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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevetion
Editor in Chief :
Malcolm A Moore
Volume & Issues
Volume 12, Issue 12 - Dec 2011
Volume 12, Issue 11 - Nov 2011
Volume 12, Issue 10 - Oct 2011
Volume 12, Issue 9 - Sep 2011
Volume 12, Issue 8 - Aug 2011
Volume 12, Issue 7 - Jul 2011
Volume 12, Issue 6 - Jun 2011
Volume 12, Issue 5 - May 2011
Volume 12, Issue 4 - Apr 2011
Volume 12, Issue 3 - Mar 2011
Volume 12, Issue 2 - Feb 2011
Volume 12, Issue 1 - Jan 2011
Selecting the target year
Piper Betel Linn (Betel Vine), the Maligned Southeast Asian Medicinal Plant Possesses Cancer Preventive Effects: Time to Reconsider the Wronged Opinion
Rai, Manoj P ; Thilakchand, Karadka Ramdas ; Palatty, Princy L ; Rao, Prathima ; Rao, Suresh ; Bhat, Harshith P ; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2149~2156
Since antiquity, Piper betel Linn (betel vine; family Piperaceae) has been an important medicinal agent in the various traditional and folk systems of medicine in Southeast Asia countries. The leaves are the most valued plant part and in the past were routinely used as a chewing agent to prevent halitosis. The leaves are also supposed to harden the gum, conserve the teeth and to prevent indigestion, bronchitis, constipation, congestion, coughs and asthma. Innumerable scientific studies have validated the ethnomedicinal claims. Betel leaves are an integral component of the betel quid that consists of areca nut (Areca catechu Linn.), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and slaked lime; a highly abused agent with carcinogenic properties. Regular chewing of betel quid is associated mainly with oral cancer and detail studies with individual constituents of the quid have shown that both tobacco and areca nut are carcinogenic, while slaked lime is shown to promote the process of carcinogenesis. However unlike other constituents of the betel quid, the betel leaves devoid carcinogenic effects and on the contrary possesses cancer preventive effects including against the carcinogens present in tobacco. This review for the first time provides information on cancer preventive effects and also addresses the various mechanisms which might be involved.
Radiation Oncology Facilities in Turkey: Current Status and Future Perspectives
Goksel, Fatih ; Koc, Orhan ; Ozgul, Nejat ; Gultekin, Murat ; Abacioglu, Melike ; Tuncer, Murat ; Sencan, Irfan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2157~2162
Background and purpose: An analysis of the current radiotherapy status in Turkey was conducted to establish a comprehensive baseline. Turkey's future demand analysis in view of international benchmarks was conducted. Moreover, the ministerial plans are shared to present an example for making a comprehensive planning in developing countries. Methods: The data from all radiotherapy centers in Turkey was collected through a survey and cross-checked with primary research and government data. Survey covered the status of radiotherapy centers in terms of major equipment and personnel. Data regarding manpower currently working is obtained from relevant academic centers and occupational associations. Results: The latest ministerial registry data demonstrated 150,000 new cancer cases each year with 400,000 patients living with cancer in Turkey. Around 100,000 patients are estimated to need radiotherapy each year - a figure expected to reach around 170,000 by 2023. The current numbers for radiotherapy centers, megavoltage equipment, radiation oncologists, medical physicists and radiotherapy technicians are 90, 186, 446, 130 and 600 respectively. By 2023, Turkey will need around 680 radiation oncologists, 624 medical physicists, 2,650 radiotherapy technicians and 379 megavoltage machines. Conclusion: Turkey faces a slight oversupply of radiation oncologists in contrast to undersupply in megavoltage machines and other personnel. Careful planning is required to allocate limited resources. The purchase of the equipment and employment policies should be structured as part of national cancer control program.
Relationship Between CYP1A1 Genetic Polymorphisms and Renal Cancer in China
Chen, Junxiang ; Cheng, Meichu ; Li, Yi ; Jiang, Chang-Bin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2163~2166
Aim: To study the potential role of cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (CYP1A1) polymorphisms in the risk of renal cell cancer in Chinese. Methods: A total of 181 pathologically-proven renal cancers and 350 controls from the second Xiangya Hospital in Changsha were collected during the period from May 2007 to December 2010. CYP1A1 genetic polymorphisms were genotyped using PCR-RFLP. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze their relationship with risk of RCC. Results: Individuals with Val/Val genotypes had a significantly increased risk of RCC compared those with CYP1A1 IIe/IIe (OR=1.69, 95%CI=1.03-2.85). We also found CYP1A1 Wt/Vt and Vt/Vt to confer a significantly greater risk than CYP1A1 Wt/Wt (Wt/Vt: OR=2.14, 95%CI=1.24-3.45; Vt/Vt: OR=1.78, 95%CI=1.31-3.96). In smokers, a high increase risk of RCC was observed in those with CYP1A1 Val allele and Vt allele (Val allele: OR=2.13, 95%CI=1.40-2.57; Vt allele: OR=3.75, 95%CI=2.43-6.79), but no other significant interactions were found. Conclusion: Our study found suggestive evidence that CYP1A1 polymorphisms may play an important role in the etiology of RCC. Cigarette smoking may increase the susceptibility to RCC carcinogenesis in individuals with a high-risk genotype.
Fat Intake and Its Relationship with Pre- and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Risk: a Case-control Study in Malaysia
Sulaiman, Suhaina ; Shahril, Mohd Razif ; Shaharudin, Soraya Hanie ; Emran, Nor Aina ; Muhammad, Rohaizak ; Ismail, Fuad ; Husain, Sharifah Noor Akmal Syed ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2167~2178
Background: Fat intake has been shown to play a role in the etiology of breast cancer, but the findings have been inconsistent. Objective: To assess the association of premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer risk with fat and fat subtypes intake. Methodology: This is a population based case-control study conducted in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from January 2006 to December 2007. Food intake pattern was collected from 382 breast cancer patients and 382 control group via an interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and a broad range of potential confounders was included in analysis. Results: This study showed that both premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer risk did not increase significantly with greater intake of total fat [quartile (Q) 4 versus Q1 OR=0.76, 95% CI, 0.23-2.45 and OR=1.36, 95% CI, 0.30-3.12], saturated fat (ORQ4 to Q1=1.43, 95% CI, 0.51-3.98 and ORQ4 to Q1=1.75, 95% CI, 0.62-3.40), monounsaturated fat (ORQ4 to Q1=0.96, 95% CI, 0.34-1.72 and ORQ4 to Q1=1.74, 95% CI, 0.22-2.79), polyunsaturated fat (ORQ4 to Q1=0.64, 95% CI, 0.23-1.73 and ORQ4 to Q1=0.74, 95% CI, 0.39-1.81), n-3 polyunsaturated fat (ORQ4 to Q1=1.10, 95% CI, 0.49-2.48 and ORQ4 to Q1=0.78, 95% CI, 0.28-2.18), n-6 polyunsaturated fat (ORQ4 to Q1=0.67, 95% CI, 0.24-1.84 and ORQ4 to Q1=0.71, 95% CI, 0.29-1.04) or energy intake (ORQ4 to Q1=1.52, 95% CI, 0.68-3.38 and ORQ4 to Q1=2.21, 95% CI, 0.93-3.36). Conclusion: Total fat and fat subtypes were not associated with pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer risk after controlling for age, other breast cancer risk factors and energy intake. Despite the lack of association, the effects of total fat and fat subtypes intake during premenopausal years towards postmenopausal breast cancer risk still warrant investigation.
Green Tea Drinking Habits and Gastric Cancer in Southwest China
Mao, Xiao-Qin ; Jia, Xiong-Fei ; Zhou, Guang ; Li, Lu ; Niu, Hua ; Li, Feng-Liang ; Liu, Hai-Yun ; Zheng, Rui ; Xu, Ning ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2179~2182
Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between green tea consumption and gastric cancer development. Methods: A population-based case-control study including 200 cases and 200 controls was conducted in the southwest area of China from May 2010 to February 2011. A self-designed questionnaire was used to collect data on factors influencing gastric cancer development, including tea drinking, conditional logistic regression being used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Results: Cases with higher economic status had a reduced risk of gastric cancer, while those with cancer family history, drinking and smoking showed increased risk. Hot and very hot tea temperature was significantly related to high risk of gastric cancer with ORs (95%Cl) of 1.82 (1.03-3.52) and 3.07 (1.78-7.36), respectively. Further analysis indicated elevated risk of gastric cancer in former drinkers, former smokers and current drinkers when the measured tea temperature was hot. Conclusion: Drinking tea at high temperature increases the gastric cancer risk, especially in drinkers and smokers.
Clinical Features and Molecular Phenotypes of Breast Cancer in Patients with Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus
Li, Zhihua ; Luo, Yonghui ; Gong, Yu ; Liu, Yonghua ; Qiu, Wei ; Tu, Jianhong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2183~2188
Objective: To investigate the clinical features, molecular phenotypes and clinical prognosis of breast cancer patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus, thereby providing a basis for individualized therapy of breast cancer. Methods: 105 breast cancer patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM) presenting from January 2005 to December 2010 were enrolled in this study. 200 breast cancer non-diabetic patients in the same period were randomly selected as the control group. The clinical data of DM group and control group were retrospectively analyzed. The SPSS12.0 software was used for statistics and survival analysis. Results: The mean age of the patients in DM group were of
years, which was older compared with the control group. The percentage of postmenopausal patients was 71.4% and the ratio of grade II+III was 98.8%, which was higher than the control group. The neoadjuvant chemotherapy response rate of DM group was 67.5%, which was lower than control group. The patients in DM group had later clinical stage and more lymph metastasis. The proportion of advanced breast cancer was 68.57% and the ratio of lymph node metastasis was 66.01%. All the difference was significant (P<0.05). But there was no significant difference in tumor size and molecular phenotype between the diabetic group with breast cancer and the control group. Disease-free survival and overall survival rates of DM group were 80.2% and 84.2%, which were worse than those in the control group. All the difference was significant (P<0.05). After excluding the patients with other causes of death, results of overall survival still showed worse in DM group, but the difference was not statistically significant(P>0.05). Serum insulin at fasting and two hours postprandial were higher than normal value in DM group, but serum insulin levels in the control group changed in the normal range. Conclusion: There were older patients, with a higher proportion of high pathological grade, more lymph node metastasis, later clinical stages in the diabetic group with breast cancer. Breast cancer patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus were at risk of a poor prognosis. Hyperinsulinemia may be the real cause of poor prognosis in breast cancer patients with type-2 diabetes.
