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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevetion
Editor in Chief :
Malcolm A Moore
Volume & Issues
Volume 12, Issue 12 - Dec 2011
Volume 12, Issue 11 - Nov 2011
Volume 12, Issue 10 - Oct 2011
Volume 12, Issue 9 - Sep 2011
Volume 12, Issue 8 - Aug 2011
Volume 12, Issue 7 - Jul 2011
Volume 12, Issue 6 - Jun 2011
Volume 12, Issue 5 - May 2011
Volume 12, Issue 4 - Apr 2011
Volume 12, Issue 3 - Mar 2011
Volume 12, Issue 2 - Feb 2011
Volume 12, Issue 1 - Jan 2011
Selecting the target year
Breast Cancer Screening Among Females in Iran and Recommendations for Improved Practice: A Review
Babu, Giridhara R ; Samari, Goleen ; Cohen, Sharon Phoebe ; Mahapatra, Tanmay ; Wahbe, Randa May ; Mermash, Sherin ; Galal, Osman M ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1647~1655
Breast cancer is the second most common cancer amongst women, in Iran comprising 21.4% of female cancers. There are several screening modalities for breast cancer including breast self-examination, clinical breast examination and mammography. This research reviews the literature surrounding the implementation of these screening approaches in the Islamic Republic of Iran. After initial results produced approximately 208 articles, a total of 96 articles were included because they specifically addressed epidemiological characteristics of breast cancer, culture, religion, health seeking behavior, screening programs and the health system in Iran. Literature showed that breast self-examination and clinical breast examination were most common as there is no population-based mammography screening program in Iran. Additionally, most women appear to obtain information through the mass media. Results also indicate that Islamic beliefs and preventative medicine are very much aligned and can be used to promote breast cancer screening in Iran. These results highlight that there is a need for aggressive preventative measures focusing on breast self examination and gradually moving towards national mammography programs in Iran ideally disseminated through the media with government support.
Current Status of Thyroid Cancer Screening in Korea: Results From a Nationwide Interview Survey
Han, Mi Ah ; Choi, Kui Son ; Lee, Hoo-Yeon ; Kim, Yeonju ; Jun, Jae Kwan ; Park, Eun-Cheol ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1657~1663
Objective: Since 2000, thyroid cancer has been increasing most rapidly in Korea. Although the cause of the increase is not clear, thyroid cancer screening could be identified as one of its causes. The purpose of this study was to examine the screening rate of thyroid cancer and its related factors using nationwide data. Methods: The study population was derived from the 2009 Korea National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS), an annual cross-sectional survey that uses a nationally representative random sampling to investigate cancer screening rates. A total of 2,000 Korean adults participated. The screening method of thyroid cancer was restricted to thyroid ultrasonography. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with undergoing thyroid cancer screening. Results: Of all participants, 13.2% (8.4% men and 16.4% women) underwent thyroid ultrasonography. On multiple analyses, age, residence, belief in cancer screening, regular health check-ups, smoking, alcohol drinking, and exercise were associated with thyroid cancer screening. Subjects who underwent other cancer screening, such as gastric, colorectal, breast, or cervical, were more likely to have had a thyroid ultrasonogram that those who did not get screened. Conclusions: We presented the number and characteristics of examinees utilized ultrasonography as a thyroid screening tool in Korea. Although these results revealed that cancer screening might play a major role in the increase of thyroid cancer incidence, further research is needed to determine causes of the rapidly increasing incidence of thyroid cancer in Korea.
Effects of Yiqi Chutan Tang on the Proteome in LEWIS Lung Cancer in Mice
Wang, Shumei ; Lin, Lizhu ; Zhou, Jinxu ; Xiong, Shaoquan ; Zhou, Daihan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1665~1669
In order to verify effects of Yiqi Chutan Tang on lung cancer and assess molecular mechanisms involved we focused on size, tumor weight and the numbers of lung metastases and differential expression protein spot information acquired by two-way fluorescence with a tumor difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) system, and differentially expressed proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF). Differences were finally verified by Western blot and fluorescence quantitative PCR.We found that tumor size, tumor weight in Yiqi Chutan Tang treatment group were significantly less than that in model group (p<0.01), with a tumor growth inhibition rate of 57.2%. For gel diagram analysis of 2D-DIGE system, compared with model group, there were 44 expressed differentially protein spots, of which 6 were up-regulated and 38 were down-regulated. Among these proteins, 37 (30 down-regulated and 7 up-regulated) were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF. In conclusion, Yiqi Chutan Tang effects on LEWIS lung cancer appeared highly related to down-regulated expression of Hspd1, prolyl 4-hydroxylase, protein disulfide-isomerase A3 precursor, EG433182, heat shock protein 5 precursor, heat shock protein 9 and stress-induced phosphoprotein 1.
Efficacy of Orally Administered Lentinula edodes Mycelia Extract for Advanced Gastrointestinal Cancer Patients Undergoing Cancer Chemotherapy: a Pilot Study
Okuno, Kiyotaka ; Uno, Kazuko ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1671~1674
This study investigated the influence of Lentinula edodes mycelia extract (LEM), an oral immunomodulator, on immune function and adverse events from chemotherapy. Subjects comprised 1 gastric and 7 colorectal cancer patients. The first course of treatment was chemotherapy alone and the second was chemotherapy plus concomitant administration of LEM. Adverse events and interferon (IFN)-
production by CD4+ T, CD8+ T and CD56+ NK/NKT cells were evaluated at the end of each course. Grade 1 or 2 adverse events were observed at the end of the first course for 6 of 8 patients. In comparison, no patients displayed any adverse events at the end of the second course. Tendencies toward improved IFN-
production by CD4+ T, CD8+ T and CD56+ NK/NKT cells were also seen. These results suggest that concomitant use of LEM with chemotherapy can decrease the incidence of adverse effects from cancer chemotherapy among patients with advanced cancer.
Survivin Deficiency Leads to Imparalization of Cytokinesis in Cancer Cells
Vivek, Raju ; Kannan, Soundarapandian ; Achiraman, Shanmugam ; Thirumurugan, Ramasamy ; Ganesh, Devaraj Sankar ; Krishnan, Muthukalingan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1675~1679
Background: Survivin has been implicated in cancer progression and is known to be over-expressed in a variety of human malignancies. Positive regulation of survivin expression provides a connecting link between cell cycle and tumorigenesis or perhaps tumour maintenance. Methods: An experiment was designed to analyse survivin expression in cell lines (MCF 7, Zr751, A549, HepG2) using SDS-PAGE, Western blots, RT-PCR, AGE and heamatoxylin-eosin staining were done. Results: SDS-PAGE revealed the presence of 16.5 kDa protein. Subsequent western Blot and cytological analysis showed down-regulation of survivin expression in cancer cells. Conclusion: Therefore, the study allows the conclusion that survivin is essential for proper chromosome segregation and cytokinesis. It seems reasonable to suspect that abnormal expression or function of survivin might contribute to multinucleated and apoptotic conditions.
Cancer Screening for Women Living in Urban Slums - Acceptance and Satisfaction
Kumar, Yogesh ; Mishra, Gauravi ; Gupta, Subhadra ; Shastri, Surendra ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1681~1685
Background and Objectives: Preventable cancers like cancers of cervix, breast and oral cavity claim more than 142,500 lives of Indian women annually. Mobile cancer screening may help in early detection and successful treatment in vulnerable populations. Methods: This is a community based mobile cancer screening program in co-ordination with various non-governmental organizations. Participants included 182 women from low socio-economic background residing in Mumbai. Around twenty five consenting women were screened in each of the eight camps conducted. Health education programme (HEP) was given before screening. Tests included clinical breast examination (CBE) for breast, visual inspection with 5% acetic acid (VIA), visual inspection with lugols iodine (VILI) followed by colposcopic examination for cervix and oral visual examination (OVE) for oral cavity. Women requiring further diagnostic tests were referred to the nodal hospital. A satisfaction survey was carried out at the end of the examination. Results: Out of 182 women screened, 179 received health education. More than 90% of the participants were satisfied with the various aspects of screening. Majority (90%) of them found the mobile screening facility more convenient and accessible than static site screening. The variables age and income were found to be significantly associated with the overall satisfaction of the participants. The satisfaction level regarding information given during HEP was moderate (74%) compared to other factors. Interpretation and Conclusion: The overall acceptance and satisfaction levels were encouraging with the mobile cancer screening programme. Such a facility can act as an important tool in cancer prevention and control in low socio-economic women.
