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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevetion
Editor in Chief :
Malcolm A Moore
Volume & Issues
Volume 12, Issue 12 - Dec 2011
Volume 12, Issue 11 - Nov 2011
Volume 12, Issue 10 - Oct 2011
Volume 12, Issue 9 - Sep 2011
Volume 12, Issue 8 - Aug 2011
Volume 12, Issue 7 - Jul 2011
Volume 12, Issue 6 - Jun 2011
Volume 12, Issue 5 - May 2011
Volume 12, Issue 4 - Apr 2011
Volume 12, Issue 3 - Mar 2011
Volume 12, Issue 2 - Feb 2011
Volume 12, Issue 1 - Jan 2011
Selecting the target year
The Present Scenario of Cervical Cancer Control and HPV Epidemiology in India: an Outline
Senapathy, J Giftson ; Umadevi, P ; Kannika, PS ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1107~1115
Objective: To give a clear picture with epidemiological evidence about the present scenario of cervical cancer control and HPV in India. Design: Review of published studies, concentrating on recent systematic reviews, meta-analyses and large prospective studies. Conclusions and recommendations: Cervical cancer is unique among cancers in that it can largely be prevented through screening and removal of precursor lesions. It is the second most common cancer among women worldwide and is the most common malignancy in developing countries, particularly in India. Nowadays, cervical screening for women is necessary because there are no signs and symptoms of cervical precancers. The establishment of a prevention program is urgently required considering both screening and vaccination. But most women in India do not have access to effective screening programmes. It has been estimated that in India, even with a major effort to expand cytology services, it will not be possible to screen even one-fourth of the population once in a lifetime in the near future. New HPV vaccines will also help prevent HPV infection and the precancerous changes that lead to cervical cancer. The focus on detection and prevention of cervical cancer must be emphasized in a highly populated country like India to prevent its extensive spread.
Circulating miRNAs: Promising Biomarkers of Human Cancer
Qu, Hongguang ; Xu, Weiwei ; Huang, Yuchuan ; Yang, Shujuan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1117~1125
Background: With the development of technologies to look at the expression levels of hundreds of miRNAs at a time and the clear role of miRNAs in cancers, groups began looking at miRNAs profiles of different cancers, especially the circulating miRNAs. We intended to make sure whether circulating miRNAs could be a promising biomarker of human cancers. Method: We comprehensively searched the Cochrane Library, Medline and EMbase from 1966 to Nov 2009 for the following terms: ("miRNA" or "microRNA") and ("tumor" or "carcinoma") and ("plasma*" or "serum" or "circulating"). Detailed information was extracted from studies that met the inclusion criteria: blood-based miRNAs in human cancers and studies published in the English literature. Results: The current review show that different researches use different measurement methods which might impact the results; Cancers treatment might have an affect on circulating miRNAs; some miRNAs are multi-faceted RNA; small sample size might produce selection bias. Furthermore, because of the lack of randomized controlled trials and the heterogeneous nature of the available data, no attempt was made to perform quantitativemeta-analyses. Conclusions: In this review, based on those researches, circulating miRNAs are promising and difficulties for their future application for diagnosing human cancers.
Genomics and Pharmacogenomics of Breast Cancer: Current Knowledge and Trends
Ayoub, Nehad ; Lucas, Courtney ; Kaddoumi, Amal ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1127~1140
The impact of genomics and pharmacogenomics in the current arena of clinical oncology is well-established. In breast cancer, mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have been well-characterized to carry a high risk of the disease during a woman's lifespan. However, these high risk genes contribute to only a small proportion of the familial cases of breast cancer. Hence, further efforts aimed to study the contribution of genetic mutations in other genes, including the estrogen receptor gene, TP53, CYP19, and mismatch repair genes to further investigate the genetic component of breast cancer. Multiple pharmacogenomic studies have previously linked genetic variants in known pathways with treatment response in cancer patients. Currently, polymorphisms in drug metabolizing enzymes, efflux transporters, as well as, drug targets have shown correlations to variations in response and toxicity to commonly prescribed chemotherapeutic treatments of breast cancer. CYP2D6 variants have been correlated with tamoxifen response and interindividual variability seen. An emerging application of cancer genetics and pharmacogenetics involves the use of inherited or acquired genetic abnormalities to predict treatment toxicity or outcomes. Recently, methods that involve the scanning of entire genomes for common variants have begun to influence studies of cancer causation. Currently, treatment individualization for breast cancer can take place on the basis of few molecular targets including the estrogen receptor and the overexpression of the HER2 receptor. Overall, the current review summarizes the recent findings in the genetic and pharmacogenetic research of breast cancer and the advances made in personalization of treatment.
Histopathological Classification of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma
Wei, Kuang-Rong ; Xu, Ying ; Liu, Jing ; Zhang, Wen-Jun ; Liang, Zhi-Heng ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1141~1147
This article reviews all related research and reports on nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) histopathological classifications worldwide. Despite continuous advance of Chinese and international NPC histopathological classification research, it was difficult to unify previous with current China classifications, and the China with World Health Organization (WHO) classifications. For example, non-keratinizing and undifferentiated carcinoma of the WHO NPC classification does not coincide with poorly-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the previous China classification. In addition, the incidence rates of different NPC pathological types show obvious regional discrepancies. It suggested that for facilitating Chinese and international NPC research and exchange, NPC histopathological classifications worldwide should be effectively unified.
Review of the Cervical Cancer Disease Burden in Mainland China
Li, Jing ; Kang, Le-Ni ; Qiao, You-Lin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1149~1153
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. HPV may cause several reproductive tract diseases and cervical cancer is the most serious health problem due to persistent high risk HPV infection. Although cervical cancer showed a declining trend over the past three decades in China, it remains a major health problem in Chinese women especially women living in rural China. The disease burden is believed to be underestimated given the relatively high HPV prevalence shown in recent studies. To date, prophylactic vaccination as a primary prevention of cervical cancer are available in many countries and regions of the world; yet, they are not yet accessible in mainland China. Before introduction of HPV vaccines, screening remains the predominant method of prevention. Selected population based screening sites are available in every province of China, yet, an organized screening program operating nationwide still does not exist. A better understanding of the disease burden is likely to help develop a comprehensive intervention policy for future management of cervical cancer in China. It is important to review the disease burden of cervical cancer and the current status of cervical cancer screening in mainland China.
Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma in Singapore
Yip, C SP ; Koong, HN ; Loo, CM ; Fong, KW ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1155~1159
Aim: To examine the clinical characteristics and outcomes of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) in Singapore. Methods and Materials: A retrospective case note review of patients diagnosed with MPM between 1997 and 2007. Overall survival (OS), locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRS) and metastasis-free survival (MFS) were estimated using Kaplan Meier method and comparison were done using log rank test. Multivariate analysis was not done due to the small number of patients. Results: There were 39 patients diagnosed with MPM. Fifty-nine percent of patients presented with Stage III and IV disease. Eight (21%) patients had surgery with 2 patients receiving trimodality treatment and adjuvant chemotherapy respectively. Three patients received adjuvant RT and one patient had no adjuvant therapy. Twelve patients received palliative RT or chemotherapy. Median follow-up was 27.0 weeks. Median overall survival (OS) for all patients was 8.0 months (95% CI 6.3-9.7). One-year and 2-year OS were 25.6% and 6.4% respectively. Thirty-eight patients died of progressive disease and one patient died of other cause. Locoregional recurrences and distant metastases occurred in 3/8 and 5/8 surgically treated patients respectively. Overall, distant metastases occurred in 44% of patients. Surgery did not affect survival outcomes although patients with dual modality treatment showed a trend towards improved survival. Epithelioid tumours had better prognosis (median OS 10.2 months) compared to biphasic (median OS 8.0 months) and sarcomatoid tumours (median OS 1.4 months). Conclusion: Future management of MPM will need to emphasize on both locoregional and systemic control and hence, inclusion of patients in clinical trials for multimodality treatment should be encouraged.