Hot Beverage and Food Intake and Esophageal Cancer in Southern China
Lin, Jing ; Zeng, Runming ; Cao, Weihua ; Luo, Rongcheng ; Chen, Jing ; Lin, Yuan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2189~2192
Aim: Hot beverage and food intake may be associated with increased risks of esophageal cancer. In this study, we analyzed data from two hospital based case-control studies to examine this question. Methods: A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on potential risk factors of esophageal cancer from 213 cases and 213 controls in southern of China from Jan. 2007 to Dec. 2010. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using conditional multivariable adjusted logistic regression, adjusting for confounders. Results: Those who consumed hot and very hot beverages demonstrated significantly increased risk of esophageal cancer (OR=4.13, 95% CI: 2.13-8.05; OR=8.55, 95% CI: 3.67-20.9, respectively), related to increasing temperature. A high frequency of barbecued and fried food was also revealed to elevate risk of esophageal cancer (OR=3.44, 95% CI: 1.12-8.34, p for trend 0.034; OR=2.39, 95% CI: 1.25-6.32, p for trend 0.035, respectively). Furthermore, we found evidence for an association with a fast eating habit in our Chinese (OR=4.76, 95% CI: 2.12-7.74). Conclusion: This study found hot beverage and high-temperature cooking methods might greatly increase the risk of esophageal cancer. Further studies in Chinese populations with larger sample size are warranted.
Smokers Can Quit Regardless of Motivation Stage in a Worksite Smoking Cessation Programme in Malaysia
Yasin, Siti Munira ; Retneswari, Masilamani ; Moy, Foong Ming ; Koh, David ; Isahak, Marzuki ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2193~2198
Background: There is an unclear relationship between smoker's early motivation and success rates. Here we aimed to explore the correlates of motivation and smoking abstinence and relapse in worksite smoking cessation programmes. Methods: This prospective cohort study involved employees from two major public universities in Malaysia. Participants were actively recruited into a smoking cessation programme. At the start of treatment, participants were administered a questionnaire on sociodemographic variables, smoking habits and 'stage of change'. Behaviour therapy with free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) was given as treatment for two months. A similar stage of change questionnaire was given at six months, and their smoking status was determined. Results: There were 185 smokers from both Universities, who joined the programme. At six months, 24 smokers reported sustained abstinence while the others had relapsed. Prior to the programme, the majority of smokers were seriously planning on quitting (59.5%- preparation stage), but over a third had no plans to quit (35.5%- contemplation stage). There was no significant difference noted in changes of motivation stage among the relapsers and the non quitters. In addition, logistic regression showed that sustained abstinence was not predicted by pre-session motivation stage, but this did predict higher relapse for the participants, compared to those in the preparation stage. Conclusion: It is possible to help smokers in the lower motivation groups to quit, provided extra caution is taken to prevent relapse. Healthcare providers' recruitment strategies for cessation programmes should thus encompass smokers in all motivation stages.
Cyclin D1 Amplification in Tongue and Cheek Squamous Cell Carcinomas
Mahdey, Haydar M ; Ramanathan, Anand ; Ismail, Siti Mazlipah ; Abraham, Mannil Thomas ; Jamaluddin, Marhazlinda ; Zain, Rosnah Binti ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2199~2204
Introduction: Several molecular markers have been studied for their usefulness as prognostic markers in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). One such molecular marker is cyclin D1 which is a proto-oncogene located on 11q13 in humans. Objective: To explore the feasibility of using cyclin D1 as a prognostic marker in tongue and cheek SCC by the fluorescent-in-situ hybridization (FISH) method. Methods: Fifty paraffin-embedded samples (25 each of cheek and tongue SCCs) were obtained from the archives of the Oral Pathology Diagnostic Laboratory. Sociodemographic data, histopathologic diagnoses, lymph node status and survival data were obtained from the Malaysian Oral Cancer Database and Tissue Bank System (MOCDTBS) coordinated by the Oral Cancer Research and Coordinating Centre (OCRCC), University of Malaya. The FISH technique was used to detect the amplification of cyclin D1 using the Vysis protocol. Statistical correlations of cyclin D1 with site and lymph node status were analyzed using the Fisher exact test. Kaplan-Meier and Log Rank (Mantel-Cox) test were used to analyze cyclin D1 amplification and median survival time. Results: Positive amplification of cyclin D1 was detected in 72% (36) of OSCCs. Detection of positive amplification for cyclin D1 was observed in 88% (22) and 56% (14) of the tongue and cheek tumors, respectively, where the difference was statistically significant (P=0.012). Lymph node metastasis of cheek SCCs showed a trend towards a significant association (P=0.098) with cyclin D1 amplification whereas the lymph node metastasis of tongue SCC was clearly not significant (P=0.593).There was a statistically significant correlation between cyclin D1 positivity and survival rate (P=0.009) for overall SCC cases and (P<0.001) for cheek SCC cases. Conclusion: The present study found that cyclin D1 amplification may differ in different subsites of OSCC (tongue vs cheek) and its positive amplification implies an overall poor survival in OSCCs, particularly those arising in cheeks.
Hepatitis B Vaccination and Liver Cancer Mortality Reduction in Korean Children and Adolescents
Gwack, Jin ; Park, Sue K ; Lee, Eun-Ha ; Park, Boyoung ; Choi, Yunhee ; Yoo, Keun-Young ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2205~2208
Liver cancer is one of the three most common causes of cancer mortality in the world and it is closely related to chronic hepatitis B viral(HBV) infection in Korea. The decline of HBV prevalence for the last two decades in Korea might be partly due to the HBV vaccination which was implemented as a national program starting in 1995. The aim of this study was to assess the period effect of the national HBV vaccination on liver cancer mortality in a young population. We compared age-specific mortality rates of liver cancer before and after the national vaccination program in the Korean population under the age of 20. To reduce year-to-year fluctuations in mortality, calendar years and age groups were divided into 4-year strata and the mortality rates were calculated for each stratum. Period effects of the national vaccination program were analyzed using age-period-cohort modeling. A total of 370 liver cancer mortality cases were identified during the period from 1991 to 2006. The period effect of the national vaccination program for the period 2002-2006 had a significantly reduced liver cancer mortality rate when compared to the period 1991-1994 when the national vaccination program was not implemented (RR 0.30, 95% CI 0.21 ~ 0.44). After implementation of the national vaccination program, HBV prevalence in Korean declined from 6~8% to 2~3%. This study demonstrates that the national vaccination program has contributed to the reduction of liver cancer mortality beyond just a natural decrease in Korean children and adolescents.
Trends in Liver Cancer Incidence between 1985 and 2009, Khon Kaen, Thailand: Cholangiocarcinoma
Kamsa-Ard, Supot ; Wiangnon, Surapon ; Suwanrungruang, Krittika ; Promthet, Supannee ; Khuntikeo, Narong ; Kamsa-Ard, Siriporn ; Mahaweerawat, Suwannee ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2209~2213
Background: The Khon Kaen Cancer Registry (KKCR), having both hospital and population-based registration, was established in 1984 at the Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University. Liver cancer is the most frequent malignancy among Thais from northeastern Thailand, but there has hitherto been no assessment of trends over time. Objective: To perform a statistical assessment of the incidence trends between 1985 and 2009 of liver cancer, specifically focusing on cholangiocarcinoma (CHCA). Methods: Cases of CHCA, registered between 1985 and 2009, were retrieved from the KKCR and all those with a specific ICD-O-3rd diagnosis with a coding of C22.1, C24.0, C24.8 and C24.9 were selected. Incidence trends were calculated using the generalized linear model method (GLM), which generates incidence rate based logarithms. Jointpoint analysis was used to identify the best fitting model. Results: Of the 18,589 cases of liver cancer 42% (7,859) were hepatocellular carcinoma and 58% (10,731) were CHCA. Among persons with CHCA, males were affected two times more frequently than females. Three-quarters of the cases were between 55 and 69 years of age. Morphology verified through a cytological or histological examination of tissue from the primary site (%MV) was only 10.8 % (1,141). The respective overall Age Standardized Rate (ASR) for CHCA from 1985 to 2009 was 16.8 to 62.0 per 100,000 among males and 4.8 to 25.6 per 100,000 among females. The respective, overall, ASR of CHCA among males vs. females was 44.3 per 100,000 (95% CI: 38.9 to 49.7) vs. 17.6 (95% CI: 14.5 to 20.7). Among males vs. females, the respective incidence from 1990 to 2009 has been significantly decreasing by -0.7% per year (annual percent change, APC: -0.7%, 95%CI: -2.1% to +0.8%) vs. -0.4% per year (APC: -0.4%, 95% CI: -2.1% to +1.4%). Conclusions: The rate increase in the first 5 to 6 years may be due to improved completeness of the registry, since in the subsequent 10 to 12 years there is a rather stable rate. It may be, however, that the recent decline in incidence represents a real fall in risk.