Smoking Status of Turkish Nursing Students and Factors Affecting Their Behavior
Ozturk, Candan ; Bektas, Murat ; Yilmaz, Elif ; Salman, Filiz ; Sahin, Tugba ; Ilmek, Meryem ; Goke, Gamze ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1687~1692
Objective: This descriptive-cross sectional study was conducted in order to determine the smoking status of nursing students and factors affecting their behavior. Methods: Subjects were 220 students who were selected from all classes of a School of Nursing with a stratified random sampling method and who voluntarily accepted to participate. Permission was obtained both from individuals and the relevant institution to conduct the study. Data were collected through Demographic Data Collecting Form, Decisional Balance Scale, Fegostrom Addiction Test and Cessation phase scale. Percentage calculations, chi square, odd ratio, Kruskal wallis and CHAID analysis were used in the assessment of the data. Findings: 81.5 % of the students were female (163), average age was
years, age at first smoking was
, 58.5 of the parents were smokers and at least one person from among their friends was smoking (30%). 19.5 % of the students were smoking. The difference between smoking ratios of male and female students was significant (p<0.001). Rates increased with increase in the number of friends who smoke (p<0.001). Differences were detected across geographical regions (p=0.023). Smoking mostly increases at times of exams (42.5 %). It was estimated that 69.2 % of the smokers are addicts at a low level. Some 56.3 % of the smokers and 12.5 % of non-smokers found smoking beneficial (p<0.001), this increasing the future smoking risk nine fold. Pros and cons perceptions score averages of smokers were intermediate. The difference between score averages of smokers and non-smokers as regards to cancerogenic effects of smoking was found to be statistically significant (p=0.034). 34 % of the students stated that their opinions about smoking did not change even though they received an education in the field of nursing. Conclusion: One in five students participating in the study was smoker. In terms of variables, while gender, geographical region, number of friends using cigarettes and times of exams effect the use of cigarettes, no influence was noted for class, perceived income level, settlement, smoking and cancer cases in the family.
Comparative Efficacy of Imprint and Squash Cytology in Diagnosing Lesions of the Central Nervous System
Sharma, Nishant ; Misra, Vatsala ; Singh, PA ; Gupta, Shiv Kumar ; Debnath, Sharmistha ; Nautiya, Anupriya ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1693~1696
Introduction: Central nervous system lesions can be localized precisely with the help of computerized tomography (CT). However, rapid cytological diagnosis of lesions by imprint and/or squash smear technique is useful to assist the operating surgeon to avoid unnecessary craniotomy. The present study was conducted with the aim to study the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of the two types of smears in central nervous system lesions while taking histology as gold standard. Materials and Methods: In the present study 149 lesions of the central nervous system were studied by squash and imprint smear techniques and results were compared with histology. Cytology smears were stained with May-Grunwald-Giemsa and Pap stain. Histopathology smears were stained with haematoxylin and eosin stain. Results: Out of 149 cases, 85 were malignant and 64 cases were either benign or non-neoplastic lesions. The sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy by squash smear were 90.6%, 87.5% and 89.3% respectively and that of the imprint smears were found to be 92.9%, 90.6% and 92.0%. The combined sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of both techniques were even greater (95.3%, 93.8% and 94.6%). Conclusions: The present study showed that imprint smear examination is superior to the squash smear for diagnosing lesions of the central nervous system.
Multivariate Analysis of Prognostic Factors in Gastric Cancer Patients Using Additive Hazards Regression Models
Maroufizadeh, Saman ; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim ; Baghestani, Ahmad Reza ; Fatemi, Seyed Reza ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1697~1702
Background & Objectives: Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide and is the most common type of cancer in Iran. The objective of this paper is to apply the additive hazards models to the study of survival of patients with gastric cancer and to compare results obtained by the additive hazards models and the Cox model. Methods: We retrospectively studied 213 patients with gastric cancer who were registered in one referral cancer registry center in Tehran, Iran. Age at diagnosis, sex, presence of metastasis, tumor size, histology type, lymph node metastasis, and pathologic stages were entered into analysis using the Cox model and additive hazard models. To visualize a covariate effect over time, the estimated cumulative regression function by the Aalen's model is examined. Results: The five-year survival rate and the median life expectancy in the studied patients were 14.6% and 29.6 months, respectively. Multivariate Cox and Additive hazards models analysis identified that age at diagnosis, tumor size and pathologic stage were independent prognostic factors for the survival of patients with gastric cancer (P<0.05). Moreover, pathologic stage has a late or delayed effect according to the Aalen's plot. Other clinicopathological characteristics were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: Since Cox and additive models give different aspects of the association between risk factors and the study outcome, it seems desirable to use together to give a more comprehensive understanding of data. Our results also suggest that early detection of patients in younger age and in primary stages is important to increase survival of patients with gastric cancer.
HER-2/neu Amplification Determined by Real-Time Quantitative PCR and Its Association with Clinical Outcome of Breast Cancer in Thailand
Chariyalertsak, Sunanta ; Purisa, Wichai ; Vinyuvat, Songkhun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1703~1706
HER-2/neu has been found to be amplified or overexpressed in about 20-30% of breast cancers, in association with negative prognosticators and shortened survival. Determination of HER-2/neu status in breast-cancer patients, to select for adjuvant treatment with trastuzumab, is becoming standard breast-cancer clinical practice. This study aimed to investigate HER-2/neu status in breast-cancer by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), allowing accurate and precise quantification of HER-2/neu amplification in tumor tissues. We evaluated 112 breast-cancer samples, of which 42 (37.5%) had HER-2/neu amplification. After a mean follow-up period of 71 months, HER-2/neu amplification was found to be significantly associated with increased risk of death (HR = 6.367, 95% CI = 1.787-22.684), even after adjusting for age, clinical stage, tumor size, lymph-node status, and histologic grade. These findings support a negative prognostic role for HER-2/neu in breast-cancer survival. We suggest that real-time quantitative PCR analysis of HER-2/neu amplification represents an alternative technique for establishing HER-2/neu status in routine clinical practice.
Awareness of Cervix Cancer Risk Factors in Educated Youth: A Cross-Sectional, Questionnaire Based Survey in India, Nepal, and Sri Lanka
Joy, Teresa ; Sathian, Brijesh ; Bhattarai, Chacchu ; Chacko, Jenny ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1707~1712
Objective: The main aim of this study was to evaluate the awareness of cervix cancer risk factors among Educated Youth with respect to socio demographic factors. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out among 1268 female undergraduate students in Delhi, Mangalore (India), Pokhara (Nepal) and Kandy (Srilanka) between 25 April 2010 and 20 August 2010 using structured questionnaire containing details of awareness of cervix cancer risk factors and socio demographic details. Descriptive statistics and testing of hypothesis were used for the analysis. Data analyzed using EPI INFO and SPSS 16 software. Results: In the 1,268 subjects, the mean age of Indian (528, 41.6%), Nepalese (480, 37.9%) and Srilankan (260, 20.5%) were
1.5 years, respectively. Distribution of students according to religion varied across the countries. Majority of the students were Hindus in India (61.4%) and Nepal (89.6%) while in Srilanka the majority (53.8%) were Buddhist. Relationships could be established between nationality and risk factors viz. awareness regarding cervix cancer (p=0.024), sexual activity at an early age (before 16) can cause cervix cancer (p=0.0001), multiple sex partners can cause cervix cancer (p=0.001), condom/other birth control measures cant prevent HPV infection (p=0.0001), smoking as a risk factor(p=0.0001), hereditary risk factor (p=0.015), and first degree relative (p=0.0001). Conclusion: These results indicate that there is an urgent need for a reinvigorated and tailored approach to cervix cancer prevention among the educated youth in India, Nepal and Srilanka. Prevention efforts should be focused on improving social awareness, enforcing education strategies to reduce risk factors and improving the strength and quality of counselling.