Combined Effects of Isothiocyanate Intake, Glutathione s-Transferase Polymorphisms and Risk Habits for Age of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Development
Karen-Ng, Lee Peng ; Marhazlinda, Jamaludin ; Rahman, Zainal Arif Abdul ; Yang, Yi-Hsin ; Jalil, Norma ; Cheong, Sok Ching ; Zain, Rosnah Binti ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1161~1166
Dietary isothiocyanates (ITCs) found in cruciferous vegetables (Brassica spp.) has been reported to reduce cancer risk by inducing phase II conjugating enzymes, in particular glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). This case-control study was aimed at determining associations between dietary ITCs, GSTs polymorphisms and risk habits (cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and betel-quid chewing) with oral cancer in 115 cases and 116 controls. Information on dietary ITC intake from cruciferous vegetables was collected via a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Peripheral blood lymphocytes were obtained for genotyping of GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 using PCR multiplex and PCR-RFLP. Chi-square and logistic regression were performed to determine the association of ITC and GSTs polymorphism and risk of oral cancer. When dietary ITC was categorized into high (greater than/equal to median) and low (less than median) intake, there was no significant difference between cases and control group. Logistic regression yielding odd ratios resulted in no significant association between dietary ITC intake, GSTM1, GSTT1 or GSTP1 genotypes with oral cancer risk overall. However, GSTP1 wild-type genotype was associated with later disease onset in women above 55 years of age (p=0.017). Among the men above 45 years of age, there was clinical significant difference of 17 years in the age of onset of oral cancer between GSTP1 wild-type + low ITC intake and GSTP1 polymorphism + high ITC intake (p=0.001). Similar conditions were also seen among men above 45 years of age with risk habits like drinking and chewing as the earlier disease onset associated with GSTP1 polymorphism and high ITC intake (p<0.001). This study suggests that combination effects between dietary ITCs, GSTP1 polymorphism and risk habits may be associated with the risk of oral cancer and modulate the age of disease onset.
Clinical Significance of Human Telomerase RNA Gene (hTERC) Amplification in Cervical Squamous Cell Lesions Detected by Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization
Jin, Yi ; Li, Jia-Ping ; He, Dan ; Tang, Lu-Ying ; Zee, Chi-Shing ; Guo, Shao-Zhong ; Zhou, Jing ; Chen, Jian-Ning ; Shao, Chun-Kui ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1167~1171
Background: Genomic amplification of the human telomerase RNA gene (hTERC), located in the chromosome 3q26 region, has been documented in tumorigenesis. The present study was designed to detect hTERC amplification in cervical lesions and evaluate whether this might serve as a supportive biomarker to cytopathology or histopathology in the diagnosis of cervical lesions. Methods: Liquid-based thin-layer cytopathologic examination and detection of amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was conducted in 130 women, along with assessment of human papillomavirus DNA, colposcopy with biopsy, and histopathologic examination. Results: In cytopathologic examinations, hTERC amplification rates for negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM),atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cases were 0% (0/10), 4% (1/25), 20% (6/30), 77% (27/35), and 100% (10/10), respectively. The difference among abnormal cellular change groups was statistically significant (P<0.05). In histopathologic examinations, hTERC amplification rates in normal squamous cell with or without inflammatory, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 (CIN 1), CIN 2, CIN 3 and SCC cases were 3.8% (2/52), 18.2% (6/33), 66.7% (6/9), 84.6% (22/26), 100% (10/10), respectively. There were significant differences among CIN1, CIN2, CIN3 and SCC cases (P<0.05). The hTERC amplification was more specific than HPV positivity in differentiating lowgrade from high-grade cervical disorders (specificity: 88.5% vs. 70.8%, P<0.05). Conclusions: FISH detection of hTERC amplification could be an effective adjunct to cytopathologic or histopathologic examination for differential diagnosis of low- and high-grade cervical squamous cell disorders.
Practice and Barriers Toward Breast Self-Examination Among Young Malaysian Women
Al-Naggar, Redhwan Ahmed ; Al-Naggar, Dhekra Hamoud ; Bobryshev, Yuri V ; Chen, Robert ; Assabri, Ali ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1173~1178
Introduction:The etiology of breast cancer is still unknown and adequate primary prevention strategies or interventions are still not possible. Therefore, early detection remains the first priority and regular practice of breast self-examination (BSE) influences treatment, quality of life, survival, and prognosis of breast cancer patients. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the practices and barriers towards breast self-examination among young Malaysian women. Methodology:Cross-sectional study was conducted among 251 female students at the Management and Science University, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia. Questionnaires were distributed at gathering places such as the university cafeteria, the university plaza, the Islamic center, and at the library. In addition, questionnaires were distributed in the lecture halls. The proposal of this study was approved by the Ethics and Research Committee of Management and Science University. Data was analysis using SPSS version 13, t-test was used to analyze the associated factors toward the practice of BSE. Results:A total number of 251 students participated in this study. The majority of them were older than 20 years old,of Malay racial origin, single and from urban areas (66.5%; 63.7%; 96%; 70.9% respectively). Regarding their lifestyle practices, the majority of participants do exercise, are non-smokers and do not drink alcohol (71.3%; 98.4%; 94.4% respectively). More than half of the study participants mentioned that they have practiced BSE (55.4%). Regarding the sources of information about BSE, the majority mentioned that radio and TV were their main sources of information (38.2%). Age, exercise and family history of cancer significantly influenced the practice of BSE (p = 0.045; p=0.002; p=0.017 respectively). Regarding the barriers to BSE, the majority who never practiced BSE mentioned that lack of knowledge, not having any symptoms, and being afraid of being diagnosed with breast cancer were the main barriers to practicing BSE (20.3%; 14.3%; 4.4% respectively). Conclusion:More than half ofthe participants practiced BSE. Age, exercise and family history of cancer significantly influenced the practice of the BSE. Lack of knowledge, not having any symptoms and being afraid of being diagnosed with breast cancer were the main barriers to practicing BSE. There is an urgent need to develop a continuous awareness campaign among university students on the importance of performing BSE.
Examination with the Health Belief Model of Women's Attitudes to Cervical Cancer and Early Diagnosis in Turkey: A Qualitative Study
Duran, Emel Tasci ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1179~1184
Objective: The study was planned with the purpose of examining women's attitude to the health belief model, and their attitudes and behavior towards cervical cancer and early diagnosis. Materials and methods: The qualitative (case-study) method was used in this study. Data were collected between October 2010 and November 2010 using a purposive sampling method for qualitative research. The study sample constituted from 11 women being treated at two clinics, between the ages of 15 and 49, who were married, and who had not previously had a pap-smear test. Data collection tool consist of two parts that are an "Information Form" identifying women and semi-structured "Interview Form". Interviews were done face to face by using in-depth interviews technique. Semi-structured interview was recorded in audio recording device. Content analysis method was used to assess the data. Results: Awareness is insufficient that of women about cervical cancer prevention and early diagnosis, there is less fear of cervical cancer. Information of women is inadequate about early diagnosis and prevention of cervical cancer and there are various barriers about early detection and prevention. According to content analysis, three main themes emerge. These are the themes of belief, knowledge and barriers. Conclusions: It became clear from interviews carried out in line with the health belief model why women did not exhibit positive health behavior. It is recommended that this study should be repeated in other parts of Turkey. In addition, this study can serve as a guide to quantitative studies in wider communities.
Weekly Cisplatin versus Standard Three-weekly Cisplatin in Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy of Head and Neck Cancer: the Baskent University Experience
Kose, Fatih ; Besen, Ayberk ; Sumbul, Taner ; Sezer, Ahmet ; Karadeniz, Cemile ; Disel, Umut ; Altundag, Ozden ; Ozyilkan, Ozgur ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1185~1188
Background: The majority of patients with head and neck cancer are treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. However, toxicity is substantial so that alternate schedules of cisplatin have been tried to overcome this problem. No formal comparison, however, has been reported between alternate schedules and reference regimen. Patients and methods: Fifty-five eligible patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. The patients treated with weekly cisplatin were defined as group A, while the patients treated with standard regimen were defined as group B. Basic demographics and clinical characteristics', overall survival rate, locoregional or systemic relapse rates, and time to local/systemic relapse were recorded. Results: One, two, and three-year probability of survival in groups A and B were 75% to 65% after one year, 63% to 56%after two, and 63% to 52% after three, respectively. Although time to local and systemic relapse was higher in group B as compared to group A, a statistical analysis was failed to show any significant difference. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between groups with respect to major toxicity. Conclusion: In patients with head and neck cancer, concurrent chemoradiotherapy with weekly cisplatin might be as effective as concurrent chemoradiotherapy with bolus cisplatin.
