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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevetion
Editor in Chief :
Malcolm A Moore
Volume & Issues
Volume 13, Issue 12 - Dec 2012
Volume 13, Issue 11 - Nov 2012
Volume 13, Issue 10 - Oct 2012
Volume 13, Issue 9 - Sep 2012
Volume 13, Issue 8 - Aug 2012
Volume 13, Issue 7 - Jul 2012
Volume 13, Issue 6 - Jun 2012
Volume 13, Issue 5 - May 2012
Volume 13, Issue 4 - Apr 2012
Volume 13, Issue 3 - Mar 2012
Volume 13, Issue 2 - Feb 2012
Volume 13, Issue 1 - Jan 2012
Selecting the target year
Malignant Mesothelioma in Eastern Asia
Bianchi, Claudio ; Bianchi, Tommaso ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 4849~4853
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.4849
Relatively low numbers of malignant mesotheliomas have been reported from Eastern Asia. In order to explore the causes of this fact, the available data on mesothelioma incidence/mortality in five countries (Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore) were reviewed. Data on the industrial histories of the above countries were also examined. Mesothelioma incidence was low, despite a history of high shipbuilding and port activities, in which heavy exposure to asbestos generally has occurred. Underestimation of mesothelioma could partly explain the above discrepancy. Moreover, in some areas a sufficient latency period for mesothelioma development may have not yet elapsed, due to recent industrialization. However, other possibilities have to be considered. The cancer epidemiology in Eastern Asia differs deeply from that seen in Western countries, an indication of differences in etiologic factors of cancer as well as in co-factors. In addition, the oncogenic spectrum of asbestos is wide, and not completely defined. In a very different milieu from that of Western countries, asbestos could preferentially hit targets other than serosal membranes.
Snake Venom: A Potent Anticancer Agent
Jain, Deepika ; Kumar, Sudhir ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 4855~4860
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.4855
Since cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and there is an urgent need to find better treatment. In recent years remarkable progress has been made towards the understanding of proposed hallmarks of cancer development and treatment. Treatment modalities comprise radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy, immunotherapy and hormonal therapy. Currently, the use of chemotherapeutics remains the predominant option for clinical control. However, one of the major problems with successful cancer therapy using chemotherapeutics is that patients often do not respond or eventually develop resistance after initial treatment. This has led to the increased use of anticancer drugs developed from natural resources. The biodiversity of venoms and toxins makes them a unique source from which novel therapeutics may be developed. In this review, the anticancer potential of snake venom is discussed. Some of the included molecules are under clinical trial and may find application for anticancer drug development in the near future.
Breast Cancer in India: Where Do We Stand and Where Do We Go?
Khokhar, Anita ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 4861~4866
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.4861
This is a review article which looks into details what the actual scenario of the problem of breast cancer in our country is. As the problem is on the rise, what is the level of the preparedness at our end to tackle the problem. The articles reviews the epidemiology of breast, high risk factors, detection, diagnosis and treatment facilities also along with that screening facilities and their ground reality, awareness of the women from different walks regarding various issues of breast cancer and what intervention can be made to combat the disease.
Autophagy in Cervical Cancer: An Emerging Therapeutic Target
Pandey, Saumya ; Chandravati, Chandravati ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 4867~4871
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.4867
Cervical cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in women worldwide. Although the human papillomavirus (HPV) is considered the major causative agent of cervical cancer, yet the viral infection alone is not sufficient for cancer progression. The etiopathogenesis of cervical cancer is indeed complex; a precise understanding of the complex cellular/molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation, progression and/or prevention of the uterine cervix is therefore essential. Autophagy is emerging as an important biological mechanism in targeting human cancers, including cervical cancer. Furthermore, autophagy, a process of cytoplasm and cellular organelle degradation in lysosomes, has been implicated in homeostasis. Autophagic flux may vary depending on the cell/tissue type, thereby altering cell fate under stress conditions leading to cell survival and/or cell death. Autophagy may in turn govern tumor metastasis and subsequent carcinogenesis. Inflammation is a known hallmark of cancer. Vascular insufficiency in tumors, including cervical tissue, leads to depletion of glucose and/or oxygen perturbing the osmotic mileu causing extracellular acidosis in the tumor microenvironment that may eventually result in autophagy. Thus, targeted manipulation of complex autophagic signaling may prove to be an innovative strategy in identification of clinically relevant biomarkers in cervical cancer in the near future.