Chemotherapeutic Effects of Different Paclitaxel plus Poldine Combination Methods for Treatment of Ovarian Carcinoma
Liu, Ying-Lan ; Zhang, Ya-Ling ; Fu, Jian-Hua ; Zhang, Guang-Mei ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1713~1716
The study aimed to evaluate the curative effects and toxicity of different paclitaxel (PTX) plus poldine chemotherapeutic combination methods for treatment of advanced ovarian carcinoma. A total of 27 patients with ovarian epithelial carcinoma were divided into four groups: A1, taxotere plus poldine intravenous chemotherapy (n=5); A2, taxotere intravenous chemotherapy combined with poldine intraperitoneal chemotherapy (n=7); B1, paclitaxel plus poldine intravenous chemotherapy (n=6); B2, paclitaxel intravenous chemotherapy combined with poldine intraperitoneal chemotherapy (n=9). Toxic side effects were observed after chemotherapy, and the short-term effects were assessed. Some 25 (25/27) cases completed a four-course treatment, the remaining two stopping halfway due to anaphylactic shock. The total effective rate for the A1 Group was 60% (3/5) and that of A2 group was 71.4% (5/7), Figuires for the B1 and B2 groups were 50%(3/6) and 66.7% (6/9), respectively. In comparisons of toxic side reactions, there were significant differences between taxotere groups and paclitaxel groups, and between intravenous chemotherapy alone groups and intravenous plus intraperitoneal combination chemotherapy groups (p<0.05). Chemotherapy of toxol plus poldine was effective in treatment of advanced ovarian cancer, the toxicities of intravenous plus intraperitoneal combination chemotherapy was lower than that of intravenous chemotherapy alone, and the heart toxicity with taxoere was lower than with paclitexal.
Relationships between Serum Biomarker Levels and Clinical Presentation of Human Osteosarcomas
Limmahakhun, Sakkadech ; Pothacharoen, Peraphan ; Theera-Umpon, Nipon ; Arpornchayanon, Olarn ; Leerapun, Taninnit ; Luevitoonvechkij, Sirichai ; Pruksakorn, Dumnoensun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1717~1722
Background: Currently, serum biomarkers play an important role as sensitive tools for monitoring the cancer development and progression. Each biomarker represents a specific pathogenesis and has different predictive capability. In order to identify their characteristics in human osteosarcoma, multiple potential biomarkers were analyzed simultaneously with clinical presentations. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from 28 osteosarcoma patients and 30 healthy matched controls. Specific clinical presentations were recorded, including: tumor volume, estimated based on three-dimensional MRI volumetric measurement; metastasis status; and histological cell types. Serum biomarkers analyzed by ELISA-based assays were bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate WF6 (WF6). Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was analyzed by a photometric-based system. Results: Serum BALP, LDH and WF6 levels of osteosarcoma patients were significantly higher than those of healthy controls, whereas HA and VEGF levels were not significantly different between the two groups. Serum BALP and LDH were positively correlated with tumor volume, (correlation coefficients 0.5 and 0.4, respectively). Serum BALP from metastasis and osteoblastic subtype group had a significantly higher level than that found in non-metastasis and non-osteoblastic subtypes group, respectively. Upon multivariate analysis, tumor volume was the only factor which correlated with BALP levels. Conclusion: Of the biomarkers analyzed in this study, serum BALP was the most reliable and sensitive for estimating tumor volume. A high level of serum WF6 reflects alteration of the extracellular matrix component of tumors. Both serum biomarkers can be expected to be further explored for use in specific clinical monitoring.
"See and Treat" Approach is Appropriate in Women with High-grade Lesions on either Cervical Cytology or Colposcopy
Aue-Aungkul, Apiwat ; Punyawatanasin, Sitthisack ; Natprathan, Apaporn ; Srisomboon, Jatupol ; Kietpeerakool, Chumnan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1723~1726
This study was undertaken to evaluate the overtreatment rate of women with abnormal cervical cytology undergoing colposcopy followed by loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP), the so-called "see and treat" approach. Overtreatment was defined as LEEP specimens containing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1 or less. In this study, medical records of 192 women with abnormal Pap smears undergoing the "see and treat" approach in Chiang Mai University Hospital between October 2008 and October 2010 were reviewed. The preceding Pap smears were as follows: 124 (64.6%) with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL); 35 (18.2%) with atypical squamous cells cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H); 20 (10.4%) with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL); 9 (4.7%) with squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA); and 4 (2.1%) with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US). Histologic results obtained from loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) were as follows: CIN 2-3, 106 (55.2%); invasive cancer, 41 (21.4%); CIN 1, 15 (7.8%); adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), 1 (0.5%); and no lesion, 29 (15.1%). Overall, 22.9% of LEEP specimens contained CIN 1 or less. Significant predictors for overtreatment were type of preceding smears and colposcopic impression. If the "see and treat" approach was strictly carried out in women who had either smears or colposcopic findings revealing high-grade disease, the overtreatment rate was only 7%. Hemorrhagic complication was 6.2% and all could be treated at an outpatient department. In conclusion, the overtreatment rate of the "see and treat" approach in women with various degree of abnormal Pap smears is 23% which would be diminished to the acceptable rate of lower that 10% if strictly performed in those with either smears or colposcopic impressions revealing high-grade abnormality. Peri-operative LEEP complications were mild and acceptable.
Risk of Malignancy Index in Preoperative Evaluation of Pelvic Masses
Ashrafgangooei, Tahereh ; Rezaeezadeh, Mahdieh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1727~1730
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of risk of malignancy index (RMI) based on a serum CA125 level, ultrasound findings and menopausal status in primary evaluation of patients with adnexal masses in daily clinical practice. Methods: One hundred and fifty one women with adnexal masses were enrolled. Ultrasound characteristics, menopausal status and serum CA125 level were documented preoperatively, and combined into the RMI afterwards. The sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) of the RMI in prediction of ovarian cancer were calculated. Results: The RMI identified malignant cases more accurately than any individual criterion in diagnosing ovarian cancer. Using a cut-off level of 238 to indicate malignancy, the RMI showed a sensitivity of 89.5%, a specificity of 96.2%, a PPV of 77.3%, a NPV of 98.4% and an accuracy of 95.4%. Conclusion: RMI is a simple, easily applicable method in the primary evaluation of patients with adnexal masses of high risk of malignancy, resulting in timely referal to gynecological oncology centers for suitable surgical operations.
P53 Overexpression Impacts on the Prognosis of Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinomas
Jalali, Mir Mohammad ; Heidarzadeh, Abtin ; Zavarei, Mansour Jamali ; Sarmast, Hadi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1731~1734
Objectives: To investigate the prognostic implications of p53 expression in the surgical margins of laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. Methods: Thirty one patients with T3-4N0M0 cancers with pathologically negative margins were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) to detect expression of p53. Results: The p53 positive rates by IHC in the surgical margin were 16.1% (5/31). In the p53 positive margin group, the recurrent rate was higher than those without (80% vs 19.2%, P = 0.006). Also, the median free of disease period in the p53 positive margin group was shorter than other group (22.2 vs 47.8 months, P < 0.0001). Conclusions: We found that the overexpression of p53 can serve a prognostic role for both recurrence and disease-specific mortality in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. p53 expression could stratify patients, in an easy and inexpensive way, according to their risk of local or regional recurrence.
Cancer Incidence in Oman, 1998-2006
Nooyi, Shalini C ; Al-Lawati, JA ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1735~1738
Background: This paper gives a profile of the cancer incidence in Oman for a nine-year period from 1998-2006. Methods: Data from the population-based national cancer registry were consolidated for the said nine-year period and analyzed. A breakdown of the incidence by year and gender have been given. Age-standardized incidence of common cancers in Oman and their age-specific rates have been tabulated. Further, a graphical comparison between common cancers in Omani men and women have been made with those of other Gulf countries and some developed countries. Results: There were a total of 8,005 (4,224 males and 3,781 females) cases reported and registered in the registry from January 1998 till December 2006 with a male female ratio of 1.1:1. The crude incidence rate was 49.4 per 100,000 males and 45.7 per 100,000 females. The corresponding age-standardized rates were 91.4 and 80.4 per 100,000 in males and females respectively. Conclusions: Incidence of cancer in Oman is lower than in some Gulf countries and many developed countries. Stomach cancer, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma and leukemia are three commonest cancers in males and breast, thyroid and cervical cancers are the most common in females in the nine-year period.
