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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevetion
Editor in Chief :
Malcolm A Moore
Volume & Issues
Volume 13, Issue 12 - Dec 2012
Volume 13, Issue 11 - Nov 2012
Volume 13, Issue 10 - Oct 2012
Volume 13, Issue 9 - Sep 2012
Volume 13, Issue 8 - Aug 2012
Volume 13, Issue 7 - Jul 2012
Volume 13, Issue 6 - Jun 2012
Volume 13, Issue 5 - May 2012
Volume 13, Issue 4 - Apr 2012
Volume 13, Issue 3 - Mar 2012
Volume 13, Issue 2 - Feb 2012
Volume 13, Issue 1 - Jan 2012
Selecting the target year
Prostate Cancer and Metabolic Syndrome: Is there a link?
McGrowder, Donovan A. ; Jackson, Lennox Anderson ; Crawford, Tazhmoye V. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 1~13
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.001
Metabolic syndrome has become quite prevalent within our society. Over the past two decades, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome has sharply increased worldwide and it has become a major public health problem in several countries. It is associated with the global epidemic of obesity and diabetes mellitus and imposes numerous cardiovascular risks. Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer among men, surpassed only by non-melanoma skin cancer. A considerable body of evidence exists suggesting that some components of the metabolic syndrome have been associated with the risk of prostate cancer. These components include obesity, an abdominal fat distribution, and hyperinsulinemia. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the most widely used therapeutic modality in prostate cancer. It changed the body composition and lipid profile of men with prostate cancer. Androgen deficiency is associated with increased levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, increased production of proinflammatory factors, and increased thickness of the arterial wall and contributes to endothelial dysfunction. The aim of this review is to evaluate the association between metabolic syndrome and prostate cancer and to discuss the implications of androgen deficiency in men with cardiovascular risk factors. A comprehensive literature search was carried out with the use of PubMed from 1980 through 2011, and relevant articles pertinent to metabolic syndrome and prostate cancer are evaluated and discussed.
Male Breast Carcinoma: Epidemiology, Risk Factors and Current Therapeutic Approaches
Zygogianni, Anna G. ; Kyrgias, George ; Gennatas, Costantinos ; Ilknur, Aytas ; Armonis, Vassilios ; Tolia, Maria ; Papaloukas, Christos ; Pistevou, Gompaki ; Kouvaris, John ; Kouloulias, Vassilios ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 15~19
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.015
Male breast cancer is a very rare disease with an incidence of about 0.5-1% comparing with the one of female breast cancer but relatively little is known about its cause. Treatment strategies for breast cancer in males are derived from studies performed among females. The probable reasons behind the frequent, late diagnoses presented at stages III or IV might be the lack of awareness. The rarity of the disease precludes large prospective randomized clinical trials. This study reviews male breast cancer and its risk factors, recommendations for diagnosis and the management of patients with male breast cancer.
Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use by Gynecologic Oncology Patients in Turkey
Nazik, Evsen ; Nazik, Hakan ; Api, Murat ; Kale, Ahmet ; Aksu, Meltem ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 21~25
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.021
The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) among women with gynecologic cancer is becoming increasingly popular. Therefore, it is important to gain insight into the prevalence and factors related to the use of CAM. The aim of this study was to assess the use of CAM in women with gynecologic cancer. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. Data were obtained from 67 gynecological cancer patients at gynecologic oncology clinic of a hospital in Turkey between October 2009 to December 2010 using a questionnaire developed specifically for this study. The instrument included questions on socio-demographic information, disease specifics and complementary and alternative medicine usage. On the basis of women's responses, all participants were divided into 2 groups: CAM users and nonusers. The findings indicated that 61.2% of the women reported the use of 1 or more CAM therapies. There were no significant differences in the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics between CAM users and nonusers (P <0.05). The most frequently used CAM method was herbal therapy (90.2%) and the second was prayer (41.5%). The main sources of information about CAM were informal (friends/ family members). A considerable proportion (56.1%) of CAM users had discussed their CAM use with their physicians or nurses. Turkish women with gynecologic cancer frequently use CAM in addition to standard medical therapy. Nurses/ oncologists caring for women with gynecologic cancer should initiate a dialogue about usage of CAM, discussing the potential adverse effects of CAM and the patient's therapeutic goals.
Expression of VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 in Human Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinomas and its Significance for Lymphatic Metastasis
Wang, Zhongliang ; Chen, Yao ; Li, Xiaofeng ; Xu, Li ; Ma, Wei ; Chang, Lingmei ; Ju, Funian ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 27~31
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.027
Objectives: Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C)and vascular endothelial growth factor feceptor-3 (VEGFR-3) in laryngeal squamous carcinoma and its relationship to lymph node metastasis were investigated. Methods: VEGF-C and VEGFR-3 gene expression in 30 cases of normal laryngeal mucosa tissue (NLM), primary laryngeal carcinoma cell carcinomas (PLC) and cervical lymph nodes (CLN) was examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Protein levels of VEGF-C expression were determined by immunohistochemical staining in 60 cases of PLC. Results: Expression of VEGF-C and VEGFR-3 different among NLM, PLC and CLN in the same patient. In PLC, expression was significantly higher in lymph node positive group than in the lymph node negative group and associated with histological grade of differentiation; Expression of VEGF-C and VEGFR-3 was not linked with age, sex, site or T stage. Conclusions: A close correlation was found between VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 expression and lymph node metastasis in PLC, suggesting a role in metastasis of laryngeal carcinomas.
Abortions and Breast Cancer Risk in Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women in Jiangsu Province of China
Jiang, Ai-Ren ; Gao, Chang-Ming ; Ding, Jian-Hua ; Li, Su-Ping ; Liu, Yan-Ting ; Cao, Hai-Xia ; Wu, Jian-Zhong ; Tang, Jin-Hai ; Qian, Yun ; Tajima, Kazuo ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 33~35
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.033
To evaluate the relationship between abortions and risk of breast cancer, we conducted a case-control study with 669 cases and 682 population-based controls in Jiangsu Province of China. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit detailed information. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The results have revealed that induced abortion was related to increased risk of breast caner. Premenopausal women who had
times of induced abortion were at increased crude OR (2.41, 95%CI: 1.09-5.42) and adjusted-OR (1.55, 95%CI: 1.15-5.68). Postmenopausal women with a previous induced abortion were at increased crude OR (2.04, 95%CI: 1.48-2.81) and adjusted-OR (1.82, 95%CI: 1.30-2.54), and there was a significant increase trend in OR with number of induced abortions (p for trend: 0.0001). Overall, spontaneous abortion did not significantly alter the risk of breast cancer, but postmenopausal women who had history of spontaneous abortion were at increased OR. These results suggested that relationship between breast cancer and abortions may depend on menopausal status and induced abortion may played an important role in the development of breast cancer in Jiangsu' women of China.
Prevalence of Cervical Human Papilloma Virus Infection Among Married Women in Vietnam, 2011
Vu, Lan T.H. ; Bui, Dieu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 37~40
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.037
The burden of cervical cancer is increasing in Vietnam in the recent years, infection with high risk HPV being the cause. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of HPV and the distribution of HPV specific types among the general population in 5 big cities in Vietnam. Totals of 1500 women in round 1 and 3000 in round 2 were interviewed and underwent gynecological examination. HPV infection status, and HPV genotyping test were perfoirmed for all participants. Results indicated that the prevalence of HPV infection in 5 cities ranged from 6.1% to 10.2% with Can Tho having highest prevalence. The most common HPV types in all 5 cities were HPV 16, 18 and 58. Most of the positive cases were infected with high risk HPV, especially in Hanoi and Can Tho where more than 90% positive cases were high risk HPV. Furthermore, in Can Tho more than 60% of women were infected with multiple HPV types. The information from this study can be used to provide updated data for planning preventive activities for cervical cancer in the studied cities.
Prostate Stem Cell Antigen Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Influence Risk of Estrogen Receptor Negative Breast Cancer in Korean Females
Kim, Sook-Young ; Yoo, Jae-Young ; Shin, Ae-Sun ; Kim, Yeon-Ju ; Lee, Eun-Sook ; Lee, Yeon-Su ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 41~48
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.041
Introduction: Breast cancer is the second leading cancer in Korean women. To assess potential genetic associations between the prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) gene in the chromosome 8q24 locus and breast cancer risk in Korean women, 13 SNPs were selected and associations with breast cancer risk were analyzed with reference to hormone receptor (HR) and menopausal status. Methods:We analyzed DNA extracted from buffy coat from 456 patients and 461 control samples, using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) based upon region-specific PCR followed by allelespecific single base primer extension reactions. Risks associated with PSCA genotypes and haplotypes were estimated with chi-square test (
-test), and polytomous logistic regression models using odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), by HR and menopausal status. Results: In case-control analysis, odds ratios (OR) of rs2294009, rs2294008, rs2978981, rs2920298, rs2976395, and rs2976396 were statistically significant only among women with estrogen receptor (ER) negative cancers, and those of rs2294008, rs2978981, rs2294010, rs2920298, rs2976394, rs10216533, and rs2976396 were statistically significant only in pre-menopausal women, and not in postmenopausal women. Risk with the TTGGCAA haplotype was significantly elevated in ER (-) status (OR= 1.48, 95% CI= 1.03~2.12, p<0.05). Especially risk of allele T of rs2294008 is significantly low in pre-menopausal breast cancer patients and AA genotype of rs2976395 in ER (-) status represents the increase of OR value. Conclusion: This report indicated for the first time that associations exist between PSCA SNPs and breast cancer susceptibility in Korean women, particularly those who are pre-menopausal with an estrogen receptor negative tumor status.
Psychosocial Factors and Health Behavior among Korean Adults: A Cross-sectional Study
Kye, Su-Yeon ; Park, Kee-Ho ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 49~56
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.049
Objective: This study was an attempt to identify associations between health behavior, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, healthy diet, and physical activity, and psychosocial factors. Methods: This crosssectional study was conducted among 1,500 participants aged between 30 and 69 years, selected from a population-based database in October 2009 through multiple-stratified random sampling. Information was collected about the participants' smoking and drinking habits, dietary behavior, level of physical activity, stress, coping strategies, impulsiveness, personality, social support, sense of coherence, self-efficacy, health communication, and sociodemographics. Results: Agreeableness, as a personality trait, was negatively associated with smoking and a healthy diet, while extraversion was positively associated with drinking. The tendency to consume a healthy diet decreased in individuals with perceived higher stress, whereas it increased in individuals who had access to greater social support. Self-efficacy was found to be a strong predictor of all health behaviors. Provider-patient communication and physical environment were important factors in promoting positive healthy behavior, such as consumption of a healthy diet and taking regular exercise. Conclusions: Psychosocial factors influence individuals' smoking and drinking habits, dietary intake, and exercise patterns.
Inhibition of the NEDD8 Conjugation Pathway by shRNA to UBA3, the Subunit of the NEDD8-Activating Enzyme, Suppresses the Growth of Melanoma Cells
Cheng, Fang ; Chen, Hao ; Zhang, Lei ; Ruo-Hong, Li ; Liu, Yi ; Sun, Jian-Fang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 57~62
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.057
Neural precursor cell-expressed developmentally down-regulated 8 (NEDD8), a ubiquitin-like protein, mainly functions through covalent ligation to cullin proteins. Conjugation of NEDD8 with cullins can promote ubiquitination, which plays a critical role in the degradation of many proteins. UBA3 is the subunit of NEDD8-activating enzyme which is one of the keys for NEDD8 linkage to cullin proteins. Previous research showed NEDD8 conjugation to be up-regulated in highly proliferative cell lines. In the present study, up-regulated NEDD8 conjugation was observed in melanoma cell lines by Western blot analysis. After down-regulation with a RNAi to UBA3, proliferation of M14 was suppressed in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, up-regulated NEDD8 conjugation may be involved in the development of melanoma. Interference in this pathway might offera promising method for melanoma therapy.
Satisfaction in the National Cancer Screening Program for Breast Cancer with and without Clinical Breast Examination
Han, Mi-Ah ; Jun, Jae-Kwan ; Choi, Kui-Son ; Park, Eun-Cheol ; Lee, Hoo-Yeon ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 63~67
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.063
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether screening by clinical breast examination (CBE) in addition to mammography affected participant satisfaction in the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP). Data were derived from the Quality Evaluation of National Cancer Screening satisfaction survey. This population-based nationwide telephone survey included participants who had been screened by the NCSP for breast cancer between June and August 2010 (n=2,370), and collected information on satisfaction with screening and screening service use. Five multiple regression models were used to determine satisfaction according to screening method, and according to each of five satisfaction measures (pre-screening information transfer, staff interpersonal skills, physical surroundings, reporting of results and general satisfaction). A total of 1,858 (78.4%) participants were screened by mammography alone and 512 (21.6%) by both mammography and CBE. Satisfaction was significantly higher in subjects screened by both mammography and CBE compared with those screened by mammography alone.