Apoptosis in Cancer - An Update
Sankari, S. Leena ; Masthan, K.M.K. ; Babu, N. Aravindha ; Bhattacharjee, Tathagata ; Elumalai, M. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 4873~4878
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.4873
Apoptosis is programmed cell death which is essential for development and survival of living organisms. It is a sequentially regulated suicidal programme where cells activate certain enzymes which dissolute their own nuclear component and various protein component of nucleus and cytoplasm. Disturbance of this regulatory pathway may lead to various diseases like autoimmune diseases, neurodegenerative diseases and cancers. The potential mechanisms of apoptosis and its role in cancer are discussed. The ability of apoptosis to modulate the life or death of a cell is also recognized for its immense therapeutic potential. Understanding the mechanisms from this review will give us better insight to the pathogenesis of various diseases including cancer and will open new horizons to therapeutic approaches.
Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Related DNA Repair and Radiation-Resistance Regulatory Mechanisms: A Mini-Review
Bai, Jing ; Guo, Xiao-Guang ; Bai, Xiao-Ping ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 4879~4881
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.4879
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpression is associated with resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The EGFR modulates DNA repair after radiation-induced damage through an association with the catalytic subunit of DNA protein kinase. DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the most lethal type of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation, and non-homologous end joining is the predominant pathway for repair of radiation-induced DSBs. Some cell signaling pathways that respond to normal growth factors are abnormally activated in human cancer. These pathways also invoke the cell survival mechanisms that lead to resistance to radiation. The molecular connection between the EGFR and its control over DNA repair capacity appears to be mediated by one or more signaling pathways downstream of this receptor. The purpose of this mini-review was not only to highlight the relation of the EGFR signal as a regulatory mechanism to DNA repair and radiation resistance, but also to provide clues to improving existing radiation resistance through novel therapies based on the above-mentioned mechanism.
Effects of SiO
in Turkish Natural Stones on Cancer Development
Dal, Murat ; Malak, Arzu Tuna ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 4883~4888
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.4883
In materials science, one of the new concerns in the construction industry, it is well established that mineral dust from rocks (stones) has adverse effects on human health. For instance, it is suspected that some mineral dusts in particular leads to occupational diseases, including lung cancer. The present research concerned the relationship between cancer and those workers who work in Turkish construction industry and quarries and are exposed to silica mineral dust from natural stones. One focus was cancer prevention methods applied in-site. In mining and construction industry where stone dust is widely used, silicosis induced lung cancer is frequently seen. Cancer cases which are seen across the regions mostly affected by silica containing dust in Turkey were identified and a survey was conducted of the methods to protect workers in the construction industry from exposure to silica dust.
Primary Extra Nodal Non Hodgkin Lymphoma: A 5 Year Retrospective Analysis
Padhi, Somanath ; Paul, Tara Roshni ; Challa, Sundaram ; Prayaga, Aruna K. ; Rajappa, Senthil ; Raghunadharao, D. ; Sarangi, Rajlaxmi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 4889~4895
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.4889
Background and Aim: The incidence of extra nodal non Hodgkin lymphoma (ENL) is rising throughout the world. However, data regarding ENL as a group is limited. The aim was to study the epidemiological and histomorphological trends of primary ENL (pENL) in India. Material and Methods: The biopsy materials from sixty eight patients with pENL (45 male, 23 female, M:F= 1.9:1), diagnosed over a five year period (2005-2009), were analysed and pathologically reclassified according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification, 2008 criteria. Results: Primary extra nodal non Hodgkin lymphomas constituted 22.0% (68/308) of all non Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). The mean age at presentation for pENL and primary nodal NHL was 43 years and 58 years, respectively with a male predilection (M: F=2:1). Central nervous system (CNS) constituted the most common extranodal site (20/68, 29.5%) followed by gastrointestinal tract (17/68, 25%), and nose/nasopharynx (8/68, 11.8%). Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL, not otherwise specified), extranodal marginal lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type, and B cell NHL unclassified (U) were the three most common histological types observed. T-cell phenotype was rarely noted (4%). Follicular lymphomas and anaplastic large cell lymphoma, seen among nodal NHL, were absent at extra nodal sites. Majority (41/68, 60%) of the patients with pENL were immunocompetent and 55% were in stage I-II with favorable prognosis. Conclusion: Central nervous system was the most common site of ENL, followed by gastrointestinal tract. Majority of pENL occurred in immunocompetent hosts with a favorable prognosis.
