomas.
Taxanes: Promising Anti-Cancer Drugs
Fauzee, Nilufer Jasmine Selimah ; Dong, Zhi ; Wang, Ya-Lan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 837~851
Taxanes are amongst the most promising antitumor agents available at hand today, of increasing importance in Asia given that cancer is now one of the major public health problems which needs to be dealt urgently for the benefit of affected patients. Several ongoing experimental and clinical trials have supported the fact that even with their side effects and poor solubilities, taxanes are still the first lines of treatment chosen for breast, ovary, lung and other metastatic cancers. Prolonging the life of cancer patients is the main aim of all researchers, scientists, pharmaceutical companies and clinicians; therefore this review emphasizes the mechanisms of action of taxanes and how they can play an important role in palliative treatment if not applied for curative purposes, hence being considered a boon for cancer management.
Human Papilloma Virus Prevalence, Genotype Distribution, and Pattern of Infection in Thai Women
Suthipintawong, Cheepsumon ; Siriaunkgul, Sumalee ; Tungsinmunkong, Kobkul ; Pientong, Chamsai ; Ekalaksananan, Tipaya ; Karalak, Anant ; Kleebkaow, Pilaiwan ; Vinyuvat, Songkhun ; Triratanachat, Surang ; Khunamornpong, Surapan ; Chongsuwanich, Tuenjai ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 853~856
Background: The pattern of infection in cervical lesions with respect to HPV subtype has not been systematically studied in Thai women. The aim here was to determine HPV prevalence, genotype, and infection pattern in cervical lesions and to estimate the potential efficacy of an HPV prophylactic vaccine. Design: Formalinfixed paraffin-embedded cervical tissue blocks of 410 Thai patients from 8 institutes in 4 regions of Thailand (northern, southern, north-eastern, and central) were studied. The samples included 169 low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs), 121 high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs), and 120 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). HPV-DNA was amplified by PCR using consensus primers GP5+ and GP6+. The HPV genotype was then determined by reverse linear blot assay that included 37 HPV-specific 5'-amino-linked oligonucleotide probes. Patterns of infection were classified as single infection (one HPV type), double infection (two HPV types), and multiple infection (three or more HPV types). Results: The mean age of the subjects was 42 years. The prevalence of HPV infection was 88.8%. The highest HPV prevalence was found in the southern region (97.1%) and the lowest in the central region (78.6%). HPV-DNA was detected in 84.6% of LSILs, 90.1% of HSILs, and 93.3% of SCCs. A total of 20 HPV genotypes were identified. The five most common high risk HPV were HPV16 (83.2%), HPV18 (59.3%), HPV58 (9.3%), HPV52 (4.1%), and HPV45 (3.8%). In double and multiple infection patterns, the most common genotypes were HPV16/18 (27.8%) and HPV11/16/18 (54.9%). HPV6 was found only in LSIL and never in combination with other subtypes. HPV11 was most common in LSIL. Conclusion: There is no difference of HPV type distribution in women from 4 regions of Thailand with prominent HPV16 and HPV18 in all cases. The bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines have the potential to prevent 48.6 % and 74.5% of cervical cancers in Thai women. The potential of cancer prevention would rise to 87.6% if other frequent HR-HPV types (HPV58, 52, and 45) were also targeted by an HPV vaccine.
Synchronous Primary Cancers of the Female Reproductive Tract in Turkish Women
Eser, Sultan ; Gulhan, Ibrahim ; Ozdemir, Raziye ; Dicle, Nilgun ; Hanhan, Merih ; Baloglu, Ali ; Ozsaran, Aydin ; Saygili, Ugur ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 857~859
Objectives: To evaluate the synchronous gynecologic cancers in Turkish women. Materials and methods: A population-based longitudinal cohort study was conducted using Izmir Cancer Registry (ICR) data on gynecologic cancer patients diagnosed in the period 1993 to 2005. The registry covers the 3.7 million population of Izmir and has been collecting data on cancer incidence and survival of cancer patients' since 1992. The ICR collects data on all new cases of cancer from all the hospitals (n = 22) in the city. Results: A total of 4,185 women were identified with gynecologic cancer between 1993 and 2005, 1,526 with endometrial, 1,206 with cervical, 1,198 with ovarian, 115 with vulvar, 67 with other uterine ( sarcoma etc.), 33 with vaginal and 40 with other gynecologic cancers ( tuba uterina etc.). Fifty-five (1.3%) patients with invasive synchronous primary cancers were identified, 43 of these tumor pairs being endometrium-ovaries (81%), 66 of all lesions being endometrioid adenocarcinomas. Conclusions: Independent primary tumors of the endometrium and ovary are the most commonly encountered synchronous tumors of the female genital tractus with endometrioid adenocarcinoma as the most frequent component.
World Gynecologic Oncology Publications and the Turkish Contribution to the Literature between 2000 and 2007
Dursun, Polat ; Gultekin, Murat ; Ayhan, Ali ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 861~864
Aim: To investigate the number of publications and the contribution from top-ranking countries, institutions, and authors in 3 gynecologic oncology journals (Gynecologic Oncology [GO], International Journal of Gynecological Cancer [IJGC], and European Journal of Gynaecological Oncology [EJGO]),as well as the degree of Turkish contribution between 2000 and 2007. Method: Articles published between 2000 and 2007 in 3 gynecologic oncology journals indexed by the Science Citation Index were accessed via the ISI-Thomson website. Additionally, PubMed, Sciencedirect, and Blackwell-Synergy databases were used to identify the originating countries and institutions of the published articles. The types of articles, originating countries, and names of the institutions and authors were determined. Furthermore, the number of articles affiliated with Turkish institutions and the publication year were also determined. Results: We located 6,851 articles published in the 3 journals. During this period 36.1%, 7.7%, 7.2%, 5.8% and 4.8% of the papers originated from the USA, Japan, Italy, Turkey, and England, respectively. The 5 most productive institutions were the University of Texas, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, University of Alabama, and University of Athens. The 5 most productive authors were Markman (USA), Chi (USA), Ayhan (Turkey), Barakat (USA), and Vergote (Belgium), respectively. In all, 36.1% of the papers originated from the USA, while 44% originated from 17 European countries. The USA was the first-ranked country of origin in GO and IJGC, while Turkey was the first-ranked country of origin in EJGO. Overall, 399 (5.8%) papers originated from Turkish institutions. Conclusion: Most of the gynecologic oncology publications originated from the USA and Western European countries, where gynecologic oncology training is available and surgical and research traditions are well established. On the other hand, Turkish researchers made an important contribution to gynecologic oncology research during the selected period of time; publications originating from Turkey exceeded in number all European countries, except those originating from Italy.
An Upstream Estrogen Response Element Linked to Exogenous p53 Tumor Suppressor Gene Expression Differentiates Effects of the Codon 72 Polymorphism
Honda, Ken-Ichi ; Kajitani, Koji ; Nobeyama, Hiroyuki ; Kira, Yukimi ; Yabunaka, Yoriko ; Egami, Mika ; Zhi, Xu ; Fukuda, Takeshi ; Yoshida, Hiroyuki ; Matsumoto, Yoshinari ; Ichimura, Tomoyuki ; Yaui, Tomoyo ; Sumi, Toshiyuki ; Ishiko, Osamu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 865~868
The objective of this study was to assess the effects of an upstream estrogen response element (ERE) on exogenous p53 tumor suppressor gene with a codon 72 polymorphism about which there have been controversial reports in relation to cancer risk. The p53 gene (bases 166-1143 from start codon) with the codon 72 polymorphism, inserted into the pIRES-hrGFP II plasmid with or without upstream ERE, were transfected into HHUA endometrial cancer cells expressing the estrogen receptor. The ERE-linked p53 gene with the proline variant at codon 72 showed lower transfection rates than the gene without ERE or with the arginine variant at codon 72. p21 expression was significantly higher in HHUA cells transfected with the proline variant gene than in those transfected with the arginine variant gene. We consider that the presence of an upstream ERE promotes the transcriptional effects of the exogenous p53 gene with the proline variant, which strengthens the expression of p21, and results in lower transfection rates through cell cycle inhibition.