Marking Non-palpable Breast Masses with Injected Methylene Blue Dye, an Easy, Safe and Low Cost Method for Developing Countries and Resource-limited Areas
Nasrinossadat, Alavi ; Ladan, Fonooni ; Fereshte, Ensani ; Asieh, Olfatbakhsh ; Reza, Chaman ; Akramossadat, Sadjadian ; Golshan, Mehra ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1189~1192
Introduction: The widespread use of improved mammographic techniques has led to increased detection of nonpalpable breast masses. Preoperative localization is important for reducing false negative results and decreasing the size of tissue resection needed and the resulting breast deformity. We used ultrasound guided methylen blue injection in the mass for localization of breast masses that were clinically nonpalpable but detectable by ultrasound. Materials and methods : 57 masses from 51 patients were marked 20 to 180 minutes before surgery with 0.4-0.7 cc methylene blue and resection was done in operating room under local or general anesthesia . success of radiologist for localization and success of surgeon for complete resection and pathology results were reviwed and fallow up ultrasound was done 3-5 month after surgery for patients whom pathology report was non specific (such as FCC) to confirm complete resection. Results: 57 masses were excised successfully by the surgeon , localization was successful in all patients but injection in the mass was not feasible in 4 patients and dye was injected on the surface of the mass and led to successful excision .Only one mass was not found at surgery because dye washed out before surgery, and the mass was resected by use of intra operative ultrasound. 5.3% patients reported the procedure was painful and 28% reported tolerable pain during injection and 66.7 % of patients said that the injection was painless or with minimal discomfort. Allergic reaction was not seen in any patient and no interference was reported by the pathologist in slide preparation or diagnoses and IHC study. Conclusion: Marking with blue dye injection is a safe and low cost method for localization of non palpable breast lesions that are detectable by Ultrasound. In one patient failure to find the mass was because of location of the mass that was in axillary tail of breast and time of surgery that was 100 minutes after injection that led to absorption of blue dye before surgery and it is advised to do surgery as soon as possible after blue dye injection especially in peripheral and deeply located masses.
Season of Birth and Risk of Endometrial Cancer
Rowlands, Ingrid J ; Weinstein, Philip ; Nagle, Christina M ; Spurdle, Amanda B ; Webb, Penelope M ; Australian National Endometrial Cancer Study (ANECS), Australian National Endometrial Cancer Study (ANECS) ; Australian Ovarian Cancer Study (AOCS), Australian Ovarian Cancer Study (AOCS) ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1193~1196
Objectives: Season of birth has been associated with adult morbidity and mortality, but few epidemiological studies have examined whether season of birth contributes to the development of cancer. Using data from the Australian National Endometrial Cancer Study, a population-based case-control study of 1399 cases and 1539 controls, we examined the association between season of birth and risk of endometrial cancer. Methods: Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the association between season of birth and endometrial cancer. Additional analyses were stratified by state of birth. Results: Season of birth was not associated with endometrial cancer overall, but there was an increased risk among women born in summer in Tasmania, the most southerly state (OR = 4.46, 95% CI: 1.24-16.06) and non-significant increases in the other southern states. Conclusion: Further data are required to confirm these findings, however the observed associations may be due to the longer days and/or greater hours of sunshine in Australia's southerly states in summer, suppressing melatonin levels in summer-born infants and predisposing them to cancer in adulthood.
Apoptosis Induction in MDA-MB-435S, Hep3B and PC-3 Cell Lines by Rheum emodi Rhizome Extracts
Rajkumar, V ; Guha, Gunjan ; Kumar, R Ashok ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1197~1200
The study was aimed at evaluating apoptosis induction potentials of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Rheum emodi Wall. ex Meissn. rhizome. The ability of the extracts to induce apoptosis in MDA-MB-435S (human breast carcinoma), Hep3B (human hepatocellular carcinoma) and PC-3 (human prostate cancer) cell lines were tested by ELISA to detect cellular DNA fragmentation. Results obtained from the present study confirm that the extracts target the cancerous cells towards apoptosis. The study concludes that R. emodi possess anticancer metabolites that can be isolated and used as precursors in development of anticancer drugs. Suppression of apoptosis might contribute to tumor development by means of accumulation of continuously proliferating cells. The strategy employed in this study, to induce apoptosis in the tumor cells, could be a potential target of therapeutic intervention of cancers.
Factors Affecting Prostate Cancer Screening Behaviour in a Discrete Population of Doctors at the University Hospital of the West Indies, Jamaica
McNaughton, Dawn ; Aiken, William ; McGrowder, Donovan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1201~1205
To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices of Jamaican male medical consultants regarding prostate cancer screening in three departments within the University Hospital of the West Indies. The research design was a cross-sectional quantitative survey utilising a self administered questionnaire. All 36 male consultants between 40 and 70 years from the Departments of Surgery Radiology Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Obstetrics and Gynaecology/Child Health, and Medicine participated in the survey. Bivariate analyses were used to determine the relationship between the three constructs with P < 0.05 taken as statistically significant. The majority (97%) of the respondents were aware that prostate cancer among Jamaicans account for one of the highest incidences in the world and 85% believed that screening for prostate cancer should begin at age 40 years. Approximately two-fifths (44.4%) reported that they usually encourage their patients to be screened. Nearly all (97%) of the respondents agreed that performing both the prostate specific antigen (PSA) test and digital rectal examination (DRE) are more effective in assessing for the presence of prostate cancer. Just over one-third (36%) found the DRE embarrassing and 41% had never had a DRE. The results showed a significant positive correlation (r = 0.374, P = 0.032) between knowledge and attitude, and an even stronger correlation between attitude and prostate cancer screening practice (r = 0.395, P = 0.025). However there was no direct correlation between knowledge and practice. Physicians' knowledge of prostate cancer does not predict their personal prostate cancer screening behaviour. Knowledge of prostate cancer is not enough to result in screening behavior of men in Jamaica.
Salt Taste Preference, Sodium Intake and Gastric Cancer in China
Zhang, Zhiyong ; Zhang, Xiefu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1207~1210
Aim: The risk factors mostly strongly associated with gastric cancer are gastric bacteria Helicobacter pylori and diet. By using a case-control study among residents in China, we examined the association between sodium intake, presence of H,pylori, and gastric cancer risk. Methods: A population-based case-control study including 235 cases and 410 controls were used. Potential risk factors of gastric cancer were interview for cases and controls by questionnaire, salt taste preference was measured for all subjects, and IgG antibodies to H,pylori was used for H.pylori infection. Risk measures were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Results: H.pylori infection and smoking increased the risk of gastric cancer, with the OR(95%CI) of 1.91(1.32-2.79) and 1.47(1.05- 2.05), respectively. Dietary sodium intake independently increased the risk of gastric cancer. Participants with the highest sodium intake(>5g/day) had a high gastric cancer risk [OR(95%CI)= 3.78(1.74-5.44)]. Participants with the salt taste preference at 7.3g/L and
showed higher risk of gastric cancer [OR(95%) for 7.3g/L and
were 5.36(2.72-10.97) and 4.75(2.43-8.85), respectively]. A significantly interaction was found between salt taste preference and H.pylori infection (p=0.037). Salt taste preference was significantly correlated with sodium intake (Correlation coefficient=0.46, p<0.001). Conclusion: Salt taste preference test could be a simple way to evaluate an inherited characteristic of sodium intake, and our study confirms the gastric cancer is associated with sodium intake and H.pylori.
The Need to Incorporate Routine Cervical Cancer Counselling and Screening in the Management of HIV Positive Women in Nigeria
Rabiu, KA ; Akinbami, AA ; Adewunmi, AA ; Akinola, O I ; Wright, KO ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1211~1214
Objective: The study aimed to assess the awareness and utilization of the Pap smear among HIV positive women in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and methods: A descriptive cross sectional survey of women attending the anti-retroviral clinic of the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, Lagos State, Nigeria was carried out between 1st September and 30th November 2009 using a pre-tested questionnaire. Data were analysed using the Epi-info 3.5 statistical software of the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta USA. Results: None of the 300 respondents reported having received any form of counselling about cervical cancer and screening during the post HIV test counseling. Seventy six (25.3%) of them had heard of cervical cancer; Forty eight (16%) were aware of the Pap smear and only 15 (31.3%) of these (5% of the total number of respondents) have ever done the test before. The majority (69.7%) of those who had not been screened despite knowledge of the Pap smear, gave non- recommendation by their doctor as the main reason for not doing the test. Conclusion: Cervical cancer counseling and screening is not part of the routine management of HIV positive women in Lagos, Nigeria. There is need to address this deficiency with appropriate guidelines.