Effect of Mirtazapine on MNNG-Induced Gastric Adenocarcinoma in Rats
Bilici, Mehmet ; Cayir, Kerim ; Tekin, Salim Basol ; Gundogdu, Cemal ; Albayrak, Abdulmecit ; Suleyman, Bahadir ; Ozogul, Bunyamin ; Erdemci, Burak ; Suleyman, Halis ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 4897~4900
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.4897
Objective: In this study, anticancer effects of mirtazapine on rats were investigated in an adenocarcinoma model induced by N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and compared with those of cisplatin. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, 10 mg/kg doses of mirtazapine were administered orally to one group of rats, while 1 mg/kg doses of cisplatin were administered intraperitoneally to another group. At 1 hour after administration, 200 mg/kg doses of MNNG were given orally to both groups. MNNG administration was repeated once every 10 days through 3 months, after which period, gastric tissue was taken and pathologically evaluated. Results: Mirtazapine prevented adenocarcinoma induction by MNNG in rats to a greater extent than cisplatin. Some of the rats receiving cisplatin demonstrated severe dysplasia in gastric samples and others exhibited mild dysplasia. Rats given mirtazapine were not observed to suffer severe dysplasia, only mild dysplasia being observed. Conclusion: For adenocarcinoma induced by MNNG on rats, mirtazapine was determined more effective than cisplatin. In order to make statement about mechanism of anticancer activity of mirtazapine, wider studies are required.
Awareness of Cervical Cancer among Couples in a Slum Area of Mumbai
Donta, Balaiah ; Begum, Shahina ; Nair, Saritha ; Naik, D.D. ; Mali, B.N. ; Bandiwadekar, Anil ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 4901~4903
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.4901
To assess the awareness of cervical cancer among couples, data were collected from two urban slums community in Mumbai. A total of 1958 married women aged from 18 to 49 and their husbands were selected using simple random sampling. Women (37.7%) were significantly more aware of cervical cancer than husbands (8.7%). A slight agreement (kappa statistics=0.16) was observed between husbands and wives on awareness of cervical cancer. Significantly higher percentages of wives were aware of pap smear test than husbands. Overall, awareness of cervical cancer and pap smear test among couples is low. There is need to educate and motivate both of them to participate in cervical cancer screening program.
Comprehensive Study on Associations Between Nine SNPs and Glioma Risk
Liu, Hai-Bo ; Peng, Yu-Ping ; Dou, Chang-Wu ; Su, Xiu-Lan ; Gao, Nai-Kang ; Tian, Fu-Ming ; Bai, Jie ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 4905~4908
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.4905
Aim: Glioma cancer is the most common type of adult brain tumor. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified various new susceptibility regions and here we conducted an extensive analysis of associations between 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and glioma risk. Methods: A total of 197 glioma cases and 197 health controls were selected, and 9 SNPs in 8 genes were analyzed using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform and Sequenom Assay Design 3.1 software. Results: We found the MAF among selected controls were consistent with the MAF from the NCBI SNP database. Among 9 SNPs in 8 genes, we identified four significant SNP genotypes associated with the risk of glioma, C/C genotype at rs730437 and T/T genotype at rs1468727 in ERGF were protective against glioma, whereas the T/T genotype at rs1799782 in XRCC1 and C/C genotype at rs861539 in XRCC3 conferred elevated risk. Conclusion: Our comprehensive analysis of nine SNPs in eight genes suggests that the rs730437 and rs1468727 in ERGF, rs1799782 in XRCC1 gene, and rs861539 in XRCC3 gene are associated with glioma risk. These findings indicate that genetic variants of various genes play a complex role in the development of glioma.
Association Between p53 codon 72 Polymorphism and Cervical Cancer Risk Among Asians: a Huge Review and Meta-analysis
Zhou, Xin ; Gu, Yang ; Zhang, Shu-Lan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 4909~4914
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.4909
Objective: The aim of this Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) review and meta-analysis was to derive a more precise estimation of the association between p53 codon 72 polymorphism (Arg72Pro, rs1042522 G>C) and cervical cancer risk among Asians. Methods: A literature search of Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science and CBM databases from inception through June 2012 was conducted. The meta-analysis was performed using STATA 12.0 software. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of any association. Twenty-eight case-control studies were included with a total of 3,580 cervical cancer cases and 3,827 healthy controls. When all the eligible studies were pooled into the meta-analysis, the results showed that the Pro/Pro genotype was associated with increased risk of cervical cancer under the heterozygous model (Pro/Pro vs. Arg/Pro: OR = 1.25, 95%CI: 1.02-1.53, P= 0.005). However, no statistically significant associations were found under four other genetic models (Pro vs. Arg: OR = 0.97, 95%CI: 0.85-1.10, P= 0.624; Pro/Pro + Arg/Pro vs. Arg/Arg: OR = 0.84, 95%CI: 0.70-1.01, P= 0.058; Pro/Pro vs. Arg/Arg + Arg/Pro: OR = 1.13, 95%CI: 0.92-1.39, P= 0.242; Pro/Pro vs. Arg/Arg: OR = 0.97, 95%CI: 0.76-1.22, P= 0.765; respectively). In the subgroup analysis based on country, the Pro/Pro genotype and Pro carrier showed significant associations with increased risk of cervical cancer among Indian populations, but not among Chinese, Japanese and Korean populations. Conclusion: Results from the current meta-analysis suggests that p53 codon 72 polymorphism might be associated with increased risk of cervical cancer, especially among Indians.