Polymorphic Variation in Glutathione-S-transferase Genes and Risk of Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia in the Kashmiri Population
Bhat, Gulzar ; Bhat, Ashaqullah ; Wani, Aadil ; Sadiq, Nida ; Jeelani, Samoon ; Kaur, Rajinder ; Masood, Akbar ; Ganai, Bashir ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 69~73
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.069
Cancer is a complex disease and the genetic susceptibility to it could be an outcome of the inherited difference in the capacity of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. Glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) are phase II metabolizing enzymes whose various genotypes have been associated with increased risk of different types of cancer. Null mutations caused by the deletion of the entire gene result in the absence of the enzymatic activity and increase in the risk of developing cancer including chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). In the present case-control study we evaluated the effect of null mutations in GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes on the risk of developing CML. The study included 75 CML patients (43 males and 32 females; age (mean
years) and unrelated non-malignant controls (76 male and 48 females; age (mean
). The distribution of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes in CML patients and controls was assessed by multiplex-PCR method. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes and risk of CML. Chi-square test was used to evaluate the trend in modulating the risk to CML by one or more potential high risk genotype. Although GSTM1 null genotype frequency was higher in CML patients (41%) than in the controls (35%), it did not reached a statistical significance (OD = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.73-2.40; P value = 0.4295). The frequency of GSTT1 null genotypes was higher in the CML patients (36%) than in the controls (21%) and the difference was found to be statistically significant (OD = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.12-4.02; P value = 0.0308). This suggests that the presence of GSTT1genotype may have protective role against the CML. We found a statistically significant (OD = 3.09, 95% CI: 1.122-8.528; P value = 0.0472) interaction between the GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes and thus individuals carrying null genotypes of both GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes are at elevated risk of CML.
Quality of Life and Radiotherapy Complications of Chinese Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients at Different 3DCRT Stages
Gu, Mo-Fa ; Su, Yong ; Chen, Xin-Lin ; He, Wei-Ling ; He, Zhen-Yu ; Li, Jian-Jun ; Chen, Miao-Qiu ; Mo, Chuan-Wei ; Xu, Qian ; Diao, Yuan-Ming ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 75~79
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.075
Purpose: the study aimed to compare the quality of life (QOL) and radiotherapy complications among Chinese nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients at different 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) stages adjusting for other variables. Methods: 511 NPC patients at different 3DCRT stages were enrolled. They were interviewed regarding SF-36, complications and socio-demographic variables and cancer- or treatment-related variables. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) based on SF-36, complications scores as dependent variables, 3DCRT stages as independent variables, and other variables as covariate were established. Results: The influencing factors of PCS included 3DCRT stages and age group. The influencing factors of MCS included 3DCRT stages and income. Most QOL scores of NPC patients were significantly associated with 3DCRT stage, after accounting for other variables. QOL scores of the patients receiving 3DCRT were the lowest, QOL scores of people after 3DCRT gradually increased. PCS scores of people greater than 5 years after 3DCRT was improved to or even better than the level before 3DCRT. The complications with significantly different scores of patients at different 3DCRT status included xerostomia, throat ache, hypogeusia, caries, hearing loss, snuffles. Conclusions: Clinicians should pay more attention to older NPC patients and patients with lower income. When patients receive 3DCRT, measures should be taken to reduce radiation injury to improve the patients' QOL.
Induction of Apoptosis by a Combination of Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in the Presence of Hyperthermia
Huang, Tao ; Gong, Wei-Hua ; Li, Xiu-Cheng ; Zou, Chun-Ping ; Jiang, Guang-Jian ; Li, Xu-Hui ; Feng, Dian-Peng ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 81~85
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.081
Purpose: To study enhancing effects of paclitaxel in the thermochemotherapy of osteosarcoma cell lines and related mechanisms. Materials and Methods: Paclitaxel and carboplatin were used alone or jointly on OS732 cell lines in the presence of hyperthermia. Inhibition of proliferation was measured by MTT assay and cellular changes were assessed with inverted phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy. Apoptosis was analyzed with flow cytometry (FCM) and Fas expression by immunocytochemistry. Results: At
, one hour after the application of 10ug/ml paclitaxel and
carboplatin on OS732 cells jointly, the survival rate was 15.8% which was significantly lower than with
paclitaxel (45.8%) and
carboplatin (47.7%) respectively (P<0.01). Moreover, changes of morphology and apoptotic rates indicated that the apoptosis-inducing effect of combined application was also much enhanced, as evident also regarding Fas expression. Conclusion: Paclitaxel is conducive to thermochemotherapy of osteosarcoma cell lines, possibly accomplished by up-regulation of Fas expression with induction of apoptosis.
Ultrasonography as a Tool for Monitoring the Development and Progression of Cholangiocarcinoma in Opisthorchis viverrini/Dimethylnitrosamine-Induced Hamsters
Plengsuriyakarn, Tullayakorn ; Eursitthichai, Veerachai ; Labbunruang, Nipawan ; Na-Bangchang, Kesara ; Tesana, Smarn ; Aumarm, Waraporn ; Pongpradit, Ananya ; Viyanant, Vithoon ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 87~90
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.087
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is the most common cancer in northeastern Thailand. At present, effective diagnosis of CCA either in humans or animals is not available. Monitoring the development and progression of CCA in animal models is essential for research and development of new promising chemotherapeutics. Ultrasonography has been widely used for screening of bile duct obstruction in CCA patients. In this study, we preliminarily investigated the applicability of ultrasonography to monitor the development and progression of CCA in Syrian golden hamsters (n=8) induced by Opisthorchis viverrini (OV)/dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) administration. Ultrasonography and histopathological examination of hamsters was performed at week 0, 20, 24 and 28 of OV infection or at the start of water/Tween-80 administration to controls. The ultrasonographic images of liver parenchyma and gallbladders of OV/DMN-induced CCA hamsters showed sediments in gallbladder, thickening of gallbladder wall, and hypoechogenicity of liver parenchyma cells. The ultrasonographic images of liver tissues were found to correlate well with histopathological examination. Although ultrasonography does not directly detect the occurrence of CCA, it reflects the thickening of bile ducts and abnormality of liver tissues. It may be applied as a reliable tool for monitoring the development and progression of CCA in animal models in research and development of new promising chemotherapeutics for CCA.
HPV Prevalence and Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia among HIV-infected Women in Yunnan Province, China: A Pilot Study
Zhang, Hong-Yun ; Tiggelaar, Sarah M. ; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V. ; Smith, Jennifer S. ; Jiang, Cheng-Qin ; Mei, Run-Bo ; Wang, Xian-Guo ; Li, Zu-An ; Qiao, You-Lin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 91~96
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.091
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of HPV and cervical neoplasia among HIV-infected women in southwestern China. Methods: Cervical cytology, HPV detection by Hybrid Capture-
assay, and diagnostic colposcopy were followed by cervical biopsy if indicated. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze associations between HPV co-infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and HIV-related clinical and laboratory parameters. Results: Colposcopic-histopathologically proven CIN2+ lesions were present in 7/83 (8.4%) HIV-infected women. Nearly half (41/83, 43%) were co-infected with carcinogenic HPV genotypes. HPV co-infection was higher in women with colposcopic-histopathologically proven CIN2+ lesions than women with
had higher CIN2+ prevalence after adjusting for current ART status and age (adjusted OR: 6.3, 95% CI: 1.1, 36.5). Conclusions: HIV/AIDS care and treatment programs should integrate effective cervical cancer prevention services to mitigate the risk of invasive cervical cancer among HIV-infected women in China.
Prediction of Length of ICU Stay Using Data-mining Techniques: an Example of Old Critically Ill Postoperative Gastric Cancer Patients
Zhang, Xiao-Chun ; Zhang, Zhi-Dan ; Huang, De-Sheng ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 97~101
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.097
Objective: With the background of aging population in China and advances in clinical medicine, the amount of operations on old patients increases correspondingly, which imposes increasing challenges to critical care medicine and geriatrics. The study was designed to describe information on the length of ICU stay from a single institution experience of old critically ill gastric cancer patients after surgery and the framework of incorporating data-mining techniques into the prediction. Methods: A retrospective design was adopted to collect the consecutive data about patients aged 60 or over with a gastric cancer diagnosis after surgery in an adult intensive care unit in a medical university hospital in Shenyang, China, from January 2010 to March 2011. Characteristics of patients and the length their ICU stay were gathered for analysis by univariate and multivariate Cox regression to examine the relationship with potential candidate factors. A regression tree was constructed to predict the length of ICU stay and explore the important indicators. Results: Multivariate Cox analysis found that shock and nutrition support need were statistically significant risk factors for prolonged length of ICU stay. Altogether, eight variables entered the regression model, including age, APACHE II score, SOFA score, shock, respiratory system dysfunction, circulation system dysfunction, diabetes and nutrition support need. The regression tree indicated comorbidity of two or more kinds of shock as the most important factor for prolonged length of ICU stay in the studied sample. Conclusions: Comorbidity of two or more kinds of shock is the most important factor of length of ICU stay in the studied sample. Since there are differences of ICU patient characteristics between wards and hospitals, consideration of the data-mining technique should be given by the intensivists as a length of ICU stay prediction tool.
Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Resectable Esophageal Carcinoma: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials
Xu, Xiao-Hua ; Peng, Xue-Hong ; Yu, Ping ; Xu, Xiao-Yuan ; Cai, Er-Hui ; Guo, Pi ; Li, Ke ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 103~110
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.103
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for resectable esophageal carcinoma has been a focus of study, but no agreement has been reached on clinical randomized controlled trials and relevant systematic evaluation. The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analysis on published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared neoadjuvant chemotherapy and surgery with surgery alone for resectable esophageal carcinoma. Medline and manual searches was conducted in PubMed, ASCO (American Society of Clinical Oncology) meeting summary, Embase, the Cochrane Library (up to October 2010), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP Database, Wanfang Database. The selection contents were to identify all published and unpublished RCTs that compared neoadjuvant chemotherapy and surgery with surgery alone for resectable esophageal carcinoma. Sixteen RCTs which included 2,594 patients were selected. The risk ratio (RR) (95% confidence interval [CI]; P value), expressed as neoadjuvant chemotherapy and surgery versus surgery alone (treatment versus control), was 1.02 (0.95, 1.10; P=0.54) for 1-year survival, 1.29 (1.13, 1.47; P=0.0001) for 3-year survival, 1.31 (1.13, 1.51; P=0.0003) for 5-year survival, 1.00 (0.95, 1.04; P= 0.85) for rate of resection and 0.89 (0.64, 1.23; P=0.48) for operative mortality. The results showed that neoadjuvant chemotherapy for resectable esophageal carcinoma can raise the overall survival rate of patients with esophageal carcinoma, but it does not affect treatment-related mortality.
XRCC1-77T>C Polymorphism and Cancer Risk: A Meta-analysis
Wang, Yong-Gang ; Zheng, Tian-Ying ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 111~115
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.111
Variants of X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) are involved in the development of cancer, but studies investigating the association of XRCC1-77T>C polymorphism with cancer risk have reported conflicting results. To clarify the effect of the XRCC1 -77T>C polymorphism on cancer risk, we performed a meta-analysis by conducting searches of the published literature in PubMed, Embase and CBM databases. Finally, 13 studies were included into our meta-analysis, involving a total of 11, 678 individuals. Subgroup analyses were performed by ethnicity and cancer type. The results of this meta-analysis showed that there was significant association between the C variant of XRCC1-77T>C polymorphism and cancer risk in all four genetic comparison models (ORC vs. T =1.19, 95%CI 1.07-1.31, P = 0.001; OR homozygote model =1.28, 95%CI 1.07-1.52, P = 0.007; OR recessive genetic model =1.22, 95%CI 1.04-1.44, P = 0.015; OR dominant model =1.21, 95% CI 1.07-1.35, P = 0.001). In the subgroup analyses based on ethnicity, the association was still significant in the Asian population (all p values<0.001), but not in the Caucasian population (all p values > 0.05). Thus, the XRCC1 -77T>C polymorphism is associated with cancer risk, and individuals with XRCC1 -77C variant have a significantly higher cancer risk, particularly in the Asian population.