Epidemiological Study of Risk Factors for Oral, Laryngeal and Esophageal Cancers at a Tertiary Care Hospital in India
Sharma, Munesh Kumar ; Gour, Neeraj ; Pandey, Avadesh ; Wallia, Dinesh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1215~1218
Background and Ais: An epidemiological shift in the form of increase in the incidence of cancer and decrease in the incidence of smoking is universally realized today. This study was conducted to observe an association of smoking, use of alcohol & tobacco and cancers of the oral cavity, larynx and esophagus Material and Methods: it was a case control study conducted at Deptt. of Radiotherapy at GMCH, Chandigarh. The registers from radiology department were utilized and studied for the presence of history of alcohol consumption, smoking and tobacco intake. Statistical analysis was done by calculating Odds ratio along with 95% confidence interval. Results: Out of 363 cases with the diagnosis of Laryngeal, Esophageal and Oral Cancer along with 568 controls studied, 42 (11.6%) were in the age group of 30-44 years, 153 (42.1%) in the age group of 45-59 years and rest 171 (47.1%) in the age group of 60+ years. Among cases, the percentage of tobacco use, smoking and alcohol consumption was 10.5, 60.6 and 33.6 respectively as against the similar percentages among controls 1.4, 9.0 and 6.3. The odds ratio for tobacco use in relation to patients aged 60+ years was 2.39, in the age group of 45-59 years was 11.19 and increased to 55.35 in the age group 30-44 years. Similarly the overall odds ratio for alcohol consumption was 7.48 and it was 4.98 in the age group 60+ years, 6.30 in the age group 45-59 years and increasing to 17.00 in the age group of 30-44 years. Conclusion: Finding suggests that risk of cancer of the upper respiratory and alimentary tracts is higher with tobacco and alcohol use. Further studies are required.
Xanthoxyletin, a Coumarin Induces S Phase Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Gastric Adenocarcinoma SGC-7901 Cells
Rasul, Azhar ; Khan, Muhammad ; Yu, Bo ; Ma, Tonghui ; Yang, Hong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1219~1223
This study was conducted to explore the novel anticancer compounds from Chinese herbs. During the process of screening, to evaluate the potential chemopreventive effect of natural compounds, Xanthoxyletin was isolated from Erythrina variegata. It has been reported that Xanthoxyletin possesses antibacterial, fungicidal, and algicidal properties. In this study, we examined the antiproliferative effects of Xanthoxyletin against SGC-7901 cells and its ability to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest for the first time. We observed that its inhibitory effects on cells were associated with the DNA damage, apoptosis through mitochondrial dysfunction, and cell cycle arrest at S phase in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, Xanthoxyletin also increased the production of reactive oxygen species in SGC-7901 cells. These results suggest that Xanthoxyletin may be promising anticancer agent and has worth for further mechanistic and therapeutic studies against gastric cancer.
Patterns of Survival for Anatomical Sites of Colorectal Cancer with Shift to Advanced Lesions in Iran
Ghabeljoo, Manijeh ; Jafarabadi, Mohammad Asghari ; Mohammadi, Seyede Momeneh ; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim ; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan ; Fatemi, Seyed Reza ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1225~1231
Background: With a background of disparities in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidences/mortality across countries due to differences in exposure to various prognostic factors, this study aimed to evaluate the site-specific pattern for the survival of colon and rectal patients. Methods: A total of 1,283 patients with CRC diagnosis according to the pathology report of cancer registry of RCGLD from 1 January 2002 to 1 October 2007, were entered into the study. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate competing risk survival analysis. Results: Survival proportion of patients showed a significant trend for 1, 3 and 5 year survival in colon cancer (P<0.001) but this wasn't significant for rectal cancer (P=0.078). Tumor grade and pathologic stage were the most important factors predicting the survival in colon and rectal cancers with stronger hazard in the rectal site for grade and stronger hazard in the colon site for stage. For colon site, in the well and moderate categories of tumor grade, shifting from early to advance stage and also shifting in tumor grade from well and moderate categories to poor tumor grade had a considerable effect in hazard ratios. For rectum site, well to moderate shifting in tumor grade increased the hazard of death and shifting from early to advance stage increased the hazard equal to 2.54 and 4.36 times within the well and moderate tumor differentiation, respectively. In shifting to advance CRC, colon site had generally worse hazard than the rectum. Conclusion: Due to the worse conditions of CRC patients as shifting to advance cancer, to improve the effectiveness of treatment and hence the survival of Iranian patients, we should pay more attention to early detection, in particular by implementing population based screening programmes.
Knowledge of Health Effects and Intentions to Quit among Smokeless Tobacco Users in India: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) India Pilot Survey
Raute, Lalit J ; Sansone, Genevieve ; Pednekar, Mangesh S ; Fong, Geoffrey T ; Gupta, Prakash C ; Quah, Anne CK ; Bansal-Travers, Maansi ; Sinha, Dhirendra N ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1233~1238
Introduction and background: The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use in India is the highest in the world, with 26% of adults reporting being users of smokeless tobacco only. But to date, there are few studies of beliefs, knowledge, and other psychosocial measures relating to smokeless tobacco use in India. The aim of the present study was to use data from the ITC India Pilot Study conducted in 2006 to examine beliefs about the harms of smokeless tobacco use, knowledge of health effects, and intentions to quit among current smokeless tobacco users in two states, Maharashtra and Bihar. Methods: Data from the ITC India Pilot Study, a face-to-face cross-sectional survey of 248 adults reporting exclusive current use of smokeless tobacco in Maharashtra and Bihar, were analyzed with respect to the knowledge of health effects, beliefs about harmfulness, and intentions to quit smokeless tobacco use. Results: Around three quarters (36%) of smokeless tobacco users from Maharashtra and two thirds (62%) from Bihar had a 'bad' opinion about smokeless tobacco use. About 77% believed that smokeless tobacco use causes mouth cancer, followed by gum disease (66%) and difficulty in opening the mouth (56%). Significant differences were found in health knowledge between urban and rural smokeless tobacco users in both states. Only 38% of smokeless tobacco users reported having intentions to quit, and only 11% had intentions to quit within the next 6 months. Smokeless tobacco users who reported higher knowledge of the specific health effects from smokeless tobacco use were more likely to have intentions to quit. Conclusion: Despite the fairly high levels of awareness of health effects from smokeless tobacco use in Maharashtra and Bihar, the majority of smokeless users had no intentions to quit. Increased educational efforts about the detrimental health effects from smokeless tobacco use may result in higher levels of knowledge about the harms of smokeless tobacco and this in turn could increase quit intentions and subsequent quitting among users.
Factors Influencing Breast Cancer Screening Behavior among Iranian Women
Noroozi, Azita ; Tahmasebi, Rahim ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1239~1244
Background: Early detection of breast cancer is of great importance to improve women's health and to decrease the cost related to cancer death. Therefore, recognition of variables related to breast cancer screening behaviors is necessary. Objectives of this study were to identify the rates of breast self-examination (BSE) performance and mammography use in Iranian women, and to characterize the demographic and cognitive factors associated with their breast cancer screening behavior. Method: Data were collected from a convenience sample of 388 females, using an adapted version of Champion's revised Health Belief Model Scale. Results: The results showed that 7.5% of the participants performed BSE on a regular monthly basis, and among the women aged 40 and older, 14.3% reported having had at least one mammography in their lifetime. Perceived self-efficacy and perceived barriers to BSE were significant predictors for BSE performance. For having mammography, health motivation was the main predictor. Conclusion: Eliminating barriers and increasing perceived self-efficacy with an emphasis to make the women acquainted with BSE performance; as well as increasing health motivation of women and persuading of physicians for clinical breast examination (CBE) performance with low cost and free access to m ammography, are important to promote BSE and mammography.
Estimating the Costs of Esophageal Cancer Screening, Early Diagnosis and Treatment in Three High Risk Areas in China
Yang, Juan ; Wei, Wen Qiang ; Niu, Jin ; He, Yu Tong ; Liu, Zhi Cai ; Song, Guo Hui ; Zhao, De Li ; Qiao, You Lin ; Yang, Chun Xia ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1245~1250
Background: The incidence and mortality of esophageal cancer (EC) in some rural areas with poor health resources in China are the highest around the world. In these areas, screening programs for EC are conducted for prevention and control. However, costs associated with esophageal cancer screening have not been characterized in detail. This study is aimed to estimate the screening, early diagnosis and treatment costs of EC using micro-costing methods, which could provide basic cost inputs for further systematic health economic evaluation. Materials and Methods: Micro-costing methods were adopted to collect data on quantity and unit cost of used resources. Data was obtained from face-to-face interview with medical staff, local hospitals' database, and experts' input. We used 80% capacity utilization and 3% discount rate to annualize capital investments, and all costs were adjusted to year 2008 using the gross domestic production deflator, and then converted from Chinese currency unit to international dollars (I$) using purchasing power parity. Results: Screening costs per case were around I$60. For severe dysplasia, carcinoma in situ and intramucosal carcinoma, the costs per capita of endoscopic mucosal resection were I$1292~I$1620, and around I$450 for argon plasma coagulation. For submucosal carcinoma (T1N0M0), and invasive carcinoma treated by esophagectomy, the treatment costs ranged from I$1485 to I$2171. The costs of treatment of invasive carcinoma were: I$497~I$685.2 for radiotherapy; I$4652~I$7966.15 for chemotherapy; I$1928~I$2805 for combination of esophagectomy and radiotherapy; I$6632~I$8082 for esophagectomy, radiotherapy and chemotherapy in combination. Conclusion: The cost analysis found screening, early diagnosis and treatment for EC could provide great cost savings. The results provide important information for further health economic evaluation, and to help the local policy makers on updating such screening program in high risk areas in China.