Prognostic Factors in Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Treated in Hospital Kuala Lumpur
El-Sherbieny, Esam ; Rashwan, Hesham ; Lubis, Syarif Husin ; Choi, Voon Jan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1739~1743
Background: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is the third most common cancer among men in Peninsular Malaysia. However, no information is available about the prognostic factors. The objective of this study was to identify factors with an influence on outcome in patients treated in Hospital Kuala Lumpur. Methods: A total of 159 patients with non-metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated during 2002-2003 in Hospital Kuala Lumpur were included in this study. All received radiotherapy. Fifty three patients were treated with radiotherapy alone, while 106 patients received combination chemotherapy. Overall survival and local recurrence-free survival were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and univariate analysis was performed using the log-rank test. Results: This study found out that 5-year overall survival and 5-year local recurrence-free survival rates were 58.6% and 54.2% respectively. The stage specific 5-year overall survival rates were: Stage I, 100%; Stage II; 93.3%, Stage III, 62.7%; Stage IVA, 42.2%; and Stage IVB, 40.6%. On univariate analysis, gender (p<0.05), T-classification (p<0.001), N-classification (p<0.05), stage (p<0.05) and cranial nerve involvement (p<0.001) were found to be significant prognostic factors for 5-year overall survival, while gender (p<0.05) and N-classification (p<0.05) were significant prognostic factors for 5-year local recurrence-free survival. Conclusion: The overall survival rate of patients for this study was low. The patient factor that significantly affected 5-year overall survival was gender, while disease factors were stage, T-classification, N-classification and cranial nerve involvement.
Evaluation of Diagnostic Value of CT Scan, Physical Examination and Ultrasound Based on Pathological Findings In Patients with Pelvic Masses
Firoozabadi, Razieh Dehghani ; Zarchi, Mojgan Karimi ; Mansurian, Hamid Reza ; Moghadam, Bita Rafiei ; Teimoori, Soraya ; Naseri, Ali ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1745~1747
Objective: Because benign and malignant cervical and ovarian masses occur with different percentages in different age groups, the importance of primary diagnosis and selection of a suitable surgical procedure is underlined. Diagnosis of pelvic masses is carried out using ultrasound, physical examination, CT scan and MRI. The objective of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of CT scan in pelvic masses in comparison with physical examination-ultrasound based on pathology of the lesion in patients undergoing laparotomic surgery. Methods:This analytic-descriptive study focused on age, sonographic findings, physical examinations, CT scan and pathological findings in 139 patients with pelvic mass, gathered with questionnaires and statistically analayzed using the SPSS software programme. Results: Of 139 patients with pelvic mass(patients aged from 17 to 75 years old), 62 (44%) cases were diagnosed as benign and 77(55.4%) as malignant; among them malignant tratoma serocyst adenocarsinoma with 33 (23.7%) cases and benign myoma with 21(15.2%) cases comprised the most frequent cases. The sensitivity and specificity of sonography-physical examination were 51.9% and 87.9% respectively and the sensitivity and specificity of CT scan images were 79.2% and 91.6% respectively.It was shown that CT scan images were more consistant with pathological findings in predicting appropriate surgical procedures than do sonography-physical examinations. Conclusion:The sensitivity of CT scan is far higher than that of sonography-physical examination in the diagnosis of pelvic mass malignancy.
Lack of Influence of Glutathione S-Transferase Gene Deletions in Sporadic Breast Cancer in Pakistan
Nosheen, Masood ; Malik, FA ; Kayani, MA ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1749~1752
Glutathione S-transferases constitute the phase II detoxification enzymes involved in the metabolism and detoxification of a wide range of potential environmental carcinogens. GSTM1 and GSTT1 are polymorphic and their deletions have been found to be associated with breast cancer risk in some of the world populations. The current study was aimed at evaluation of GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene deletions in 150 unrelated breast cancer patients and 150 healthy controls from Pakistani population. Multiplex PCR assay along with CYP1A1 exon 7 as an internal control was used. Our sampled patients and controls had a mean age of 48 (+11.8) and 45 (+7.9) years respectively. The analysis suggested that only 2% breast cancer patient and 8% controls had homozygous GSTM1 gene deletions (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.06-0.85). A total of 8.7% patients and 18.6% controls had homozygous GSTT1 deletion (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.25-0.83). The statistical analysis suggest that a non significant number (P>0.05) of individuals compared to controls have GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene deletions. Deletion in both genes was not observed in any of the patients or controls. The present case control study suggests no association of GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene deletions with sporadic form of breast cancer in Pakistani population.
Survival and Prognostic Factors Comparing Stage IB 1 versus Stage IB 2 Cervical Cancer Treated with Primary Radical Hysterectomy
Srisomboon, Jatupol ; Kietpeerakool, Chumnan ; Suprasert, Prapaporn ; Manopanya, Manatsawee ; Siriaree, Sitthicha ; Charoenkwan, Kittipat ; Cheewakriangkrai, Chalong ; Sae-Teng, Charuwan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1753~1756
This study was undertaken to compare the survival rates of stage IB 1 versus stage IB 2 cervical cancer patients and to evaluate the prognostic factors after treatment primarily with radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy (RHPL). Patients with stage IB cervical cancer undergoing primary RHPL at Chiang Mai University Hospital between January 2002 and December 2009 were evaluated for survival and recurrence. Clinicopathological variables were analyzed to identify the prognostic factors affecting the survival of the patients. During the study period, RHPL was performed on 570 stage IB 1 and 110 stage IB 2 cervical cancer patients. With a median follow-up of 48 months, the 5-year disease-free survivals were 98.1% and 82.8% respectively (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis identified four significant prognostic factors affecting survival including substaging, non-squamous cell carcinoma histology, lymph node metastasis and the presence of lymph-vascular space invasion. In conclusion, with a primary radical hysterectomy, stage IB 1 cervical cancer patients have a significantly better survival rate than those with stage IB 2. Significant prognostic factors for stage IB cervical cancer include tumor histology, nodal status, and the presence of lymph-vascular space invasion.
Reliability of Toluidine Blue Vital Staining in Detection of Potentially Malignant Oral Lesions - Time to Reconsider
Upadhyay, Juhi ; Rao, Nirmala N ; Upadhyay, Ram B ; Agarwal, Pankaj ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1757~1760
Being simple and inexpensive toluidine blue has been in use for more than two decades for the detection of potentially malignant oral lesions (PMOL's) and malignant lesions. Although there has been concensus that staining often assists in the identification of these lesions, results have been diverse. In most studies false negative were not recorded as biopsies of lesions that did not retain toluidine blue were not performed. Thus the present study attempted to evaluate the efficacy of toluidine blue vital dye for detection of PMOL's. The study included 47 biopsies(TBP:35 and TBN:12), of which 23 cases were confirmed as dysplastic(TBP=17 and TBN=6), 7 as hyperkeratosis (TBP=4 and TBN=3), 8 as epithelial hyperplasia(TBP=6 and TBN=3) and 5 as other benign lesions(TBP=4 and TBN=1). The validity test revealed a senstivity of 73.9% and specificity of 30%. The positive predictive value was 54.8% and negative predictive value of 50%. The study intends to highlight the false negative result (26.1%) which was mainly attributed to mild dysplasia and the false positive (32.6%) which included hyperkeratosis, hyperplasia, lichen planus and traumatic ulcer. The study concludes that toludine blue staining should not blindly direct the clinician's opinion, and strongly discourages the use of toluidine blue as a screening test and the results should be interpreted with caution.
Financial Burden of Gynecologic-Cancer Survivors Associated with Attendance in a Surveillance Program at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Thailand
Suprasert, Prapaporn ; Manopunya, Manatsawee ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1761~1763
All gynecologic cancer survivors require a surveillance program for the detection of recurrence and complications after the complete treatment. However, this type of surveillance program might be leading to an unseen burden for the patients. To identify this burden, 200 gynecologic cancer survivors who resided outside of Chiang Mai province were interviewed between November 2010 and February 2011. The mean age of the surveyed patients was 52 years old and most of them were diagnosed with cervical cancer. The mean travelling time was 3.6 hours with a range of one to nine hours and the mean waiting time at the hospital was 5.3 hours. Nearly one-third of the patients required overnight accommodation in Chiang Mai. The mean total cost was 643 baht (60-3,000 baht) and the mean hospital cost was 172 baht. About 44% of the surveyed patients wanted follow up at the local provincial hospital near their abode due to their own convenience. However, more than half of the surveyed patients still wanted to follow up at the tertiary care hospital because of their trust in the medical team. In conclusion, the surveillance program revealed a burden to cancer survivors, especially for the patients who lived a long distance away from the tertiary care hospital province.