Antitumor Effects of Hyperthermic CO
Pneumoperitoneum on Human Gastric Cancer Cells
Zhou, Hou-Min ; Feng, Bo ; Zhao, Hong-Chao ; Zheng, Min-Hua ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 117~122
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.117
Aim: To elucidate the effects of hyperthermic
pneumoperitoneum on human gastric AGS cells. Methods: Based on a newly devised in vitro study model, we evaluated the anti-cancer effects of HT-
for 2-4h) on human gastric cancer cells, and also the corresponding mechanisms. Results: HT-
for 2-4h) severely inhibited cell proliferation as assessed by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, while inducing apoptosis in a temperature- and time-dependent manner demonstrated by annexin-V/PI flow cytometry and morphological analysis (Hoechst/PI fluorescence). In addition, it was found that HT-
for 2-4h) promoted the up-regulation of Bax by western blotting. Significantly, it could also suppress gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis by in vitro invasion and motility assay. Conclusion: In conclusion, HT-
had an efficacious cytotoxic effect on gastric cancer cells through Bax-induced mitochondrial apoptotic signaling. Our studies indicate that it may serve as a potential therapy for peritoneal carcinomatosis of gastric cancer. Further investigations in vivo using animal models are now urgently needed.
Awareness and Practice of Breast Self-examination among Korean Women: Results from a Nationwide Survey
Yoo, Bit-Na ; Choi, Kui-Son ; Jung, Kyu-Won ; Jun, Jae-Kwan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 123~125
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.123
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the current status of the awareness and practice of breast self-examination (BSE) among Korean women. Materials and Methods: The study population was derived from the 2007 Korea National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS), an annual cross-sectional survey that uses a nationally representative random sample to investigate cancer-screening rates and related factors. A total of 1,255 Korean women aged
years participated in this study. Results: Of all participants, 88.0% reported that they had heard of BSE. The most common source of information on BSE was the media such as TV, radio and newspapers (87.0%). Recommendations from medical staff reached only 17.2%. The overall proportions of regular and irregular BSE were 13.2% and 16.1%, respectively. The main reason for not performing BSE was lack of knowledge about how to conduct the exam (31.7%). Conclusion: Despite a high level of awareness about BSE, only a small minority of women examine their breasts regularly in Korea.
Study on the Health-related Quality of Life in Patients after Surgery for Malignant Bone Tumors
Han, Gang ; Wang, Yan ; Bi, Wen-Zhi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 127~130
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.127
Aim: We conducted a study in China to assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients treated on for malignant bone tumors after surgery, and investigate the possible determinants. Methods: The subjects were 120 patients surgically treated by amputation and limb-salvage for bone tumors during the period of June 2008 to June 2010. The Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) was employed to measure the HRQoL of all the patients before and after surgery. Results: With regard to the results of the general quality of life tool (SF-36), we observed a significant improvement of all the indexes of HRQoL after 6 months (p<0.05). PF, RP and BP scores showed significant increase between surgery after 6 and 12 months (p<0.05). The means of the HRQoL of bone tumor patients in our study were still much lower than those of general population in every domain, even 12 months after surgery. Logistic regression showed that female patients were found to have lower scores in physical component summary (PCS) than males (OR=0.64, 95% CI=0.35-0.89). Patients older than 15 years had lower scores in mental component summary (MCS) (OR=0.60, 95% CI=0.32-0.86). Ablative surgery was related to both lower MCS and PCS scores (For MCS, OR=0.54, 95% CI=0.31-0.83; for PCS, OR=0.43, 95% CI=0.25-0.73). Conclusion: Our study showed the treatment for bone tumor could greatly alter the HRQoL of patients. Age, sex and type of surgery were associated with physical or mental HRQoL after surgery.
ABO Blood Group and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer in a Turkish Population in Western Blacksea Region
Engin, Huseyin ; Bilir, Cemil ; Ustun, Hasan ; Gokmen, Ayla ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 131~133
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.131
Background: We aimed to investigate the relationship between blood groups and pancreatic cancer in a Turkish population in Western Blacksea region. Methods: This is a retrospective study. Zonguldak Karaelmas University outpatient oncology clinic records were screened for the period between 2004 and 2011. Results: The median age of patients were 56 (
) and 132 of 633 study population had pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic cancer patients had significantly higher rates of blood group A compared to controls (OR 1.8, 95%CI, p 0.005). Rates of blood group AB was significantly lower than the control group (OR 0.37, 95% CI, p 0.04). The median survival (IR) time in subjects having the blood groups A, B, AB and O were 7.0 (1-28), 7.0 (2-38), 10 (2-36) and 9.0 (2-48) months respectively; the blood group 0 had significantly higher overall survival (OS) compared to the non-0 groups (p 0.04). Conclusions: Pancreatic cancer patients had more common blood group A in our population. Moreover, blood group AB appeared to be a protective factor against pancreatic cancer in our population. Blood group 0 had a significantly longer survival compared to non-0, regardless of prognostic factors.
Apoptin Induces Apoptosis in Human Bladder Cancer EJ and BIU-87 Cells
Zhan, Hui ; Wang, Jian-Song ; Wang, Hai-Feng ; Zuo, Yi-Gang ; Wang, Chun-Hui ; Ding, Ming-Xia ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 135~138
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.135
Objective: To investigate whether apoptin is a apoptosis-inducing protein with a potential for bladder cancer therapy. Methods: We constructed a PCDNA3/Apoptin eukaryotic expression vector, and transfected this vector into bladder cancer cell lines BIU-87 and EJ, then observed the results by RT-PCR, transmission electron microscopy, MTT assay and the flow cytometry (TUNEL method). Results: PCDNA3/Apoptin successfully induced a high level apoptosis in both bladder cancer cell lines, compared with the controls (p<0.05). Conclusions: Apoptin can induce high level apoptosis in human bladder cancer EJ and BIU-87 cells, which suggests a potential for human bladder cancer therapy.
Diabetes, Overweight and Risk of Postmenopausal Breast Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Uruguay
Ronco, Alvaro L. ; Stefani, Eduardo De ; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo ; Quarneti, Aldo ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 139~146
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.139
Obese postmenopausal women increase their risk of developing breast cancer (BC), in particular if they display an android-type pattern of adiposity, which is also associated to increased risks of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. In order to explore the associations among anthropometry (body mass index, body composition, somatotype), some specific items of medical history (diabetes, hypertension, dislypidemias, hyperuricemia) and the risk of BC in Uruguayan women, a case-control study was carried out between 2004-2009 at our Oncology Unit. 912 women of ages between 23-69 years (367 new BC cases and 545 non hospitalized, age-matched controls with a normal mammography) were interviewed. Twenty body measurements were taken in order to calculate body composition and somatotype. Patients were queried on socio-demographics, reproductive history, family history of cancer, a brief food frequency questionnaire and on personal history of diabetes, dislypidemias, hyperuricemia, hypertension and gallbladder stones. Uni- and multivariate analyses were done, generating odds ratios (ORs) as an expression of relative risks. A personal history of diabetes was positively associated to BC risk (OR=1.64, 95% CI 1.00-2.69), being higher among postmenopausal women (OR=1.92, 95% CI 1.04-3.52). The risks of BC for diabetes in postmenopausal women with overweight combined with dislypidemia (OR=9.33, 95% CI 2.10-41.5) and high fat/muscle ratio (OR=7.81, 95% CI 2.01-30.3) were significantly high. As a conclusion, a personal history of diabetes and overweight was strongly associated to BC. The studied sample had a subset of high-risk of BC featured by postmenopausal overweight and diabetic women, who also had a personal history of hypertension and/or dyslipidemia. The present results could contribute to define new high risk groups and individuals for primary as well as for secondary prevention, since this pattern linked to the metabolic syndrome is usually not considered for BC prevention.
Breast Screening and Breast Cancer Survival in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Women of Australia
Roder, David ; Webster, Fleur ; Zorbas, Helen ; Sinclair, Sue ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 147~155
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.147
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people comprise about 2.5% of the Australian population. Cancer registry data indicate that their breast cancer survivals are lower than for other women but the completeness and accuracy of Indigenous descriptors on registries are uncertain. We followed women receiving mammography screening in BreastScreen to determine differences in screening experiences and survivals from breast cancer by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status, as recorded by BreastScreen. This status is self-reported and used in BreastScreen accreditation, and is considered to be more accurate. The study included breast cancers diagnosed during the period of screening and after leaving the screening program. Design: Least square regression models were used to compare screening experiences and outcomes adjusted for age, geographic remoteness, socio-economic disadvantage, screening period and round during 1996-2005. Survival of breast cancer patients from all causes and from breast cancer specifically was compared for the 1991-2006 diagnostic period using linked cancer-registry data. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to adjust for socio-demographic differences, screening period, and where available, tumour size, nodal status and proximity of diagnosis to time of screen. Results: After adjustment for socio-demographic differences and screening period, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women participated less frequently than other women in screening and re-screening although this difference appeared to be diminishing; were less likely to attend post-screening assessment within the recommended 28 days if recalled for assessment; had an elevated ductal carcinoma in situ but not invasive cancer detection rate; had larger breast cancers; and were more likely than other women to be treated by mastectomy than complete local excision. Linked cancer registry data indicated that five-year year survivals of breast cancer cases from all causes of death were 81% for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women, compared with 90% for other women, and that the former had larger breast cancers that were more likely to have nodal spread at diagnosis. After adjusting for socio-demographic factors, tumour size, nodal spread and time from last screen to diagnosis, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women had approximately twice the risk of death from breast cancer as other women. Conclusions: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women have less favourable screening experiences and those diagnosed with breast cancer (either during the screening period or after leaving the screening program) have lower survivals that persist after adjustment for socio-demographic differences, tumour size and nodal status.
An Updated Pooled Analysis of Glutathione S-transferase Genotype Polymorphisms and Risk of Adult Gliomas
Yao, Lei ; Ji, Guixiang ; Gu, Aihua ; Zhao, Peng ; Liu, Ning ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 157~163
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.157
Objective: Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are multifunctional enzymes that play a crucial role in the detoxification of both the endogenous products of oxidative stress and exogenous carcinogens. Recent studies investigating the association between genetic polymorphisms in GSTs and the risk of adult brain tumors have reported conflicting results. The rationale of this pooled analysis was to determine whether the presence of a GST variant increases adult glioma susceptibility by combining data from multiple studies. Methods: In our meta-analysis, 12 studies were identified by a search of the MEDLINE, HIGHWIRE, SCIENCEDIRECT and EMBASE databases. Of those 12, 11 evaluated GSTM1, nine evaluated GSTT1 and seven evaluated GSTP1 Ile105Val. Between-study heterogeneity was assessed using
-based Q statistic and the
statistic. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to estimate the association between GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms and the risk of adult gliomas. Results: The quantitative synthesis showed no significant evidence to indicate an association exists between the presence of a GSTM1, GSTT1 or GSTP1 Ile105Val haplotype polymorphism and the risk of adult gliomas (OR, 1.008, 1.246, 1.061 respectively; 95% CI, 0.901-1.129, 0.963-1.611, 0.653-1.724 respectively). Conclusions: Overall, this study did not suggest any strong relationship between GST variants or related enzyme polymorphisms and an increased risk of adult gliomas. Some caveats include absence of specific raw information on ethnic groups or smoking history on glioma cases in published articles; therefore, well-designed studies with a clear stratified analysis on potential confounding factors are needed to confirm these results.
Awareness and Knowledge of Oral Cancer among University Students in Malaysia
Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman Al ; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran ; Alabsi, Aied M. ; Alshagga, Mustafa Ahmed ; Ali, Riyadh Saif ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 165~168
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.165
Objectives: This study aimed to assess the level of knowledge of oral cancer and its associated factors among university students in Malaysia. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 200 university students in Malaysia. A self administered questionnaire was used to collect data. It included questions on sociodemographic data, awareness and knowledge of oral cancer. Results: Mean age of the respondents was
and the age ranged from 18 to 27 years. The majority of the respondents were aware of oral cancer (92.0%) and recognized the followings as signs and symptoms of oral cancer: ulcer and oral bleeding (71.0%), followed by swelling (61.5%). A satisfactory knowledge was observed on the following risk factors; smoking (95.5%), poor oral hygiene (90.5%), family history (90.0%), alcohol (84.5%) and poor fitting dentures (83.0%). However, unsatisfactory knowledge was observed about hot/spicy food (46.5%), obesity (36.0%), old age (31.5%), dietary factor (29.0%) and smokeless tobacco (25.5%). Knowledge of oral cancer was associated significantly with age (p<0.01), year of study (p<0.01) and course of study (p<0.01). Conclusion: Instead of satisfactory awareness and knowledge of oral cancer and its clinical presentations, inadequate knowledge was observed about its risk factors. There is a need to introduce oral cancer education among university students.