Audience Segmentation to Promote Lifestyle for Cancer Prevention in the Korean Community
Jo, Heui-Sug ; Jung, Su-Mi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 869~874
Objectives: This study was designed to segment the audience group of '10 lifestyle for cancer prevention' based on demographic characteristics and the level of knowledge about each guideline for cancer prevention among the community in South Korea. Methods: Participants were chosen through stratified random sampling according to the age and gender distribution of Gangwon province in South Korea. A telephone survey was conducted from 6 to 15 calls among 2,025 persons on October 2008. A total of 1,687 persons completed the survey (response rate: 83.3%). Survey items were composed of socio-demographic characteristics such as age, gender, income, education, and residence area and the knowledge level of '10 guidelines for cancer prevention', developed by 'Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare' and covering smoking cessation, appropriate drinking, condom use, and regular physical activity and so on. We selected the priority needed to promote awareness and segmented the audience group based on the demographic characteristics, homogeneous with respect to the knowledge level using Answer Tree 3.0 with CHAID as a data mining algorithm. Results: The results of analysis showed that each guideline of '10 lifestyle for cancer prevention' had its own segmented subgroup characterized by each demographic. Especially, residence area, - city or county, and ages were the first split on the perceived level of knowledge and these findings suggested that segmentation of audiences for targeting is needed to deliver more effective education of patients and community people. In developing the strategy for effective education, the method of social marketing using the decision tree analysis could be a useful and appropriate tool. Conclusion: The study findings demonstrate the potential value of using more sophisticated strategies of designing and providing health information based on audience segmentation.
An Alternative Approach to Study the Changes in the Cancer Pattern of Men in India (1988-2005)
Takiar, Ramnath ; Vijay, CR ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 875~878
Background: Changes in cancer pattern are often studied with regard to rank of leading sites, variation in age adjusted rates of sites over the time or with the help of time trends. However, these methods do not quantify the changes in relation to overall changes that occurred in the total cancer cases over the period of time. An alternative approach is therefore necessary, particularly to identify emerging new cancers. Methods: The cancer incidence data of various sites for men, over the periods 1988-90 and 2003-05 in India, for five urban registries namely Bangalore, Bhopal, Chennai, Delhi and Mumbai, functioning under the network of National Cancer Registry Programme (ICMR), formed the sources of data for the present analysis. Changes in incidence cases by various cancer sites for men are assessed by calculating the differences in incidence cases over the two period of time. Based on the contribution of each site to total change, the ten most leading sites are identified separately for each registry. The relative changes in the sites with time are taken to identify the most emerging new cancer cases over the period of time. Results: The pooled cancer cases for men among five urban registries increased from 30042 cases in 1988-90 to 46946 cases in 2003-05 registering an increase of about 55.8%. The lowest percentage of increase is observed in the registry of Mumbai (25.6%) and the maximum in Bhopal (96.4%). Based on the pooled figures of five urban registries, the lung cancer contributed the maximum % change (9.7%), followed by cancer of prostate (9.2%), mouth (7.5%), tongue (5.9%) and NHL (5.9%). Based on the pooled figures and the relative changes, the emerging new cancers are prostate (140%), liver (112%) and mouth (95%). The % change by sites and the emerging new cancers varied between the registries.
Comparison of Trends in Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Osaka, Japan, Using an Age-Period-Cohort Model
Ito, Yuri ; Ioka, Akiko ; Nakayama, Tomio ; Tsukuma, Hideaki ; Nakamura, Takashi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 879~888
Background. We aimed to estimate the effects of age, period and birth cohort on trends in cancer incidence and death for all sites and selected sites of cancer in Osaka using an age-period-cohort model. Methods. Cancer incidence data during 1968-2003 were obtained from the Osaka Cancer Registry, and cancer mortality with population data in Osaka during 1968-2007 were obtained from vital statistics departments. We estimated age, period and birth cohort effects for incidence and mortality using Nakamura's Bayesian Poisson age-period-cohort model. Results. For most sites of cancer, linear ageing effects were observed, the exceptions being breast and cervix which levelled-off at around 40 years old, while period effects were small. Decreasing cohort effects were observed in stomach and liver cancer. Cohort effects peaked at the generation born in the early 1950s for colorectal, lung, breast cancers. For most sites of cancer, incidence and mortality showed similar trends, but in the late cohorts for cervical cancer, cohort effects decreased in mortality, while increasing in incidence. Conclusion. Period effects reflecting immediate effects to cancer incidence and mortality, such as development of the effective treatment and screening programme were stable in most sites of cancer. Cohort effects influenced by long-term risk factors were prominently observed for every site, decrease in stomach and liver cancer cases being related to reduction in risk factor prevalence. Cancer control activities could be evaluated through the results, indicating utility for future cancer control planning.
Role of Human Papilloma Virus in Oral Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Elango, Kalavathy Jayapal ; Suresh, Amritha ; Erode, Elango Murugaian ; Subhadradevi, Lakshmi ; Ravindran, Hiran Kattilaparambil ; Iyer, Subramania Kulathu ; Iyer, Sundaram Karimassery Rama ; Kuriakose, Moni Abraham ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 889~896
Background: Human papilloma virus (HPV) is an important risk factor for head and neck cancer, specifically oropharyngeal cancer, but its association with oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is uncertain. The objectives were to determine the HPV16 prevalence in oral tongue SCCs, its integration status and to correlate the expression of oncogenic proteins with targets. Methods: In this case-control study with oral tongue SCC cases (n=60) and normal oral mucosa (n=46), HPV positivity was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using consensus and HPV 16 type specific primers and p16 immunohistochemistry (IHC). The viral integration status was determined with primers specific to the E2 gene and in situ hybridization (ISH). Immunohistochemical analysis of HPV oncogenic proteins (E6, E7) and their target proteins (p53, pRb, cyclinD1, p16, Notch-1, EGFR) proteins was carried out in HPV positive cases. The data was analyzed with SPSS software (v 11.0). Survival analysis was carried out by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: HPV16 was detected in 48% (n=29) of the cases and none of the controls by PCR assay (p<0.001) while p16 IHC, as a surrogate HPV marker, detected 33% (n=18) of the cases; 18% (n=10) were detected by both the methods. Integration was observed in 83% (n=24) by E2-PCR and 67% (n=18) by ISH. The E6-p53 pathway was active in 33% of the cases; E7-pRb in 52% and both in 11%. HPV positivity was associated with well-differentiated cancers (p=0.041) and low recurrence rate (p=0.014). Conclusion: Our study confirms a positive correlation of HPV infection with oral tongue cancer.
Is there any Association between Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Laryngeal Carcinoma?
Pirzadeh, Akbar ; Doustmohammadian, Najmeh ; Khoshbaten, Manochehr ; Doustmohammadion, Sorayya ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 897~900
Objective: To investigate the possible role of Helicobacter pylori as a cause of squamous cell carcinoma of larynx in a case-control study in an otolaryngology ward at an academic university. Subjects and Methods: A total of 65 patients with laryngeal cancer and 65 matched cancer-free controls underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy and biopsy of antral and body regions of the stomach for evaluation of Helicobacter pylori infection. Results:The proportion of subjects with a positive rapid urease test for gastric infection was similar between the two groups (49.2 % in cases vs. 40% in controls). However, a positive rapid urease test for body was less frequently seen in patients with laryngeal cancer whereas a positive rapid urease test for antrum was significantly higher (P=0.04). Conclusion: Our study failed to show Helicobacter pylori as one of the etiologies of laryngeal cancer. However, it supported the hypothesis that colonization of Helicobacter pylori only in the gastric body might have a protective effect against laryngeal cancer with decreasing gastric acid while antral Helicobacter pylori, increasing gastric acid due to G cell hyperplasia, may be a predisposing factor for laryngeal cancer, with acid reflux as a possible underlying etiology.
Multivariate Analysis of Prognostic Factors in Gastric Cancer Patients Using Additive Hazards Regression Models
Maroufizadeh, Saman ; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim ; Baghestani, Ahmad Reza ; Fatemi, Seyed Reza ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 901~907
Background and Objectives: Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide and is the most common type of cancer in Iran. The objective of this research was to apply additive hazards models to the study of survival of patients with gastric cancer and to compare with results obtained using the Cox model. Methods: We retrospectively studied 213 patients with gastric cancer who were registered in one referral cancer registry center in Tehran, Iran. Age at diagnosis, sex, presence of metastasis, tumor size, histology type, lymph node metastasis, and pathologic stages were entered into analysis using the Cox model and additive hazard models. To visualize a covariate effect over time, the estimated cumulative regression function by the Aalen's model was examined. Results: The five-year survival rate and the median life expectancy in the studied patients were 14.6% and 29.6 months, respectively. Multivariate Cox and Additive hazards models analysis identified age at diagnosis, tumor size and pathologic stage as independent prognostic factors for the survival of patients with gastric cancer. Moreover, pathologic stage had a late or delayed effect according to the Aalen's plot. Other clinicopathological characteristics were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Since Cox and Aalen models give different aspects of the association between risk factors and the study outcome, it seems desirable to use then together to give a more comprehensive understanding of data. Our results also suggest that early detection of patients at younger age and in primary stages is important to increase survival of patients with gastric cancer.