Implications of PSA Kinetics for an Adverse Pathology after Radical Prostatectomy
Sfoungaristos, Stavros ; Perimenis, Petros ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1765~1769
Objective: To determine and compare the prognostic value of PSA density, PSA velocity and free/total PSA ratio in predicting adverse pathological findings after radical prostatectomy. Materials: We analyzed the medical records of 142 patients who underwent a radical prostatectomy from May 2009 until February of 2011. After exclusion of of them for defined criteria, preoperative PSA and its derivatives were analysed for their ability to predict unfavorable pathology after radical prostatectomy. Results: From the 105 patients included in the analysis, 23.8% had extraprostatic cancer extension, 8.6% had seminal vesicle involvement and positive surgical margins found in 38.1% of them. PSA density value >0.2ng/
was the solitary and most significant predictor for surgical margin status (p=0.015) and for extracapsular disease (p=0.050) as well, in multivariate analysis. Preoperative PSA was the only significant parameter for seminal vesicle invasion prediction (p=0.033). Both PSA velocity and ratio failed to reach predictive significance in all analyses. Conclusion: The present results demonstrate a significance of PSA density in preoperative estimation of adverse pathological findings in patients who undergo radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer. A value of 0.2ng/
seems to be a reliable cutoff. PSA density is a bettgerer predictor than PSA velocity and the PSA ratio.
Frequent Germline Mutation in the BRCA2 Gene in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients from a Low-risk Chinese Population
Zhong, Lei ; Zhu, Zhong-Zheng ; Shen, Yanying ; Sun, Guangyuan ; Zhao, Xuewei ; Zhang, Shirong ; Yin, Xiaolu ; Zhu, Jianshan ; Xu, Zhifei ; Zhu, Guanshan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1771~1776
Background: The incidence of esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC) is strikingly variable by geographic area, which reflect different exposures to risk factors, including genetic predisposition. Previous studies of ESCC patients from several high-risk populations suggested that BRCA2 might play a role in the etiology. This study was conducted to screen for mutations of BRCA2 gene in ESCC cases from a low-risk population. Methods: Forty-seven ESCC patients from a low-risk area of Southeast China were screened for mutations in the entire coding region of the BRCA2 gene by direct sequencing. Results: No somatic mutations were observed in tumors. In total, 9 germline missense point mutations, each in one patient, were identified in male sporadic patients, with a mutation frequency of 19%. Of the 9 mutations, 7 were of heterozygous, while the remaining 2 were homozygous. Screening of an additional 94 healthy controls for the 9 mutations identified in ESCC cases showed that there was only 2 (2%) positive individuals, each carrying one of the mutations. Thus the mutation frequency in ESCC cases (19%) was significantly higher than that in healthy controls (OR = 10.9, 95% CI = 2.2-52.8, P = 0.003). No significant associations were observed for germline BRCA2 mutations with age, sex, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and family history of cancer. Conclusion: This series of cases from a low-risk Chinese population presented the highest frequency of germline BRCA2 mutations in ESCC reported to date, highlighting possible etiology roles in this population.
Combined p16INK4a and Human Papillomavirus Testing Improves the Prediction of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN II-III) in Thai Patients with Low-Grade Cytological Abnormalities
Ekalaksananan, Tipaya ; Pientong, Chamsai ; Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd ; Chaiwongkot, Arkom ; Yuenyao, Pissamai ; Kleebkaow, Pilaiwan ; Kritpetcharat, Onanong ; Evans, Mark F ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1777~1783
Thailand is in the process of developing a national cervical screening program. This study examined p16INK4a staining and HPV prevalence in abnormal cervical samples with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), to evaluate the efficacy of combined HPV and p16INK4a detection to predict CIN II-III. Totals of 125 ASCUS and 87 LSIL cases were re-evaluated by Pap test and cervical cells of ASCUS and LSIL cases were prepared on slides for p16INK4a detection by immunocytochemistry. HPV genotyping of DNA extracts was performed by GP5+/6+ PCR and reverse line blot hybridization. Histopathologic tests were performed to identify cervical lesion. Total of 212 cases were diagnosed to normal (20), ASCUS (112), LSIL (78) and HSIL (2). HPV was detected in ASCUS (49/112, 43.8%), LSIL (60/78, 76.9%) and HSIL (2/2, 100%) cases. The majority of HPV positive samples typed for high-risk HPV. 55.7% (107/192) of abnormal cases (ASCUS, LSIL and HSIL) were positive p16INK4a. For the 111 HPV DNA positive cases, 34 of 49 (69.4%) ASCUS cases and 49 of 60 (81.7%) LSIL cases were p16INK4a positive. 140 biopsies were taken and histological classified: CIN negative (65 cases), CIN I (56 cases) and CIN II-III (19 cases). HPV DNA detection predicted CIN II-III with sensitivity and specificity of 84% and 49%, whereas p16INK4a staining showed higher sensitivity (89.5%) and specificity (56.2%). The prediction of CIN II-III was significantly better by combination of positive HPV DNA and p16INK4a with 93.8% sensitivity and 59.2% specificity. Detection of HPV DNA combined with p16INK4a in cervical cells can predict CIN II-III and may improve the screening diagnosis of Thai women at risk for CIN II-III or cancer.
Deletion of Forkhead Box M1 Transcription Factor Reduces Malignancy in Laryngeal Squamous Carcinoma Cells
Chen, Wei ; Yuan, Kun ; Tao, Ze-Zhang ; Xiao, Bo-Kui ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1785~1788
The transcription factor, Forkhead Box M1 (FoxM1), has a specific expression pattern during the cell cycle. It also plays an important role in cellular developmental pathways and in the maintenance of homeostasis between cell proliferation and apoptosis. However, the precise role and molecular mechanisms associated with FoxM1 in laryngeal squamous carcinoma remain unclear. Therefore, laryngeal squamous carcinoma cells were transfected with FoxM1-targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA) and compared with cells transfected with a control siRNA. Assays of these two treatment groups detected a decrease in cell viability associated with down-regulation of FoxM1 expression, and resulted in an inhibition of cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. These phenotypes were also associated changes in expression of VEGF and MMP-2, a decrease in expression of cyclin B, and an increase in expression of p27. These findings suggest that deregulation of FoxM1 protein signaling is sufficient to affect tumorigenesis and cancer progression. These results also indicate that inhibition of FoxM1 represents a n attractive target for cancer therapy.
The Myeloperoxidase-463 G>A Polymorphism Influences Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Southern China: a Case-control Study
Li, Ying ; Qin, Yuan ; Wang, Mei-Lin ; Zhu, Huan-Feng ; Huang, Xin-En ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1789~1793
Objective: Oxidative stress may be involved in colorectal carcinogenesis. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an endogenous oxidant enzyme that generates reactive oxygen species (ROS). We hypothesized that the MPO -463 locus polymorphism might therefore contribute to genetic susceptibility to colorectal adenomas. Methods: RFLP-PCR analysis identified the MPO genotypes in 325 Chinese colorectal adenomas cases and 345 controls matched by age, sex, smoking status, and alcohol use. An epidemiological interview elicited detailed information on demographic data and lifestyle characteristics. Results: Individuals with a GA/AA genotype had a significantly lower risk of colorectal cancer (adjusted OR = 0.57, 95% CI, 0.41-0.79) than those with the GG genotype. On stratification analysis, the decreased risk was more pronounced among older subjects (adjusted OR = 0.56, 95% CI, 0.39-0.81), males (0.47, 0.33-0.68), smokers (0.54, 0.35-0.85), and ever-drinkers (0.44, 0.27-0.71). Conclusion: For a similar level of exposure to established carcinogens, individuals with MPO A-allele genotypes appear to have a reduced risk of colorectal adenomas in southern Chinese population, especially among older subjects, men, smokers, and ever-drinkers.