Childhood Cancer Incidence and Survival 2003-2005, Thailand: Study from the Thai Pediatric Oncology Group
Wiangnon, Surapon ; Veerakul, Gavivann ; Nuchprayoon, Issarang ; Seksarn, Panya ; Hongeng, Suradej ; Krutvecho, Triroj ; Sripaiboonkij, Nintita ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2215~2220
Background: Previous population-based incidences of childhood cancer in Thailand were achieved by extrapolating from data limited to a small number of cancer registries, not from the whole country. In addition, survival of childhood cancer patients is often described in specialized hospitals and/or institutions, but not in the general population. Methods: All children aged 0-15 years who were newly diagnosed as having cancer were registered from 18 treatment centers during 2003-5 and classified into 12 diagnostic groups according to the International Classification of Childhood Cancer. Incidences were calculated by a standard method and survival was investigated using the ThaiPOG (Thai Pediatric Oncology Group) population-based registration data. Overall survival was calculated by the Kaplan Meier method. Results: In the study period (2003-5) 2,792 newly diagnosed cases of childhood cancer were registered, with mean and median ages of 6.5 (SD=0.13) and 5.0 (0-14) years, respectively. The age-peak was between 1 and 4 years and the age-standardized rate (ASR) was 74.9 per million. Leukemia was the most common cancer (N=1421, ASR 38.1) followed by lymphoma (N=266, ASR 6.4) and neoplasms of the central nervous system (CNS, N=246, ASR 6.3). The follow-up duration totaled 101,250 months. The death rate was 1.11 per 100 person-months (95%CI: 1.02-1.20). The 5-year overall survival was 54.9% (95%CI: 53.0%-56.9%) for all cancers. The respective, 5-year overall survival for (1) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), (2) acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia (ANLL), (3) lymphoma, (4) retinoblastoma, (5) renal tumors, (6) liver tumors, (7) germ cell tumors, (8) CNS tumors, (9) neuroblastoma, (10) soft tissue tumors and (11) bone tumors were (1) 64.5%, (2) 35.1%, (3) 59.5%, (4) 73.1%, (5) 70.4%, (6) 44.5%, (7) 70.6%, (8) 41.7%, (9) 33.6%, (10) 50.1%, and (11) 33.7%. Conclusions: The incidence of childhood cancer is lower than in western countries. Respective overall survival for ALL, lymphoma, renal tumors, liver tumors, retinoblastoma, soft tissue tumors is lower than those reported in developed countries while for CNS tumors, neuroblastoma and germ cell tumors the figures are comparable.
Glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 Status and the Risk of Laryngeal Cancer: a Meta-analysis
Kumar, Vinod ; Murthy, A Krishna ; Suresh, KP ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2221~2226
Background: Polymorphic variations in GSTM1 and GSTT1 have been implicated as risk factors for various cancers. A number of studies conducted to assess their association with susceptibility to laryngeal carcinomas have yielded inconsistent and inconclusive results. In the present study, the possible association of laryngeal cancer risk with GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes was explored by a meta analysis. Method: A meta-analysis was carried out on case-control studies collected from the literature. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and presence of publication bias in those studies were evaluated. Results: A total of 20 studies concerning laryngeal cancer were identified. The results showed that the pooled OR was 1.22 (95% CI 1.03-1.43) for the GSTM1 polymorphism while for GSTT1 polymorphism, the pooled OR was 1.23 (95% CI 0.96-1.58). No evidence of publication bias was detected among the included studies. Conclusion: The results suggest that the GSTM1 deficiency significantly increases susceptibility to laryngeal cancer whereas GSTT1 null genotype might not be a risk factor.
MTHFR Gene Polymorphisms and Bladder Cancer Susceptibility: a Meta-Analysis Including Race, Smoking Status and Tumour Stage
Kouidhi, Soumaya ; Rouissi, Kamel ; Khedhiri, Sami ; Ouerhani, Slah ; Cherif, Mohamed ; Benammar-Elgaaied, Amel ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2227~2232
Epidemiological studies have investigated that functional polymorphisms in the methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene may play an essential role in bladder carcinogenesis, but the numerous published studies have reported inconclusive results. The objective of the current study was to conduct an updated analysis in order to investigate the association between polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene and risk of bladder cancer. We searched the Pubmed database for all articles published up to March 31, 2011 that addressed bladder cancer and polymorphisms and variants or mutations of MTHFR for analysis using statistical software. Results for two polymorphisms (C677T and A1298C) in 27 case-control were studies from 15 articles indicated individuals carrying the 677T allele (TC or TT+TC) to have a reduction to a 29% or 21% compared to the wild genotype (CC) in mixed populations (OR: 0.71, 95%CI: 0.55-0.93 or OR: 0.79, 95%CI: 0.64-0.97, respectively) and it is shown that there is significant positive associations between A1298C polymorphism and bladder cancer in Africans (OR: 1.24, 95%CI: 1.02-1.52 for C vs.A; OR: 1.35, 95%CI: 1.10-1.66 for CA vs. AA; OR: 1.29, 95%CI: 1.08-1.55 for CC+CA vs. AA). However, no significant relationship was found in two polymorphisms in the stratified analysis by smoking status. Interestingly, individuals carrying the 677T allele (TT+TC) demonstrated a higher percentage of invasive than superficial cases (OR: 1.38, 95%CI: 1.13-1.69). The results from the current update analysis suggest that C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene are associated with bladder cancer risk and prognosis. Further evaluation based on more studies with larger groups of patients are now required.
A Clinical Study on Safety and Efficacy of Aidi Injection
Combined with Chemotherapy
Xu, Hong-Xia ; Huang, Xin-En ; Li, Ying ; Li, Cheng-Guang ; Tang, Jin-Hai ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2233~2236
Objective: To observe the efficacy, side effects and impact on the quality of life of Aidi Injection
combined with leucovorin calcium/5-fluorouracil/oxaliplatin (FOLFOX4 regimen) in the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer patients. Methods: A consecutive cohort of 100 patients were divided into two groups: the experimental group was treated with Aidi injection and FOLFOX4 while the control group was only administered FOLFOX4. After more than two courses of treatment, efficacy, quality of life and side effects were evaluated. Results: The response rate of experimental group was not significantly different with that of control group (P>0.05), but differences were significant in clinical benefit response and KPS score. Iin addition, gastrointestinal reaction and the incidence of leukopenia were lower than that of control group (P<0.05). Conclusions: Aidi injection combined with FOLFOX4 is associated with reduced toxicity of chemotherapy, enhanced clinical benefit response and improved quality of life of patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Aidi injection deserves to be further investigated by randomized control clinical trails.
XRCC1 Arg399Gln Gene Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Risk: a Meta-analysis Based on Case-control Studies
Wu, Kusheng ; Su, Daisi ; Lin, Kun ; Luo, Jiayi ; Au, William W ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2237~2243
Background: The Arg399Gln polymorphism in the XRCC1 DNA repair gene is likely to be involved with the development of breast cancer (BC). However, there have been inconsistent reports of association. The objective of this study was to systematically evaluate the published papers. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of 44 published case-control studies fitting our eligibility criteria. These studies involved XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphisms in 20,841 BC cases and 22,688 controls in dominant (GlnGln+ArgGln vs. ArgArg), recessive (GlnGln vs. ArgGln+ArgArg), and co-dominant (GlnGln vs. ArgArg) inheritance models. Analyses of Asian, African and Caucasian ethnic subgroups was also conducted. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of associations. Results: Our overall analyses indicated Arg399Gln to be associated with a trend of increased BC risk when using recessive (OR=1.15, 95%CI: 1.05-1.27), and co-dominant models (OR=1.15, 95%CI: 1.04-1.27) to analyze the data. In ethnic subgroups, Arg399Gln significantly increased BC risk in Asians (OR=1.54, 95%CI: 1.18-2.01) when using recessive model analysis, in Africans (OR=1.30, 95%CI: 1.07-1.60) when using dominant model analysis, and in Asians (OR=1.50, 95%CI: 1.15-1.97) and Africans (OR=1.80, 95%CI: 1.08-3.02) when using the co-dominant model analysis. Conclusions: From our meta-analysis of data from 44 publications, we conclude that XRCC1 Arg399Gln allele is a risk factor for the development breast cancer, especially among Asian and African populations.
A Retrospective Analysis of Thyroid Cancer in China
Yang, Yumei ; Li, Qiang ; Guo, Lin ; Cui, Mingming ; Bao, Tana ; Zhang, Zhiying ; Wang, Chi ; Ni, Yanan ; Zhang, Jinchao ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2245~2249
Background: Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem that require close attention to determine the risk of malignancy. This study was designed to investigate the diagnostic values of pathological characteristics, ultrasonographically-detected calcification, and serum TSH levels in thyroid cancer in Han Chinese. Methods: A retrospective analysis was carried out using 1,685 patients with thyroid cancer or benign nodules, who had undergone thyroidectomy between 2008 and 2009 in our hospital. Results: Among the 1,685 cases, 222 had thyroid carcinomas and, of those, 113 (50.9%) developed different benign thyroid diseases. The frequency of thyroid cancer showed a progressive decrease from the younger to the older patients. The frequency of malignancy was closely related to the level of calcification, with the lowest frequency occurring in patients with no calcification and the highest in those with micro-calcification. The frequency of malignancy was also closely related to serum TSH levels, with the lowest occurring in patients with TSH levels <0.40 uIU/mL, and the highest with >1.34 uIU/mL; in addition, <4.00 uIU/mL TSH showed a progressive increase from the lower to the upper of normal range. Conclusions: Thyroid malignancies often coexist with benign thyroid disease. Age, TSH levels, and calcification of the nodules are predictors of malignancy.
Anticancer Effects of Huaier are Associated with Down-Regulation of P53
Xu, Xiao ; Wei, Qiang ; Wang, Kai ; Ling, Qi ; Xie, Haiyang ; Zhou, Lin ; Zheng, Shusen ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2251~2254
This study was designed to explore the mechanism of Huaier anticancer effects on experimental hepatocellular cancer (HCC) development. Seventy five rats were divided into 5 groups, administered N-nitrosodiethylamine (groups B, C, D and E) or natural saline (group A). Rats in group C and E were also given Huaier. At the 15 week sacrifice point, the HCC incidence of group C was lower than group correlating with serum AFP. The serum ALT concentration (98.9% greater) and P53 mRNA levels (23.2%) were higher in Group B than group C. Longer term survival rates between group D and E were not significantly different. Huaier can protect liver from chemical injury and furthermore HCC development, possibly with involvement of down-regulation of P53.