CYP2E1 RsaI/PstI Polymorphism and Liver Cancer Risk among East Asians: a Huge Review and Meta-analysis
Tian, Zhong ; Li, Yi-Ling ; Zhao, Lin ; Zhang, Chen-Liang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 4915~4921
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.4915
Published data on any association between the CYP2E1 RsaI/PstI (c1/c2) polymorphism and liver cancer risk among east Asians are inconclusive. The aim of this Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) review and meta-analysis was to derive a more precise estimation of the relationship. A literature search of Pubmed, Embase, Web of science and CBM databases from inception through July 2012 was conducted. Twelve case-control studies were included with a total of 1,552 liver cancer cases and 1,763 healthy controls. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of association under five genetic models. When all the eligible studies were pooled into the meta-analysis, the results showed that the c2 allele and the c2 carrier (c2/c2 + c2/c1) of RsaI/PstI polymorphism were associated with decreased risk of liver cancer among east Asians (c2 vs. c1: OR = 0.75, 95%CI: 0.59-0.95, P = 0.016; c2/c2 + c2/c1 vs. c1/c1: OR = 0.76, 95%CI: 0.58-1.00, P = 0.050). In the stratified analysis by country, significant associations were observed between RsaI/PstI polymorphism and decreased risk of liver cancer among the Chinese population (c2 vs. c1: OR = 0.70, 95%CI: 0.54-0.91, P = 0.007; c2/c2 + c2/c1 vs. c1/c1: OR = 0.72, 95%CI: 0.54-0.95, P = 0.020), but not among Japanese and Korean populations. Results from the current meta-analysis indicates that the c2 allele of CYP2E1 RsaI/PstI (c1/c2) polymorphism may be a protective factor for HCC among east Asians, especially among China populations.
XRCC1 and ADPRT Polymorphisms Associated with Survival in Breast Cancer Cases Treated with Chemotherapy
Ye, Sheng ; Rong, Jian ; Huang, Shao-Hong ; Zheng, Zhou-San ; Yun, Miao ; Wang, Shen-Ming ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 4923~4926
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.4923
Aim: To investigate whether XRCC1 and ADPRT polymorphisms might be associated with outcomes of breast cancer. Methods: A prospective study was conducted with a total of 335 breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy consecutively collected from Jan. 2005 to Jan. 2008. Genotyping of XRCC1 and ADPRT polymorphisms was conducted by PCR-RFLP assay. Results: All 335 patients were followed up until death or the end of Jan. 2012, with a median follow-up period of 38.8 (2-64) months. It was shown that the variant genotype of XRCC1 399Gln/Gln was strongly significantly associated with a decreased risk of death from breast cancer, with an HR (95% CI) of 0.52 (0.28-0.91). Similarly, individuals carrying the ADPRT 762Ala/Ala demonstrated longer survival compared to ADPRT 762 Val/Val, with an HR (95% CI) of 0.58 (0.31-0.97). Individuals with combination genotypes of XRCC1 399Gln allele and ADPRT 762Ala/Ala presented with a longer survival, the HR (95% CI) being 0.56 (0.32-0.97). Conclusion: We found a significant association between XRCC1399Gln/Gln and ADPRT 762Ala/Ala polymorphisms and clinical outcomes. These two genotypes could be used as a surrogate markers of clinical outcome in glioma cases receiving chemotherapy.