Comparisons of Curative and Side Effects of Chemoradiotherapy among Xinjiang Han, Uigur and Kazakh Esophageal Carcinoma Patients
Zhang, Li ; Ma, Li-Li ; Zhang, Jian-Qing ; Yang, Mei ; Xun, Tu-Er ; Li, Ai ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 169~173
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.169
Objective: This study aimed to explore the differences in the curative and side effects of chemoradiotherapy on esophageal cancer (EC) among Xinjiang Han, Uigur and Kazakh patients. Methods: 170 patients with IIA stage-IV of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were analyzed retrospectively. Based on different nationalities, they were divided into the Han, Uigur and Kazakh groups. The 1-, 2- and 3-year survival rates, incidence of the side effects (including hematological toxicities, radioactive esophagitis and percutaneous reactions) and application of antibiotics and harmonics were compared among the groups. There was no significant difference in the short-term curative effects among the Han, Uigur and Kazakh groups. The 1- 2- and 3-year survival rates of the three groups were 84%, 40%, 26%; 78%, 27%, 18%; and 60%, 21%, 12% (
=14.497, P<0.05). The incidence rate of hamatological toxicity
Grade 2 in the Kazakh group was significantly lower than that in the Han or Uigur group. Results: The incidence rates of radioactive esophagitis and percutaneous reactions Grade 2 in the Han group were significantly higher than those in the Uigur or Kazakh group. There was no significant difference in the types of applied antibiotics among the groups, but there were significant differences in the days of antibiotic application and proportion of patients receiving harmonics between the Hans and either of other groups. Conclusion: Chemoradiotherapy shows a better effect in the long-term survival rate among Han EC patients compared with Uigur or Kazakh EC patients. Uigur and Kazakh patients show a better tolerance to the side effects of chemoradiotherapy compared with Hans.
Factors Associated With Success or Failure of Quit Attempts: A Clinical Approach for Lung Cancer Prevention
Su, Tin Tin ; Sallehuddin, Bin Abu Bakar ; Murniati, Hj Hussain ; Swinder, Jit ; Sadat, Nabilla Al ; Saimy, Ismail ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 175~179
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.175
The objective of the study is to investigate the success rate of quit attempts and identify factors associated with success or failure of quit attempts in a quit smoking clinic. A cohort study was conducted with 495 smokers who enrolled in a quit smoking clinic from 2005 to 2008. The factors leading to quit smoking successfully were "being Malay", "having high blood pressure" "type of Nicotine Replacement Therapy" and "duration of follow up". In contrast, clerical staff had negative association to quit smoking. People who started smoking in their teenage years had a high risk of relapse. Integration of active follow up and tailor-made support programmes for quitters appear necessary in order to maintain their non-smoking status and encourage them to be permanent quitters. Integration of quit smoking clinics and primary care clinics could be another potential step for the success of quit smoking programmes.
Association Between p16, hMLH1 and E-cadherin Promoter Hypermethylation and Intake of Local Hot Salted Tea and Sun-dried Foods in Kashmiris with Gastric Tumors
Mir, Manzoor R. ; Shabir, Nadeem ; Wani, Khursheed A. ; Shaffi, Sheikh ; Hussain, Ishraq ; Banday, Manzoor A. ; Chikan, Naveed A. ; Bilal, S. ; Aejaz, Sheikh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 181~186
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.181
The aim of this study was to evaluate the methylation status of three important cancer related genes viz. p16, E-cadherin and hMLH1 promoters and to associate the findings with specific dietary habits in Kashmiris, a culturally distinct population in India, with gastric cancer. The study subjects were divided into three age groups viz. 0-30yrs (
), 31-60yrs (
) and 61-90yrs (
). A highly significant association between the intake of local hot salted tea in
(p=0.009) age groups was observed with the promoter hypermethylation of E cadherin. Again a highly significant association between the aberrant methylation of hMLH1 (p=0.000) and p16 (p=0.000) promoters and the intake of local hot salted tea was observed in the
age group of gastric cancer patients. The intake of sun-dried food was also significantly associated with the promoter hypermethylation of E cadherin (p=0.003) and p16 (p=0.015) genes in
age group. The results of the present study suggest a close association between the aberrant methylation of p16, E-cadherin and hMLH1 promoters and the intake of local hot salted tea and sun-dried foods in Kashmiri population.
Chronic Heavy Metal Exposure and Gallbladder Cancer Risk in India, a Comparative Study with Japan
Chhabra, Deepak ; Oda, Koji ; Jagannath, Palepu ; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi ; Takekoshi, Susumu ; Nimura, Yuji ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 187~190
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.187
Background: High incidence of gallbladder cancer (GBC) is reported from North India, with elevated concentrations of heavy metals in water and soil. This Indo-Japan collaborative study compared presence of heavy metals in gallbladder tissues. Methods: Heavy metal concentrations were estimated in Indian GBC and cholecystitis tissues and compared with Japanese GBC and cholecystitis tissues. Spectrophotometry was done for 13 Indian gallbladder tissues (8 GBC, 5 cholecystitis) and 9 Japanese (5 GBC, 4 cholecystitis). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) thin foil element analysis was done in 10 Indian samples (6 GBC, 4 cholecystitis). Results: Chromium, lead, arsenic and zinc were significantly high in Indian GBC compared with Japanese GBC. Chromium, lead and arsenic were significantly high in the Indian cholecystitis tissues compared to the Japanese. TEM of Indian tissues demonstrated electron dense deposits in GBC. Conclusion: Heavy metals-chromium, lead, arsenic and zinc are potential carcinogens in Indian GBC from endemic areas. This preliminary study links presence of heavy metals in gallbladder cancer tissues in endemic areas.
Evaluation of DNA Repair Gene XRCC1 Polymorphism in Prediction and Prognosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Risk
Li, Qiu-Wen ; Lu, Can-Rong ; Ye, Ming ; Xiao, Wen-Hua ; Liang, Jun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 191~194
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.191
We conducted a case-control study in China to clarify the association between XRCC1-Arg399Gln polymorphism and HCC risk. A total of 150 cases and 158 controls were selected from the the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University from May 2008 to May 2010. XRCC1-Arg399Gln polymorphism was based upon duplex polymerase-chain-reaction with the confronting-two-pairprimer (PCR-CTPP) method. All analyses were performed using the STATA statistical package. A significantly increased risk was associated with the Arg/Gln genotype (adjusted OR 1.78, 95%CI=1.13-2.79) compared with genotype Arg/Arg. In contrast, the Gln/Gln genotype had non-significant increased risk of HCC with adjusted OR (95%CI) of 1.69 (0.93-2.66). A significant association was found between positive HBsAg and Arg/Gln, with an OR of 3.43 (95% CI=1.45-8.13). Patients carrying Gln/Gln genotypes showed significantly lower median survival than Arg/Arg genotypes (HR=1.38, 95% CI=1.04-1.84). Further Kaplan-Meier analysis showed decreased median survival in Arg/Gln+Gln/Gln genotype carriers in comparison to Arg/Arg carriers (HR=1.33, 95% CI=1.02-1.76). In conclusion, we observed that XRCC1-Arg399Cln polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to HCC, and XRCC1 Gln allele genotype showed significant prognostic associations.
Public Awareness of Colorectal Cancer in a Turkish Population: Importance of Fecal Occult Blood Testing
Bas, Koray ; Guler, Tolga ; Gunay, Levent Mert ; Besim, Hasan ; Uygur, Dilek ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 195~198
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.195
To date, there was no controlled-study regarding awareness and knowledge of colorectal cancer in the Turkish population. We therefore designed a questionnaire consisting of items related to socio-demographic parameters, medical and family history and questions of awareness and knowledge about colorectal cancer for use in a descriptive cross-sectional study. An interviewer-administered technique was applied and 450 subjects were interviewed in the outpatient clinics at Near East University Hospital. Among all subjects, 337 were found to be eligible for the study group. Exclusion criteria were age below 18 years, any cancer history, family history of colorectal cancer, current colorectal problems, history of any diagnostic or therapeutic interventions for colorectal diseases. All participants stated that they heard about colorectal cancer. When asked about the lifetime risk of colorectal carcinoma, only 25.4% of women and 37.9% of men estimated correctly. Univariate analysis revealed that the total awareness score was significantly correlated with age, marital status, parenthood and fecal occult blood testing history. On multivariate analysis of independent predictors for awareness of colorectal cancer were found to be history of fecal occult blood testing, age and marital status were found to be the most important determinants. As a conclusion, opportunistic screening with fecal occult blood test by physicians from non-gastrointestinal specialties not only helps to reduce the mortality but also increases the awareness of colorectal cancer.
Prognostic Significance of CYFRA21-1, CEA and Hemoglobin in Patients with Esophageal Squamous Cancer Undergoing Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy
Zhang, Hai-Qin ; Wang, Ren-Ben ; Yan, Hong-Jiang ; Zhao, Wei ; Zhu, Kun-Li ; Jiang, Shu-Mei ; Hu, Xi-Gang ; Yu, Jin-Ming ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 199~203
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.199
Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic value of serum CYFRA21-1, CEA and hemoglobin levels regarding long-term survival of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Methods: Age, gender, Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS), tumor location, tumor length, T stage, N stage and serum hemoglobin, and CYFRA21-1 and CEA levels before concurrent CRT were retrospectively investigated and related to outcome in 113 patients receiving 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin combined with radiotherapy for ESCC. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze prognosis, the log-rank to compare groups, the Cox proportional hazards model for multivariate analysis, and ROC curve analysis for assessment of predictive performance of biologic markers. Results: The median survival time was 20.1 months and the 1-, 2-, 3-, 5- year overall survival rates were 66.4%, 43.4%, 31.9% and 15.0%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that factors associated with prognosis were KPS, tumor length, T-stage, N-stage, hemoglobin, CYFRA21-1 and CEA level. Multivariate analysis showed T-stage, N-stage, hemoglobin, CYFRA21-1 and CEA level were independent predictors of prognosis. By ROC curve, CYFRA21-1 and hemoglobin showed better predictive performance for OS than CEA (AUC= 0.791, 0.704, 0.545; P=0.000, 0.000, 0.409). Conclusions: Of all clinicopathological and molecular factors, T stage, N stage, hemoglobin, CYFRA21-1 and CEA level were independent predictors of prognosis for patients with ESCC treated with concurrent CRT. Among biomarkers, CYFRA21-1 and hemoglobin may have a better predictive potential than CEA for long-term outcomes.
Paris polyphylla Smith Extract Induces Apoptosis and Activates Cancer Suppressor Gene Connexin26 Expression
Li, Fu-Rong ; Jiao, Peng ; Yao, Shu-Tong ; Sang, Hui ; Qin, Shu-Cun ; Zhang, Wei ; Zhang, Ya-Bin ; Gao, Lin-Lin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 205~209
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.205
Background: The inhibition of tumor cell growth without toxicity to normal cells is an important target in cancer therapy. One possible way to increase the efficacy of anticancer drugs and to decrease toxicity or side effects is to develop traditional natural products, especially from medicinal plants. Paris polyphylla Smith has shown anti-tumour effects by inhibition of tumor promotion and inducement of tumor cell apoptosis, but mechanisms are still not well understood. The present study was to explore the effect of Paris polyphylla Smith extract (PPSE) on connexin26 and growth control in human esophageal cancer ECA109 cells. Methods: The effects of PPSE on Connexin26 were examined by RT-PCR, western blot and immunofluorescence; cell growth and proliferation were examined by the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Results: PPSE inhibited the growth and proliferation on esophageal cancer ECA109 cells, while increasing the expression of connexin26 mRNA and protein; conversely, PPSE decreased Bcl-2 and increased Bad. Conclusion: This study firstly shows that PPSE can increase connexin26 expression at mRNA and protein level, exerting anti-tumour effects on esophageal cacner ECA109 cells via inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing cell apoptosis.
Patients' Profile, Clinical Presentations and Histopathological Features of Colo-rectal Cancer in Al Hassa Region, Saudi Arabia
Amin, Tarek Tawfik ; Suleman, Waseem ; Al Taissan, Abdul Aziz ; Al Joher, Abdul Latif ; Al Mulhim, Othman ; Al Yousef, Abdul Hameed ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 211~216
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.211
Background: Patients' demographics, presenting clinical and histopathological features for colo-rectal cancer (CRC) are important factors for patients' outcome and disease prognosis. This study aimed to describe the pattern of CRC in terms of patients' demographics, main presenting symptoms and histopathological features in Al Hassa region of Saudi Arabia. Subjects and Methods: A retrospective hospital records-based study which included reviewing of patients' records diagnosed with CRC at three general hospitals in Al Hassa region, Saudi Arabia. A compilation form was designed to collect information regarding socio-demographics, age at diagnosis; referral sites and the main presentations at CRC diagnosis. sites and the main presentations at CRC diagnosis. Histopathological reports were reviewed to delineate the main cytopathologic features, prominent cytological characteristics, the presence of predisposing pathology, and disease stage. Results: Of the 142 cases with CRC, 15.5% and 33.1% were affected before 40 and 50 years of age respectively. Emergency rooms were main referral sites for CRC cases (31.0%). Right colon was affected in 16.9% while left colonic lesions accounted for 62.7%. Intestinal obstruction was the main presentations (41.5%), and 26.1% presented with symptoms indicating distant metastastic lesions. Adenocarcinoma was the predominant pathological lesions (86.6%). Metastastic CRC was diagnosed in 62.7%. Duke's staging showed that 22.5% and 40.1% of lesions were classified into C and D categories respectively. Conclusion: Saudi patients with CRC present late with distant metastasis, and advanced disease stage. A sizeable proportion of patients developed the lesions at relatively young age. Screening recommendations should be enacted and revised in response to current change with younger age of affection.