Preoperative Prediction of Neurovascular Bundle Involvement of Localized Prostate Cancer by Combined T2 and Diffusion-weighted Imaging of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Number of Positive Biopsy Cores, and Gleason Score
Naiki, Taku ; Okamura, Takehiko ; Nagata, Daisuke ; Mori, Yuji ; Kawai, Noriyasu ; Ogawa, Kumiko ; Akita, Hidetoshi ; Hashimoto, Yoshihiro ; Tozawa, Keiichi ; Kohri, Kenjiro ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 909~913
Because recovery of erectile function and avoidance of positive surgical margins are important but competing outcomes with prostate cancer therapy, the decision to preserve or resect a neurovascular bundle (NVB) during laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) should be firmly based on information concerning the presence and location of extracapsular extension. In the current retrospective study, the propriety of actual decisions was assessed using preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), combining T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), numbers of positive biopsy cores, tumor volume and the Gleason score. MRI before prostate biopsy was performed in 35 patients who underwent LRP for clinically localized prostate cancer. A single radiologist retrospectively assessed whether the tumor localization, capsular penetration, seminal vesicle invasion, NVB involvement, and MRI findings correlated with the postoperative histological results. With the postoperative specimens, 83 lesions demonstrated a Gleason score of 6 or more. Using T2WI with and without DWI and ADC, 39 and 27 of 54 lesions were correctly identified, respectively, the difference being significant. For cancers in the transitional zone, using a threshold Gleason score of 3 or greater, sensitivity was also significantly higher for T2+DWI+ADC than for T2WI alone. Of 35 patients, using all available clinical information (biopsy results including Gleason score, tumor location, percentage of positive biopsy cores, and the percentage of tumor-involved core tissue), we found that the preoperative and postoperative staging were concordant in 25 cases. There is no universal consensus for nerve-sparing LRP; therefore, we performed an additional analysis using simplified clinically defined selection criteria (PSA level >15ng/mL, cT2, less than two positive biopsy scores in the unilateral lobe and less than 30% tumor volume, and a Gleason score of 6). Using this criteria, we selected 12 of 35 patients, and the detection rate of NVB involvement by MRI combined T2WI + DWI + ADC maps was 100% in their 30 lesions, and therefore we consider it safe to perform nerve-sparing LRP using our criteria. Our findings suggest that NVB can be safely preserved in patients with low-grade tumors using simplified clinically defined selection criteria to determine margin involvement.
Psychometric Properties of the Malay Version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale: A Study of Husbands of Breast Cancer Patients in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Yusoff, Nasir ; Low, Wah Yun ; Yip, Cheng-Har ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 915~917
The main objective of this paper is to examine the psychometric properties of the Malay Version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), tested on 67 husbands of the women who were diagnosed with breast cancer. The eligible husbands were retrieved from the Clinical Oncology Clinic at three hospitals in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data was collected at three weeks and ten weeks following surgery for breast cancer of their wives. The psychometric properties of the HADS were reported based on Cronbach' alpha, Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC), Effect Size Index (ESI), sensitivity and discriminity of the scale. Internal consistency of the scale is excellent, with Cronbach's alpha of 0.88 for Anxiety subscale and 0.79 for Depression subscale. Test-retest Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) is 0.35 and 0.42 for Anxiety and Depression Subscale, respectively. Small mean differences were observed at test-retest measurement with ESI of 0.21 for Anxiety and 0.19 for Depression. Non-significant result was revealed for the discriminant validity (mastectomy vs lumpectomy). The Malay Version of the HADS is appropriate to measure the anxiety and depression among the husbands of the women with breast cancer in Malaysia.
Inadequate Knowledge Levels of Turkish Male University Students about Testicular Self-Examination
Ozbas, Ayfer ; Cavdar, Ikbal ; Findik, Ummu Yildiz ; Akyuz, Nuray ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 919~922
Introduction: Testicular cancer occurs in men aged between 15-35, accounting for 1% of all male cancers. The most common symptom is a painless swelling in the early period, so it is important for individuals to be conscious about and perform testicular self-examination. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and performance of testicular self-examination (TSE) in male university students. Methods: The target population of the study consisted of 275 male university students aged between 20-25. Data were collected using a 27 item-questionnaire developed by the investigators consisting of 3 sections: 1) socio-demographic characteristics; 2) risk factors for testicular cancer; 3) practices related to TSE. The data obtained were analyzed using frequency distribution and percentages. Results: 88% of the students (n=242) reported having no knowledge of TSE, whereas 36% (n=12) of the remaining 12% (n=33) reported having performed TSE. With regard to the reasons for non-performance, 88% (n=242) of the participants said they did not know about TSE, 6% (n=17) said they did not attach importance to TSE and 4% (n=11) were afraid. Conclusion: The results of our study demonstrated that adolescent males should be educated by nurses about testicular tumors and their symptoms as well as TSE performance.
Cervical Cancer Risk Levels in Turkey and Compliance to the National Cervical Cancer Screening Standard
Acikgoz, Ayla ; Ergor, Gul ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 923~927
Cervical cancer screening with Pap smear test is a cost-effective method. The Ministry of Health in Turkey recommends that it be performed once every five years after age 35. The purpose of this study was to determine the cervical cancer risk levels of women between 35 and 69, and the intervals they have the Pap smear test, and to investigate the relation between the two. This study was performed on 227 women aged between 35 and 69 living in Balçova District of
zmir province. Using the cervical cancer risk index program of Harvard School of Public Health, the cervical cancer risk level of 70% of the women was found below average, 22.1% average, and 7.9% above average. Only 52% of the women have had Pap smear test at least once in their lives. The percentage screening regularly in conformity with the national screening standard was 39.2%. Women in the 40-49 age group, were married, conformed significantly more (p<0.05) to the national screening standard. Compliance also increased with the level of education and decreased with the cervical cancer risk level (p<0.05). A logistic regression model was constructed including age, education level, menstruation state of the women and the economic level of the family. Not having the Pap smear test in conformity with the national cervical cancer screening standard in 35-39 age group was 2.52 times more than 40-49 age group, while it was 3.26 times more in 60-69 age group (p<0.05). Not having Pap smear test in 35-39 age group more than other groups might result from lack of information on the cervical cancer national screening standard and the necessity of having Pap smear test. As for 60-69 age group, the low education level might cause not having Pap smear test. Under these circumstances, the cervical cancer risk levels should be determined and the individuals should be informed. Providing Pap smear test screening service to individuals in the target group of national screening standard, as a public service may resolve the inequalities due to age and educational differences.
Expression of miR-143 Reduces Growth and Migration of Human Bladder Carcinoma Cells by Targeting Cyclooxygenase-2
Song, Tao ; Zhang, Xu ; Wang, Chunyang ; Wu, Yiguang ; Dong, Jun ; Gao, Jiangping ; Cai, Wei ; Hong, Baofa ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 929~933
Systemic chemotherapy is the only current modality that provides the potential for long-term survival in bladder carcinoma patients with metastatic disease. Overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 COX-2 induces expression of immune- and cell proliferation-related genes and is associated with the grade, prognosis and recurrence of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. There is abundant evidence that aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is implicated in numerous disease states and miRNAs have the potential to be used for cancer therapeutics. Here, we found expression of miR-143 to be low in a series of human bladder carcinomas as compared to background tissue. In addition, restoration of miR-143 by cell transfection in T24 cancer cells led to decreased COX-2 expression, reduced proliferation and mobility. Our findings will help to further understand the functions of miRNAs in cancer cells and point to a specific potential of miR-143 may be employed as a therapeutic agent for bladder carcinoma. The results provide insights into the development of novel tumor markers or new therapeutic strategies.
Promising Fusion Protein Design to Target the U87 MG Glioma Cell Line
Jing, Chen ; Yuan, LIN ; Xingguo, Pan ; Zhijie, Huang ; Zai-Xi, Chen ; Ru, Zhang ; Jian, You ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 935~937
Gliomas, with a poor clinical course, account for 30% to 40% of all intracranial tumors. Immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies has emerged as a promising area of investigation and recently it has been shown that antibodies utilize complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) of their variable domains to bind to antigens with high affinity and specificity. Here, we designed an antibody mimetic fused with diphtheria toxin to target the U87 MG glioma cell line. VHCDR1 and VLCDR3, together with 5 amino acid residues on both side of the CDRs, through a cognate framework region (VHFR2) yielded a mimetic of BT32/A6 (United States Patent number: 5639863). We fused the mimetic with the first 388 amino acid residues of diphtheria toxin and E. coli strain BL21 (ED3) was used to express the soluble immunotoxin DT-MG. The immunotoxin DT-MG alone did not kill Raji up to the maximal concentration tested (10-6M) in vitro. By contrast, concentrations
-9M, of the fused DT-MG killed more than 95% of U-87 MG cells. It is suggested that the mimetic maintained the synergic interactions and high-affinity associated with the parent antibody. This construct holds promise for targeting specific cancer epitopes and may be useful when incorporated into diagnostic and therapeutic regimens.