A Qualitative Study of Japanese Patients' Perspectives on Post-treatment Care for Gynecological Cancer
Oshima, S ; Kisa, K ; Terashita, T ; Habara, M ; Kawabata, H ; Maezawa, M ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2255~2261
The perspectives of cancer patients are important for designing a medically and economically effective follow-up program to help in the rapid recovery of patients. However, research focusing on the perspectives of Japanese gynecological cancer patients on follow-up programs is extremely scarce. In this study, we explored the perspectives and expectations of Japanese gynecological cancer patients with regard to post-treatment follow-up. Twenty-eight patients recruited through a gynecological cancer support group were included in focus groups 1.10 years post-treatment. Participants' accounts related to their perspectives on follow-up were coded and grouped into themes according to commonalities and differences. Seven themes emerged as follows: (1) living with uncertainty, (2) monitoring recurrence, (3) test content and frequency, (4) coping with "another illness," (5) provider communication and attitude, (6) holistic care, and (7) compromising with the reality of changed body. While these Japanese gynecological patients regarded follow-up as an opportunity for reassurance, they also wanted treatment for adverse effects and the opportunity to discuss their concerns. On the basis of the study findings, we conclude that during follow-up after cancer treatment, Japanese gynecological cancer patients not only prioritize recurrence management of cancer but also place a significant amount of importance on the management of symptoms and doctor-patient communication. However, these expectations for communication and care are often unmet. Thus, there is a need to fulfill the gap between the current follow-up programs and patients' expectations by reviewing and changing the hospital's policy that mainly focuses on the detection of recurrent diseases.
Inhibition of Proliferation and Induction of Apoptosis by Trimethoxyl Stilbene (TMS) in a Lung Cancer Cell Line
Liu, Ping ; Wang, Xin ; Hu, Chunhong ; Hu, Tiehui ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2263~2269
Trimethoxyl stilbene (TMS) is a derivative of resveratrol, a compound shown to inhibit development of a variety of tumor types. We aimed to evaluate the effect of TMS on cell proliferation and apoptosis in the A549 non-small cell lung cancer cell line. Growth inhibition rate and colony formation was measured and apoptosis was determined with Hoechst 33258 staining. Protein expression levels of caspase-3, STAT3, STAT5b, JAK2, NF-
were examined by Western blotting. Furthermore, localization of NF-
protein was also explored. TMS inhibited proliferation (IC50 8.6
) and induced apoptosis of the cells in a concentration-dependent manner., also inducing apoptosis accompanied by up-regulated expression and cleavage activation of caspase-3, up-regulation of
and down-regulation of
, STAT3, STAT5b, and JAK2 signal transduction. TMS has potential as a new drug for treatment of non-small cell lung cancer patients with anti-proliferation and apoptosis inducing effect of TMS to A549 cells apparently related to its inhibitory effect on STATs and NF-
signal transduction. Up-regulation of caspase-3 further supports the potential clinical use of TMS for the treatment of non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma.
Pancreatic Cancer Mortality and Misclassification - Bayesian Analysis
Taghavi, Afsoon ; Fazeli, Zeinab ; Vahedi, Mohsen ; Baghestani, Ahmad Reza ; Zali, Mohammad Reza ; Pourhoseingholi, Mohamad Amin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2271~2274
Background: Pancreatic cancer is a fatal cancer with a 5-year survival of only about 4% for all tumors. Mortality is a familiar projection to address the burden of cancers, but according to the Iranian death registry, about 20% of death statistics are still recorded in misclassified categories. The aim of this study wasto estimate pancreatic cancer mortality for Iranian population, using a Bayesian approach in order to revise this misclassification. Methods: National Death Statistics reported by the Ministry of Health from 1999 to 2004, stratified by age group, sex and cause of death, were the basis for this analysis. Pancreas cancer [ICD-10; 25] were expressed as the annual mortality rates/100,000, overall, by sex and by age group (<50 and
years of age) and age standardized rate (ASR). The Bayesian approach to correct and account for misclassification effects in Poisson count regression was employed with a beta prior to estimate the mortality rate by age and sex group. Results: According to the Bayesian analysis, there were between 20 to 30 percent underreported mortality records in deaths due to pancreatic cancer and the rate decreased slightly during the years of the study. Conclusion: Our findings suggest a substantial undercount of pancreatic cancer mortality in the Iranian population. Therefore policy makers who determine research and treatment priorities should note these underreported data for death rates.
Effects of the MTHFR C677T Polymorphism on Prostate Specific Antigen and Prostate Cancer
Kucukhuseyin, Ozlem ; Kurnaz, Ozlem ; Akadam-Teker, A.Basak ; Narter, Fehmi ; Yilmaz-Aydogan, Hulya ; Isbir, Turgay ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2275~2278
Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer related deaths among men in many countries. Serum levels of prostate-spesific antigen (PSA) have attracted attention for prediction purposes. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene play a critical role in cancer development, but its potential impact on prostate cancer has not been well studied. The C677T variant lies in exon 4 at the folate binding site of the MTHFR gene and results in substitution of an alanine by a valine residue. The present study was carried out 55 cases with prostate cancer and 50 healthy men. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and agarose gel electrophoresis techniques were employed to determine MTHFR C677T mutation. The frequencies of the CT genotype (p=0.025) and T allele (p=0.023) was found to be higher in control subjects when compared with patients group. No statistical difference was found between the alleles of MTHFR and PSA levels after (PSA-BT)/before (PSA-AT) antiandrogen treatment or tumor stages. We suggest that the heterozygote CT genotype and the 677T allele of the MTHFR polymorphism might be associated with an decreased prostate cancer risk.
Null Genotype of GSTT1 Contributes to Colorectal Cancer Risk in Asian Populations: Evidence from a Meta-analysis
Xu, Donghua ; Yan, Shushan ; Yin, Jie ; Zhang, Pengjun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2279~2284
Background/Aims: Studies of associations between genetic polymorphism of glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in Asian populations have reported controversial results. Thus, a meta-analysis was performed to clarify the effects of GSTT1 polymorphism on the risk of developing colorectal cancer. Methods: A literature search of PubMed and EMBASE up to June 7, 2011 was conducted and 13 eligible papers were finally selected, involving totals of 4,832 CRC cases and 7,045 controls. Subgroup analyses were performed according to the sample size and the research designwith the software programs Review Manager (version 5.0.10) and STATA (version 9.2). Results: Analyses of all relevant studies showed an increased CRC risk was significantly associated with the null genotypes of GSTT1 (OR=1.09, 95%CI=1.01-1.17,
=40.2%). Besides, a more obvious association was observed after heterogeneity was eliminated (OR=1.13, 95%CI 1.04-1.23,
=0.0%). Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analysis further identified an association in Asians. Conclusions: This meta-analysis demonstrated the GSTT1 null genotype to be associated with an increased risk of CRC in Asian populations.
Loss of Runt-Related Transcription Factor 3 Expression Associated with Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Progression and Prognosis
Li, Jianguo ; Jiang, Xiaojie ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2285~2290
Background: This study aimed to evaluate the expression level of runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) in human primary hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and its relationship with the clinic pathological features. Methods: RUNX3 expression was analyzed by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting in HCC cells and tissues. Results: RUNX3 mRNA and protein expression was decreased in HCC tissues compared with the adjacent normal tissues (P<0.001), mRNA frequently being down-regulated in HCC cell lines (66.7%, 4/6). Low expression of RUNX3 showed a significant correlation with cirrhosis (P = 0.028), histologic type (P = 0.000) and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.004). Conclusion: RUNX3 expression is deleted or decreased in HCCs and cell lines, in association with progression and prognosis.
Influence of MDR1 Gene Codon 3435 Polymorphisms on Outcome of Platinum-based Chemotherapy for Advanced Non Small Cell Lung Cancer
Yan, Peng-Wei ; Huang, Xin-En ; Yan, Feng ; Xu, Lin ; Jiang, Yong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2291~2294
Objective: To evaluate the influence of multi-drug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene codon 3435 polymorphisms on response to platinum-based chemotherapeutic regimens for advanced non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: Responses and overall survival were evaluated in a series of patients presenting between March 1, 2005 and December 31, 2010. MDR1 gene C3435T polymorphisms were genotyped using peripheral blood with real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and relationships between the MDR1 C3435T genetic polymorphism and response rate of chemotherapy were analyzed by SPSS 13.0. Results: Overall response to chemotherapy in the eligible 103 patients was 21.4%. Patients with C/C genotype in MDR1 codon 3435 had a significantly higher response rate (24.5%) than those for C/T(19.0%) and T/T(12.5%) (P<0.05). The overall median survival time (MST) of patients was 19 months, values with C/C, C/T and T/T genotype were 21, 15.5 and 17 months, respectively (P=0.487). Conclusion: Our research suggested that patents with the C/C genotype in MDR1 codon 3435 could be more sensitive to platinum-based chemotherapy than patients with C/T and T/T; however, no significant difference was found between overall survival and MDR1 codon 3435 genetic polymorphisms.
Age Characteristics of Incidences of Prevalent Cancers in the Aral Sea Area of Kazakhstan
Igissinov, Nurbek ; Tereshkevich, Dmitriy ; Moore, Malcolm A ; Igissinov, Saginbek ; Shaidarov, Mazhit ; Bilyalova, Zarina ; Igissinova, Gulnur ; Nuralina, Indira ; Kozhakhmetov, Saken ; Mauyenova, Dana ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2295~2297
The aim of the research was to examine age-specific features of incidence of cancer of the esophagus, lung, stomach, breast, cervix and thyroid gland in the Aral Sea area in Kazakhstan. A retrospective study of 11 years (1999-2009) was conducted using descriptive and analytical methods with calculated age incidence rates. The average age of patients with esophageal cancer and lung cancer had a tendency for increase with "aging", while in other cases "juvenation" was noted. The peak incidence of malignant tumors in general, and in the studied forms of cancer was found at 70 years of age or older, except for breast cancer and cervical cancer, where the peak incidence was found at 60-69 years. Trends in age-varied incidence rates had different tendencies in particular organ sites.