Occupational Cooking and Risk of Uveal Melanoma: a Meta-analysis
Ge, Yi-Rui ; Tian, Nong ; Lu, Yan ; Wu, Yong ; Hu, Qin-Rui ; Huang, Zheng-Ping ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 4927~4930
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.4927
Background: Many observational studies have assessed the possible association between occupational cooking and uveal melanoma risk, but reported results are controversial. Our goal was to evaluate the association between occupational cooking and uveal melanoma risk by conducting a meta-analysis of observational studies. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science were searched through June 2012 to identify all eligible studies. The pooled odds ratio (OR) with its 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was used to evaluate this association. Either a fixed- or a random-effects model were used to calculate pooled ORs. Results: Five case-control studies involving a total of 1,199 cases and 6,927 controls were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, occupational cooking was associated with an increased risk of uveal melanoma (OR: 1.81, 95%CI 1.33-2.46, P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis by gender suggested occupational cooking was associated with increased risk of uveal melanoma in both men (OR: 2.16, 95%CI 1.06-4.40, P = 0.034) and women (OR: 1.92, 95%CI 1.19-3.10, P = 0.008). Conclusion: This meta-analysis suggests that occupational cooking is associated with an increased risk of uveal melanoma in both men and women.
Hematuria Screening Test for Urinary Bladder Mucosal Infiltration in Cervical Cancer
Chuttiangtum, Ayuth ; Udomthavornsuk, Banchong ; Chumworathayi, Bandit ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 4931~4933
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.4931
Objective: To determine the diagnostic performance of hematuria as a screening test for urinary bladder infiltration in cervical cancer patients with a prospective study design. Materials and Methods: Newly diagnosed cervical cancer patients at Srinagarind hospital from 14 June 2011 to 30 April 2012 were enrolled in this study. We collected midstream urine samples for urinalysis from every patient before routine cystoscopic exam for clinical staging. The presence of 3 or more red blood cells (RBCs) per high power field was defined as positive for hematuria. A two-by-two table was used to determine the diagnostic performance of hematuria to detect urinary bladder mucosal infiltration using cystoscopy and biopsy as the gold standard. Result: A total of 130 were patients included, 54 of which (41.5%) had hematuria. Of these, four patients (3.08%) had pathological report from cystoscopic biopsy confirmed metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of hematuria as a screening test to detect urinary bladder mucosal infiltration of cervical cancer were 100%, 60.3%, 7.4%, 100%, and 61.5%, respectively. There was no single case of urinary bladder mucosal infiltration in patients initially staged less than stage III. Conclusions: Hematuria can be used as a screening test to detect urinary bladder mucosal infiltration of cervical cancer. This can reduce the number of cervical cancer patients who really need to undergo cystoscopy as a staging procedure to less than half and to less than 20% if stage III or more were included without missing a single case of urinary bladder mucosal infiltration.
Fusion Between TMPRSS2 and ETS Family Members (ERG, ETV1, ETV4) in Prostate Cancers from Northern China
Wang, Jian-Jiang ; Liu, Yue-Xin ; Wang, Wei ; Yan, Wei ; Zheng, Yu-Peng ; Qiao, Lu-Dong ; Liu, Dan ; Chen, Shan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 4935~4938
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.4935
In this study we evaluated the frequency of fusion between TMPRSS2 and ETS family members (ERG, ETV1, ETV4) in prostate cancers in patients from northern China in order to explore differences in fusion rates among regions in northern and southern China, other parts of Asia, Europe, and North America. We examined 100 prostate cancer patients, diagnosed by means of prostate biopsy; fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to detect the expression of TMPRSS2, ERG, ETV1 and ETV4 in cancer tissue. Differences in gene fusion rates among different ethnics groups were also analyzed. Of the 100 prostate cancer patients, 55 (55%) had the fusion gene. Among the patients with the fusion gene, 46 (83.6%) patients had the TMPRSS2:ERG fusion product, 8 (14.8%) patients had TMPRSS2:ETV1 fusion, 1 (1.6%) patient had TMPRSS2:ETV4.
Soluble CD30: A Possible Serum Tumor Marker for Primary Effusion Lymphoma
Michai, Manthana ; Goto, Hiroki ; Hattori, Shinichiro ; Vaeteewoottacharn, Kulthida ; Wongkham, Chaisiri ; Wongkham, Sopit ; Okada, Seiji ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 4939~4941
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.4939
Background: The serum level of soluble CD30 (sCD30) is known to be increased with several lymphomas and to correlate with prognosis. Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a highly aggressive malignant lymphoma with poor prognosis, but the existence and significance of sCD30 in PEL have not yet been investigated in detail. Objectives: Since the membrane type of CD30 is frequently expressed on the surface of PEL cells, we compared the expression of the membrane type of CD30 and the production of sCD30 among PEL cell lines as well as other lymphomas. Methods: The expression of surface CD30 in various lymphoma cell lines was analyzed with flow cytometry ans sCD30 was quantified by ELISA. Results: Both surface and sCD30 were detected on PEL cell lines as well as on Hodgkin's lymphoma and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma cell lines. Surface CD30 and sCD30 levels of each cell lines correlated with each other. Conclusion: The serum level of sCD30 appear to be a useful biological tumor marker for the diagnosis and management of CD30-positive PEL.