Clinical Comparison on the Safety and Efficacy of Fluorouracil/Pirarubicin/Cyclophosphamide (FPC) with Fluorouracil/Epirubicin/Cyclophosphamide (FEC) as Postoperative Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Breast Cancer
Li, Ying ; Tang, Jin-Hai ; Huang, Xin-En ; Li, Chen-Guang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1795~1798
Objective: To compare the safety and efficacy of a combination of 5-Fu, pirarubicin and CTX (FPC) with FEC as a postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Methods: A total of 655 breast cancer patients were treated postoperatively in Jiangsu Cancer Hospital and Research Institute from 1995-2005, 292 were treated with FPC (5-Fu 500mg/
iv gtt on day 1, pirarubicin 40mg/
iv on day 1, CTX 500mg/
iv on day 1 and a cycle repeated every 21-28 days for totally 4-6 cycles); 363 with FEC (5-Fu 500mg/
iv gtt on day 1, epirubicin 50mg/
iv on day 1 and day 2, CTX 500mg/
iv on day 1 and a cycle repeated every 21-28 days for totally 4-6 cycles). Toxicity was evaluated after each cycle of chemotherapy. Results: Main side effects in both FPC and FEC groups were leukopenia and gastrointestinal toxicity, with a 5 year survival rate 88.7% in FPC and 85.7% in FEC group. Conclusions: FPC regimen is safe with superior long-term survival rate when compared with FEC, thus could be recommended as a postoperative chemotherapy regimen for Chinese patients with breast cancer.
Five Year Survival of Women with Breast Cancer in Ardabil, North-West of Iran
Fouladi, Nasrin ; Amani, Firouz ; Harghi, Afshan S ; Nayebyazdi, Noushin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1799~1801
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, and the major cause of cancer deaths in women 20-59 years old. The present retrospective study was undertaken to examine survival in all newly diagnosed breast cancer in Iran. One hundred and sixty-one breast cancer registered patients in 2003 were included in the study and followed up for 5-years from cancer diagnosis. Data were analyzed using life tables and Kaplan Meier for estimating relative survival rates and Cox's proportional hazard model to investigate the interaction between variables. The mean age of the patients at diagnosis was 45.5 (SD=12.3), ranging from 19 to 86 years. Of all patients 90 (56%) were alive and 71( 44%) were dead after five years. Using life table analysis, the overall relative 5-year survival rate was found to be 51% (SE=0.05). Using Cox regression model analysis variables such as age, surgery, location and drug therapy significantly influenced survival. According to the results, the overall 5-year survival rate in Ardebil province was lower than other places of Iran and most countries in the world and needs to be improved. Also, results showed that breast cancer screening programs, awareness regarding early detection of breast cancer and education of health care providers are necessary.
Relationship Between Cytokine Levels and Clinical Classification of Gastric Cancer
Liang, Jing ; Li, Yan ; Liu, Xiaolin ; Xu, Xiaoqun ; Zhao, Yueran ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1803~1806
Complex symptoms often make it difficult to choose optimized strategies suitable for gastric patients. Therefore, molecular markers are needed to assist doctor's diagnoses. In this study, to determine if the mRNA levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of patients with gastric cancer were correlated with their various stages, gastric patients, patients with benign gastric disease, and heathy people were recruited for detection of cytokine mRNA levels. Only the relative levels in comparison with levels of each patient's own
-actin were subjected to further statistical analyses. We found that there were significantly more positive detection of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 mRNA expression in stage III and IV than those in patients with gastic cancer in stage I and II. It was also found that IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 mRNA expression in patients with low-level differentiations possessed significantly higher positive detection ratios than patients with moderate or high-level differentiation. These results suggest that positive detection of IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 mRNA may be useful as a molecular marker approach for distinguishing the stage II and III of gastric cancer, as well as low-level and moderate cancer differentiation.
Reduced Tumor Lysis Syndrome with Low Dose Chemotherapy for Hyperleukocytic Acute Leukemia prior to Induction Therapy
Liang, Rong ; Bai, Qing-Xian ; Zhang, Yong-Qing ; Zhang, Tao ; Yang, Lan ; Wang, Yi-Wei ; Zhu, Hua-Feng ; Wang, Wen-Qing ; Gu, Hong-Tao ; Gao, Guang-Xun ; Shu, Mi-Mi ; Chen, Xie-Quan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1807~1811
Patients with hyperleukocytic acute leukemia (HAL) can succumb to leukostasis. In an attempt to reduce its incidence, 45 patients with newly diagnosed HAL and hyperleukocytosis were administered half the conventional dose of etoposide and cytosine arabinoside (EA: 50mg/m2 daily each) until WBC counts were significantly reduced and standard induction therapy was initiated. We retrospectively reviewed their outcomes and analyzed potential factors with a logistic regression model. The incidence of early mortality (<30days) was 4.4% (2/45). Patients who achieved complete remission with induction chemotherapy had significantly lower median WBC counts (
L-1) after low dose EA treatment than the no response patients (median WBC:
L-1 (P<0.05). Low dose EA treatment of HAL patients reduced WBC for both lymphoid and myeloid leukemic cells and can be considered for preemptive administration to HAL patients prior to the differential diagnosis of the acute leukemia. This approach warrants further studies as a cytoreduction therapy for HAL.
Cigarette Dependence among Males and Females Aged 50+ Living in
Sari, Dilek ; Pektas, Ilknur ; Baykal, Zehra ; Cakir, Yeliz ; Malak, Arzu Tuna ; Genc, Rabia Ekti ; Turgay, Ayse San ; Gumus, Aysun Babacan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1813~1815
Background: Smoking, the most important preventable cause of death overall, is also the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Tobacco consumption has a direct or indirect relationship with most types of cancer. In Turkey, the second leading cause of death is cancer, with lung cancer the most prevalent. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the level of cigarette dependence among men and women aged 50+, living in
zmir. Methods: This research is a descriptive and cross-sectional field study, carried out with the participation of a total of 2,497 subjects. Results: It was found that 48.8% of the participants used to be smokers, and 95.5% of the smoking participants had been smoking for at least 11 years at the time of study. 36.1% of the participants were being exposed to secondhand smoke at home, and almost one third of the smokers (29%) had a moderate level of dependence. Conclusions: Continuing education may help high-risk groups develop good habits for a healthier lifestyle such as smoking less and quitting smoking, thereby reducing the level of morbidity and mortality of most common types of cancer.
The Nodal Standard Uptake Value (SUV) as a Prognostic Factor in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Cancer
Demirci, Umut ; Coskun, Ugur ; Akdemir, U Ozgur ; Benekli, Mustafa ; Kapucu, Ozlem ; Ozkan, Secil ; Cakir, Tansel ; Baykara, Meltem ; Buyukberber, Suleyman ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1817~1820
Background/Aims: The aim of present study is to evaluate the predictive and prognostic role of high [18F] fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) uptake of primary tumor and nodal metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck (HNSCC). Methodology and Patients: Between February 2006 and July 2010, we retrospectively evaluated 64 patients with primary HNSCC in an institutional imaging trial. All patients who underwent evaluation pretreatment FDG-positron emission tomography/computarized tomography (FDG-PET/CT) imaging and 33 (51%) had pre- and after treatment FDG-PET/CT imaging. All treatments were performed with curative intent. Abnormal FDG uptakes were analyzed using maximum standardized uptake values (SUVm). The disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were evaluated with several prognostic factors such as pre-treatment SUVm and %change in SUVm. Results: Tumor sites are nasopharynx (n= 29, 45.3%), larynx (n= 16, 25%), oropharynx (n= 13, 20.4%) and hypopharynx (n= 6, 9.4%). Median age was 58 (range: 16-87) and most patients (84.4%) had stage III/IV lesions. Objective response rate was 78.2 %. The median primary tumor SUVm was 13.4 (range, 4.8-33.1), median nodal SUVm was 4.45 (range, 0-25.6) and median % change in SUVm was 74.1(range, -61-100). On multivariate analysis, nodal SUVm and surgery remained significant predictors of DFS. There was no statistical significance found between survival and other factors. Conclusions: We have found that while nodal SUVm is prognostic for DFS, primary tumor SUVm and % change in SUVm are not.