Trends of Prevalent Cancer Incidences in the Aral-Syr Darya Ecological Area of Kazakhstan
Igissinov, Nurbek ; Igissinov, Saginbek ; Moore, Malcolm A ; Shaidarov, Mazhit ; Tereshkevich, Dmitriy ; Bilyalova, Zarina ; Igissinova, Gulnur ; Nuralina, Indira ; Kozhakhmetov, Saken ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2299~2303
The aim of this research was to examine the incidence of major forms of cancer in the Aral-Syr Darya ecological area of Kazakhstan. The present retrospective study of 11 years (1999-2009) was therefore conducted using descriptive and analytical methods. Incidence rates (crude and standardized) of 11 leading cancer sites were calculated and trends determined. The result of analysis demonstrated the most common neoplams in the study region to be esophageal cancer, carcinoma of lung, stomach cancer, and breast cancer. Trends in incidence of cancers under study were different, the most marked reduction in cancer of esophagus is established (T=-6.1%) and revealed the high increase in breast cancer (T=+6.7%). In the dynamics the trend of malignant disease in general tended to decrease (T=-0.5%).
Lung Cancer in Central Tunisia: Epidemiology and Clinicopathological Features
Missaoui, Nabiha ; Hmissa, Sihem ; Landolsi, Hanene ; Korbi, Skander ; Joma, Wafa ; Anjorin, Affissath ; Abdelkrim, Soumaya Ben ; Beizig, Nadia ; Mokni, Moncef ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2305~2309
Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide but data from Tunisia are limited. The aim of this research was to describe the epidemiology, pathology and clinical features of lung cancer in Central Tunisia. All lung cancer cases diagnosed during a 15-year period were analyzed based on the data of the Cancer Registry of the Center of Tunisia. Five-year age-specific rates, world age-standardized rates (ASR), and annual percent change were calculated using annual data on population size and the estimated age structure. A total of 1,882 incident cases of lung cancer were registered (1,782 males, 100 females). The median age at diagnosis was 64 years for males and 61 years for females, with ASRs of 35.2 per 100,000 among males and 1.5 among females. Over time, there were significant decreasing trends by -6.5% (95% CI: -12.9%; -0.2%) for females and a stable incidence for males at an annual rate of +0.2% (95% CI: -1.6%; +1.8%). The predominant histological type was squamous cell carcinoma in males (36.9%) and adenocarcinoma in females (52%). During 2003-2007, adenocarcinoma became the most frequent (33.7%) followed by squamous cell carcinoma (30.3%) in males. The majority of tumor cases were diagnosed at advanced stages (79.9%). In conclusion, lung cancer has remained the most common cancer diagnosed at advanced stages among Tunisian men. Our findings justify the need to plan and develop effective programs aiming at the control and prevention of the spread of lung cancer in Tunisia.
Reasons for Clinical Breast Examination in Women Applying at a Cancer Screening Center in Erzurum
Arslan, Sevban ; Tezel, Ayfer ; Celebioglu, Ayda ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2311~2315
Aim: This study was conducted to investigate the reasons for application of women for Clinical Breast Examination (CBE). Methods: This descriptive study involved 155 women who applied to Cancer Screening and Education Center of Numune Hospital, Erzurum, Turkey between December 1, 2008 and January 30, 2009. The data collection was performed by evaluation of demographic characteristics of the participants using a descriptive information form to identify the application reasons. Results: The age range of the participants was 37-68 years (mean: 48.7 years). Of the participants, 43.9% applied for breast screening; 31.0%, for pathological changes in the breast; 17.4%, for breast check-up, and 7.7%, for concerns over familial risk. Conclusions: Most of the women (69.0%) applied to the center without any pathological changes in their breasts.
Breast Cancer Risk Factors in Turkey: a Hospital-based Case-control Study
Sezer, Hafize ; Yilmaz, Meryem ; Gurler, Hesna ; Koyuncu, Ayhan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2317~2322
Background: Regional disparities in breast cancer (BC) outcomes have been reported in Turkey. Methods: In a hospital-based case-control study in Sivas, Turkey, 172 patients with histologically confirmed BC were compared with 383 controls, recruited from visitors in various departments of the same hospital, who had not been previously diagnosed with BC. Information was collected from both groups using a questionnaire and logistic regression analysis was applied to assess associations between each risk factor and BC risk with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: In multivariable models, family history of BC (OR= 4.67, 95% CI: 2.23-9.76), history of smoking (OR= 1.75, 95% CI: 1.08-2.84), and higher education level (OR= 2.88, 95% CI: 1.64-5.07) were the strongest predictors of BC in the study population. A separate analysis studying only postmenopausal women using hormone replacement therapy (HRT) (comparing duration of use, >36 months versus
months, P<0.05) found that use of HRT was also a risk factor for BC. Duration of HRT use (P<0.05) was significantly associated with the elevated risk. On the other hand, certain factors such as first full-term pregnancy before age 30 (
=5.755 P<0.05) and higher parity (
=20.731, P<0.05) were found to be protective factors for BC. Conclusion: The findings of the present study indicate that family history of BC, history of smoking, education, and HRT are factors significantly associated with increased BC risk among Turkish women within the area of Central Anatolia, Turkey.
Characteristics of Hospital Controls According to Willingness to Participate in a Cancer Genetic Epidemiologic Research in China
Li, Lin ; Zhang, Min ; Holman, CD'Arcy J ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2323~2328
Objective: Studies on participants' willingness to be interviewed in-person and donate blood specimens for genetic cancer research are few and most have been conducted in Western countries. Little information exists about the willingness to participate in genetic cancer research in China. Methods: In 2009-2010, 560 hospital controls, matched to incidence cases by age, gender and residency, were randomly selected from outpatients attending the Health Examination Centre at the China Medical University's teaching hospital in Northeast China. Demographic and lifestyle characteristics were measured using a validated questionnaire by face-to-face interview and 5 ml blood samples were collected from consenting participants. A 7-point 'willingness to participate' scale was developed for use by the interviewer to record the levels of ease or difficulty experienced in recruiting each participant. The willingness to participate was compared between different subgroups of participants. Results: The participation rate was 96.1% among the hospital controls. Characteristics associated with willingness to participate were age (
60 years) and tertiary education. Weaker associations with gender and malignancies in first degree relatives were not statistically significant. The factors not strongly or significantly associated with willingness to participate were income, marital status, body mass index, smoking, passive smoking, alcohol consumption, tea drinking, or physical activity. Conclusion: This study suggests that while there is general acceptance of participation in genetic cancer epidemiologic research in China across subgroups of outpatient hospital controls, younger age and education are associated with increased willingness to participate, while lifestyle factors generally had little impact.
XRCC1 Polymorphisms and Risk of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: a Meta-analysis
Huang, Guo-Liang ; Guo, Hong-Qiang ; Yu, Chun-Yan ; Liu, Xing-Yan ; Li, Bin-Bin ; Wu, Jing-Jing ; He, Zhi-Wei ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2329~2333
Objective: Previous studies on the association between X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1 (XRCC1) polymorphisms and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) risk showed inconsistent results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of XRCC1 variants on NPC risk. Methods: A meta-analysis was performed with all eligible studies covering a total of 1,341 cases and 1,425 controls for the Arg194Trp polymorphism, 1,260 cases and 1,207 controls for the Arg280His polymorphism, and 1,644 cases and 1,678 controls for the Arg399Gln polymorphism. Results: No associations was found between Arg194Trp and Arg280His polymorphisms with NPC risk under all contrast models (co-dominant, dominant, and recessive models). However a deleterious effect of the 399Gln genotype was observed under the co-dominant model (Gln/Gln versus Arg/Arg, OR = 1.30, 95% CI : 1.01-1.69, P = 0.04). Under the recessive model (Gln/Gln versus Arg/Arg+Arg/Gln), the P value was marginally significant (OR = 1.28, 95% CI : 1.00-1.65, P = 0.05). However, the effect of the 399Gln genotype on NPC became non-significant after excluding one study from the meta-analysis because of departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Conclusions: No associations was found between Arg194Trp and Arg280His polymorphisms with NPC risk, whereas the Arg399Gln genotype was associated with increased risk.
Quality of Life among Breast Cancer Patients in Yemen
Al-Naggar, Redhwan Ahmed ; Nagi, Nadeem Mohammed Saeed ; Ali, Munef Mohammed Saleh ; Almuasli, Mahfoudh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2335~2341
Objective: the objective of this study is to determine the quality of life among breast cancer patients in Yemen based on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. Methodology: This study was designed as a cross-sectional study. The data collected from 106 female breast cancer patients who were chosen for recruitment from the outpatient in National Oncology Centre (NOC), Sana'a, Yemen from November 2008 to June 2011. Questionnaires were distributed to the patients during their visit to the outpatient clinics in the center. The instrument of this study consists of two parts: Socio-demographic and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B) questionnaire. Regarding data analysis, means and SD of subscales were evaluated for descriptive purpose. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to compare the three groups regarding QOL subscales. Whereas, independent t-test was performed for comparing two groups regarding QOL subscales. Multiple linear regression using backward analysis was performed to obtain the final model for each domain. The final model was chosen depending on R2 and the p value of the model. A p value less than 0.05 is considered statistically significant. Results: A total number of 106 breast cancer patients were participated in this study. The majority of them were uneducated, unemployed with normal weight and had middle income (60.4%; 95.3%; 59.4%, 46.2%; respectively). As for clinical characteristics of the study participants; the majority of them had had no family history of breast cancer, have been diagnosed at least 2 years, were diagnosed at grade 3 and size of tumor greater than 2 cm (88.7%, 66.0%, 35.8%, 73.6%; respectively). The majority of them underwent mastectomy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and tamoxifen therapy (85.8%, 63.2%, 94.3% and 62.3%; respectively). For univariate analysis, the present study has identified several factors includes family monthly income, BMI, educational status, years after diagnosis, histological grade radiotherapy and surgery that influence the QOL of breast cancer patients in Yemen. For multivariate analysis, years after diagnosis, family monthly income and radiotherapy were significantly associated with total QOL of the breast cancer patients (p=0.01, p=0.023, p=0.039; respectively). Conclusion: Family monthly income, BMI, educational status, years after diagnosis, histological grade radiotherapy and surgery were significantly influence the QOL of breast cancer patients in Yemen, in univariate analysis. For multivariate analysis, years after diagnosis, family monthly income and radiotherapy were significantly associated with total QOL of the breast cancer patients.