"Initial Clinical Response" to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: An In-vivo Chemosensitivity Test for Efficacy in Patients with Advanced Breast Cancer
Khokher, Samina ; Mahmood, Saqib ; Qureshi, Muhammad Usman ; Khan, Saeed Akhtar ; Chaudhry, Naseer Ahmad ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 939~946
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) is well established as the standard of care and initial management of choice for patients with advanced breast cancer (ABC). The response is however not uniform. The present study was an endeavor to develop a clinically applicable tool based on the available clinico-pathological data in the routine clinical setting to predict response to chemotherapy in breast cancer in a developing country. From 1st June 2005 to 30th June 2007, 149 patients registered at INMOL hospital with ABC at initial diagnosis having tumor size 5 cm or more and treated with FAC as NACT were prospectively included in the study to analyze association of response after first cycle of chemotherapy (initial clinical response) with that after the third cycle. Tumor measurements were done at base line (before starting chemotherapy), three weeks after the first course of chemotherapy and three weeks after the third course. Percentage change was calculated for the latter two stages. Clinical response was assessed according to WHO/UICC criteria. Pathological complete response (pCR) was based on the histopathology of the operative specimen after NACT. 67.1% patients (cCR 7.4%+cPR 59.7%) responded to chemotherapy while 32.9% (cSD 23.5%+cPD 9.4%) did not. pCR rate was 4%. No patient had initial clinical complete response while 23% had icPR, 74% had icSD and 3% had icPD. All patients with icPR responded to NACT (cCR 29%+cPR 71%) while 60% of icSD responded to chemotherapy (cCR 1%+cPR 59%) and 40% of icSD failed to respond (cSD 31%+cPD 9%). All patients with icPD developed cPD. The high sensitivity of initial clinical response for prediction of cCR and 100% specificity of icPD for prediction of cPD favors its incorporation in clinical practice, as an early predictor of response to NACT in ABC patients.
Increased Expression of the PRL-3 Gene in Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Dysplasia Tissues
Hassan, Nur Mohammad Monsur ; Hamada, Jun-Ichi ; Kameyama, Takeshi ; Tada, Mitsuhiro ; Nakagawa, Koji ; Yoshida, Shoko ; Kashiwazaki, Haruhiko ; Yamazaki, Yutaka ; Suzuki, Yukiko ; Sasaki, Akira ; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi ; Inoue, Nobuo ; Moriuchi, Tetsuya ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 947~951
Phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL) belongs to a class of the protein tyrosine phosphatase family, which is known so far to consist of 3 members, PRL-1, PRL-2, and PRL-3. The aim of this study was to uncover the role of PRL genes in development of oral malignancy. We analyzed expression levels of the 3 PRL genes in 50 human oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs), 11 dysplasia and 12 normal mucosa tissues by a real-time RT-PCR method. PRL-3 but not PRL-1 or PRL-2 expressions were significantly higher in OSCC and dysplasia than in normal mucosa tissues. Additionally, PRL-3 expressions were significantly higher in OSCC tissues harboring dominant-negative p53 or recessive p53 mutation than in those harboring wild-type p53. These results suggest that PRL-3 plays a role in oral cancer development and can be useful as a marker of pre-malignant and malignant lesion of oral mucosa.
Morphology, TNM Staging and Survival with Pancreaticoduodenectomy Specimens received at Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Pakistan
Qureshi, Asim ; Hassan, Usman ; Azam, Muhammad ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 953~956
Background: Whipple specimens consists of duodenum from the pylorus to the ligament of Treitz, the head of the pancreas and distal extrahepatic biliary tract, sometimes with most distal portion of the stomach. Adequate gross handling of the specimen and assessment of histological variables is of prognostic importance. Methods: At the Pathology Department of Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, we here evaluated survival with a total of 65 pancreaticoduodenectomy specimens from 2006 to 2010 with reference to histological parameters like tumour type, site, size, grade, pT, pN, margin status and perineural invasion, and compared our results with international data. Patients were followed up and P-values were calculated regarding association between survival and prognostic factors, Kaplan-meier survival curves also being plotted. Results: Most of the patients were males (60%), with a mean age of 50 yrs. The most frequent site was periampullary region (43.2%), with adenocarcinoma, NOS accounting for 72.4%. G2 was the most common grade (58.5%) and the most frequent pT was pT2 (52.4%), nearly half presenting with lymph node metastasis (47.7%). Significant associations (p<0.05) were noted for survival with grade, pT, pN, margins, tumor size and perineural invasion, but not tumor site, tumor type and age. Kaplan-Meier curve revealed that at end of 1 month, 70% of the patients were alive, this decreasing to 40%, 15% and 5% and at the end of 6 months, 1 year and 2 years. Conclusion: Tumor size, type, pathologic T and N staging, margins and perineural invasion are directly related to survival with pancreatico-duodenal lesions.
Hepatitis B Knowledge and Practices among Cambodian Americans
Taylor, Victoria M ; Talbot, Jocelyn ; Hoai Do, H ; Liu, Qi ; Yasui, Yutaka ; Jackson, J Carey ; Bastani, Roshan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 957~961
Background: Liver cancer occurs more frequently among Americans of Southeast Asian descent than any other group. This health disparity can be attributed to high rates of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. We examined HBV awareness, knowledge about HBV transmission, HBV testing levels, and HBV vaccination levels among Cambodian Americans. Methods: A population-based survey was conducted in metropolitan Seattle during 2010. The study sample included 667 individuals. We created a composite knowledge score (0-9) by summing the number of correct answers to survey items addressing HBV transmission. Data were analyzed using Generalized Estimating Equations. Results: Seventy-eight percent of the study group had heard of HBV (before it was described to them). The proportions who knew that HBV cannot be spread by eating food prepared by an infected person, can be spread during childbirth, and can be spread during sexual intercourse were only 33%, 69%, and 72%, respectively. The mean knowledge score was 5.5 (standard deviation 1.7). Fifty percent of the survey respondents had been tested and 52% had been vaccinated. HBV awareness, higher knowledge scores, and vaccination were all associated (p<0.05) with younger age, higher educational level, younger age at immigration, and greater English proficiency. Discussion: Our study findings confirm the need for Khmer language HBV programs for less acculturated and educated members of the Cambodian community. Such programs should aim to increase HBV testing rates, HBV vaccination rates among individuals who remain susceptible to infection, and levels of knowledge about routes of hepatitis B transmission.
Genetic Risk of DNA Repair Gene Polymorphisms (XRCC1 and XRCC3) for High Risk Human Papillomavirus Negative Cervical Cancer in Northeast Thailand
Settheetham-Ishida, Wannapa ; Yuenyao, Pissamai ; Natphopsuk, Sitakan ; Settheetham, Dariwan ; Ishida, Takafumi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 963~966
To identify risk factors other than high risk human papillomavirus infection for the development of cervical cancer, functional polymorphisms of DNA repair genes, XRCC1 Arg399Gln and Arg194Trp and XRCC3 Thr241Met, were studied among Northeastern Thai women. Cases (n=111) were defined as squamous cell cervical cancer and controls (n=118) were recruited from healthy women without cervical abnormalities. The XRCC1 194Trp/Trp genotype significantly increased the risk for cervical cancer (OR=5.52; 95%CI=1.14-26.64; p=0.03). Among the HPV infection negative group, significantly higher risks for cervical cancer were visualized for XRCC1 399Arg/Gln (adjusted OR=3.69; 95%CI=1.04-13.06; p=0.04) and XRCC1 194Arg/Trp (adjusted OR=4.13; 95%CI=1.13-15.12; p=0.03). This study indicates that variant types of DNA repair genes play partial roles in modifying individual susceptibility to cervical cancer. Since cervical cancer is a multi-factorial disease, the contribution of DNA repair enzymes to the development of cervical cancer, if it exists may be concealed by HPV infection.