Tobacco Related Habits among First Degree Relatives of Patients Undergoing Surgery for Advanced Head and Neck Malignancies in India
Balagopal, P.G. ; George, N.A. ; Venugopal, A. ; Mathew, A. ; Ahamed, M. Iqbal ; Sebastian, P. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 217~220
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.217
This prospective study records the tobacco related habits among the relatives of patients with advanced head and neck cancers who underwent both surgery and chemotherapy as part of their treatment from September 2009 to March 2010. A total of 200 relatives were interviewed (148 males and 52 females). 198 (99%) were aware of the fact that tobacco use can lead to cancer and 168 (84%) had any one of the habits. Smoking alone was reported in 36 (18%) individuals, pan chewing alone in 66 (33%) and multiple habits in 64 (32%). Alcohol and tobacco chewing alone was reported in one case each. There were change in habits following diagnosis of head and neck cancers among the relatives, 33 (16.5%) stopped their habits and smoking was reduced by 25% in 72 (36%)and by 50% in 63 (31.2%) individuals. However, 135 continued the habit even after the diagnosis of cancer in their relatives. Of note, 15 out of the 33 who quit the habit did it because of health advice given to them during the hospital visit.
Elevated Level of Prostate Specific Antigen Among Prostate Cancer Patients and High Prevalence in the Gangetic Zone of Bihar, India
Nath, A. ; Singh, J.K. ; Vendan, S. Ezhil ; Priyanka, Priyanka ; Sinha, Shreya ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 221~223
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.221
Prostate cancer (CaP) is a common reproductive cancer among men. This study was conducted to correlate the cancer incidence with Gangetic zone and to correlate the tumor marker prostate specific antigen (PSA) level in serum with different age groups and stage of malignancy. Patients suffering from CaP in the pathology unit of Mahavir Cancer Sansthan (Hospital and Research Centre), Patna, Bihar, India were studied from June 2009 to May 2010. PSA level in the serum of CaP patients was estimated by ELISA method. CaP incidence was highly recorded in Gangetic zone than the non-Gangetic zone. Maximum patients were in the 56 - 75 years age group with a marked predominance. Results of PSA examination showed that serum PSA level was not correlating with the age of patient and stage of malignancy. Significantly, elevated level of more than 10 ng/ml of PSA was recorded among the studied cancer patients. In this study, it is concluded that Gangetic zone habitat have high risk of CaP and elevated level of PSA was marked in Bihar, India.
Sex-related Differences in DNA Copy Number Alterations in Hepatitis B Virus-Associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Zhu, Zhong-Zheng ; Wang, Dong ; Cong, Wen-Ming ; Jiang, Hongmei ; Yu, Yue ; Wen, Bing-Ji ; Dong, Hui ; Zhang, Xiao ; Liu, Shu-Fang ; Wang, Ai-Zhong ; Zhu, Guanshan ; Hou, Lifang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 225~229
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.225
Background: Males have a higher prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) than females in general, but the reasons for the sex disparity are still obscure. DNA copy number alteration (CNA) is a major feature of solid tumors including HCC, but whether CNA plays a role in sex-related differences in HCC development has never been evaluated. Methods: High-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was used to examine 17 female and 46 male HCC patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Shanghai, China. Two-tailed Fisher's exact or
tests was used to compare CNAs between females and males. Results: The overall frequencies and patterns of CNAs in female and male cases were similar. However, female HCC tumors presented more copy number gains compared to those in males on 1q21.3-q22 (76.5% vs. 37.0%, P = 0.009), 11q11 (35.3% vs. 0.0%, P = 0.0002) and 19q13.31-q13.32 (23.5% vs. 0.0%, P = 0.004), and loss on 16p11.2 (35.3% vs. 6.5%, P = 0.009). Relative to females, male cases had greater copy number loss on 11q11 (63.0% vs. 17.6%, P = 0.002). Further analyses showed that 11q11 gain correlated with 19q13.31-q13.32 gain (P = 0.042), 11q11 loss (P = 0.011) and 16p11.2 loss (P = 0.033), while 1q21.3-q22 gain correlated with 19q13.31-q13.32 gain (P = 0.046). Conclusions: These findings suggest that CNAs may play a role in sex-related differences in HBVassociated HCC development.
Nutrient-derived Dietary Patterns and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: a Factor Analysis in Uruguay
Stefani, Eduardo De ; Ronco, Alvaro L. ; Boffetta, Paolo ; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo ; Correa, Pelayo ; Acosta, Gisele ; Mendilaharsu, Maria ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 231~235
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.231
In order to explore the role of nutrients and bioactive related substances in colorectal cancer, we conducted a case-control in Uruguay, which is the country with the highest production of beef in the world. Six hundred and eleven (611) cases afflicted with colorectal cancer and 1,362 controls drawn from the same hospitals in the same time period were analyzed through unconditional multiple logistic regression. This base population was submitted to a principal components factor analysis and three factors were retained. They were labeled as the meat-based, plant-based, and carbohydrates patterns. They were rotated using orthogonal varimax method. The highest risk was positively associated with the meat-based pattern (OR for the highest quartile versus the lowest one 1.63, 95 % CI 1.22-2.18, P value for trend = 0.001), whereas the plant-based pattern was strongly protective (OR 0.60, 95 % CI 0.45-0.81, P value for trend <0.0001. The carbohydrates pattern was only positively associated with colon cancer risk (OR 1.46, 95 % CI 1.02-2.09). The meat-based pattern was rich in saturated fat, animal protein, cholesterol, and phosphorus, nutrients originated in red meat. Since herocyclic amines are formed in the well-done red meat through the action of amino acids and creatine, it is suggestive that this pattern could be an important etiologic agent for colorectal cancer.
Screening for Colorectal Neoplasias with Fecal Occult Blood Tests: False-positive Impact of Non-Dietary Restriction
Roslani, April Camilla ; Abdullah, Taufiq ; Arumugam, Kulenthran ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 237~241
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.237
Objective: Screening for colorectal cancer using guaiac-based fecal occult blood tests (gFOBT) is well established in Western populations, but is hampered by poor patient compliance due to the imposed dietary restrictions. Fecal immunochemical tests (FIT) do not require dietary restriction, but are more expensive than gFOBT and therefore restrict its use in developing countries in Asia. However, Asian diets being low in meat content may not require diet restriction for gFOBT to achieve equivalent results. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the validity and suitability of gFOBT and FIT or a combination of the two in screening for colorectal neoplasias without prior dietary restriction in an Asian population. Methods: Patients referred to the Endoscopic Unit for colonoscopy were recruited for the study. Stool samples were collected prior to bowel preparation, and tested for occult blood with both gFOBT and FIT. Dietary restriction was not imposed. To assess the validity of either tests or in combination to detect a neoplasm or cancer in the colon, their false positive rates, their sensitivity (true positive rate) and the specificity (true negative rate) were analyzed and compared. Results: One hundred and three patients were analysed. The sensitivity for picking up any neoplasia was 53% for FIT, 40% for gFOBT and 23.3% for the combination. The sensitivities for picking up only carcinoma were 77.8%, 66.7% and 55.5%, respectively. The specificity for excluding any neoplasia was 91.7% for FIT, 74% for gFOBT and 94.5% for a combination, whereas for excluding only carcinomas they were 84%, 73.4% and 93.6%. Of the 69 with normal colonoscopic findings, FOBT was positive in 4.3%, 23.2 %and 2.9% for FIT, gFOBT, or combination of tests respectively. Conclusion: FIT is the recommended method if we are to dispense with dietary restriction in our patients because of its relatively low-false positivity and better sensitivity and specificity rates.
Perceptions and Opinions about Male Breast Cancer and Male Breast Self-Examination: A Qualitative Study
Al-Naggar, Redhwan Ahmed ; Al-Naggar, Dhekra Hamoud ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 243~246
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.243
Objective: While the relatively common nature of female breast cancer has resulted in a high level of general awareness, male breast cancer is still comparatively unknown to the general public and to healthcare professionals. The objective of this study is to explore the perceptions and opinions about male breast cancer and male breast self-examination among male university students. Methodology: In-depth interviews were conducted among 36 male university students from the Management and Science University, Malaysia, selected by simple random sampling. The themes of the interview were: knowledge of male breast cancer and male breast self-examination, sources of knowledge and attitudes towards male BSE. The data obtained were classified into various categories and analyzed manually. Results: The majority of participants mentioned that there is a low possibility for males to get breast cancer. They also believed that the cause of breast cancer among men is due to the carcinogens from cigarettes. The majority of participants mentioned that they know about breast self-examination from the mass media and that the presence of a lump in the breast is the main symptom of breast cancer in men. The majority of participants mentioned that they encourage their family members to practice breast self-examination but considered that BSE is not important for men because they have a low probability of getting breast cancer. Conclusions: Misconceptions regarding male breast cancer and breast self-examination among men still exist among male university students. Therefore especial attention should be given to educate men about male breast cancer and male BSE.
Expression of CDX2 and Villin in Gastric Cardiac Intestinal Metaplasia and the Relation with Gastric Cardiac Carcinogenesis
Xiao, Zhong-Yue ; Ru, Yi ; Sun, Jiang-Tao ; Gao, She-Gan ; Wang, Yu-Feng ; Wang, Li-Dong ; Feng, Xiao-Shan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 247~250
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.247
Objective: To determine whether CDX2 and villin protein expression are associated with intestinal metaplasia (IM) in gastric cardiac mucosa and to explore the relationship with evolution of gastric cardiac adenocarcinoma (GCA). Methods: We studied 143 gastric cardiac biopsy or resection specimens from Henan province China, including 25 cardiac gastritis specimens with IM, 65 dysplasia specimens with IM and 35 gastric cardiac adenocarcinoma specimens and stained them for CDX2 and villin by the immunohistochemical SP method. 15 normal gastric cardiac biopsy specimens were also collected as control. Results: (1) Normal gastric mucosa presented no CDX2 and villin expression. The positive rates of CDX2 protein in cardiac gastritis with IM, dysplasia with IM, and carcinoma tissues were 84.0% (21/25), 66.7% (32/48) and 36.4% (20/55), respectively. While the positive rates of villin protein in cardiac gastritis with IM, dysplasia with IM, and carcinoma tissues were 76.0% (19/25), 70.8% (34/48) and 45.5% (25/55), respectively. There were significant differences among the three groups for both CDX2 and villin (P<0.01). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient(rho) showed a close correlation between the two proteins (r=0.843, P<0.01) and both were positively related with tumor differentiation (both P<0.05), but not associated with age, sex, invasion and metastasis of lymph node (P>0.05). Conclusion: Our results suggest that ectopic expression of CDX2 and villin may be involved in early-stage IM and tumorigenesis in gastric cardia and the expression of villin may be regulated by CDX2.
Factors Influencing Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis in Invasive Breast Cancer
Li, Ling ; Chen, Li-Zhang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 251~254
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.251
Purpose: To explore the relationship between auxiliary lymph node metastasis and clinical features, and to identify the factors that affect metastasis occurrence. Methods: A total of 164 cases of primary breast cancer were selected to investigate features such as age, concomitant chronic disease and pathologic diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of the estrogen receptor (ER) and CerbB-2. Logistic regression was employed to analyze the factors that affect the incidence of lymph node metastases. Results: The incidence of lymph node metastases was 46.3% among elderly patients with breast cancer. Based on logistic regression, chronic disease, scale of tumor, age, and ER expression affected the occurrence of lymph node metastases; the ORs were 3.05, 2.18, 0.34, and 3.83, respectively. Between different pathologic diagnoses and the risk factors, the OR scores were 12.7 and 8.02, respectively, for aggressive ductal carcinoma and aggressive lobular carcinoma auxiliary lymph node metastases. Conclusion: The incidence of lymph node metastases is affected by chronic disease, scale of tumor, age, ER expression and pathologic diagnosis.