Esophageal Cancer Mortality Trends during the Last 30 Years in High Risk Areas in China: Comparison Results from National Death Surveys Conducted in the 1970's, 1990's and 2004-2005
Wei, Wen-Qiang ; Yang, Juan ; Zhang, Si-Wei ; Chen, Wan-Qing ; Qiao, You-Lin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1821~1826
Background and Aims. China was one of the countries with the highest esophagus cancer (EC) mortality in the world during the 1970's. This report provides data on time trends of esophagus cancer mortality during the 1970's-21st century in high risk areas, considering the remarkable geographic variation of EC mortality in China. The aim was to explore changing trends of EC mortality during past 30 years, and provide basic information on prevention and control of EC in high risk areas in China. Methods: Among the high risk areas of EC defined in the 1970's, ten that have joined in all the three death causes sampling surveys were selected in this study. Subjects included all cases dying from esophageal cancer in these sites during 1973-1975, 1990-1992, and 2004-2005. The EC mortality data and relevant demographic data of ten areas covered by all the three surveys were extracted from the national death causes survey database. Results: Compared with the EC mortality of the ten high risk areas in the 1970's, the crude mortality rates (CMR) in the 1990's reduced by 0.04%~47.3%, and the CMRs in the early 21st century decreased by 9.25%~62.0% from the 1990's; the age specific mortality rate adjusted by China standard population (ASMRc) in the 1990's reduced by 8.22%~53.5%, and the ASWRc in the early 21st century decreased by 25.0%~78.0% from the 1990's; the age-specific mortality rates adjusted by world standard population (ASMRw) in the 1990's reduced by 7.54%~51.9%, and the ASMRw in the early 21st century decreased by 24.5%~79.2% from the 1990's; the proportional mortality ratios (PMR) in the 1990's reduced by 12.3%~41.3%, and the PMRs in the early 21st century decreased by 6.76%~52.6% from the 1990's. Conclusion: Our study indicated that the mortality of esophageal cancer in high risk areas of China had declined after three decades, but still remained high compared with the national level. Esophageal cancer is still a major cancer burden in high risk areas. It is necessary to further promote the prevention and control program of esophageal cancer in these areas of China.
FLT3 and NPM1 Gene Mutations in Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia
Mukda, Ekchol ; Pintaraks, Katsarin ; Sawangpanich, Rachchadol ; Wiangnon, Surapon ; Pakakasama, Samart ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1827~1831
Mutations of receptor tyrosine kinases are implicated in the constitutive activation and development of human hematologic malignancies. Mutations in fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) gene including internal tandem duplication (ITD) and point mutation in the tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) as well as in nucleoplasmin (NPM1) gene are associated with pathogenesis of acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML). Several reports have demonstrated high incidences of the FLT3 and NPM1 mutations in adult AML patients. Since the pathogenesis of pediatric AML is different from that of adult and the FLT3 and NPM1 mutations have not been well characterized in childhood AML. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the frequencies of FLT3 and NPM1 mutations in 64 newly diagnosed childhood AML patients. All blood and bone marrow samples were previously diagnosed with AML by using flow cytometry and/or cytochemistry. FLT3-ITD and FLT3-TKD were detected by PCR and PCR-RFLP methods, respectively. The NPM1 mutation was analyzed by PCR and direct DNA sequencing. The FLT3 mutations were detected in 7 of 64 (11.1%), including FLT3-ITD in 4 of 64 (6.3%) and FLT-TKD in 3 of 62 (4.8%). The NPM1 mutation was not detected in this cohort. By multivariate analysis, white blood cell counts, peripheral blood and bone marrow blast cell counts at diagnosis were significantly higher in children with FLT3-ITD (P<0.05). In addition, the median percentage of CD117 was significantly higher in leukemic blast cells with FLT3-ITD than those with wild type (P=0.01). We did not find any FLT3 mutations in children aged less than 5 years. The AML M3 cell type was most frequently associated with FLT3 gene mutations (50%). In conclusion, the FLT3 mutations was found in 11.1% but none of NPM1 mutation was detected in Thai children with AML. These data support the hypothesis of different biology and pathogenesis between adult and childhood AML.
MTHFR Gene Polymorphisms in Bladder Cancer in the Turkish Population
Izmirli, Muzeyyen ; Inandiklioglu, Nihal ; Abat, Deniz ; Alptekin, Davut ; Demirhan, Osman ; Tansug, Zuhtu ; Bayazit, Yildirim ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1833~1835
Bladder cancer is the 9th most common cancer and is responsible for malignancy related death all on the world. Folate and folate related enzyme polymorphisms related to the cancer risk. The methylene tethrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) enzyme is folate related and association of bladder cancer and MTHFR gene. Our purpose was to assess the prevalence of MTHFR gene 677 CT and 1298 AC polymorphisms and Bladder cancer in Turkey. We intended that bladder cancer patients and controls and we used the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) methods. The MTHFR gene C677T and A1298C polymorphisms were associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer in our population (For the MTHFR gene C677T polymorphism and A1298C polymorphism; p=0.036<0.05; p=0.278>0.05 respectively). Consequently, the MTHFR gene C677T polymorphism augments the risk of bladder cancer in Turkey.
Knowledge of Cervical Cancer and Acceptance of HPV Vaccination among Secondary School Students in Sarawak, Malaysia
Rashwan, Hesham ; Lubis, Syarif Husin ; Ni, Kiat Aun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1837~1841
Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women in peninsular Malaysia and very prevalent worldwide. HPV vaccination and routine Pap smear testing are the best preventive measures. The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge level of secondary school students from Sarawak, East Malaysia regarding cervical cancer and its prevention. Multistage random sampling with various methods in each step was employed to select the sample of 76 students. Results showed that 61.8 % had poor knowledge level of cervical cancer and its prevention. There were 60.5 % of students who were aware of cervical cancer with Chinese and form four students showing significantly the highest awareness (p<0.05). The main source of cervical cancer information was from their parents (25.9 %). HPV vaccination acceptance among students was 22.3 % and an association was found between knowledge of cervical cancer with race and HPV vaccination acceptance (p<0.05). In conclusion, the students had poor knowledge level of cervical cancer, its prevention and HPV vaccination acceptance. More efforts should be made to improve cervical cancer knowledge and awareness of the public especially secondary school students in Sarawak. This in turn will enhance the practice of prevention against cervical cancer among students.
Diagnostic and Prognostic Significance of Prostate Specific Antigen and Serum Interleukin 18 and 10 in Patients with Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer: A Prospective Study
Dwivedi, Shailendra ; Goel, Apul ; Natu, Shanker M ; Mandhani, Anil ; Khattri, Sanjay ; Pant, Kamlesh K ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1843~1848
Background: Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers afflicting men today. Prostate biopsy, an invasive procedure is generally used for diagnoses but attempts are being made to find accurate and precise non-invasive biomarkers. Diagnostic accuracy of prostate specific antigen (PSA) has been well documented. Serum interleukin-18 (IL-18) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) have shown their diagnostic ability in other cancers but not investigated well in prostate cancer. This study, thus determines the diagnostic and prognostic significance of PSA, IL-18 and IL-10 prospectively in patients with carcinoma prostate. Methods: A total of 149 patients, aged 40-84 yrs were investigated during April 2007 to July 2010 and recruited for this study after Institutional ethical approval. Of the total of 149 patients, 71 had biopsy proven prostate cancers (TNM stage: T2=17, T3=26 and T4=28) and 78 clinical benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). Peripheral blood samples of all patients and 71 age matched control subjects were obtained at baseline and estimation of PSA, IL-18 and IL-10 was done by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Carcinoma prostate patients were followed for three years. Data were analyzed with ANOVA, ROC curve analysis and survival analysis. Results: The baseline levels of PSA, IL-18 and IL-10 in all groups of carcinoma prostate were found to be significantly (p<0.01) higher than both Control and BPH. The levels of IL-18 and IL-10 also found to be elevated significantly in stage T3 (p<0.05) and T4 (p<0.01) as compared to stage T2. The levels especially of IL-18 is found to be well associated with progression of the disease of various groups (r=0.84, p<0.01). In contrast, IL-10 showed significant direct association with progression of carcinoma (r=0.84, p<0.01) while inverse relation with survival duration (r=-0.48, p<0.01) and survival rate (
=8.98, p=0.0027; Hazard ratio=0.37, 95% CI=0.18-0.69). Conclusions: Study concluded that serum IL-18 has potential to be a better diagnostic marker with higher specificity and sensitivity and IL-10 may be valuable as a prognostic marker than PSA in carcinoma prostate.
Inhibiting and Facilitating Factors Concerning Breast Cancer Early Diagnosis Behavior in Turkish Women: A Qualitative Study According to the Health Belief and Health Development Models
Ersin, Fatma ; Bahar, Zuhal ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1849~1854
Aim: The aim of the present study is to investigate the perceived inhibiting and facilitating factors concerning breast cancer early diagnosis behavior in women over age 40. Method: A qualitative focus group interview method was applied with 43 participating women, in the period between March-April 2010, using a semi-structured interview questionnaire based on the Health Belief Model and the Health Development Model. Content analysis was used to analyse study data. Results: Inhibiting factors such as women's lack of knowledge regarding breast cancer and early detection behaviors, lack of health insurance and transportation facilities, financial difficulties, difficulty to make an appointment, scarcity of female doctors, feeling of embarrassment, lack of awareness-negligence, forgetting, feeling of fear, and a fatalistic approach were frequently discussed. Among facilitating factors, informed level, concerned and tolerant health care personnel, free health services, free transportation to hospital, improved appointment system, telephone reminders were included. Conclusion and Recommendations: Focus group interviews were found to be effective in determining inhibiting and facilitating factors concerning breast cancer early diagnosis behavior. National and regional training programs configured in accordance with the data obtained in the study may be effective in the implementation and maintenance of early diagnosis.