Adjuvant Modified FOLFOX-4 in Patients with Stage III Rectum Adenocarcinoma
Cihan, Sener ; Uncu, Dogan ; Babacan, Nalan Akgul ; Ozdemir, Nuriye ; Odabas, Hatice ; Aksoy, Sercan ; Oksuzoglu, Berna ; Zengin, Nurullah ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 967~970
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate efficacy and toxicity of a modified 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), folinic acid, oxaliplatin (mFOLFOX-4) regimen followed by infusional 5-FU concomitant with radiotherapy for curatively resected stage III rectum adenocarcinoma patients. Patients and Methods: Between April 2005 and July 2009, 55 operated stage III rectum cancer patients were evaluated retrospectively. mFOLFOX-4 regimen (oxaliplatin 85
1st day, folinic acid 200
1st day, 5-FU 400
iv bolus 1st day, 5-FU 1600
46 hours continuous infusion) was applied every 2 weeks. After four courses of mFOLFOX-4, 50.4 Gy (1.8 Gy in 28 fractions) radiotherapy with continuous 5-FU 200
by infusion pump were given. On completion of chemoradiation four more mFOLFOX-4 courses were given. Results: Median age of the patients was 54 years (range 23-73 years). Low anterior resection was performed in 37 (67.3%) and abdominoperineal resection in 16 (29.1%) . Ten (18.2%) patients were at stage IIIA, 24 (43.6%) at stage IIIB and 21 (38.2%) at stage IIIC. Planned chemotherapy cycles were completed in 92.7% of patients. Grades 3-4 toxicity included neutropenia (9.1%), febrile neutropenia (3.6%), anemia (3.6%), diarrhea (21.8%), neuropathy (9.1%), renal toxicity (3.6%), hepatotoxicity (5.5%). Median follow-up time was 30 (9-57) months. Local recurrence and distant metastasis was observed in 3 (5.5%) and 10 (18.2%) patients, respectively. Ten (18.2%) patients died during follow-up. Three years disease free survival and overall survival were 67.5% and 77.3%, respectively. Conclusion: mFOLFOX-4 following chemoradiotherapy with continuous 5- FU infusion is an effective and well tolerated adjuvant treatment for stage III rectal carcinoma patients.
Pentoxifylline Therapy in the Management of Oral Submucous Fibrosis
Mehrotra, Ravi ; Singh, HP ; Gupta, SC ; Singh, M ; Jain, S ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 971~974
Objectives: Oral submucous fibrosis is a common premalignant condition in the Indian subcontinent and is caused by chewing areca nut and other irritants in various forms. Its medical treatment is not yet fully standardized. In this study we compared the efficacy of Pentoxifylline as compared to placebo. Materials and methods: 75 patients suffering from oral submucous fibrosis were randomly divided into two groups A and B. Group A patients received placebo, while Group B patients received 400 mg. Pentoxifylline for a period of 7 months. Treatment outcome was evaluated on the basis of improvement in symptom and sign scores. Student's 't' test was applied for comparing the results. Results: The improvement in total (i.e. symptoms + sign) score was 25% in group A and 49.15% in group B. This difference was found to be statistically significant. (p < 0.05) Conclusion: Treatment regimen of group B was more effective. No significant side effects were seen. A follow up study is required to assess long term outcome of this therapy.
Knowledge, Facilitators and Perceived Barriers for Early Detection of Breast Cancer among Elderly Turkish Women
Kissal, Aygul ; Beser, Ayse ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 975~984
This article deals with elderly Turkish women's experiences with breast self examination, clinical breast examination and mammography screening, as well as perceived barriers and facilitators in the theoretical framework of the Health Belief Model and the Health Promotion Model. This is a qualitative study performed on 46 elderly women aged 60-75 years. Data were collected with focus group interviews and analyzed systematically with qualitative analysis techniques to determine themes concerning knowledge and facilitators of and perceived barriers to early detection of breast cancer among elderly women. Barriers to screening were insufficient knowledge, fear, neglect/postponement, embarrassment/religious beliefs, inability to make an appointment, lack of a physician's recommendation and health professionals' attitudes. Facilitating factors were being informed about screening, fear, awareness of cancer screening, familial history of breast cancer and social support, making an appointment, health professionals' communication and physicians' recommendations. Public health nurses and health professionals from other health disciplines should be aware of elderly women's need for knowledge about screening, understand elderly women's fear and worries about their health and know barriers to and facilitators of screening.
Ubenimex capsule Improves General Performance and Chemotherapy related Toxicity in Advanced Gastric Cancer Cases
Xu, Jian-Wei ; Li, Cheng-Guang ; Huang, Xin-En ; Li, Ying ; Huo, Jie-Ge ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 985~987
Objective: To evaluate the effect of ubenimex capsule on general performance and chemotherapy related toxicity in patients with advanced gastric cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Methods: Patients with advanced gastric cancer were randomly divided into two groups: with or without ubenimex. All received the following regimen for 2 cycles: docetaxel 40mg/m2 intravenous infusion on days 1 and 8, cisplatin 15
and tegafur 600
intravenous infusion from days 1 to 5. Oral ubenimex capsule at 30mg daily was continued for 8 weeks from the start of chemotherapy. Study targets included Karnofsky performance status (KPS), body weight, leukocytes, hemoglobin, variation of several immunologic index prior,during and after chemotherapy. Results: Sixty-three patients were recruited into this study, 32 randomly entered into the ubenimex capsule and 31 into the control group. KPS score and body weight after chemotherapy were more stable in the treatment group (P <0.05), and myelosuppression, including reduction of leukocytes, hemoglobin and platelets, was milder (P <0.05). T lymphocytes (CD3 +), T assisted- induced lymphocytes (CD3 +, CD4 +), T suppressor and NK cells (CD16 +, CD56 +) all increased after ubenimex capsule intake, while decreasing in the control group (P <0.05). Conclusion: Ubenimex capsule could improve general performance and reduce chemotherapy related toxicity in patients with advanced gastric cancer.
Comparison between Direct Sequencing and INNO-LiPA Methods for HPV Detection and Genotyping in Thai Women
Chinchai, Teeraporn ; Chansaenroj, Jira ; Junyangdikul, Pairoj ; Swangvaree, Sukumarn ; Karalak, Anant ; Niruthisard, Somchai ; Poovorawan, Yong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 989~994
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have been recognized as etiologic factors in cervical carcinoma and several other anogenital cancers in females and males. HPV are classified as low risk (LR), probable high risk and high risk (HR) on the basis of their oncogenic potential. HPV genotypes, which are crucial for diagnosis and relationship with carcinogenesis, have been determined by several genotyping methods. In this study, two genotyping methods were compared: direct sequencing and INNO-LiPA. In total, 2,494 cervical specimens were tested and 27.2 % of these were found to be HPV DNA positive with 24.5% showing normal cytology. Specimens were divided into four groups according to their pathological cytology as normal, LSIL, HSIL and cancer and 134 specimens were selected for HPV genotyping by both methods. HPV genotyping results showed 87.5% positive correlation. With 17 specimens, the results were discordant, 12 specimens showed different genotypes. Others had genotypes that could not be typed by the INNO-LiPA method. Neither did direct sequencing in 3 different regions yield unequivocal results. Both genotyping methods have advantages and disadvantages. Consequently, the method most suitable for the study objective, budget and predominance of HPV genotype in any given area should be selected.
Perceptions and Opinions towards Skin Cancer Prevention in Malaysia: A Qualitative Approach
Al-Naggar, Redhwan Ahmed ; Al-Naggar, Thekra Hamoud ; Bobryshev, Yuri V ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 995~999
Introduction: Malignant melanoma in particular is one of the few remaining cancers with an increasing incidence. Objectives: The objective of this study is to explore the perceptions and opinions of young Malaysians towards skin cancer prevention. Methodology: Focus group discussions were conducted among 33 medical science students from Management and Science University (MSU), Shah Alam, Malaysia, using convenience sampling. Students were divided into 4 focus groups consisting of 8, 8, 9 and 8 students respectively. The facilitator wrote down the conversations and data obtained were classified into various categories and analyzed manually. Results: The majority of the participants mentioned that overexposure to ultraviolet light is the commonest cause of skin cancer but also that the most benefit we get from sun ight is vitamin D synthesis. The majority mentioned that the best prevention measure for skin cancer is using a sunscreen, followed by limit exposure to the sun. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated there is a lack of knowledge regarding screening methods and prevention measures of skin cancer. Therefore, there is a need to establish health education unit in all universities to educate all university students regarding various health problems including skin cancer prevention.