Association of TERT rs2736098 Polymorphism with Cancer Risk: a Meta-analysis
Zhang, Xiao-Jing ; Xu, Zhi ; Gong, Yong-Ling ; Tang, Cui-Ju ; Chen, Jin-Fei ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 4943~4946
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.4943
Studies have reported an association between the TERT rs2736098 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and cancer susceptibility, but the results remain inconclusive. Toprovide a more precise estimation of the relationship, a meta-analysis of 8 published studies including 8,070 cases and 10,239 controls was performed. Stratification by sample size, genotyping method, source of controls and ethnicity were used to explore the source of heterogeneity. In the overall analysis, no significant association was found between the TERT rs2736098 polymorphism and cancer risk. However, the result showed the rs2736098 was significantly associated with an increased cancer risk and the heterogeneity was effectively decreased for homozygote comparison by removal of two studies: OR = 1.337 (95% CI = 1.183-1.511; Pheterogeneity = 0.087). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, a significantly increased risk of cancers was found among Asians (OR = 1.413, 95% CI = 1.187-1.683 for AA versus GG). Our meta-analysis did not show that the TERT rs2736098 plays an important role in cancer risk. More studies with larger sample size and well-matched controls are needed to confirm the findings.
Lentivirus-mediated shRNA Interference Targeting SLUG Inhibits Lung Cancer Growth and Metastasis
Wang, Yao-Peng ; Wang, Ming-Zhao ; Luo, Yi-Ren ; Shen, Yi ; Wei, Zhao-Xia ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 4947~4951
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.4947
Objective: Lung cancer is a deadly cancer, whose kills more people worldwide than any other malignancy. SLUG (SNAI2, Snail2) is involved in the epithelial mesenchymal transition in physiological and in pathological contexts and is implicated in the development and progression of lung cancer. Methods: We constructed a lentivirus vector with SLUG shRNA (LV-shSLUG). LV-shSLUG and a control lentivirus were infected into the non-small cell lung cancer cell A549 and real-time PCR, Western blot and IHC were applied to assess expression of the SLUG gene. Cell proliferation and migration were detected using MTT and clony formation methods. Results: Real-time PCR, Western Blot and IHC results confirmed down-regulation of SLUG expression by its shRNA by about 80%~90% at both the mRNA and protein levels. Knockdown of SLUG significantly suppressed lung cancer cell proliferation. Furthermore, knockdown of SLUG significantly inhibited lung cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Finally, knockdown of SLUG induced the down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of E-cadherin. Conclusion: These results indicate that SLUG is a newly identified gene associated with lung cancer growth and metastasis. SLUG may serve as a new therapeutic target for the treatment of lung cancer in the future.
Attitudes of Nurses toward Supportive Care for Advanced Cancer Patients
Park, Sun-A ; Chung, Seung Hyun ; Shin, Eun Hee ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 4953~4958
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.4953
The purpose of this study was to determine how nurses recognize the need for supportive care of advanced cancer patients and to provide preliminary data on how adequate circumstances are to be set up and maintained in Korea. For the purpose of this study, we developed a preliminary questionnaire based on a focus group of 8 nurses run by a clinical psychologist and administered it to 228 nurses in a cancer hospital, over a 3-month period. Participants of this study were nurses with more than 5 years' experience of treating advanced cancer patients. The result showed that 207 respondents (90.8%) agreed that a smooth communication system for treatment taking into account the symptoms experienced by patients and rehabilitation issues was needed. More than 80% agreed that the items needed for an integrated management service for advanced cancer patients should include psychological support, an integrated pain and symptom management, and education for the patient and his or her caregivers. These results strongly suggest that a new system distinct from palliative care or hospices is needed for patients with advanced cancer in Korea.