MicroRNA-214 Regulates the Acquired Resistance to Gefitinib via the PTEN/AKT Pathway in EGFR-mutant Cell Lines
Wang, Yong-Sheng ; Wang, Yin-Hua ; Xia, Hong-Ping ; Zhou, Song-Wen ; Schmid-Bindert, Gerald ; Zhou, Cai-Cun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 255~260
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.255
Patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations derive clinical benefit from treatment with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors ((EGFR-TKIs)-namely gefitinib and erlotinib. However, these patients eventually develop resistance to EGFR-TKIs. Despite the fact that this acquired resistance may be the result of a secondary mutation in the EGFR gene, such as T790M or amplification of the MET proto-oncogene, there are other mechanisms which need to be explored. MicroRNAs (miRs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that play pivotal roles in tumorigenesis, tumor progression and chemo-resistance. In this study, we firstly successfully established a gefitinib resistant cell line-HCC827/GR, by exposing normal HCC827 cells (an NSCLC cell line with a 746E-750A in-frame deletion of EGFR gene) to increasing concentrations of gefitinib. Then, we found that miR-214 was significantly up-regulated in HCC827/GR. We also showed that miR-214 and PTEN were inversely expressed in HCC827/GR. Knockdown of miR-214 altered the expression of PTEN and p-AKT and re-sensitized HCC827/GR to gefitinib. Taken together, miR-214 may regulate the acquired resistance to gefitinib in HCC827 via PTEN/AKT signaling pathway. Suppression of miR-214 may thus reverse the acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs therapy.
Predictive V16alue of Thymidylate Synthase Expression in Gastric Cancer: A Systematic Review with Meta-analysis
Hu, Hua-Bin ; Kuang, Lei ; Zeng, Xiao-Min ; Li, Bin ; Liu, En-Yi ; Zhong, Mei-Zuo ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 261~267
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.261
Purpose: The relationship between thymidylate synthase (TS) expression and outcomes in gastric cancer (GC) patients remains controversial, although most studies reported poor survival and reduced response to fluoropyrimidine were related to high TS in tumors. We carried out a systematic review of the literature with meta-analysis to estimate the predictive value of TS expression from published studies. Methods: We indentified 24 studies analysing the outcome data in gastric cancer stratified by TS expression. Effect measures of outcome were hazard ratios (HRs) for overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS), or the odds ratio (OR) for overall response rate (ORR). HRs and ORs from these eligible studies were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Results: Fifteen studies investigated outcomes in a total of 844 patients with advanced GC, and nine studies investigated outcomes in a total of 1,235 patients with localized GC undergoing adjuvant therapy. Meta-analysis of estimates showed high TS expression was significantly associated with poor OS in the advanced setting (HR: 1.43, 95%CI: 1.08 - 1.90), and poor EFS in the adjuvant setting (HR: 1.53, 95%CI: 1.01 - 2.32). Subgroup analysis demonstrated TS expression to haves even greater value in predicting OS, EFS and ORR in advanced GC patients treated with fluoropyrimidine monotherapy (HR for OS: 2.32, 95%CI: 1.53 - 3.50; HR for EFS: 1.76, 95%CI: 1.19 - 2.60; OR for ORR: 0.32, 95%CI: 0.11 - 0.95). Conclusion: High levels of TS expression were asssociated with a poorer OS for advanced GC patients compared with low levels. In the adjuvant setting, high TS expression was also associated with a worse EFS. Additional studies with consistent methodology are needed to define the precise predictive value of TS.
Prevalence and Determinants of High-risk Human Papillomavirus Infection in Women with High Socioeconomic Status in Seoul, Republic of Korea
Kim, Ki-Dong ; Kim, Jin-Ju ; Kim, Sun-Mie ; No, Jae-Hong ; Kim, Yong-Beom ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 269~273
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.269
We aimed to estimate the prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in women of high socioeconomic status (SES) in Seoul, Republic of Korea and to identify risk factors. This study included 13,386 women visiting a prestigious healthcare center located in Seoul between 2003 and 2008. High-risk HPV infections were detected in 994 (7%) and the age-standardized prevalence was 8%. Abnormal Pap smear results
atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS) were observed in 280 of 12,080 women (2%). Based on univariate analysis, age, level of education and number of children were associated with high-risk HPV infections. Based on multivariate analysis, age and high-risk HPV infections had an inverse relationship. In women with high SES in Seoul, the prevalence of high-risk HPV infection was 7% and the age-standardized prevalence was 8%. Age was a strong determinant of high-risk HPV infection.
Efficacy of Carcinogenic Embryonic Antigen in Differential Diagnosis of Diseases of Pancreas and Liver - A Comparative Study in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Western Nepal
Mittal, Ankush ; Farooqui, Shamim Mohammad ; Pyrtuh, Samuel ; Poudel, Bibek ; Sathian, Brijesh ; Yadav, Shambhu Kumar ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 275~277
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.275
Objective: The objective of our present study was to assess the efficacy of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) for differentiating and diagnosis of pancreatic and liver diseases in Pokhara valley. Materials and methods: A hospital based retrospective study was carried out using data retrieved from the register maintained in the Department of Biochemistry of the Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal between 1st January, 2011 and 31st October, 2011. Estimation of CEA was performed by ELISA reader for all cases. Approval for the study was obtained from the institutional research ethical committee. Results: Of the 771 subjects, 208 (27%), 60(7.8%), 240(31.1%), 54(7.0%), 75(9.7%), 59(7.7%), 75(9.7%) cases were of active chronic hepatitis, cryptogenic cirrhosis, alcoholic cirrhosis, primary biliary cirrhosis, hepatoma, acute or chronic pancreatitis, carcinoma of pancreas respectively. The majority of cases (104) of active chronic hepatitis had CEA levels <5ng/ml(50%). CEA levels were found to be increased in cases of alcoholic cirrhosis with maximum number of cases (106) in range of 10 to 20 ng/ml (44%). There were no cases having more than 20ng/ml of CEA in primary biliary cirrhosis and acute or chronic pancreatitis. In cases of pancreatic cancer, maximum number of cases (35) were having CEA >20ng/ml(47%). Conclusion: High levels of CEA are associated with advanced stage of disease. CEA can thus provide an important improvement in the diagnosis by differentiating pancreatic cancer especially from chronic pancreatitis when there is a high suspicion of malignancy. Increased CEA levels may also signify progression from benign to malignant transformation in the liver.
Anatomical Distribution of Colorectal Carcinoma in Iran: A Retrospective 15-yr Study to Evaluate Rightward Shift
Omranipour, Ramesh ; Doroudian, Rana ; Mahmoodzadeh, Habibollah ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 279~282
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.279
Background: Although more than two third of colorectal cancers are localized on the left side, recent studies suggest a right ward shift in anatomical distribution with increase in proximal colon cancers. The aim of the present study was to determine the anatomical distribution of colorectal cancer in a referral center over a 15 year period. Method: Records of patients who underwent colectomy in the Cancer Institute of Iran from 1994 to 2009 were retrieved. Data including anatomical localization, year of diagnosis, patient age and gender, tumor histology and differentiation, and disease stage were extracted. Tumors located from the cecum to the distal transverse colon were classified as right side and those occurring from the splenic flexure to the descending colon as left-sided. Cancer of rectum and recto-sigmoid junction were considered as rectal cancers. Results: A total of 442 patients including 220 (49/8%) men and 222 (50/2%) women with mean age 53 were included. Most patients were in stage II &III (47.1% and 33% respectively). There were 157 (35.5 %) colon cancers and 285 (64.5%) rectal cancers. 43.3% of the colon cancers were right sided and 56.7% were left sided. There was no statistically significant increase in right sided cancer during the period of the study. There were no significant differences in age at diagnosis, gender, grade and stage of tumor between the right and the left sided cancers. Conclusion: No proximal shift over time was identified in our study.
Breast and Colorectal Cancer Screening and Associated Correlates among Chinese Older Women
Leung, Doris Y.P. ; Leung, Angela Y.M. ; Chi, Iris ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 283~287
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.283
Objective: To explore the participation rates for breast and colorectal cancer screening and identify associated correlates among elderly women. Methods: Logistic regressions were conducted using data collected in 2006 from 1,533 elderly women aged 60 years or above who had completed a screening instrument, the Minimum Data Set-Home Care, while applying for long-term care services at the first time in Hong Kong. Results: The participation rates for breast and colorectal cancer screening among frail older Chinese women were 3.7% and 10.8% respectively. Cognitive status was inversely associated with the likelihood of participation in screening (breast: OR = 0.66, 95%CI = 0.47-0.94; colon: OR = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.66-0.99), as was educational level with the likelihood of participation in breast cancer screening (no formal education: OR = 0.20, 95%CI = 0.06-0.61, some primary education: OR = 0.31, 95%CI = 0.10-1.00). Conclusion: The delivery of cancer preventive health services to frail older women is less than ideal. Cognitive status and educational level were important factors in cancer screening behaviour. Tailor-made strategic promotion programmes targeting older women with low cognitive status and educational levels are needed to enhance awareness and acceptance within this vulnerable group.
Antifibrotic Effect of Curcumin in TGF-β1-Induced Myofibroblasts from Human Oral Mucosa
Zhang, Shan-Shan ; Gong, Zhao-Jian ; Li, Wen-Hui ; Wang, Xiao ; Ling, Tian-You ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 289~294
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.289
Background: Myofibroblasts play an important role in the development of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). In the current study, we investigate the effect of curcumin on growth and apoptosis of myofibroblasts derived from human oral mucosa. Methods: Myofibroblasts were generated by incubating fibroblasts, obtained from human oral mucosa, with transforming growth factor-
). MTT, PI staining, and FACS assays were used to investigate curcumin's effect on proliferation and cell cycle of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. Annexin V/PI binding and FACS assays were used to examine apoptosis of myofibroblasts, Western blotting to determine the levels of Bcl-2 and Bax, and enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay was employed to examine the levels of collagen type I and III in the supernatants of myofibroblasts. Results: Curcumin inhibits proliferation of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts; it also disturbs the cell cycle, induces apoptosis and decreases the generation of collagen type I and III in myofibroblasts, which are more sensitive to its effects than fibroblasts. Curcumin induces apoptosis in myofibroblasts by down-regulating the Bcl-2/ Bax ratio. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate the antifibrotic effect of curcumin in vitro. It may therefore be a candidate for the treatment of OSF.
The Effects of Educational Level on Breast Cancer Awareness: A Cross-Sectional Study in Turkey
Gurdal, Sibel Ozkan ; Saracoglu, Gamze Varol ; Oran, Ebru Sen ; Yankol, Yucel ; Soybir, Gursel Remzi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 295~300
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.295
Breast self-examination (BSE) is important for early diagnosis of breast cancer (BC). However, the majority of Turkish women do not perform regular BSE. We aimed to evaluate the effects of education level on the attitudes and behaviors of women towards BSE. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 413 women (20-59 years), divided into university graduates (Group I, n = 224) and high school or lower graduates (Group II, n = 189). They completed a 22-item scale assessing the knowledge level, attitudes and behaviors regarding BSE, and the Turkish version of the Champion's Revised Health Belief Model. A significantly higher number of women in Group II did not believe in early diagnosis of BC. A significantly higher number of Group I had conducted BSE at least once, and their BSE frequency was also significantly high. Moreover, a significantly lower number of Group I women considered themselves to not be at risk for BC and the scores for "perceived susceptibility" and "perceived barriers" were significantly higher. Logistic regression analysis identified the university graduate group to have a higher likelihood of performing BSE, by 1.8 times. Higher educational levels were positively associated with BSE performance. Overall, the results suggest that Turkish women, regardless of their education level, need better education on BSE. Consideration of the education level in women will help clinicians develop more effective educational programs, resulting in more regular practice and better use of BSE.
Clinical Application of Serum Tumor Associated Material (TAM) from Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Patients
Li, Cheng-Guang ; Huang, Xin-En ; Xu, Lin ; Li, Ying ; Lu, Yan-Yan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 301~304
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.301
Objective: To explore the associations of serum tumor associated material (TAM) with other common tumor markers like carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125), carbohydrate antigen19-9 (CA19-9) and its clinical application in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods: A total of 87 patients were enrolled into this study, all with histologically or cytologically confirmed NSCLC. With the method of chemical colorimetry, the level of TAM was determined and compared, while chemiluminescence was used to measure the levels of common tumor markers. Results: The level of TAM decreased after chemotherapy compared with before chemotherapy when CT or MRI scans showed disease control. Furthermore, it increased when disease progessed and there was no statistically significant difference in monitoring of TAM and common tumor markers (P>0.05). Conclusions: Detecting TAM in NSCLC patients has a higher sensitivity and specificity, so it can be used as an indicator for clinical monitoring of lung cancer chemotherapy.