Colorectal Cancer in Young Cambodians
Hav, Monirath ; Eav, Sokha ; Ky, Vutha ; Cuvelier, Claude ; In, Sokneang ; Kong, Rithy ; Kheang, Yana ; Oung, Chakravuth ; Pattyn, Piet ; Lem, Dara ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 1001~1005
Aim: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common disease in the older population, but it has become increasingly evident that it is also not infrequent in the young. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical and pathological characteristics of CRC in young Cambodians. Methods: We examined clinical and pathological data from all CRC cases registered in the two reference centres for gastrointestinal tumours in Cambodia between 2005-2010. Age-specific CRC incidence rates were computed using the national population census 2008 data from the National Institute of Statistics. We compared differences in distribution of tumour location, histology, differentiation and UICC/TNM stage in two age groups, namely < 40 and
. Results: During this period, there were 356 new CRC cases, of which 29.8% affected patients younger than 40. This proportion is the second highest in the world, with a higher proportion only reported in Egyptian population. The crude incidence was 2.82 and 2.36 per 100,000 in females and males, respectively. Adenocarcinoma was the most common histologic type, and >50% of all tumours occurred in the colon, with no appreciable variation between the two age groups. Mucin-producing and advanced-grade tumours were twice more frequent in the young. Conclusion: The unusually high CRC proportion in the young in our study could be due to referral bias. Nevertheless, together with the continuous exposure to hazardous environmental agents and the prevalent consanguinity in Cambodia, this question warrants further research to advance our understanding of CRC risk factors and perhaps genetic-environmental interactions in CRC epidemiology in young adults.
Colorectal Cancer Screening amongst First Degree Relatives of Colon Cancer Cases in Jordan
Arafa, Mostafa A ; Sallam, Sunny ; Jriesat, Sahar ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 1007~1011
Objectives: Early detection and screening for colorectal cancer is important among first degree relatives (FDR) of colon cancer cases. Methods: Our target population comprised all such FDR, above 40 years of age, registered during the years 2003-2007, Jordan. Detailed information about cancer cases was collected from Jordan Cancer Registry. The screening study was conducted through two stages, where all FDR were examined at their homes for any suggestive related symptoms of colorectal cancer, then those who were suspected to have cancer were referred to hospital for confirmatory colonoscopy. Results: First degree relatives amounted to 3,574 subjects, 153 (4.3%) were complaining of signs and/or symptoms suggestive of CRC. Of them 58 (37.9%) did not accept colonoscopy. The confirmation colonoscopy results for the remaining 95 (62.1%) indicated two confirmed CRC cases. Seventy three percent of the suspected cases complained mainly from change in bowel habit and about one fifth felt cramping. Conclusion: This study raised the question of cost effectiveness and cost benefits of running a nationwide screening program for such cancer in a developing country. On the other hand it highlights the importance of early detection activities in Jordan as it was the first study to be conducted among a community dwelling high risk population in the country.
Cost of Care for Lung Cancer in the First Year after Diagnosis in Iran
Mohagheghi, Mohammad Ali ; Mousavi-Jarrahi, Yasaman ; Mosavi-Jarrahi, Alireza ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 1013~1015
Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the cost of lung cancer treatment in the first year after diagnosis in Iran. Materials and Methods: Patients from two referral hospitals providing all lines of treatment to cancer patients in Tehran were sampled. The direct cost included the costs that patients and other payer's (insurance, NGO's, or other source of payment services) paid for the services received since their first confirmed diagnosis of cancer for the duration of one year. Nine items of services were evaluated for each case with exact costs abstracted from patient's files. Using incidence of lung cancer and population figure of the country, total number of lung cancer was estimated. The total and itemized costs were estimated using an average per patients for each service. Results: The average age at diagnosis was around 56 years and majority of cases were male. All patients were insured by major insurance companies. A total of 5,829 cases of lung cancer were estimated to occur in 2010. The average
standard deviation (sd) of duration of hospital stay was
days. Not all the patients received all lines of services: 86% received surgery, 36% radiotherapy; and 45% chemotherapy in the first year. Some 14% of cases utilized physiotherapy and 11.5% needed pre-treatment counseling. The grand total cost of treatment for the first year of services since diagnosis was estimated at 11,262,386 US dollars for the whole population of Iran in the year 2010. Among different services provided to the patients, surgery with annual cost of 3,178,725 US dollars constitute 28% of the total cost; radiotherapy and cost of paid for medication with an annual cost of 4,242,244 US dollars accounted for 38% of total costs. With 7.8% of Iranian GDP being consumed in health expenditure, the direct cost of lung cancer for the first year after diagnosis amounted to 4% of this figure. Conclusion: Our study, the first to estimate the direct cost of lung cancer in Iran, indicate how costly lung cancer is to the country. More comprehensive studies are needed to validate our results plus to assess other cost including indirect costs.
p53 Expression as a Marker of Microinvasion in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Heah, Khor Goot ; Hassan, Mohamed Ibrahim Abu ; Huat, Siar Chong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 1017~1022
Introduction: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has high local recurrence, partly caused by the lack of clear margin identification on surgical removal of cancerous tissues. Direct visualization by immunostaining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) in tissue sections gives more definite information about genetic damage at margins with appropriately selected biomarkers. Aims: To determine the usefulness of immunohistochemical techniques and FISH of the tumour suppressor TP 53 gene to identify microinvasion in marginal tissue sections and to relate the possible correlation between protein expression and genetic aberrations in OSCC cases in Malaysia. Methods: Immunohistochemistry and FISH of TP 53 genes were applied on 26 OSCC formalin fixed paraffin embed (FFEP) blocks selected from two oral cancer referral centers in Malaysia. Results: For p53 protein immunohistochemistry, 96% of the 26 OSCC studied showed positive immunostaining at the excision margins. In FISH assay,
of the cancerous cells were monoploid for p53 probe signals,
were diploid, and
were polyploid. A correlation between p53 immunostaining and TP53 gene aberrations was noted (p<0.05). Conclusions: Immunohistochemical analysis of p53 protein expression and FISH of TP53 gene could be applied as screening tool for microinvasion of OSCC.
Prevalence of Vitamin-mineral Supplements Use and Associated Factors Among Young Malaysians
Al-Naggar, Redhwan Ahmed ; Chen, Robert ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 1023~1029
The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence and associated factors of vitamin-mineral supplements use among Management and Science University students. The cross-sectional study protocol was approved by the Ethics and Research Committee and questionnaires were distributed randomly using simple random sampling to students from all faculties and consent was obtained. The data were analyzed using the SPSS version 13. Total number of the participants in this study is 105. More than half of them were female, older than 20 years of age and Malay (58.1%, 61.9 and 61.9% respectively). The prevalence of vitamin-mineral supplement use was 43%, the main reasons being 'to maintain good health' 80%, followed by 'to ensure adequate nutrition' (10.5%). There was a significant positive association with monthly household income and BMI (P=0.039; P=0.048), with significant dependence on race and knowledge about vitamin-mineral supplements (P=0.002). There was a significant difference between medical and health sciences as compared to non-medical and health science faculties (p =0.05). The conclusion is that although the prevalence of vitamin-mineral supplement use among university students is relatively high, many of them do not have accurate information about supplements. Therefore, there is a need to provide them with education and access to scientific and unbiased information.
Her2 Amplification Status in Iranian Breast Cancer Patients: Comparison of Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Fluorescence in situ Hybridisation (FISH)
Ghaffari, Saeed Reza ; Sabokbar, Tayebeh ; Dastan, Jila ; Rafati, Maryam ; Moossavi, Shirin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 1031~1034
Introduction: Her2/neu is a biomarker which is amplified and/or overexpressed in a subset of breast cancer patients who are eligible to receive trastuzumab. Her-2 gene amplification analysed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and/or protein over-expression detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) are the two main methods used to detect Her-2 status in clinical practice. The concordance rate between the two techniques is controversial. Methods: FISH analysis were performed on 104 tumoural samples from breast cancer patients with known IHC results to determine the Her2 gene status. The FISH/IHC analyses results were then compared and the concordance rate was determined. Results: Her2 gene amplification was detected in 0 of IHC score 1+, 24/86 (27.91%) 2+, and 8/13 (61.54%) 3+. The IHC and FISH results concordance rates were 100%, 27.9%, and 61.5% for IHC scores of 1+, 2+, and 3+ respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that IHC 1+ should be considered as negative while IHC 2+ results need further confirmative analysis by FISH. Further quality control and standardization of IHC technique are required to improve the concordance rate between the two methods.