Prognostic Factors for Survival of Patients with Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer - a Retrospective Single Institution Analysis
Wu, Chao ; Li, Fang ; Jiao, Shun-Chang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 4959~4962
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.4959
The objective of this retrospective study was to investigate prognostic factors associated with survival of patients with extensive stage small cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC). Included were 200 patients admitted to the Liberation Army General Hospital with a diagnosis of ES-SCLC. The demographics of patients, disease characteristics, pre-treatment biochemical parameters and therapeutic plan were assessed or evaluated. Univariate analysis found that second-line chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and no liver metastasis were associated with improved survival. Tumor response to first-line chemotherapy and normal initial hemoglobin levels were also associated with a survival benefit (all P-values
0.0369). Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that liver metastasis and the total number of all chemotherapy cycles were independent prognostic factors of survival. The morbidity risk in patients with liver metastasis was 2.52-fold higher than that in patients without liver metastasis (hazard ratio (HR)=2.52 (1.69-3.76); P<0.0001). However, one unit increase in the total number of chemotherapy cycles decreased the risk of death by 0.86-fold (HR=0.86 (0.80-0.92); P<0.0001). Absence of liver metastasis and ability of a patient to receive and tolerate multiple lines of chemotherapy were associated with longer survival.
Diabetes Mellitus and Renal Cell Carcinoma - A Hospital Based Study from Kathmandu Valley
Gupta, Satrudhan Pd. ; Mittal, Ankush ; Jha, Dipendra Kumar ; Pandeya, Dipendra Raj ; Sathian, Brijesh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 4963~4965
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.4963
Objective: To diagnose renal cell carcinoma at early stages and for better prognosis, the main objective of our current study was to understand any association with diabetes with relation to age, gender, history of disease, diabetic laboratory parameters, tumor size and grade. Materials and Methods: This hospital based study was carried out using data retrieved from the register maintained in the Department of Biochemistry of Nepalese Army Institute of Health Sciences between
December, 2011 and
May, 2012. The variables collected were age, gender, HbA1c, serum creatinine, fasting blood glucose. One way ANOVA was applied to examine statistical significance of differences between groups. The LSD post hoc test was used for the comparison of means of case groups. Results: Of the total 140 cases of renal cell carcinoma, 79 patients were also suffering from diabetes mellitus. The number of females (47) was more in diabetic RCC patients when compared to males (32). Significance was observed in levels of serum creatinine for tumor size >10cm (
). The highest value of glycated hemoglobin (8.9%) and fasting blood sugar(148.3mg/dl)in cases of renal cell carcinoma along with diabetes mellitus was found in tumour size of 1-5cm. Conclusion: Diabetes mellitus has independent prognostic significance in RCC in relation to tumour size and grade.
Null Genotype of GSTT1 Contributes to Esophageal Cancer Risk in Asian Populations: Evidence from a Meta-analysis
Yi, Sheng-Ming ; Li, Gui-Yuan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 4967~4971
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.4967
Background/Aims: Glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1), a phase-II enzyme, plays an important role in detoxification of carcinogen electrophiles. Many studies have investigated the association between GSTT1 polymorphism and esophageal cancer risk in Asian populations, but its actual impact is not clear owing to apparent inconsistencies among those studies. Thus, a meta-analysis was performed to explore the effect of GSTT1 polymorphism on the risk of developing esophageal cancer. Methods: A literature search of PubMed, Embase, and Wanfang databases up to August 2012 was conducted and 15 eligible papers were finally selected, involving a total of 1,626 esophageal cancer cases and 2,216 controls. We used the pooled odds ratio (OR) with its corresponding 95% confidence interval (95%CI) to estimate the association of GSTT1 polymorphism with esophageal cancer risk. Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses were performed to further identify the association. Results: Meta-analysis of total studies showed the null genotype of GSTT1 was significantly associated with an increased risk of esophageal cancer in Asians (OR=1.26, 95%CI=1.05-1.52,
). Subgroup analyses by sample size and countries also identified a significant association. Sensitivity analysis further demonstrated a relationship of GSTT1 polymorphism to esophageal cancer risk in Asians. Conclusions: The present meta-analysis of available data showed a significant association between the null genotype of GSTT1 and an increased risk of esophageal cancer in Asians, particularly in China.