Preoperative Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen, Carbohydrate Antigen19-9 and Carbohydrate Antigen 125 as Prognostic Factors for Recurrence-free Survival in Colorectal Cancer
Yang, Xue-Qin ; Chen, Chuang ; Wang, Fu-Bing ; Peng, Chun-Wei ; Li, Yan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1251~1256
Objective: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the most common malignancies worldwide. Understanding CRC prognosis at the initial diagnosis is very important for therapeutic strategy selection. This study was conducted to evaluate the prognostic value of preoperative serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) for predicting 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) in CRC patients. Methods: Preoperative serum CA19-9, CEA and CA125 levels were detected by C12 protein chip diagnostic system in 103 patients with CRC, and their correlations with the 5-year RFS were analyzed. Results: Patients with positive preoperative serum CA19-9, CEA and CA125 had higher 5-year recurrent rates (75.0% vs 41.0%, 65.6% vs 39.4%, and 87.5% vs 44.2% respectively, all p<0.05), and reduced median RFS (14 vs 35 months, 20 vs 36 months, and 4 vs 35 months respectively, all p<0.05) compared with patients negative for corresponding tumor marker (TM). The median RFS was 59 months (95% CI 28.9-89.1 months) with negative TMs, 14 months (95% CI 4.5-23.5) for 1~2 positive TMs, and 4 months (95% CI 2.4-5.6) for all 3 positive TMs. Patients with simultaneously positive serum CA19-9, CEA and CA125 had the highest recurrence rate (100%) and the shortest RFS (median 4 months). Univariate analysis showed that stage and the preoperative single TM or combined TMs correlated with RFS, whereas multivariate Cox regression model analysis revealed only stage and preoperative serum status of CEA+CA19-9+CA125 to be independent prognostic factors. Conclusion: Preoperative serum CA19-9+CEA+CA125 can be used an independent prognostic factor for CRC 5-year RFS.
Impact of Total and Ionized Serum Calcium on Prostate Cancer Risk in North Indian Men
George, Ginu P ; Ramesh, V ; Mittal, Rama D ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1257~1260
Introduction: Calcium has anti-proliferative and pro-differentiation effects on cells in vitro and can inhibit the development of various cancers. While there is some epidemiologic evidence for an inverse relation between dietary calcium intake and prostate cancer risk, only few have focused on serum calcium levels in this respect. Materials and Methods: We assayed total serum calcium and ionized serum calcium in a pilot study of 40 prostate cancer patients and compared with 40 healthy controls. Results: Our observations provided evidence for an association between prostate cancer risk and total and ionized serum calcium levels(p=0.020 and
respectively). The mean difference of total serum calcium was also significant in patients with serum PSA >20ng/ ml (p=0.017). Conclusion: This is an important and interesting finding which requires further exploration into mechanism involved in calcium channel and prostate cancer risk in a larger cohort of different ethnic population.
Cancer Incidence Rates in the Kurdistan Region/Iraq from 2007-2009
Othman, Ramadhan T ; Abdulljabar, Rezvan ; Saeed, Abdullah ; Kittani, Sarwar Sadiq ; Sulaiman, Hushyar M ; Mohammed, Sami A ; Rashid, Rekawt M ; Hussein, Nawfal R ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1261~1264
Cancer is a disease of gradual increase in incidence overall the world. Kurdistan Region in Iraq has been exposed to several carcinogenic hazards. There are few reports about the increased risk of cancer in different cities in Iraq. These reports did not cover Kurdistan region. The aim of this paper was to study cancer incidence and to identify possible risks of cancer in this region. Cancer registries from 9 hospitals in three cities of Kurdistan were used as a source of data. Information on these cases was subjected to careful verification regarding repetition, place of residence and other possible errors. Overall registered cases in 2007, 2008 and 2009 were 1444, 2081, 2356 respectively. 49% of registered cases were males and 51% were female. The Age Standardized Rate of cancer was 89.83/100 000 among male and 83.93/100 000 among female. The results showed major variation in incidence rates of different types of cancer in the three governorates of Kurdistan. Furthermore, there was evidence of increased risks of cancer in Kurdistan Region in Iraq. Hematological malignancies were the most common cancer among male (21.13% of all cancer in males) and second most common in female (18.8% of all cancer in female), only exceeded by breast cancer. To reach sound conclusions about extent and determinants of cancer in Kurdistan, enormous multi-spectrum efforts are now needed.
Linkage between Prostate Cancer Occurrence and Y-Chromosomal DYS Loci in Malaysian Subjects
Nargesi, Mirsaed Miri ; Ismail, Patimah ; Razack, Azad Hassan Abdul ; Pasalar, Parvin ; Nazemi, Ali ; Oshkoor, Sima Attaollahi ; Amini, Peyman ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1265~1268
Purpose: Prostate cancer differs markedly in incidence across ethnic groups. Since this disease is influenced by complex genetics, it is many genetic factors may affect the level of susceptibility to development of the disease. In this study, four Y-linked short tandem repeats (STRs), DYS388, DYS435, DYS437, and DYS439, were genotyped to compare Malaysian prostate cancer patients and normal control males. Materials and methods: A total of 175 subjects comprising 84 patients and 91 healthy individuals were recruited. Multiplex PCR was optimized to co-amplify DYS388, DYS435, DYS437, and DYS439 loci. All samples were genotyped for alleles of four DYS loci using a Genetic Analysis System. Results: Of all DYS loci, allele 10 (A) of DYS388 had a significantly lower incidence of disease in compare with other alleles of this locus, while a higher incidence of disease was found among males who had either allele 12 (C) of DYS388 or allele 14 (E) of DYS439. Moreover, a total of 47 different haplotypes comprising different alleles of four DYS loci were found among the whole study samples, of which haplotypes AABC and CAAA showed a lower and higher frequency among cases than controls, respectively. Conclusions: It is likely that Malaysian males who belong to Y-lineages with either allele 12 of DYS388, allele 14 of DYS439, or haplotype CAAA are more susceptible to develop prostate cancer, while those belonging to lineages with allele 10 of DYS388 or haplotype AABC are more resistant to the disease.
Beclin1 Overexpression Inhibitis Proliferation, Invasion and Migration of CaSki Cervical Cancer Cells
Sun, Yang ; Liu, Jia-Hua ; Sui, Yu-Xia ; Jin, Long ; Yang, Yin ; Lin, Sai-Mei ; Shi, Hong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1269~1273
The influence of the autophagy-related gene Beclin1 on proliferation, invasion and metastasis of the cervical cancer CaSki cells and its possible mechanism in vitro were here targeted. After the overexpression vector pcDNA3.1-Beclin1 and RNA interference vector pSUPER-Beclin1 were transfected into CaSki cells in vitro, stable expression cell lines demonstration Beclin1 expression was upregulated, and VEGF and MMP-9 expression were decreased, leading to cell arrest in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. MTT assays further revealed proliferation of cells was significantly inhibited in Beclin1-overexpressing transfectant cells, with invasion and metastasis also being inhibited in Transwell chamber assays. The present results suggest that Beclin1 inhibits invasion and metastasis of cervical cancer CaSki cells in vitro. Mechanisms probably involve Beclin1 inhibition of cell proliferation, and decreased expression of VEGF and MMP-9 proteins.