Relation between IRF-1 gene and Acute Myelocytic Leukemia in Kashmiri population
Khan, Tanzeela ; Ganai, Bashir Ahmad ; Masood, Akbar ; Samoon, Jeelani ; Beigh, Sabha Rasool ; Qazi, Falak ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 1035~1039
The IRF-1 protein, a mammalian transcriptional factor encoded by a gene located in 5q23-q31, has antioncogenic properties. Involved in regulation of differentiation and proliferation, IRF-1 acts as a tumor suppressor gene and is inactivated by deletion of its one or more exons (exon skipping) in many hematological malignancies, including acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). DNA samples, extracted from peripheral blood, taken from 50 Kashmiri AML subjects, were analysed using the polymerase chain reaction and compared with examples of age and gender matched healthy controls from the same population. Three different exon regions (2, 3 and 4) of the IRF-1 gene that were previously shown to be prone to deletion were selected for amplification and analysis. Deletion was observed in 31(62%) out of 50 AML patients (p=0.016). Exon 3 was most frequently deleted (58%), followed by exon 2 (28%), while exon 4 was least affected (12%), providing insights into critical roles in leukemogenesis. The number of deleted exons was variable, but single exon deletions were more frequent (30%). Of interest, IRF-1 gene deletions were not observed in 19 (38%) patients. In our study, the frequency of deletions of these three exons was slightly higher than in an Indian population (52%), but lower than in Sweden in Europe (95%). This study also explored the prevalence and clinical profile of IRF-1 deletions in AML patients. Adults had a significantly higher incidence than children (p=0.0168) and IRF-1 deletions were associated with low Hb (p<0.0001), high TLC (p=0.0033) and a low platelet count (p=0.0076).
Biomonitoring of Genotoxic Effects Among Shielded Manual Metal Arc Welders
Sudha, Sellappa ; Kripa, Subhadra Keyan ; Shibily, Prathyumnan ; Joseph, Shyn ; Balachandar, Vellingiri ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 1041~1044
Hexavalent chromium Cr (VI) used in shielded metal arc welding is widely recognized to act as a carcinogen, mutagen and teratogen. The carcinogenic potential of metals is a major issue in defining human health risk from exposure. Hence in the present investigation, 66 welders and 60 control subjects with similar mean ages, smoking prevalences and alcohol consumption were enrolled for DNA damage analysis of buccal cells by micronucleus (MN) and comet assay. Welders showed a significant increase in micronucleated cells compared to controls and a larger mean comet tail length. The current study thus suggested that chronic occupational exposure to Cr (VI) during welding could lead to increased level of DNA damage. Understanding the complexity of the relationshipsbetween exposure, basal DNA damage and MN frequencies requires larger scale studies and application of complementary biomarkers.
Extended Full-thickness Transanal Local Excision to Treat Ultra-low Rectal Cancer: an Initial Clinical Exploration
Zhou, Xin ; Huang, Xin-En ; Zhang, Tong ; Shang, Jun-Qing ; Guan, Xin ; Zhong, Jian ; Feng, Bo ; Sun, Yue ; Zhou, Jian-Nong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 1045~1048
Objective: To investigate the feasibility of extended full-thickness transanal local excision for rectal cancers invading anorectal junction. Methods: Four patients with small (size
) unfixed rectal cancer, which extended into the upper anal canal, were submitted to transanal local excision with a dissection plane extended to the striated muscle layer around the upper anal canal, so that a portion of striated muscle beneath or around the tumor was excised en bloc with the anorectal wall. The defect in the anorectal wall was laid open to granulate and epithelize. Results: The mean operative time was
min, with no related mortality. Postoperative pathological examination confirmed clear resection and revealed 1 T2, 2 T1, and 1 Tis carcinoma. The median follow-up was 3.2 months (range, 1.5-13.0 months). Minor soiling with flatus incontinence was common during the first postoperative month. Two patients with a follow-up longer than 3 months had perfect anal continence. No local recurrence was observed. Conclusion: Extended full-thickness transanal local excision for rectal tumors lying at the anorectal junction is safe and simple. Patients with partial excision of striated muscle around the upper anal canal may still enjoy good anal continence. Further studies on extended full-thickness transanal excision are worthwhile.
Long-term High-dose Proton Pump Inhibitor Administration to Helicobacter pylori-infected Mongolian gerbils Enhances Neuroendocrine tumor Development in the Glandular Stomach
Tsukamoto, Hironobu ; Mizoshita, Tsutomu ; Sasaki, Makoto ; Mizushima, Takashi ; Tanida, Satoshi ; Ozeki, Keiji ; Hirata, Yoshikazu ; Shimura, Takaya ; Kataoka, Hiromi ; Kamiya, Takeshi ; Nojiri, Shunsuke ; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya ; Tatematsu, Masae ; Joh, Takashi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 1049~1054
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are routinely used for control of upper gastrointestinal disorders, often with long-term application. However, there has been some concern about the long-term safety and the possibility of cancer induction and development of neuroendocrine tumors (NET) in the stomach. We therefore analyzed the influence of PPI use on tumor development histologically, immunohistochemically, and serologically in the glandular stomachs of Helicobacter pylori (Hp)-infected and uninfected Mongolian gerbils (MGs). 53 MGs were divided into 6 groups: Hp+25PPI, Hp+5PPI, Hp, 25PPI, 5PPI, and controls. The high-dose Hp+25PPI and 25PPI groups received the PPI (lansoprazole) at 25mg/kg/day, and the low-dose Hp+5PPI and 5PPI groups were given 5mg/kg/day. After 50 or 100 weeks, animals were sacrificed humanely, and the glandular stomach samples were evaluated histologically and phenotypically, using antibodies against chromogranin A (CgA), gastrin and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP). Serum gastrin levels were also examined. NETs occurred in the Hp+25PPI, Hp+5PPI, Hp, and 25PPI groups, but there was no synergistic effect between Hp-infection and high-dose PPI administration. Serum gastrin was increased statistically by Hp infection and high-dose PPI administration, but not influenced by the low-dose. The NETs featured expression of CgA, but not gastrin or GIP. In conclusions, PPI at low dose had no influence on development of carcinomas and NETs in the Hp-infected and uninfected glandular MG stomach, suggesting clinical safety. However, PPI at high dose increased NET development and serum gastrin in the MG model.
Irinotecan as a Second-line Monotherapy for Small Cell Lung Cancer
Sevinc, Alper ; Kalender, Mehmet Emin ; Altinbas, Mustafa ; Ozkan, Metin ; Dikilitas, Mustafa ; Camci, Celalettin ; Anatolian Society of Medical Oncology (ASMO), Anatolian Society of Medical Oncology (ASMO) ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 1055~1059
Objectives: The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of irinotecan monotherapy as a secondline treatment for small cell lung cancers (SCLCs). Methods: Irinotecan monotherapy was administered to 46 SCLC patients who were previously undergone cisplatin based chemotherapy protocols. Response to treatment, time to progression (TTP), overall survival rates and adverse events associated with irinotecan monotherapy (300mg/m2; total 153 cycles; mean
) were determined, retrospectively. Results: Limited stage disease was diagnosed in 19.6% of patients (n=9) while 80.4% (n=37) were diagnosed with extensive stage cancer preceeding the irinotecan monotherapy. None of the patients had complete response to irinotecan. Partial response and stable disease were achieved among 17.5% of patients. Mean time to tumor progression (TTP) was determined to be
weeks while overall survival was
months. Considering adverse events, grade 3 and 4 toxicity was encountered in 8.9% and 4.5% of patients, respectively. Irinotecan monotherapy in brain metastasized tumors was found to be associated with significantly higher survival times compared with tumors lacking brain metastasis (
months; p<0.05). Conclusions: Irinotecan as a monotherapy in the second-line treatment of SCLC seems to have an acceptable level of toxicity and significant palliative effects. The prominent survival step-up effect particularly in brain metastasis patients appears worthy of note.
Association between Diabetes Mellitus and Breast Cancer Risk: a Meta-analysis of the Literature
Liao, Shichong ; Li, Jinxin ; Wei, Wen ; Wang, Lijun ; Zhang, Yimin ; Li, Juanjuan ; Wang, Changhua ; Sun, Shenrong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 1061~1065
Aim/hypothesis: Diabetes and breast cancer are both serious life-threatening diseases across the world. Some studies shows that diabetes is associated with many kinds of tumor, but links with breast cancer remain controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the association the available evidence. Subjects and methods: A meta-analysis was conducted including 16 studies published between 2000 and 2010 and summary relative risks(RRs) with 95% CIs were calculated using random-effects model. Results: The combined evidence supports that diabetes was associated with a statistically significant 23% increased risk of breast cancer, especially in postmenopausal women (RR=1.25 95%CI 1.20-1.29). The correlation between diabetes and breast cancer was the most obvious in Europe (RR=1.88,95%CI:1.56-2.25), followed by America (RR=1.16, 95%CI:1.12-1.20). In Asia the result was not significant (RR=1.01, 95%CI=0.84-1.21). Diabetes also increased mortality from breast cancer overall (RR=1.44, 95%CI:1.31-1.58). Conclusions/interpretation: This meta-analysis indicated that diabetes can be considered as a risk factor for breast cancer. In addition, menstruation status as well as geographical distribution can affect the relationship.