No Association Between the CYP1B1 C4326G Polymorphism and Endometrial Cancer Risk: a Meta-analysis
Wang, Xi-Wen ; Chen, Yu-Li ; Luo, Ya-Li ; Liu, Qing-Yi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2343~2348
Purpose: Any association between the CYP1B1 C4326G polymorphism and endometrial cancer risk remains inconclusive. In order to provide a more precise estimate, we performed the present meta-analysis. Methods: We used fixed effect or random effect models to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for endometrial cancer risk, with the Chi-square-based Q-test used to test for heterogeneity. Begg's and Egger's tests were adopted to check publication bias. Results: Six published case-control studies of association between the CYP1B1 C4326G polymorphism and endometrial cancer risk covering 6,577 subjects were included in the meta-analysis, but the results indicated no significant correlation with allele contrast and genotype comparisons (G vs C: OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.93-1.09; GG vs CC: OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.88-1.23; CG + GG vs CC: OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.97-1.21; GG vs CC + CG: OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.87-1.17). Heterogeneity hypothesis test did not reveal any heterogeneity and Begg's and Egger's tests did not detect obvious publication bias. Conclusions: There is no association between the CYP1B1 C4326G polymorphism and endometrial cancer risk.
Transcriptome-wide Network Analysis of Squamous Lung Cancer Reveals Potential Methylation Genes
Lou, Jiatao ; Xue, Jian ; Lin, Qiang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2349~2352
Lung cancer is a prevalent cancer with a high death rate. Underlying mechanisms have been found to be highly correlated with epigenetics, especially with DNA methylation. With methylation array and other regulation data, we constructed a TF-gene regulation network and a TF-pathway network. Through those networks, we identified lung cancer related genes that were found by previous studies, and supposed a number of new examples. Our work demonstrated the new potential methylation for lung cancer.
Multivariate Disease Mapping of Seven Prevalent Cancers in Iran using a Shared Component Model
Mahaki, Behzad ; Mehrabi, Yadollah ; Kavousi, Amir ; Akbari, Mohammad E ; Waldhoer, Thomas ; Schmid, Volker J ; Yaseri, Mehdi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2353~2358
Background: The aim of this study was to model the geographical variation in incidence and risk factors of seven prevalent cancers in Iran. Methods: The data for cancers of esophagus, stomach, bladder, colorectal, lung, prostate, and female breast along with their risk factors in all 30 provinces of Iran for the year 2007 were included into study. Smoking, overweight, inadequate consumption of fruits and vegetables, socioeconomic status and low physical activity were studied as risk factors. Standardized incidence ratios were estimated using full Bayesian model. In addition, the shared component model was used to explore the spatial pattern of the cancers and to estimate the relative importance of their corresponding risk factors. Results: Fars and the Northwestern provinces were observed as high risk areas and Hormozgan (a Persian Gulf coastal province), Sistan and Baluchestan, South Khorasan, and Kerman provinces located in Southeast were areas of low risk for most cancers. For all five risk factors, larger effects on incidence of the relevant cancers were found in the Northern provinces compared to other areas. Smoking, overweight, inadequate consumption of fruit and vegetable, socioeconomic status, and low physical activity were found to have more effects on incidence of stomach, breast, esophagus, and breast cancers, respectively. Conclusions: Most of the high risk areas for seven cancers were in accordance with the results for spatial patterns of related risk factors and their relative weights on relevant cancers. The multivariate shared component model of the seven cancers achieves a considerable improvement in terms of Deviance Information Criterion over the individual modeling of diseases.
Survival Analysis of Patients with Esophageal Cancer using Parametric Cure Model
Rasouli, Mahboube ; Ghadimi, Mahmood Reza ; Mahmoodi, Mahmood ; Mohammad, Kazem ; Zeraati, Hojjat ; Hosseini, Mostafa ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2359~2363
Background & Objectives: Esophageal cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the Caspian littoral north-eastern part of Iran. The aim of this study was to calculate cure function as well as to identify the factors that are related to this function among patients with esophageal cancer in this geographical area. Methods: Three hundred fifty nine cases of esophageal cancer registered in the Babol cancer registry during the period of 1990 to 1991 (inclusive) were followed up for 15 years up to 2006. Parametric cure model was used to calculate cure fraction and investigate the factors responsible for probability of cure among patients. Results: Sample of subjects encompassed 62.7% men and 37.3% women, with mean ages of diagnosis was 60.0 and 55.3 years, respectively. The median survival time reached about 9 months and estimated survival rates in 1, 3, and 5 years following diagnosis were 23%, 15% and 13%, respectively. Results show the family history affects the cured fraction independently of its effect on early outcome and has a significant effect on the probability of uncured. The average cure fraction was estimated to be 0.10. Conclusion: As the proportionality assumption of Cox model does not meet in certain circumstances, a parametric cure model can provide a better fit and a better description of survival related outcome.
Setting Research Priorities to Reduce Burden of Cancer in Iran: an Institutional Experience
Abachizadeh, Kambiz ; Mohagheghi, Mohammad-Ali ; Mosavi-Jarrahi, Alireza ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2365~2370
Objective: The aim of this study was to draw a set of priority areas of cancer research in order to utilize these priorities as broader policy for decision-making on a comprehensive cancer control program at the national level in Iran. Materials and Methods: A steering committee consisting of scientists from the three major areas of clinical, basic research and public health sciences recommended a qualitative study of ranking an exhaustive outlines of cancer science topics by cancer scientists throughout country. Scientists were identified through Medline search and contacting cancer research centers all over the country. An exhausting outline of cancer science topics was modified and posed to Iranian cancer scientists. Doing research on each outlined topic was judged based on its state of being necessary, appropriate, practical or yielding in the Iranian societal context. An electronic system of communication was developed and all scientists were asked to rank each topic based in order of 1 to 5. As the areas of expertise of scientists were diverse, the participants had the option to rank the outlined topics that they think suitable to their areas. Results: Out of 135 identified scientists, 108 participated of whom 56 were clinicians (M.D's with university appointment), 35 basic scientists and 17 epidemiologists and public health scientists. As the top first five areas of research priorities, the overall assessment indicated as research topics: 1) cancer surveillance and registration as the first priority; followed by 2) exogenous factors in the origin and cause of cancer; 3) surveillance - patient care and survivorship issues; 4) issues of end-of-life care; and 5) cost analyses and health care delivery of cancer services. Conclusion: The study concluded that research on infrastructure of cancer control programs, cancer registration, service delivery and patient quality of life bears higher priority in Iran.
The Risk of Colorectal Cancer is Associated with the Frequency of Meat Consumption in a Population-based Cohort in Korea
Kim, Jeongseon ; Park, Sohee ; Nam, Byung-Ho ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2371~2376
Objective: To date, there have been few prospective cohort studies that have investigated the association between meat consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in Asian countries. A large, population-based cohort study was conducted to assess the effect of the frequency of meat consumption on the risk of CRC in Korean adults. Methods: The participants were Korean government employees, school faculty members, and their unemployed dependents, aged 30-80 years, who underwent health examinations between 1996 and 1997. In 2003, information on CRC incidence was obtained during the 6-7 year follow-up period. The final data analysis included 2,248,129 study subjects. The hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the HR were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results: During the follow-up period, CRC occurred in 4,501 men and 1,943 women (64.19 and 36.34 for age-standardized incidence rates per 100,000 person-years, respectively). In the total population, the estimated HRs and 95% CI for meat consumption of 2-3 times per week and more than 4 times per week compared with consumption of less than once per week were 1.06 (1.01-1.12) and 1.23 (1.13-1.35), respectively. In men only and women only groups, the HRs (95% CI) for consumption of more than 4 times per week compared with consumption of less than once per week were 1.13 (1.02-1.26) and 1.42 (1.21-1.66), respectively. Conclusion: The present findings suggest that frequency of meat consumption is positively associated with the risk of CRC.
Nutritional Epidemiology of Cancer in Korea: Recent Accomplishments and Future Directions
Woo, Hae Dong ; Kim, Jeongseon ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2377~2383
Because diet is closely related to cancer incidence and mortality, recent studies in cancer epidemiology have focused on dietary factors. The results of studies on nutritional cancer epidemiology in Korea are discussed in this research paper. Most studies have used a case-control design focused on breast or gastric cancer patients. Antioxidants were associated with a reduced risk of gastric cancer in most studies, but this association was not observed for breast cancer. Most diets consumed by Koreans that included fruits and vegetables were associated with reduced cancer risk, but high concentrations of salt in food were positively associated with gastric cancer risk. Genetic susceptibility was considered in several studies, and food contaminants were assessed to estimate life-time cancer risk. Recent studies have made advances in understanding the relationship between diet and cancer among Korean populations. However, because the history of nutritional cancer epidemiology in Korea is relatively short, the subjects covered and methodology of the research have been limited. A cohort design with a large sample size and appropriate methods to assess subjects' usual intake may be needed to determine the true association between diet and cancer in the future.