Health and Economic Burden of HPV-related Diseases in Singapore
Low, Jeffrey Jen Hui ; Ko, Yu ; Ilancheran, Arunachalam ; Zhang, Xu Hao ; Singhal, Puneet K. ; Tay, Sun Kuie ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 305~308
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.305
Objective: To assess the health and economic burden of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related diseases (cervical cancer, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1/2/3, and genital warts) in Singapore over a period of 25 years beginning in 2008. Methods: Incidence-based modeling was used to estimate the incidence cases and associated economic burden, with the assumption that age-stratified incidence rates will remain the same throughout the period of 25 years. The incidence rates in 2008 were projected based on data obtained from the National Cancer Registry for cervical cancer, and from a combination of published data and hospital registry review for CIN1/2/3 and genital warts. The population growth rate was factored into the projection of incidence cases over time. Direct cost data per cervical cancer and per CIN1/2/3 case were obtained from the financial database of large local hospitals while cost data for genital warts were obtained from the National Skin Center; these costs were multiplied by the number of incidence cases to produce an aggregate estimate of the economic burden over the 25-year period (in 2008 Singapore dollars) using a 3% discount rate. Results: The total number of incidence cases of HPV-disease over 25 years beginning in 2008 was estimated to be 60,183, including 8,078 for cervical cancer, 11,685 for CIN 2/3, 8,849 for CIN1, and 31,572 for genital warts. The estimated total direct cost was 83.2 million Singapore Dollars over 25 years: 57.6 million attributable to cervical cancer, 13.0 million to CIN2/3, 6.83 million to CIN1, and 5.70 million to genital warts. Conclusion: HPV-related diseases are expected to impose significant health and economic burden on the Singapore healthcare resources in the next 25 years.
Factors Associated with Psychological Characteristics in Patients with Hepatic Malignancy before Interventional Procedures
Wang, Zi-Xuan ; Yuan, Chang-Qing ; Guan, Jun ; Liu, Si-Liang ; Sun, Chun-Hui ; Kim, Seong-Hwan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 309~314
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.309
Objective: To investigate the psychological characteristics of hepatic malignancy patients before interventional procedures and assess associations with related factors. Methods: Two hundred and thirteen patients requiring interventional procedure for hepatic malignancy were asked to complete a survey of health knowledge and psychological symptom on health knowledge questionnaire and SCL-90 before interventional procedure. Logistic regression analysis was employed to determine the association of various demographic, clinical and health knowledge factors with the presence of psychological symptoms in patients. Results: Eight psychological symptom scores, i.e. somatization, obsessive-compulsive tendencies, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobia, paranoid ideations and psychotic states, were significantly higher than the normal range (P< 0.001). Of 213 cases in the study, 49 families (23.00%) concealed the diagnoses of hepatic carcinoma from patients; 135 patients (63.38%) described the prognosis of the disease correctly. It was demonstrated that the correlations between psychological symptoms and related factors, i.e. age, gender, education, interventional procedure times and health knowledge, were statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: Psychological distress is severe in hepatic malignancy patients before interventional procedures. Age, gender, education, interventional procedure times and health knowledge are associated with psychological symptoms which are significant different from the normal range in Chinese.
Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression is not a Marker of Poor Survival in Lung Cancer
Turk, H. Mehmet ; Camci, Celalettin ; Sevinc, Alper ; Bukyukberber, Suleyman ; Sari, Ibrahim ; Adli, Mustafa ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 315~318
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.315
Objective: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been claimed to play role in carcinogenesis and be related to a bad prognosis in tumours. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between COX-2 expression and clinical and pathological parameters in early and advanced stage lung cancer patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 73 patients with lung cancer (27 adenocarcinomas, 33 squamous cell carcinomas, 4 large cell carcinomas and 9 small cell cancer) were analysed retrospectively. COX-2 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in resection materials or lung biopsies. Tumor cells demonstrating more intense staining than smooth muscle and endothelial cells were recorded as COX-2 positive. We investigated the correlation between increased COX-2 expression and histological type of the tumor, the stage of the disease and survival. Results: COX-2 expression was observed in 55% of the adenocarcinomas, 45% of the squamous cell carcinomas and 22% of the small cell carcinomas. No correlation was apparent between COX-2 expression and disease stage, histological type and the survival. Conclusion: The results of this study do not support COX-2 expression as an independent prognostic factor in lung cancer. However, since results of the literature are different, further studies made in larger series are needed.
Feasibility of Shrinking Field Radiation Therapy through 18F-FDG PET/CT after 40 Gy for Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers
Ding, Xiu-Ping ; Zhang, Jian ; Li, Bao-Sheng ; Li, Hong-Sheng ; Wang, Zhong-Tang ; Yi, Yan ; Sun, Hong-Fu ; Wang, Dong-Qing ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 319~323
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.319
Objective: To explore the feasibility of shrinking field technique after 40 Gy radiation through 18F-FDG PET/CT during treatment for patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: In 66 consecutive patients with local-advanced NSCLC, 18F-FDG PET/CT scanning was performed prior to treatment and repeated after 40 Gy. Conventionally fractionated IMRT or CRT plans to a median total dose of 66Gy (range, 60-78Gy) were generated. The target volumes were delineated in composite images of CT and PET. Plan 1 was designed for 40 Gy to the initial planning target volume (PTV) with a subsequent 20-28 Gy-boost to the shrunken PTV. Plan 2 was delivering the same dose to the initial PTV without shrinking field. Accumulated doses of normal tissues were calculated using deformable image registration during the treatment course. Results: The median GTV and PTV reduction were 35% and 30% after 40 Gy treatment. Target volume reduction was correlated with chemotherapy and sex. In plan 2, delivering the same dose to the initial PTV could have only been achieved in 10 (15.2%) patients. Significant differences (p<0.05) were observed regarding doses to the lung, spinal cord, esophagus and heart. Conclusions: Radiotherapy adaptive to tumor shrinkage determined by repeated 18F-FDG PET/CT after 40 Gy during treatment course might be feasible to spare more normal tissues, and has the potential to allow dose escalation and increased local control.
Lack of Association Between GSTM1 and GSTT1 Polymorphisms and Brain Tumour Risk
Sima, Xiu-Tian ; Zhong, Wei-Ying ; Liu, Jian-Gang ; You, Chao ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 325~328
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.325
Objective: Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are important enzymes that are involved in detoxification of environmental carcinogens. Molecular epidemiological studies have been conducted to investigate the association between GSTM1 and GSTT1 homozygous deletion polymorphisms and brain tumours but results have been conflicting. The aim of this study was to clarify this problem using a meta-analysis. Methods: A total of 9 records were identified by searching the PubMed and Embase databases. Fixed- and random-effects models were performed to estimate the pooled odds ratios. Results: No significant association was found between the GSTM1 and GSTT1 homozygous deletion polymorphisms and risk of brain tumours, including glioma and meningioma. Similar negative results were also observed in both population-based and hospital-based studies. Conclusion: These findings indicate that the GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms may not be related to the development of brain tumours.
Efficacy of Primed In Situ Labelling in Determination of HER-2 Gene Amplification and CEN-17 Status in Breast Cancer Tissue
Salimi, Mahdieh ; Mozdarani, Hossein ; Majidzadeh-A, Keivan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 329~337
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.329
Considerable attention has been given to the accuracy of HER-2 testing and the correlation between the results of different testing methods. This interest reflects the growing importance of HER-2 status in the management of patients with breast cancer. In this study the detection of HER-2 gene and centromere 17 status was evaluated using dual-colour primed in situ labelling (PRINS) in comparison with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). These two methods were evaluated on a series of 27 formalin fixed paraffin embedded breast carcinoma tumours, previously tested for protein overexpression by HercepTest (grouped into Hercep 1+/0, 2+ and 3+). HER-2 gene amplification (ratio
) by PRINS was found in 3:3, 6:21 and 0:3 in IHC 3+, 2+ and 1+/0 cases, respectively. Comparing FISH and IHC (immunohistochemistry), showed the same results as for PRINS and IHC. Chromosome 17 aneusomy was found in 10 of 21 IHC 2+ cases (47.6%), of which 1 (10%) showed hypodisomy (chromosome 17 copy number per cell
), 7 (70%) showed low polysomy (chromosome 17 copy number per cell=2.26 - 3.75) and 2 (20%) showed high polysomy (chromosome 17 copy number per cell
). The overall concordance of detection of HER-2 gene amplification by FISH and PRINS was 100% (27:27). Furthermore, both the level of HER-2 amplification and copy number of CEN17 analysis results correlated well between the two methods. In conclusion, PRINS is a reliable, reproducible technique and in our opinion can be used as an additional test to determine HER-2 status in breast tumours.
Lack of Association between Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Infection and Cervical Cancer - Taq Man Realtime PCR Assay Findings
Farivar, Taghi Naserpour ; Johari, Pouran ; Shafei, Shilan ; Najafipour, Reza ; Reza, Najafipour ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 339~342
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.339
Background: About one third of the human population suffer cancer during their lifetime and more than 20% of total morbidity is related to neoplasia. Cervical cancer is generally the most common cancer in developing countries and the second most common in women globally. The role of human papilloma viruses viruses in its induction is clear. However, the involvement of hepres simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is controversial. Therefore a survey was conducted of the prevalence of HSV-2 in patients with cervical cancer and also healthy people with sensitive and quantitative Taq Man real-time PCR assay. Materials and methods: Seventy six formaldehyde fixed paraffin embedded tissue specimens from patients with histologically proven history of cervical cancer as well as 150 control blocks were sectioned for deparaffinization and DNA extraction. Results: There was no HSV-2 DNA in our patient specimens but four control samples were positive, all with a history of hysterectomy. Conclusion: Considering the absence of any positive viral HSV-2 DNA in our patients and also the presence of four positive specimens among our controls, we did not find any relationship between the presence of HSV-2 DNA and cervical cancer.
Heaviness of Smoking Index, Number of Cigarettes Smoked and the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence Among Adult Male Malaysians
Lim, K.H. ; Idzwan, M. Feisul ; Sumarni, M.G. ; Kee, C.C. ; Amal, N.M. ; Lim, K.K. ; Gurpreet, K. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 343~346
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.343
Two methods of identifying smokers with high nicotine dependence, the heaviness of smoking index (HSI) and number of cigarettes per day (CPD) were compared with the Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence (FTND). The HSI, CPD and the FTND were administered to 316 adult Malaysian male, daily smokers aged between 25-64 years old in the Malaysian NCD Surveillance-1 Survey using a two-stage stratified random sampling of enumeration blocks and living quarters, via an interview based on a validated questionnaire. The cut-off point for classification of high nicotine dependence on the HSI was a score of four or higher, and for the heavy smoking category, smoking more than 20 cigarettes per day. Classification using each method was compared with classification by the FTND (score of six or more) as the reference standard. Sensitivity, specificity and kappa statistics for concordance between both measures and the FTND were evaluated. The HSI gave a similar prevalence rate of high nicotine dependence as the FTND. There was substantial agreement between the HSI and the FTND (kappa=0.63.), with moderate sensitivity (69.8%) and high specificity (92.5%). However, prevalence of high nicotine dependence using the CPD was 7% lower than the FTND. The heavy smoking category also showed fair agreement with the FTND (kappa=0.45) and moderate sensitivity (67.0%), but specificity was high (86.9%). The findings indicate that the HSI can be used as an alternative to the FTND in screening for high nicotine dependence among daily smokers in large population-based studies, while CPD may not be a suitable alternative to the FTND.
TP53 Codon 72 Polymorphism and Risk of Acute Leukemia
Dunna, Nageswara Rao ; Vure, Sugunakar ; Sailaja, K. ; Surekha, D. ; Raghunadharao, D. ; Rajappa, Senthil ; Vishnupriya, S. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 347~350
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.349
TP53 is the mostly commonly mutated gene in many cancers and the P53 tumor suppressor protein is involved in multiple cellular processes, including transcription, DNA repair, genomic stability, senescence, cell cycle control and apoptosis. A common single nucleotide polymorphism located within the proline rich region of TP53 gene at codon 72 in exon 4 encodes either proline or arginine. TP53 Arg 72 is more active than TP53 Pro 72 in inducing apoptosis. The aim of this study was to understand the association of the 72 codon polymorphism with acute leukemia development and prognosis. A total of 288 acute leukemia cases comprising 147 acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and 141 acute myeloid leukemia (AML), as well as 245 controls were recruited for analysis of the TP53 72 polymorphism using PCR-RFLP method. Significant association of homozygous arginine genotype with AML was observed (
- 133.53; df-2, p < 0.001. When data were analyzed with respect to clinical variables, elevation in mean WBC, blast %, LDH levels and slight reduction in DFS in ALL cases with the arginine genotype was observed. In contrast, AML patients with Pro/Pro had elevated WBC, Blast%, LDH levels with slightly reduced DFS. Our study indicates that Arg/Arg genotype might confer increased risk to development of acute myeloid leukemia.