Association of the hOGG1 Ser326Cys Polymorphism with Increased Lung Cancer Susceptibility in Asians: a Meta-analysis of 18 Studies Including 7592 Cases and 8129 Controls
Guan, Peng ; Huang, Desheng ; Yin, Zhihua ; Zhou, Baosen ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 1067~1072
Objective: To understand the influence of the hOGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism on lung cancer susceptibility, an updated meta-analysis was performed. Methods: A total of 7,592 patients and 8,129 controls from 18 studies, identified by searching ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, EMBase and CNKI database up to January 2011, were included. Unconditional multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Overall, the hOGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphisms were associated with the risk of lung cancer. In the subgroup analyses by ethnicity, histological type, smoking status, significant association with lung cancer risk in Asians was found either in the dominant (crude OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.07-1.33 for Cys/ Cys+Ser/Cys versus Ser/Ser) or recessive (crude OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.08-1.35 for Cys/Cys versus Ser/Cys+Ser/ Ser) model. An increased risk with statistical significance was found in recessive model for squamous carcinoma (adjusted OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.30-2.80) and adenocarcinoma (adjusted OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.23-1.87). Significant association with lung cancer risk among heavy smokers was found in the recessive model (crude OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.26-2.21). Conclusions: The results indicated that the hOGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism might contribute to the risk of non-small cell lung cancer in the Asian population.
Colorectal Cancer in Central Tunisia: Increasing Incidence Trends over a 15-Year Period
Missaoui, Nabiha ; Jaidaine, Lilia ; Abdelkader, Atef Ben ; Trabelsi, Amel ; Mokni, Moncef ; Hmissa, Sihem ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 1073~1076
Introduction: Significant variation in colorectal cancer incidence rates and trends has been observed across countries. Data from Tunisia are sparse. In this paper, we analyzed trends in incidence rates of the colorectal cancer over a 15-year period, 1993-2007, in Central Tunisia. Design: Five-year age-specific rates, crude incidence rates, world age-standardized rates, and annual percent change were calculated using annual data on population size and its estimated age structure. Results: A total of 1,443 incident cases of colorectal cancer were registered, with a male to-female sex ratio of 1.1:1. The world age-standardized rate was 10.0 per 100,000 among females and 11.7 among males. Over time, there were significant increasing trends by +2.6% (95% CI: 0.1%, 5.1%) and +5.3% (95% CI: 2.7%, 7.9%) for females and males, respectively. Conclusion: The absence of a screening program for colorectal cancer could explain the increasing trends observed among males and females in Central Tunisia. Our findings point the need to plan and develop effective programs aimed at the control and prevention of the spread of colorectal cancer in Tunisia.
Comparison of Helicobacter pylori Antibody Detection in Stool with other Diagnostic Tests for Infection
Ceken, Nihan ; Yurtsever, Sureyya Gul ; Baran, Nurten ; Alper, Emrah ; Buyrac, Zafer ; Unsal, Belkis ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 1077~1081
For detection of Helicobacter pylori, bacterial culture and histopathological examination are invasive in nature, whereas the fast urease test and urea breath test are non-invasive and indirect methods of detection. Stool antibody tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect genomic DNA are serological methods, which are preferred to invasive examinations. Our aim was to assess diagnostic specifity and sensitivity of stool antibody tests, with histopathological examination as the golden standard and to compare results with fast urease test findings. Biopsy samples of patients in the study were evaluated as examples of invasive methods, and also stool antibody screening were made (HpSA). When urease and HpSA test results were compared with histopathological results, sensitivity and specificity of urease test were 62.2% and 100%, respectively, and 68.9% and 100% for the HpSA test. General accuracy was 80% and 81%, respectively , positive predictive value 100% with each and negative predictive values 66.1% and 67.2% . The differences were not statistically significant, and the confidence intervals were approximately in the same range. Thus results obtained with biopsy urease and HpSA tests were generally similar to those obtained by histopathological examination. A review of national and international literature showed similar findings.
Socioeconomic Status and Lung Cancer Risk in Nepal
Hashibe, Mia ; Siwakoti, Bhola ; Wei, Mei ; Thakur, Binay Kumar ; Pun, Chin Bahadur ; Shrestha, Bhakta Man ; Burningham, Zachary ; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy ; Sapkota, Amir ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 1083~1088
Background. Lung cancer is the most common cancer among men and the third most common cancer among women in Nepal. Socioeconomic disparities in lung cancer have not been studied in the Nepalese population. Methods. We conducted a lung cancer case-control study, including 209 cases and 313 controls at the main cancer hospital in Nepal, the B.P. Koirala Memorial Cancer Hospital (BPKMCH). Results. We observed differences in lung cancer risk by ethnicity; the Rai, Limbu and Magar groups had a higher risk of lung cancer than Brahmin (OR=3.11, 95%CI=1.55-6.23). An inverse association was observed between education and lung cancer risk (p for trend=0.0008). We also observed greater lung cancer risk among unmarried individuals (OR=2.25, 95%CI=1.12-4.53), and lower risk in individuals who lived in the Central region compared to the West (OR=0.47, 95%CI=0.26-0.85). There were greater proportions of late stage cancers among women compared to men, in the Rai/Limbu/Magar ethnic groups, in individuals with lower education and in older age groups. Conclusions. Disparities in lung cancer risk were observed by race/ethnicity, education, marital status, and by region of residence. Further research on socioeconomic influence on lung cancer in Nepal is warranted to develop better prevention efforts against the disease.
Consumption and Risk of Cancer: a Multi-site Case-Control Study in Uruguay
De Stefani, Eduardo ; Moore, Malcolm ; Aune, Dagfinn ; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo ; Ronco, Alvaro L ; Boffetta, Paolo ; Correa, Pelayo ; Acosta, Gisele ; Mendilaharsu, Maria ; Luaces, Maria E ; Silva, Cecilia ; Lando, Gabriel ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 1089~1093
In the time period 1990-2004 we conducted a multisite case-control study in order to examine the relationship of mat
consumption and risk of 13 cancer sites in Montevideo, Uruguay. The study included 13,201 participants (8,875 cases and 4,326 controls) drawn from the four major public hospitals in the city of Montevideo. Newly diagnosed and microscopically confirmed cases of cancers of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, colon, rectum, larynx, lung, female breast, cervix uteri, prostate, bladder and kidney were included in the study. Controls were drawn from the same hospitals and in the same time period and were afflicted by non-neoplastic conditions not related with tobacco smoking or alcohol drinking and without recent changes in their diets. Odds ratios for mat
consumption was directly associated with cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT), esophagus, stomach, larynx, lung, cervix uteri, prostate, bladder, and kidney. In conclusion these results suggest that chemicals, like benzo[a]pyrene, could be responsible of the carcinogenic effect of mat
in the above mentioned cancer sites.
HPV Vaccination in Hong Kong: Implications for Medical Education
Chan, Zenobia CY ; Chan, TS ; Lam, YM ; Lau, LM ; Li, KK ; Tam, WH ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 1095~1099
Objective. To explore the experience and attitudes of physicians in clinics, and to facilitate physicians' promotion of HPV vaccination. Data Sources. Primary data collected from conducting semi-structural in-depth interviews from May to June 2010 with 12 physicians in one district in Hong Kong to understand their experience of providing HPV vaccines, the difficulties in promoting HPV vaccines, and their attitudes towards HPV vaccination. Study Design. Physicians identified 4 categories of factors related to their experiences of and attitudes to providing HPV vaccination: (a) background information on HPV vaccination provided by physicians, (b) factors influencing women to receive vaccination, (c) physicians' recommendations to the public on HPV vaccines, and (d) physicians' perspectives on HPV vaccine promotion. Conclusions. Our findings show that public knowledge on HPV and cervical cancer is insufficient and the role of government in vaccine promotion is unclear. Promotion strategies such as physicians' recommendation, financial assistance and health education provided by the government will influence HPV vaccination and its promotion.
Outcomes of Children with Relapsed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in India
Kulkarni, Ketan P ; Marwaha, Ram Kumar ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 1101~1102
Successful Management of Bevacizumab-Associated Surgical Bleeding with an Ankaferd Blood Stopper
Ozdemir, Nuriye ; Aksoy, Sercan ; Eren, Tulay ; Uncu, Dogan ; Akinci, M Bulent ; Alaguney, Mehmet Erdem ; Zengin, Nurullah ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 1103~1104
Bone Health in Survivors of Lymphoma, Treated with High Dose Steroids - is there a Need for Clearer Guidelines on Bone Care?
Shaikh, Asim Jamal ; Memon, Wasim Ahmed ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 4, 2011, Pages 1105~1106