Ultrasound Operators' Confidence Influences Diagnosis of Ovarian Tumors - a Study in China
Haiyan, Huang ; Min, Deng ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1275~1277
Aim: To assess the effect of ultrasound operators' confidence in diagnosis of ovarian cancer, and the factors influencing diagnostic accuracy. Methods: Ultrasound images of selected ovarian cancers and controls were evaluated by 8 sinologists who were instructed to diagnose and classify lesions into benign, borderline or malignant, and we use structured questionnaire to investigate the level of confidence. We analyzed the accuracy of diagnosis, including sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios and accuracy depending on the different levels of confidence. In addition, factors influencing diagnostic accuracy was assessed by logistic regression analysis. Results: A total of 426 cases were examined. The confidence score was significantly increased with the level of accuracy (test for trend, p<0.05). Borderline tumors were most difficult to diagnose, and had lower accuracy, sensitivity and specificity compared with benign and primary invasive tumors. Working experience was positively closely associated with diagnosis accuracy. Logistic regression analysis revealed working experience and confidence score to be positively related to the diagnostic accuracy(OR, 95%CI, 1.68, 1.15-3.97 for working experience; OR, 95%CI, 3.75, 1.67-6.98 for confidence score). Conclusion: Our study showed that level of confidence is positively associated with diagnostic performance, and the accuracy is greatly influenced by working experience and confidence score.
Gluthatione-S-transferase T1-null Genotype Predisposes Adults to Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia; a Case-Control Study
Mandegary, Ali ; Rostami, Shahrbanou ; Alimoghaddam, Kamran ; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir ; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1279~1282
Polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase (GST) proteins are correlated with elevated risk of many cancers including hematologic malignancies. Particularly concerning acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), the studies on association between GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 and the disease predisposition are scarce and contradictory. The aim of this study was to examine whether polymorphic variations in GST confer susceptibility to APL. GSTM1 and GSTT1 null and GSTP1 Ile105Val alleles were determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR-RFLP, respectively, in 114 APL patients and 99 healthy controls. Frequency of GSTT1 null and GSTM1 null genotypes were higher in APL group which it was statistically significant for GSTT1 null (p< 0.01). The GSTM1 null and GSTT1 null conferred a 1.36-fold (OR= 1.36, 95% CI = 0.79-2.33, p= 0.18) and 2.14-fold (OR= 2.14; 95% CI: 1.18-3.92, p= 0.013) increase in risk of APL, respectively, relative to the presence of the GSTM1 or GSTT1 genes. GSTP1 Ile105/Val105 and Val105/Val105 genotypes showed no increase in the risk of APL (OR= 0.94; 95% CI: 0.52-1.67 and OR= 1.12; 95% CI: 0.48-2.60, respectively). Our results suggest that GSTT1 null genotype may be associated with increased risk of APL.
Validation of the Turkish Versions of EORTC QLQ-C30 and BR23 Modules in Breast Cancer Patients
Demirci, Senem ; Eser, Erhan ; Ozsaran, Zeynep ; Tankisi, Deniz ; Aras, Arif B ; Ozaydemir, Gul ; Anacak, Yavuz ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1283~1287
Purpose: To test the validity and reliability of The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) core (QLQ-C30) and breast cancer module (QLQ-BR23) for Turkish breast cancer patients. Patients and Methods: A total of 127 patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) enrolled to this prospective study. EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23 modules applied to patients before initiation of RT and at follow-up period. Statistical analyses were performed by SPSS 13.0. Results: Questionnaires' were found reliable and valid for Turkish breast cancer patients. Six of the 8 multi-item scales of QLQ-C30 had a high reliability (Cronbach's
>0.7); where physical functioning and pain scores were less reliable (Cronbach's
of 0.66 and 0.68 respectively). In the QLQ-BR23, 3 of 5 multi-item scales were reliable; less reliable were breast and arm symptoms scale (Cronbach's
of 0.65 and 0.61 respectively). In our analysis the most determinative subscales of QLQ-C30 on global health was emotional functioning followed by fatigue, role functioning and appetite loss (respectively p=0.002, p=0.01; p=0.03 and p=0.08). Among QLQ-BR23 scales systemic therapy side effects, future perspective and upset by hair loss subscales had high impact on global health status (respectively p=0.006; p=0.01 and p=0.03). Conclusions: The Turkish version of EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23 modules are reliable and valid tools to assess quality of life of Turkish breast cancer patients.
Role of Exogenous and Endogenous Sources of Estrogen on the Incidence of Breast Fibroadenoma: Case-control Study in Iran
Bidgoli, Sepideh Arbabi ; Eftekhari, Tara ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1289~1293
Breast fibroadenoma (FAD) is the most common benign mammary condition among women but the environmental risk factors have not identified yet. As the role of long term estrogen exposure in the incidence of FAD has been remained controversial; we have decided to investigate the possible role of endogenous and exogenous sources of estrogens in present study. Women less than 45 years old who underwent surgery from June 2009 to June 2010 were matched with controls by age and hospital. From reproductive factors, lack of breast feeding (p<0.001, 8.76 CI95% 3.79-20.24), Nulliparity (p=0.001, OR=8.09, CI95% 3.505-18.67), Lack of parity (p=0.001, OR=6.64, CI 95% 2.56-16.31) and Hormonal dysfunction (p=0.016, OR=4.66, CI 95% 1.26- 17.28) were considered as the most important ones. Adiposity and abnormal weight gain after 18 years were considered as major background factor which induce FAD and may be contributed to the level of endogenous estrogen. Out of evaluated exogenous sources of estrogen, lower age at first OCP consumption (20.76_+3.87 vs. 22.85_+3.88, p=0.046) and living near Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) producing factories (p<0.001, OR=3.7, CI95%1.61-7.94), were considered as the main sources of exposure to xenestrogens in FAD patients but FAD showed inverse association with cigarette smoking because of antiestrogenic activities of cigarette smoking . This study concludes that the incidence and development of FAD could be associated with the reproductive history of women, activity of ovarian hormones as well as environmental factors.
Level of Cancer Awareness among Women of Low Socioeconomic Status in Mumbai Slums
Kumar, Yogesh S ; Mishra, Gauravi ; Gupta, Subhadra ; Shastri, Surendra ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1295~1298
Background: Cancer, a major cause of morbidity and mortality in India can be prevented by early detection through screening, for which, awareness is essential. Aim: Determining cancer awareness among low socioeconomic women in Mumbai. Settings and Design: Community based cancer screening study using a mobile van. Materials and methods: Data of consenting participants, collected using structured questionnaire, was differentiated into good and poor level of awareness using point based grading procedure. Results: Mean age of 182 participants, majority (90.5%) belonging to lower socioeconomic strata, was
years. Knowledge about cancer (84.6%) was good compared to knowledge of cancer screening (35.1%), awareness being higher among richer and more educated. Major sources of information were friends or relatives (46.1%) and media (35.2%). Only 6.6% had undergone prior screening. Conclusion: In spite of appreciable knowledge about cancer, creating awareness about screening, its availability, and motivating the general population for screening is necessary.
Anticlastogenic and Anticarcinogenic Potential of Thai Bitter Gourd Fruits
Kupradinun, Piengchai ; Tepsuwan, Anong ; Tantasi, Nopsaran ; Meesiripun, Nuntana ; Rungsipipat, Anudep ; Kusamran, Wannee R ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1299~1305
Thai bitter gourd fruits (Momordica charantia Linn., TBG) has been previously demonstrated to possess phase II detoxificating enzymes inducing properties, as well as the ability to reduce phase I carcinogen activating enzyme activity in rat liver. In addition, it was partially inhibited 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)- induced mammary gland carcinogenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats. In this study, we therefore examined the anticlastogenic and anticarcinogenic effect of TBG against clastogens, cyclophosphamide (CYP) and DMBA, in mice using the in vivo erythrocyte micronucleus assay and azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats, respectively. For anticlastogenicity test, male mice were fed with modified AIN-76 diets containing 6.25% and 12.5% of ground freeze-dried TBG for 2 weeks prior to administration of clastogens till the end of experiment. Blood samples were collected and counted for reticulocytes by using the fluorescent microscope. For anticarcinogeicity test, male Wistar rats were fed with modified AIN-76 diets containing 5% and 10% ground freeze-dried TBG for 2 weeks prior to, during and 1 week after the completion of AOM administration (15 mg/kg once a week for 2 weeks). It was found that TBG at 6.25% resulted in a significant reduction in micronucleated peripheral reticulocytes (MNRETs) induced by only CYP. Study on anticarcinogenic potential demonstrated that rats fed with TBG diets at the concentration tested developed significantly higher incidence as well as the multiplicities of colon tumors than the control group. These results demonstrated that Thai bitter gourd fruits possesses anticlastogenic potential against clastogen in the mouse. Interestingly, it had no preventive potential against AOM-induced colon carcinogenesis in rat, rather increasing the incidence of colonic neoplasm when giving during the initiation stage.