Knowledge, Attitude and Beliefs Women Attending Mammography Units have Regarding Breast Cancer and Early Diagnosis
U, U Nergiz-Eroglu ; Kilic, Dilek ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1855~1860
Objective: Breast cancer is an extremely important issue that threats women's health; it is the most common illness that leads to death in women, worldwide. The purpose of this descriptive-comparative study was to determine the knowledge, attitude, and beliefs women attending mammography units have regarding breast cancer and early diagnosis. Methods: The study population comprised 333 women visiting second and third stage mammography units for a mammography, and 1018 women visiting first stage mammography units at Cancer Surveying and Training Centres. Questionnaires determining the descriptive characteristics of women, and their attitudes towards breast cancer and early diagnosis, a knowledge evaluation form, and the Turkish version of the Champion's Health Belief Model Scale was used to gather data. Results: The rate of obtaining information about early diagnosis in breast cancer (88.6%), information about breast self-examination (87.6%), conducting breast self-examination (61.8%), and undergoing a clinical breast examination (99.6%) were higher in the group of women attending first stage mammography units in comparison to women attending other mammography units. The knowledge score (71.8+18.8) of women attending first stage mammography units regarding breast cancer and early diagnosis was also higher in comparison to women attending other mammography units (p=.00). Sub-scales of the breast cancer health belief model scale were high for women attending Cancer Surveying and Training Centres, while their perception of self breast examination limitations and mammography limitations were low. Conclusion: Based on the effect of peer education, this study proves that women attending first stage mammography unit have a higher level of knowledge about breast cancer and early diagnosis, and more positive health beliefs regarding breast cancer and screenings in comparison to women attending other mammography units.
Systematic Review on the Relationship between Genetic Polymorphisms of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase and Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Fang, Yuan ; Xiao, Fu ; An, Zhou ; Hao, Luo ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1861~1866
Background: Both genetic and environmental factors play roles in pathogenesis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and susceptibility may be modified by functional polymorphisms in folate metabolic genes, such as methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). We here aimed to evaluate associations of MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms with ESCC. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Chinese Biomedical Database and 2 evaluators independently reviewed all the articles identified according to predetermined criteria. Results: A total of 15 case-control studies published between 2001 and 2010 were included. When all the studies were pooled, the crude odds ratio (95% CI) of ESCC for individuals carrying MTHFR 677 CT and TT genotypes, as compared to CC, were 1.39 (1.11-1.75) and 1.79 (1.31-2.43), respectively. Individuals with MTHFR 1298CC showed non-significantly increased risk of ESCC, with an OR (95%CI) of 3.31(0.90-12.17). In smokers, a significantly increased risk of ESCC was observed for those with the MTHFR 677T allele (OR (95% CI)=2.2 (1.31-2.41)). Chinese carrying MTHFR 677T and MTHFR 1298C alleles had a greater increase in ESCC risk than other ethnicities. Conclusions: The present meta-analysis provided evidence that MTHFR 677CT/TT plays a carcinogenic role in ESCC, and its effect is modified by tobacco and ethnicity. The small number of subjects with the MTHFR 1299C allele genotype in published studies limits conclusions regarding this polymorphism.
Epidemiological Distribution and Incidence of Different Cancers in Kashmir Valley-2002-2006
Ayub, Shiekh Gazalla ; Ayub, Taha ; Khan, Saquib Naveed ; Rasool, Shabhat ; Mahboob-Ul-Hussain, Mahboob-Ul-Hussain ; Wani, Khursheed Alam ; Kuchay, Sanaullah ; Lone, Mohd Maqbool ; Andrabi, Khurshid Iqbal ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1867~1872
There are no population-based data available on cancer pattern in Kashmir and our study is the first kind which represents the trend in cancer pattern in the valley. The source of our data were cancer patients registered in the Department of Radiation Oncology, Sheri-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar, and Department of Radiation Oncology, SMHS, Srinagar during the period Jan 2002 to Dec 2006. These are leading medical centres in the valley and draw most all of cancer patients from all over Kashmir for treatment. During the period a total of 6,943 cases were registered of which 4,345 were males and 2,598 were females. The age standardized incidence rates were 34.9 per 100,000 for males and 24.8 per 100,000 for females. Oesophagus was the leading site of cancer in both sexes (male ASR 11.2; female ASR 8.3) followed by lung (ASR 6.5), brain (ASR 2.2) and head and neck (ASR 2.2) in males and breast (ASR 5.2), skin (ASR 1.6) and rectum (ASR 0.95) in females. The incidence of cervical cancer in females and prostate cancer in males was lower in Kashmir as compared to other Indian registries. Overall cancer incidence was significantly lower and cancer patterns were markedly different in Kashmir. The observed cancer pattern indicates that awareness campaigns, life style and dietary habit changes, tobacco-control measures and early detection of breast cancer are very important for cancer control in this population.
Spectrum of Cytological Findings in Patients with Neck Lymphadenopathy - Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Pakistan
Fatima, Saira ; Arshad, Sidra ; Ahmed, Zubair ; Hasan, Sheema H ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1873~1875
Introduction: Lymph adenopathy is of great clinical significance as underlying diseases may range from a treatable infectious etiology to malignant neoplasms. In fact it is also essential to establish that the swelling in question is a lymph node. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) plays a vital role in solving these issues, nowadays being recognized as a rapid diagnostic technique because of its simplicity, cost effectiveness, early availability of results, accuracy and minimal invasion. FNAC is particularly helpful in the work-up of cervical masses and nodules because biopsy of cervical adenopathy should be avoided unless all other diagnostic modalities have failed to establish a diagnosis. Objective: To determine the epidemiological and cytomorphological patterns of enlarged neck nodes. Study Design: This retrospective observational study was performed at the Section of Histopathology, Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH), Karachi, Pakistan. Materials and Methods: Three Hundred and seventy seven (377) neck swelling specimens obtained over a period of two and a half years registered from different regions of Pakistan were selected. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17. Results: Of a total of 377 cases of FNAC performed on neck nodes, the most frequent cause of lymphadenopathy was found to be tuberculosis with 199 cases (52.7%), followed by reactive lymphoid hyperplasia with 61 cases (16.1%). Metastatic carcinoma was found to be the third most common cause with 33 cases (8.7%). A diagnosis of lymphoproliferative disorder was rendered in 21 cases (5.5%). Acute and chronic non-specific inflammation was seen in 16 cases (4.2%). In 47 cases (12%) FNAC was inconclusive. Conclusion: In our study, the predominant cause of enlarged neck nodes was tuberculous lymphadenitis, followed by reactive lymphadenitis and malignant neoplasm, especially metastatic carcinoma and lymphoma. FNAC was helpful in establishing the diagnosis in approximately 98% of the cases.
Chios Mastic Gum Extracts as a Potent Antitumor Agent that Inhibits Growth and Induces Apoptosis of Oral Cancer Cells
Li, ShengJin ; Cha, In-Ho ; Nam, Woong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 7, 2011, Pages 1877~1880
Purpose: The purpose was to investigate Chios mastic gum (CMG) extract as an potential anti-tumor agent for oral squamous cell carcinoma in vitro. Methods: We designed a study to examine the effects of CMG extracts on growth of oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line, YD-10B and to determine whether the extracts could induce apoptosis through the activation of caspase-3, using the common chemotherapeutic agent Paclitaxel (Taxol, Bristol-Myers Squibb) as a control. Results: MTT assay suggested that both CMG and Taxol inhibited the proliferation of YD-10B cells in a time and dose dependent manner. Moreover,
of CMG and
of Taxol caused fragmentation of the genomic DNA at 24 hour. Finally,
of CMG and
of Taxol caused cleavage of procaspase-3 in western blot analysis. Conclusions: These results suggest CMG's potential as an anti-tumor agent.