Cancer Chemopreventive Potential of the Egyptian Flaxseed Oil in a Rat Colon Carcinogenesis Bioassay - Implications for its Mechanism of Action
Salim, Elsayed I ; Abou-Shafey, Ahlam E ; Masoud, Ahmed A ; Elgendy, Salwa A ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2385~2392
The possible chemopreventive effects of natural Egyptian flaxseed oil on preneoplasia and cancer formation were investigated in a rat medium-term colon carcinogenesis bioassay. Male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups. Groups 1, 3 and 5 were initiated by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) 20 mg/kg body weight s.c. 8 times, twice a week to initiate colon carcinogenesis. Groups 1 and 3 received 20% or 5% flaxseed oil respectively in diet in post initiation stage until the end. Groups 2 and 4 served as a flaxseeds dose corresponding controls without carcinogen initiation, while rats in group 6 served as negative controls. Distribution and total numbers of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), putative preneoplastic lesions, particularly those with
aberrant crypts (ACs), and the numbers and sizes of colon tumors (adenoma and carcinoma) were significantly decreased by both treatment doses of flaxseeds as compared to group 5. Histochemical investigation revealed that the numbers of mucus-secreting cells in the colonic mucosa were reduced gradually during progression of colon carcinogenesis. Intriguingly, flaxseed oil caused the numbers and integrity of the mucus-secreting cells to retain close to normal levels and in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, the hematological parameters were almost constant between the groups particularly at the dose of 5% as compared to groups 5 and 6. PCNA-labeled indexes (PCNA-LI) in the DMH-initiated colonic mucosa were found to be decreased by both doses of flaxseeds administration. In conclusion, the present study showed that the post initiation dietary administration of flaxseeds oil suppressed DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats without significant side effects. The mechanism is likely to be through its inhibitory effects on early cellular proliferation and modulation of mucin secretion properties in the initiated colonic mucosa.
Personal Use of Hair Dyes - Increased Risk of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in Thailand
Sangrajrang, Suleeporn ; Renard, Helene ; Kuhaprema, Thiravud ; Pornsopone, Pattarapong ; Arpornwirat, Wichit ; Brennan, Paul ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2393~2396
The use of hair dyes has been inconsistently associated with an increased risk of lymphomas. To further evaluate this possibility, we examined hair dye use and lymphoma risk in a case-control study in the Thai population. A total of 390 histologically confirmed incident non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) cases and 422 controls were included. Information on hair dye use was obtained through a personal interview together with information on other known risk factors of lymphoma. Analysis was performed using logistic regression; odds ratios (ORs) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Ever use of hair dyes was not associated with an increase risk of NHL both overall (OR=1.1, 95%CI 0.8-1.5) and in women (OR=1.4, 95%CI 0.9-2.3). However, NHL was significantly higher among persons who began using hair dyes before 1980 (OR=2.1, 95%CI 1.0-4.1). An increased risk was also observed among women who reported use of permanent hair dye product (OR=1.8, 95% CI 1.0-3.1). Analyses by NHL subtype showed an increased risk for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma among users of permanent hair dyes (OR=1.6, 95%CI 1.0-2.5) while follicular lymphoma was associated with the use of dark-colored dyes (OR=3.7, 95%CI 1.1-12.8). No association was observed with duration of use, nor total lifetime applications. These results indicate that personal hair dye use may play role in risks of NHL among person who used hair dyes before 1980.
Estimating Prevalence of Genital Warts in Turkey: Survey among KETEM-affiliated Gynecologists across Turkey
Ozgul, Nejat ; Tuncer, Murat ; Abacioglu, Melike ; Gultekin, Murat ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2397~2440
Background & Purpose: In order to develop cost effective health strategies regarding HPV screening and prevention methods, determining the incidence and prevalence of HPV as well as the diseases it gives rise to such as cervical cancer and genital warts is essential. This study is a first step in determining nationwide annual prevalence of genital warts in Turkey. Patients & Methods: Through the survey sent to gynecologists in each city in Turkey, a record number of data for 4,013,084 patients, out of which 5511 diagnosed with genital warts were collected from 81 cities. The survey was sent in May 2011 and recollected in July 2011. The data belonged to patients consulted in 2010. Patients ranged between women 30-65 years old. The prevalence per city was projected using population per city as presented in Turkish Statistical Institute (TUIK). The treatment types prescribed and conducted for each patient and number of referrals were also collected. Results: The annual prevalence of 154 per 100,000 women aged 30-65 was found as the Turkey average. Given 15-37% recurrence rate estimates based on distribution of treatments provided in Turkey, an annual incidence of 97-131 per 100,000 women is estimated. Wide regional differences were observed across regions, with Aegean Region having the highest and the Southern Eastern regions having the lowest annual prevalence rates in Turkey. Conclusion: The annual prevalence rates and extrapolated incidence rates are comparable to incidences in European countries where intensive research into treatment of HPV and national health strategies are developed. Turkey should deepen its research in this area. This study contributes to these efforts as a first step in determining cost effective national health strategies.
Prevalence of Obesity among Women in Turkey: Analysis of KETEM data
Ozgul, Nejat ; Tuncer, Murat ; Abacioglu, Melike ; Gultekin, Murat ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2401~2404
Background & Purpose: Determining the prevalence of obesity is a crucial step in combating with obesity and devising national health strategies. It is particularly important to better understand prevalence of obesity among women as women in Turkey also highly impacts the dietary habits of the whole household. This article determines the prevalence of obesity among adult women in the country. Patients & Methods: Each Cancer Early Diagnosis and Screening Center were asked to submit data on BMI indices for women who visited the centers between January and June 2011. The data were collected on January 1 and July 1 first for each respective quarter. Patients ranged between 30-65 years old. World Health Organization guidelines on BMI cutoffs were used to determine the prevalence of obesity and overweight. Results: The prevalence of obesity of adult women aged 35-60 was found to be 35%. The highest prevalence was observed in Western part of Turkey in the Aegean region with 42% of women with BMI over 30. The lowest rate was observed in the Eastern Turkey with 21% obese women, followed by 28% in Southeastern Turkey. Conclusion: The prevalence of obesity among adult women in Turkey is very comparable to some of the other countries with highest rates of obesity in the world. Women specific health strategies against obesity should be devised.
MDR1 Gene C3435T Polymorphism is Associated with Clinical Outcomes in Gastric Cancer Patients Treated with Postoperative Adjuvant Chemotherapy
Li, Ying ; Yan, Peng-Wei ; Huang, Xin-En ; Li, Cheng-Guang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2405~2409
Objective: To evaluate the impact of the multi-drug resistance 1(MDR1) C3435T polymorphism on clinical outcomes in gastric cancer patients treated with postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods: From January 2005 to December 2008, 102 patients with surgically resected gastric cancers were enrolled into this study in the Affiliated Jiangsu Cancer Hospital of Nanjing Medical University. The polymorphism was tested using real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) cycling probes and the relationship with clinical outcomes after postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy was analyzed by SPSS 17.0. Results: The CT/TT genotype of C3435T was significantly associated with a shorter progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) compared with the CC genotype [PFS: adjusted hazard ratio(HR)= 2.01, 95% confidence intervals(CI): 1.17-3.45, P = 0.012; OS: adjusted HR = 2.37, 95% CI: 1.31-4.28, P=0.004]. TNM stage was also associated with PFS (adjusted HR = 2.33, 95% CI: 1.34-4.05, P = 0.003) and OS (adjusted HR = 2.62, 95% CI: 1.44-4.76, P = 0.002) in gastric cancer patients treated with postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the MDR1 gene C3435T polymorphism is associated with clinical outcomes in gastric cancer patients treated with postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. This now needs to be confirmed by a randomized prospectively controlled study.
Predictive Role of Molecular Subtypes in Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Breast Cancer Patients in Northeast China
Lv, Minhao ; Li, Beibei ; Li, Yongfeng ; Mao, Xiaoyun ; Yao, Fan ; Jin, Feng ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2411~2417
Introduction: Breast cancer is increasingly regarded as a heterogeneous disease which can be classified into distinct molecular subtypes with prognostic significance. Materials and methods: ER, PR, HER2 and ki-67 were used to divided 102 breast cancers treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) into 4 subtypes: luminal A (ER+, PR+, HER2-, and ki-67
), luminal B (ER+, PR+, HER2- and ki-67>14% ; ER+ and/or PR+, HER2+), HER2-overexpression (ER-, PR- and HER2+) and triple-negative (ER-, PR-,and HER2-). Results: Among 102 patients, a pCR was seen in 16 (15.7%) patients. The pathologic complete remission (pC) rates according to different subtypes are as follows: luminal A, 0 of 20 (0.0%), luminal B, 2 of 23 (8.7%), HER2-overexpressio,n 4 of 18 (22.2%), and triple-negative, 10 of 41 (24.4%) (p=0.041). In triple-negative subtype patients, the rates of pCR differed significantly among the 3 chemotherapy regimens with 5.6% (1/18) for CEF (cyclophosphamide, epirubicin and flurouracil), 20.0% (1/5) for TE (docetaxel and epirubicin) and 44.4% (8/18) for TCb (docetaxel and carboplatin) (p=0.024). In locally advanced breast cancer patients, the rates of pCR seem to differ among the 3 chemotherapy regimens with 6.7% (2/30) for CEF, 0.0% (0/8) for TE and 23.1% (6/26) for TCb, but this did not attain statistical significance (p>0.05). Conclusions: Molecular subtypes are good predictors for response to NCT in breast cancer patients in Northeast China. Compared with luminal A tumors, HER2-overexpression and triple-negative subtypes are more sensitive to NCT. For triple-negative breast cancer, we concluded that the TCb combination is a promising NCT regimen. Our results also indicated that the TCb combination is promising for the treatment of locally advanced breast cancer.