MiR-138 Suppresses Expression of Hypoxia-inducible factor
) in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma 786-O Cells
Song, Tao ; Zhang, Xu ; Wang, Chunyang ; Wu, Yiguang ; Cai, Wei ; Gao, Jiangping ; Hong, Baofa ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1307~1311
Objectives: Hypoxia-inducible factor-
) is widely considered to be one of the key regulators in cancer cells. Here, we investigated a microRNA regulating expression of HIF-
and explored its functions in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) cells. Methods and materials:Western blot and reporter assays were used to assess HIF-
as a direct target of miR-138. The effects of miR-138 or si-HIF-
on ccRCC 786-O cells were also estimated by apoptosis analysis and cell migration assay. Results: The data showed HIF-
to be one target of miR-138. Futhermore, inhibition of the expression of HIF-
with specific siRNA or miR-138 could increase apoptosis and reduce the migration of 786-O cells. Conclusions: miR-138 could inhibit the expression of HIF-
and regulate the apoptosis and migration of ccRCC cells.
Smoking Prevalence and Associated Attitudes among High School Students in Turkey
Golbasi, Zehra ; Kaya, Didem ; Cetindag, Arzuhan ; Capik, Emine ; Aydogan, Semra ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1313~1316
This is a descriptive study to determine the smoking prevalence and attitudes with smoking among high school students in Sivas, Turkey. This study was carried out in 6 high schools located in Sivas, Turkey. The sample was constituted by 1050 students. The data of the study was obtained by a questionnaire which is developed by researchers. The x2 test was used in the statistical analyses. In this study, the rate of students who did not smoke or stopped smoking was found to be 79.6%, while the rate of occasionaly or daily smokers was 20.4%. Students with male gender, those whose fathers and mothers had a low educational level, and a smoking mother, father or sibling, had a higher frequency of smoking (p<0.05). Students were found to have opposite attitudes to cigarette in general and rates of agreed to some attitude expressions were found to be higher in non-smoking students. The results demonstrated that the smoking prevalence among high school students was high and students with a smoking family member in particular, those with parents having low educational levels and of male gender should be regarded as a risk group for smoking.
Antimutagenicity and Antioxidative DNA Damage Properties of Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins from Thai Grape Seeds in TK6 Cells
Praphasawat, Ratsada ; Klungsupya, Prapaipat ; Muangman, Thunchanok ; Laovitthayanggoon, Sarunya ; Arunpairojana, Vullapa ; Himakoun, Lakana ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1317~1321
Oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs) are found mostly in red grape seeds. Many publications have reported that OPCs possess an excellent anti-oxidant effects. Since it could against cellular damage from reactive oxygen species (ROS) led to reduce the risk of chronic disease and cancers. We carried out this study on the Thai OPCs to evaluate the mutagenicity/ anti-mutagenicity and anti-oxidative DNA damage effects in TK6 cells by micronucleus (MN) and comet assays. In the MN assay, OPCs-treatment of TK6 cells at concentrations ranging from 10-200
(4 and 24 h) did not cause micronucleus induction over the negative control group but revealed a significant reduction the micronucleus frequencies against the known mutagen (mitomycin C). In the comet assay, OPCs-treated TK6 cells at concentrations of 100, 250, 500, and 1,000
could inhibit DNA damage induced by
as indicated by 18.7, 36.4, 30.6, and 60.1%, respectively. Our results suggest that OPCs possess the anti-mutagenic and anti-oxidative DNA damage effects in TK6 cells under the conditions of this assay.
Epidemiologic Status of Bladder Cancer in Shiraz, Southern Iran
Salehi, Alireza ; Khezri, Abdul-Aziz ; Malekmakan, Leila ; Aminsharifi, Alireza ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1323~1327
Background: Bladder cancer is the second most common malignancy of the genitourinary tract worldwide after prostate cancer. However, in Iran it is the most common cancer of the genitourinary system and the third most common cancer in males. The increasing trend in bladder cancer incidence in recent decades, along with the lack of research on this malignancy in Iran, make epidemiologic research important in light of its preventability through early recognition and limiting exposure to risk factors. The present study aimed to assess the epidemiology of bladder cancer in Shiraz, a large city in southern Iran, during a 2-year period. Methods: The data for this study were obtained from the population-based cancer registry of the Vice-Chancellery for Health Affairs of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences and Shiraz hospitals between March 1, 2007 and March 1, 2009. Demographic, clinical and pathological aspects of 216 patients with bladder cancer were investigated through careful review of their medical records. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS software. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: We analyzed data for 179 (82.9%) men and 37 (17.1%) women (mean age of
years). Tobacco and opium use were found in 109 (65.3%) and 44 (34.1%) patients, respectively. Cigarette smokers and water pipe smokers were mostly men (P=0.001 and P=0.04, respectively). The most common type of tumor was transitional cell carcinoma (95.7%) and most tumors were of low malignant potential grade (39.7%). Nearly half of the patients suffered recurrence. Conclusion: Comparisons with previous studies showed that bladder cancer tends to appear slightly more often in the elderly and that the tumors tend to have a higher grade of malignancy in our region. There is a need for more epidemiologic studies on the trends in the incidence and other epidemiologic indices.
Intellectual and Behavioral Impairment after Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy among Children with Cancer in Iran
Parsay, Susan ; Mosavi-Jarrahi, Alireza ; Arabgol, Fariba ; Kiomarcy, Azadeh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1329~1332
Objective: It is well established that treatment modalities against cancer have psychosocial and serious medical side effects especially neurologic, learning, and intellectual disorders among children with cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavioral change specially the effect of chemotherapy and cranial radiotherapy on the development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with cancer. Materials and Methods: The children diagnosed with cancer and referred to Mahak Hospital (a well funded charity organization helping children with cancer in Iran) participated in this study. To assess the post treatment behavior, the Conner's' Rating Scales (CRS) questionnaire, which its reliability and validity has been well established was administrated by trained interviewer in a two hour sessions to mother or attending nurses of the cases. The relationship between attention deficits, hyperactivity disorder were assessed with different categories of treatment, socio-economic status, age at diagnosis, sex, as well as duration since treatment. Results: During periods of six months, 30 subjects (16 male and 14 female) were studied and participated in the study. Fifteen cases had both radiotherapy as well as chemotherapy and 15 cases just had chemotherapy as their treatment regiment. The mean Conner's Rating Score (total score of ADHD) were higher among those who received both chemotherapy and radiotherapy compared with those who had just chemotherapy but it was not statistically significant (
for just chemotherapy and
for chemo and radiotherapy together). The total Conner's Rating Score was higher among girls compared to boys (mean
standard deviation was
for girls and
for boys). Duration since treatment, age diagnosis, and mother's level of education had effect in post treatment intellectual capacity and behavioral aspect of patients. Conclusion: In the light of dramatic improvement of survival among children with cancer the intellectual and behavioral impairment due to treatment modalities needs serious attention and proper medical management.
Helicobacter pylori and Oral Cancer: Possible Association in a Preliminary Case Control Study
Dayama, Anand ; Srivastava, Vineeta ; Shukla, Mridula ; Singh, Royana ; Pandey, Manoj ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1333~1336
Oral cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in Indian men and is the leading cause of cancer deaths. Helicobacter pylori have been reported to be present in 0-40% of the cases with head neck cancer. A higher percentage has been identified in laryngeal and pharangeal cancer. We here carried out a hospital-based, case-control study of 20 patients with newly diagnosed oral cancer and 20 healthy controls without any cancer to evaluate associations between H pylori infection and oral cancer using culture and 16sRNA PCR technique for bacterial identification. H pylori was isolated from the culture of three cases and one control, while three cases and two control showed PCR positivity for H Pylori 16sRNA. The odds ratio by culture was 3.0, 95% CI 0.34-26.4 and 1.5, 95% CI 0.28-8.03 by PCR. None of the observed odds ratio was statistically significant. However, the results of this pilot study suggest a possible association of H. pylori with an increased risk of oral cancer. Additional studies in larger populations are necessary to confirm and to quantify this possible association more accurately.