Leisure Time Physical Activity in Saudi Arabia: Prevalence, Pattern and Determining Factors
Amin, Tarek Tawfik ; Al Khoudair, Ali Salah ; Al Harbi, Mohammad Abdulwahab ; Al Ali, Ahmed Radi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 351~360
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.351
Background: Identification of reliable predictors of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) will enable healthcare providers to intervene and change the patterns of LTPA in the population to improve community health. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine prevalence and pattern of LTPA among adult Saudis aged 18-65 years, and to define the socio-demographic determinants that correlate with LTPA in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 2176 adult Saudis attending urban and rural primary health care centers were selected using a multistage proportionate sampling method. Participants were personally interviewed to gather information regarding socio-demographics, physical activity pattern using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). Physical activity (PA) in each domain was expressed in metabolic equivalents (METs). Results: The median total METs minutes/week for LTPA for both genders was 256, higher for men (636 METs minutes/week) compared to women (249METs minutes/week). Overall, only 19.8% of the total PA was derived from LTPA. Of the sampled population 50.0% reported doing no leisure activity. Using the cut off of 600 METs-minutes/day or 150 minutes of moderate intensity over 5 or more days/week, only 21.0% of the included sample were considered as being sufficiently active and 10.4% were in the high active category with beneficial health effects. Multivariate regression analysis showed that male, younger age (<35 years), absence of chronic disease conditions and moderate level of total PA were significant predictors for being active in the LTPA domain. Conclusion: The prevalence and intensity of LTPA among the included sample demonstrated low levels. Nearly 80% of the included sample population did not achieve the recommended LTPA level with beneficial health effects. Female gender, urban residence and associated chronic diseases correlated with a low LTPA.
Expression of β-tubulin III and Survivin in Advance Stage Breast Cancer Correlates with Chemotheraputic Effects of Docetaxel
Yuan, Shao-Fei ; Zhu, Lin-Jia ; Zheng, Wei-E ; Chen, Hua ; Wu, Li-Li ; Zhang, Wu ; Sun, Hong-Yu ; Chen, Wen-Jun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 361~365
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.361
Aims: To investigate the relationship between the expression of
-tubulin III and survivin in advanced breast cancers and chemotherapeutic effects of docetaxel. Methods: Clinical pathological data of 74 patients with advanced breast cancer were retrospectively analyzed after docetaxel chemotherapy. Expression of
-tubulin III and survivin was assessed by immunohistochemistry and analyzed with reference to therapeutical and adverse effects of docetaxel. Results: The positive expression rate of
-tubulin III was 38.1% (32/84), while that of survivin was 76.2% (64/84). The effective rate (complete response + partial response) was 52.4%. That for patients with the positive expression of
-tubulin III or/and survivin was significantly lower than for those with negative expression (P<0.05). There were significant differences in the non-progression of median diseases, 1-year and 2-year survival rates of between the patients with positive and negative expression (P<0.05). The main side effects were myelosuppression, alimentary canal response and alopecie, no differences being observed between groups. Conclusions: The combined detection of
-tubulin III and survivin is a predictive index for chemotherapy effects of docetaxel in metastatic breast cancer.
Increased Trend of Breast Cancer Mortality in Iran
Taghavi, Afsoon ; Fazeli, Zeinab ; Vahedi, Mohsen ; Baghestani, Ahmad Reza ; Pourhoseingholi, Asma ; Barzegar, Farnoosh ; Pourhoseingholi, Mohamad Amin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 367~370
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.367
Background: Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women worldwide In Iran, it ranks first among cancers diagnosed in women and is the fifth most common cause of death. The aim of this study was to present the mortality trends from breast cancer for Iranian women during a period of almost a decade, in order to provide update information regarding the likely future. Methods: We analyzed National death Statistic reported by the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education from 1995 to 2004 to generate annual mortality rates/100,000, overall, by age group (<15, 15-49 and
years of age) and age standardized rate (ASR). Results: The age standardized mortality rate of breast cancer increased dramatically during these years from 1.40 to 3.52 per 100,000 and its mortality was increasing 151.4% for Iranian women, although it seemed that the rate leveled off from 2002 to 2004. Moreover the increasing rate was higher for those aged between 15-49 compared to age >50 years old. Conclusion: There is an increasing trend for breast cancer mortality in Iran. Thus, health education programs to rectify the lack of women awareness about breast cancer signs and effective screening are urgently needed.
5'-CpG Island Promoter Hypermethylation of the CAV-1 Gene in Breast Cancer Patients of Kashmir
Syeed, Nidda ; Hussain, Firdous ; Husain, Syed Akhtar ; Siddiqi, Mushtaq A. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 371~376
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.371
Background: Caveolin-1 (CAV-1), encoding the structural component of cellular caveolae, is a suggested tumor suppressor gene involved in cell signalling. Aberrant promoter methylation of CAV-1 is associated with inactivation of expression. We previously observed CAV-1 mutations in breast cancers and therefore devised this study to examine the hypermethylation status of the promoter region of CAV-1 with reference to breast cancer progression and development. Methods: Hypermethylation status of CAV-1 was analyzed by methylation specific PCR. Loss of expression of the CAV-1 gene was further evaluated by semi-quantitative rt-PCR. Results: 28/130 (21.5%) breast cancer cases showed promoter hypermethylation with reduced CAV-1 expression levels when compared with adjacent normal breast tissue. CAV-1 gene hypermethylation was significantly related to menopausal status, histopathological grade and age. Conclusion: The rationale of our study is that CAV-1 gene is transcriptionally repressed in breast cancer cells due to hypermethylation. Our results reveal that promoter hypermethylation and loss of expression of the CAV-1 gene is an important alternative mechanism for inactivation of CAV-1 leading to complete gene silencing.
Screening Peptides Binding Specifically to Colorectal Cancer Cells from a Phage Random Peptide Library
Wang, Jun-Jiang ; Liu, Ying ; Zheng, Yang ; Liao, Kang-Xiong ; Lin, Feng ; Wu, Cheng-Tang ; Cai, Guan-Fu ; Yao, Xue-Qing ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 377~381
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.377
The aim of this study was to screen for polypeptides binding specifically to LoVo human colorectal cancer cells using a phage-displayed peptide library as a targeting vector for colorectal cancer therapy. Human normal colorectal mucous epithelial cells were applied as absorber cells for subtraction biopanning with a c7c phage display peptide library. Positive phage clones were identified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence detection; amino acid sequences were deduced by DNA sequencing. After 3 rounds of screening, 5 of 20 phage clones screened positive, showing specific binding to LoVo cells and a conserved RPM motif. Specific peptides against colorectal cancer cells could be obtained from a phage display peptide library and may be used as potential vectors for targeting therapy for colorectal cancer.
Lymphoproliferative Disorders in Multiple Primary Cancers
Demirci, Umut ; Ozdemir, Nuriye ; Benekli, Mustafa ; Babacan, Nalan Akgul ; Cetin, Bulent ; Baykara, Meltem ; Coskun, Ugur ; Zengin, Nurullah ; Buyukberber, Suleyman ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 383~386
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.383
Background: Cancer survivors are at increased risk of second cancers. Lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) are common neoplasms that are primary or subsequent cancers in cases of multiple primary cancer. We here analyzed metachronous or synchronous LPD in multiple primary cancers. Methods: Between 2001 and 2010, LPD were assessed retrospectively in 242 multiple primary cancers patients. Results: Forty nine (20.2%) patients with LPD were detected. Six patients had two LPD where one patient had three LPD. The median age of patients was 60.5 years (range: 28-81). LPD were diagnosed in 29 patients as primary cancer, in 23 patients as second cancer, and in three patients as third cancer in multiple primary cancers. Primary tumor median age was 56 (range: 20-79). Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (n=16), breast cancer (n=9), and lung cancer (n=6) were detected as subsequent cancers. Alklylating agents were used in 19 patients (43.2%) and 20 patients (45.5%) had received radiotherapy for primary cancer treatment. The median follow-up was 70 months (range: 7-284). Second malignancies were detected after a median of 51 months (range: 7-278), and third malignancies with a median of 18 months (range: 6-72). Conclusions: In this study, although breast and lung cancer were the most frequent detected solid cancers in LPD survivors, diffuse large B cell lymphoma was the most frequent detected LPD in multiple primary cancers.
Resistant Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia Patients Treated with 5-Fluouracil plus Actinomycin D
Manopunya, Manatsawee ; Suprasert, Prapaporn ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 387~390
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.387
A combination of 5-fluorouracil plus actinomycin D (5FU plus Act D) is the regimen that has been commonly administered to Chinese and Japanese gestational trophoblastic neoplasia patients as the first or second line of treatment with an excellent outcome. However, the efficacy of this regimen in a salvage setting was unclear. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the 5 FU plus Act D regimen utilized in this condition, all GTN patients resistant to at least three previous chemotherapy regimens who received the 5 FU plus Act D regimen between August 2009 and January 2011 at Chiang Mai University Hospital were reviewed. There were five cases who met the criteria. Four of those patients were in FIGO stage III to IV with a WHO scoring of more than 12. The median number of cycles for each patient was two and only one case achieved remission while four of the cases were unresponsive. The toxicity was evaluated in 12 cycles. Common complications were uncomplicated myelosuppression and mucositis. In conclusion, this regimen revealed modest efficacy in a salvage setting with manageable toxicity.
Depression and Survival in Chinese Patients with Gastric Cancer: A Prospective Study
Yu, Hui ; Wang, Yaoxian ; Ge, Xin ; Wu, Xiaoke ; Mao, Xiaoqin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 391~394
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.391
Aim: Depression is thought to be a predictor of poor survival among cancer patients. In our study, we aimed to investigate the association between depression and survival in patients with gastric cancer. Methods: The subjects were a total of 300 patients aged 20-75 years who had histological confirmed diagnosis of gastric cancer from January 2004 to May 2006. Three months after patients diagnosis, depression was scored using by the Depression Status Inventory (DSI) designed by Willian WK Zung. The follow-up period consisted of a total of 13,643 person-months. A Cox's regression analysis was used to assess the association between depression and survival. Results: The percentage of subjects with depression according to the DSI depression criteria was 31%. Tumor stage and treatment methods were significantly associated with depression of patients. Age (60 years or older), annual income, tumor stage, lymph nodes metastasis and treatment were significantly associated with increased hazard ratio (HR) for gastric cancer survival. The adjusted HR for mortality risk in gastric cancer patients with depression tended to be high (HR=3.34, 95% CI=1.23-5.49) and a significant trend was found (P<0.05). Conclusion: The data obtained in this prospective study in Chinese support the hypothesis that depression is associated with poor survival among gastric cancer patients. Further studies with a large sample and longer term follow-up period are needed.
Associations between Adiponectin and Two Different Cancers: Breast and Colon
Gulcelik, Mehmet Ali ; Colakoglu, Kadri ; Dincer, Halil ; Dogan, Lutfi ; Yenidogan, Erdinc ; Gulcelik, Nese Ersoz ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 395~398
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.395
Objectives: Breast and colon cancer are neoplasms well known to be related to obesity. Adiponectin, a protein that increases in obesity, seems to be involved in the relationship but clinical data are limited. Methods: In this study, we therefore evaluated the serum adiponectin levels in 87 breast and 27 colon cancer patients and assessed the relation with BMI, menopausal status, receptor status and stage of disease. Results: Serum adiponectin levels were lower in cancer cases (
ng/ml for breast cancer,
for colon cancer) than in controls (
). Conclusion: A low serum adiponectin level may be associated with both breast and colon cancer, and that this association is not statistically significant for either receptor or menopausal status in breast cancer groups.
Bufalin, a Traditional Oriental Medicine, Induces Apoptosis in Human Cancer Cells
Takai, Noriyuki ; Kira, Naoko ; Ishii, Terukazu ; Yoshida, Toshie ; Nishida, Masakazu ; Nishida, Yoshihiro ; Nasu, Kaei ; Narahara, Hisashi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 399~402
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.399
Bufalin is a traditional oriental medicines which induces apoptosis in some lines of human tumor cells. It constitutes the major digoxin-like immunoreactive component of Chan Su, obtained from the skin and parotid venom glands of toads. Bufalin is cardioactive C-24 steroids that exhibits a variety of biological activities, such as cardiotonic, anaesthetic, blood pressure stimulatory, respiratory and antineoplastic effects. In terms of its anti-tumor activity, bufalin has been demonstrated to inhibit the growth of tumors, such as endometrial and ovarian cancers. This commentary introduces biologic and therapeutic effects of bufalin in treating some cancers. The compound is able to mediate inhibition of cell growth, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and expression of genes related to the malignant phenotype in human cancer cells.
Use of Mobile Phones and Cancer Risk
Ayanda, Olushola S. ; Baba, Alafara A. ; Ayanda, Omolola T. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 403~406
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.403
Mobile phones work by transmitting and receiving radio frequency microwave radiation. The radio frequency (RF) emitted by mobile phones is stronger than FM radio signal which are known to cause cancer. Though research and evidence available on the risk of cancer by mobile phones does not provide a clear and direct support that mobile phones cause cancers. Evidence does not also support an association between exposure to radio frequency and microwave radiation from mobile phones and direct effects on health. It is however clear that lack of available evidence of cancer as regards the use of mobile phone should not be interpreted as proof of absence of cancer risk, so that excessive use of mobile phones should be taken very seriously and with caution to prevent cancer.