Knowledge, Attitude and Preventive Practices of Women for Breast cancer in the Educational Institutions of Lahore, Pakistan
Khokher, Samina ; Qureshi, Warda ; Mahmood, Saqib ; Saleem, Afaf ; Mahmud, Sumbal ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2419~2424
Breast cancer incidence rates, pattern of presentation and survival rates vary worldwide. High incidence, advanced stage disease presentation and low survival rates have been reported from Pakistan. Lack of awareness and screening facilities along with poor socioeconomic status are the main causes. A survey based upon multiple choice questionnaires was conducted during an awareness campaign in women educational institutions of Lahore, to assess the baseline knowledge, attitude towards breast self examination (BSE), clinical breast examination (CBE) and source of information used by them. 1155 filled questionnaires were analyzed by SPSS version 12. Majority (83.7%) of the respondents were <30 years old, 60% had >10 and 31.5% had >14 years of education. Only 27% had "good" while 14% had "poor" and 59% had "fair" knowledge scores about breast cancer. Television was the most commonly cited source of information but was associated with lower knowledge score. The knowledge scores and practice of BSE had a positive association with education level. The respondents had better knowledge of life time risk and association of early diagnosis with better chances of cure, but worse knowledge of risk factors as compared to women in educational institutions of other countries. Generally the respondents of present study had low level of knowledge of breast cancer. Properly designed awareness campaign on television and in educational institutions can be effective to raise the knowledge level, the best long term strategy for this purpose.
Role of Xenoestrogens and Endogenous Sources of Estrogens on the Occurrence of Premenopausal Breast Cancer in Iran
Bidgoli, Sepideh Arbabi ; Eftekhari, Tara ; Sadeghipour, Reza ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2425~2430
Breast cancer affects Iranian women one decade younger than their counterparts in other countries and the underlying risk factors have remained controversial. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediates endocrine disruptive activities of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins, which may compromise ovarian functions of women in polluted environments. This study focused on tissue expression levels of AhR and associations with exposure to chemicals with estrogen-like activities (xenoestrogens) and other reproductive factors in premenopausal breast cancer patients. Fifty cases who underwent surgery from June 2009 to June 2010 were matched with 100 controls by age and hospital records. AhR overexpression was detected in 87% of epithelial cells of young breast cancer patients. Living near factories generating PAHs and dioxins was considered as a major risk factor in premenopausal breast cancer (p=0.001, OR=4.8). History of idiopathic infertility was identified as a second significant risk factor (p=0.002, OR=3.50), which could be affected by endogenous estrogen levels. Long term (>5 yrs) consumption of oral contraceptive pills was identified as the third most important risk factor (p=0.006, OR=2.27). Adiposity and abnormal weight gain after 18 years were considered as two major background factors, which may contribute to the levels of endogenous estrogens. Direct and indirect exposure to cigarette smoke (p=0.005, OR=1.43) was considered as a weak risk factor without association with AhR levels. It seems that AhR overexpression is affected by exposure to xenoestrogens and by adiposity. Early occurrence of breast cancer in Iran may be a result of interactions between hormonal and environmental factors.
Association between Glycodelin and Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor in Iranian Breast Cancer Patients: Impact of Environmental Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals
Bidgoli, Sepideh Arbabi ; Korani, Mitra ; Bozorgi, Niloofar ; Zavarhei, Mansour Djamali ; Ziarati, Parisa ; Akbarzadeh, Saeed ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2431~2435
Breast cancer affects Iranian women one decade younger than their counterparts in other countries and the underlying risk factors have remained controversial. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediates the effects of many environmental endocrine disruptors and contributes to the many other genes and Gd is an endocrine-regulated glycoprotein which may induce by AhR ligands in endometrium. This study has aimed to compare the interactions between Gd and AhR and other fundamental genes (p53, K-Ras, ER, PgR, AR) between pre and post menopausal Iranian breast cancer patients. To conduct immunohistochemical studies with appropriate monoclonal antibodies, 25 premenopausal invasive ductal carcinomas and 29 postmenopausal invasive ductal carcinomas were selected retrospectively in 2008-2010 from the pathology department of Imam Khomeini hospital complex of Tehran. Higher levels of AhR in epithelial cells of premenopausal patients and breast fibroadenoma emphasized the susceptibility of these cells to environmental induced tumors. Current study demonstrated a significant association between tumoral levels of Gd and AhR (p=0.002) in breast cancers which confirms the preliminary hypothesis about the role of TCDD exposure on Gd biosynthesis and secretion in TCDD-treated endometrial epithelial cells. In summary this study showed the dual prognostic role of Gd especially in premenopausal breast cancer which could be induced by AhR overexpression. Further studies are necessary to find the direct role of breast carcinogens as well as endocrine disrupting chemicals on the differential levels of Gd in breast tumors.
Healthcare Utilization in Patients with Esophageal Cancer in a High Risk Area in Northeast of Iran
Roshandel, Gholamreza ; Majdzadeh, Reza ; Keshtkar, Abbasali ; Aramesh, Kiarash ; Sedaghat, Seyed Mehdi ; Semnani, Shahryar ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2437~2442
Introduction: Golestan, a province located north of Persian Gulf in northeastern part of Iran is a well known area for high risk of esophageal cancer (EC) in the world. There is no information about healthcare utilization in populations residing in the area. This study was conducted to assess utilization of healthcare and its associated factors among esophageal cancer patients in this region as well as to address ethical implication of this utilization. Methods: All new cases of EC in Golestan province during year of 2007 were recruited. Seven diagnostic and five therapeutic services were used to assess diagnostic utilization index (DUI), and therapeutic utilization index (TUI), respectively. Multivariate regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between variables and DUI or TUI. P-value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Tow hundred twenty three, patients were enrolled with mean (Standard Deviation) age of 64.3 (12.5) years with 57.8% male. We observed that occupation (P<0.01), ethnicity (P<0.01) and sex (P=0.03) were strongly associated with DUI. Insurance coverage (P<0.01), place of residency (P<0.01), and occupation (P=0.01) were associated with TUI. Conclusion: We concluded that several factors contribute to disparity in healthcare utilization in the studied population.
Assessment of Risk Factors Affecting Recurrence of Patients with Gastric Cancer in the Presence of Informative Censoring in Iran
Roshanaei, Ghodratollah ; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan ; Sadighi, Sanambar ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2443~2446
Background: In some survival studies, several events are taken into consideration. If the events are independent then the ordinary methods such as Kaplan-Meier, Cox or parametric models can be used. If one of the events dependently (informatively) censors the other, the results are biased. The present study was designed to assess the risk factors for recurrence of patients with gastric cancer in the presence of informative censoring using parametric models with a semi-competing risk approach. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective study, 408 cases of gastric cancer were selected from the patients referred to the Tehran Cancer Institute from March 2003 to March 2007. Gender, age at diagnosis, distant metastasis, tumor size, histology type, tumor grade, pathologic stage, tumor site, and type of treatment were studied as prognostic factors and used in the models. Parametric models such as Weibull, exponential, log-logistic were used with informative right censoring using Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) as criteria to compare models. The data were analyzed using R statistical software. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Based on Akaike information criteria (AIC), the Weibull model best fitted to data. The effect of tumor size and pathologic stage were significant on recurrence in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Tumor site and tumor grade were significant only in univariate analysis. Conclusions: The results showed that semi-competing risk methods perform well in determining risk factors for disease recurrence.
Low Frequency of Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus 1 Antibodies in Iranian Gastric Cancer Patients in Comparison to Controls
Tahaei, Seyed Mohammad Ebrahim ; Mohebbi, Seyed Reza ; Fatemi, Seyed Reza ; Mohammadi, Parvaneh ; Malek, Fatemeh Nemati ; Azimzadeh, Pedram ; Almasi, Shohreh ; Mirsattari, Dariush ; Zali, Mohammad Reza ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2447~2450
There is some evidence that human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1) infection has a reverse association with gastric cancer (GC). Data about this association in the Iranian population are scarce. In this study we therefore assessed the frequency of anti-HTLV-1 antibody in GC patients and compare it to antibody presence in healthy individuals in Iranian population. This case control study was performed between 2008-2011 on 201 GC patients and 219 control subjects. HTLV-1 antibodies wereassessed by ELISA and the positive results were confirmed by western blotting. Totals of 201 gastric cancer patients and 219 controls were enrolled in this study. The tumors in the majority of patients (45.3%) were in the distal (non-cardia) area. Mean age of patients at the time of diagnosis was
and mean age of controls was
. While only one GC patient (0.5%) was positive for HTLV-1 antibody, there were four individuals (1.89%) from the control group with antibodies. In addition, smoking had statistically significant relationship with cancer (P=0.001). Our study showed that the frequency of HTLV-1 antibody in patients was lower than in controls, similar to the results obtained in Japan. Further investigations with a larger sample size are needed in order to determine the association between GC and HTLV-1 infection in Iran.
Accuracy of Colposcopically Directed Biopsy in Diagnosis of Cervical Pathology at Srinagarind Hospital
Ouitrakul, Sirisuk ; Udomthavornsuk, Banchong ; Chumworathayi, Bandit ; Luanratanakorn, Sanguanchoke ; Supoken, Amornrat ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 12, issue 9, 2011, Pages 2451~2453
Objective: To determine the accuracy of colposcopically directed biopsy (CDB) in diagnosis of precancerous or cancerous lesion of the uterine cervix as a quality index of the institute. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of the women who had colposcopic examination at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Srinagarind Hospital from January, 2005 to December, 2010. The women with satisfactory colposcopic examination who had CDB and further interventions such asloop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP)/conization, and/or hysterectomy were included in study. The pathological reports of the specimens from CDB were analyzed comparing with LEEP/conization or hysterectomy according to the highest degree of abnormalities. Pathological reports of HSIL (high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) or more severe were classified as positive, while LSIL (low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) or less severe were classified as negative. Results: There were 320 patients included, 259 having highest pathological reports of HSIL or more. The accuracy of CDB to detect HSIL or more of the uterine cervix was 87.8% with sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of 84.9%, 100%, 100%, and 61%, respectively. Conclusions: The accuracy of CDB in diagnosis of cervical pathology in our institute was acceptable and comparable to those of others. CDB is a reliable method to obtain the pathological diagnosis in women with abnormal cervical cytologic screening.