Situation Analysis of Risk Factors Related to Non-communicable Diseases in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand
Promthet, Supannee ; Saranrittichai, Kesinee ; Kamsa-Ard, Supot ; Senarak, Wiporn ; Vatanasapt, Patravoot ; Wiangnon, Surapon ; Wongphuthorn, Prasert ; Moore, Malcolm A ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1337~1340
A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in Khon Kaen Province during January 1 to June 30, 2008. The aims were to assess: (1) the prevalence of risk factors for chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, blood pressure; and (2) health behaviour and health education needs. There were 338 sample subjects aged between 20-60 years, from urban, semi-urban and rural areas. Some 20.4 % of the sample subjects reported that they were unhealthy (10.4% diagnosed with hypertension, 9.8% with diabetes, and 0.9% with cancer). For history of illness in the family, the most common were diabetes (42%), high blood pressure (16.5 %) and cancer (14.8 %), and 66.9% reported stress within the last 6 months. In terms of risk behavior, 82.3% of males smoked cigarettes but only 1.9% of females. The respective figures for alcohol were 68.4% and 26.6%. The majority (61.2) had low physical activity (sitting or standing, little movement). Almost one third (32%) reported testing positive for Opisthorchis viverrini eggs in stool. For health education needs, 64.2%, 54.7% and 42.6% wanted to learn more about cancer, diabetes and hypertension, respectively. For means of health education delivery, 31.7% want to learn from medical doctors, 20.4% from TV, 16.3% from village's broadcasting and 13.6% from health volunteers. Suitable means to delivery health education are needed to convey knowledge to the population. Community health volunteers may be one of the best sustainable alternative methods to transfer knowledge.
MTHFR Polymorphisms and Opisthorchis viverrini Infection: a Relationship with Increased Susceptibility to Cholangiocarcinoma in Thailand
Songserm, Nopparat ; Promthet, Supannee ; Sithithaworn, Paiboon ; Pientong, Chamsai ; Ekalaksananan, Tipaya ; Chopjitt, Peechanika ; Parkin, Donald Maxwell ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1341~1345
Opisthorchis viverrini (OV) infection is the major risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is an important enzyme in folate metabolism. Change in MTHFR activity may influence both DNA methylation and synthesis, crucial steps in carcinogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the association between MTHFR polymorphisms and OV infection with CCA risk in a high-incidence area of Thailand. A nested case-control study within cohort study was carried out: 219 subjects with primary CCA were matched with two non-cancer controls from the same cohort on sex, age at recruitment and presence/absence of OV eggs in stool. At the time of recruitment information on consumption of foodstuffs potentially contaminated by OV was obtained by questionnaire. MTHFR polymorphisms were analyzed using PCR with high resolution melting analysis. Associations between variables and the risk of CCA were assessed using conditional logistic regression. Risk of CCA was related to consumption of a dish of raw freshwater fish (Koi- Pla) with clear dose-response effects, and there were joint effects on CCA risk between MTHFR polymorphisms and consumption of dishes containing raw- and/or semi-raw freshwater fish. This study provides evidence to support a relationship of increased susceptibility to CCA in individuals with MTHFR variants, especially for those individuals who have OV infection or consume semi-raw freshwater fish (acting either as a source of OV or of pre-formed nitrosamine). Folate may play an important role in OV-related cholangiocarcinogenesis by upsetting the balance between DNA methylation and synthesis in the folate pathway.
Factors Related to Poor Practice of Pap Smear Screening among Secondary School Teachers in Malaysia
Abdullah, Fauziah ; Aziz, Norlaili Abdul ; Su, Tin Tin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1347~1352
Introduction: The Pap smear test has been regarded as a promising cervical screening tool since 1940s. Yet its importance has been overlooked by beneficiaries in Malaysia. This underlines the need to identify the prevalence of Pap smear practice and influencing factors towards the practice among educated working women. Methods: A survey was conducted with 403 female teachers from 40 public secondary schools in Malaysia selected by cluster random sampling. Data were collected from January to March 2010 using a self-administered questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify the factors related to the Pap smear practice. Results: The rate for participants who ever had Pap test was only 38% and poor practice of was significantly higher among: those with aged less than 35 years; those practicing hormonal contraceptive method; and individuals perceiving barriers to the Pap smear screening test. In contrast, the findings were significantly lower in women with longer duration of teaching service; higher income groups; ever pregnant; having chronic diseases; health insurance coverage; and who had perceived benefit of Pap smear screening. Conclusion: Barriers towards practicing Pap smear exist even among educated career women. Tailor-made health promotion and education on cervical cancer and the benefit of Pap smear screening are essential to change the behavior of the study population.
Determining Nurse-Midwives' Knowledge of the Pap-Smear Test and their Rate of Being Tested in Turkey
Savas, Hacer Gulen ; Taskin, Lale ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1353~1360
Background: Cervical cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer mortality among women worldwide, but actually is largely preventable. The practice of Pap smear testing (PST) needs to be expanded in order to diagnose cervical cancer at an early stage and thus reduce the burden this women's health problem brings to the society. Effective public education is therefore crucial. Determining the knowledge and practice of nurses in this field will help plan their training and develop the necessary training program with an adequate content. This descriptive study aimed at determining the knowledge on, and status of the PST among the nurse/midwives. Methods: The subjects comprised nurse/midwives working in the gynecologic/obstetric clinics of three big hospitals located in the central city of Ankara. The data collected through questionnaire were evaluated by means of the package software SPSS as well as decimal number and Chi-square tests. Results: The results revealed that the nurse/midwives had not enough knowledge on PST, of whom 58.1% had got no PST, while a portion of 71.5% of those who had already underwent a PST failed in getting regular tests, and a portion of 73.5% had got no on-job training on the gynecological cancers, and a portion of 66.7% of the trained ones had not any knowledge in respect of PTS. It was determined that there was a significant statistical difference in the level of knowledge on PST in terms of on-job training in respect of the gynecological cancers and the PST history (p<0.05).
Apoptosis of Human Ovarian Cancer Cells Induced by Paris Chinensis Dioscin via a
-Mediated Mitochondrion Pathway
Gao, Lin-Lin ; Li, Fu-Rong ; Jiao, Peng ; Yao, Shu-Tong ; Sang, Hui ; Si, Yan-Hong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1361~1366
Background: Study of the mechanisms of apoptosis in tumor cells is an important field of tumor therapy and cancer molecular biology. Apoptosis triggered by activation of the mitochondrial-dependent caspase pathway represents the main programmed cell death mechanism. The mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis pathway is activated by various intracellular stresses that induce permeabilization of the mitochondrial membrane, leading to cytochrome C release. This study was to investigate the anti-tumor effects of Dioscin from traditional Chinese anti-snake venom medicine Paris chinensis (PCD) and correlated mechanisms regarding apoptosis in human ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells. Methods: Cell viability was analyzed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cell apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry and Laser Scanning Confocal Microscope (LSCM) using Annexin-V/PI staining. Intracellular calcium ions were detected using fluorescence microscopy. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins cytochrome C and caspase-3 was measured by immunohistochemical staining. Results: PCD had an anti-proliferation effect on human ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. After treatment with PCD, the apoptotic rate significantly increased, and accompanied with the increased levels of caspase-3 and cytochrome C protein in SKOV3 cells. Morphological changes typical of apoptosis were also observed with LSCM by Annexin V/PI staining. Moreover, intracellular calcium accumulation occurred in PCD-treated cells. Conclusions: The molecular determinants of inhibition of cell proliferation as well as apoptosis of PCD may be associated with the activation of
-related m itochondrion pathway in SKOV3 cells.
Liver Fluke Prevention and Control in the Northeast of Thailand Through Action Research
Wongba, N ; Thaewnongiew, K ; Phathee, K ; Laithavewat, L ; Duangsong, R ; Promthet, S ; Tangsawad, S ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1367~1370
The aim of this action research was to enhance people's potential to prevent and control liver fluke infestation. The subjects were a total of 96 participants comprising 20 community leaders, 74 individuals handling and preparing food, and 2 officials from the Local Administration. Quantitative data were collected through questionnaire and the results of stool examination of the participants were recorded. The main methods used to collect qualitative data were focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. For qualitative data analysis, the researchers undertook a qualitative content analysis. For quantitative data, conventional descriptive statistics were used and the mean differences with the 95% CI before and after the study were compared. The results in the early stage found that the participants were not aware of the fact that eating raw fish might be the cause of developing cholangiocarcinoma. 94.8% of participants however knew that eating raw fish might be cause having liver fluke infection which can be treated be taking an antihelminthic drug. They perceived that it is way of life since their ancestors already consumed raw fish because they found it to be delicious. However, through participating in this study, it was realized how dangerous it is to get infected with the liver fluke. Participants also learned the life cycle of liver fluke. They talked about this within their families, and communicated as well as cooperated with others to strengthen a network of a club concentrating on not eating raw fish. The communities and the Sub-district Administrative Organization supported the project. In conclusion, it is advisable to improve the behavior of participants in villages so that they became aware how to prevent and control liver fluke infection and therefore the development of cholangiocarcinoma.