Attempting Tobacco Cessation - An Oral Physician's Perspective
Pai, Anuradha ; Prasad, Shesha ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 4973~4977
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.4973
Introduction: Tobacco use is a global health care problem. Repetitive exposure to nicotine produces neuroadaptation resulting in nicotine dependence. Smoking is associated with a range of diseases, causing high levels of morbidity and mortality and is one of the leading causes of preventable deaths, with more than 4.6 million smokers worldwide dying each year from smoking related illnesses. Stopping smoking has major health benefits. Quitting at any age provides both short and long term benefits. Materials and methods: 45 patients attending the outpatient department at the Oxford Dental College, Bangalore, were randomly allocated to three groups of interventions namely placebo, counseling and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Initially each one was assessed for carbon monoxide levels using a breath analyser (pico smokerlyser bedfont UK). They were followed up for six months and the carbon monoxide levels were again assessed using the same instrument. The paired t test was used to compare the results before and after the intervention. Results: The scores before the initiation of intervention and after treatment were compared and all three interventions were found to be statistically significant after six months. It was noticed that patients with very low or low dependence followed by high dependence had good response in the placebo group (68% and 47.6% respectively), in the counseling group maximum response was seen in the medium followed by the very low group (61% and 59% respectively), and maximum response was seen in very high followed by the very low group with NRT (78.7% and 60.5% respectively). Conclusion: The inference that can be drawn from the present study is that non-invasive, non pharmacological methods like placebo and counseling are effective in low to medium groups, and NRT is effective with higher nicotine dependence.
Risk Factors of Breast Cancer among Women in Eastern India: A Tertiary Hospital Based Case Control Study
Das, Soumen ; Sen, Santanu ; Mukherjee, Anindya ; Chakraborty, Debadatta ; Mondal, Pankaj Kumar ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 4979~4981
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.4979
Aim: Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers of women in India with high fatality rate. Over a 1 year study period 105 consecutive biopsy or fine needle aspiration cytology confirmed breast cancer patients were interviewed by direct questionnaire method regarding risk factors attending Surgery and Radiotherapy OPD of Medical College Kolkata, West Bengal while taking other 105 patients attending Surgery Department for some other disease as controls. The data were compiled in MS Excel 2007 and analyzed by Epi info 3.5.1 software. Among the cases, rural residence, illiteracy and low socio-economic status was significantly higher than controls. Late onset of menarche, late onset of menopause, ever OCP usage, breast feeding for 1-2 years and age of 1st childbirth between 20-30 years were found to be significant protective factors. People should be made aware regarding the modifiable risk factors to prevent breast cancer.
XPC 939A>C and 499C>T Polymorphisms and Skin Cancer Risk: a Meta-analysis
Ji, Geng ; Lin, Yuan ; Cao, Song-Yu ; Li, Luo-Zhu ; Chen, Xin-Long ; Sun, Bu-Mei ; Chen, Chuan-Jun ; Ma, Hong-Xia ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 4983~4988
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.4983
The xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C gene (XPC) has been identified as important for repairing UV-related DNA damage. Some subtle changes in this gene may impair repair efficiency and influence susceptibility to human cancers, including skin cancer. Two polymorphisms in XPC, 939A>C (rs2228001) and 499C>T (rs2228000), are considered to have possible associations with the risk of skin cancer, but the reported results have been inconsistent. Here we performed a meta-analysis of the available evidence regarding the relationship between these two polymorphisms and the risk of skin cancer. All relevant studies were searched using PubMed, Embase and Web of Science before February 2012. A total of 8 case-control studies were included in this analysis, and no convincing associations between the two polymorphisms and risk of skin cancer were observed in any of the genetic models. Stratified analyses by skin cancer type also did not detect significant associations in any subgroup. This meta-analysis suggested that the XPC 939A>C and 499C>T polymorphisms may have little involvement in susceptibility to skin cancer.
Wire-guided Localization Biopsy to Determine Surgical Margin Status in Patients with Non-palpable Suspicious Breast Lesions
Dogan, Lutfi ; Gulcelik, M. Ali ; Yuksel, Murat ; Uyar, Osman ; Reis, Erhan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 4989~4992
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.4989
Purpose: Guide-wire localization (GWL) has been a standard technique for many years. Excision of nonpalpable malignant breast lesions with clear surgical margins reduces the risk of undergoing re-excision. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of GWL biopsy for assessing surgical margins. Methods: This retrospective study concerned 53 patients who underwent GWL biopsy for non-palpable breast lesions and breast carcinoma diagnosed by histological examination. Age of the patients, tumour size, radiographic findings, breast density specifications, specimen volumes, menopausal status and family history of the patients and surgical margin status were recorded. Results: Median age was 53.3 years, median tumour size was 1.5 cm and median specimen volume was
. In fifteen patients (28%) DCIS and in 38 patients (72%) invasive ductal carcinoma was diagnosed. There was positive surgical margins in twenty eight (52.8%) patients. The median distance to the nearest surgical margin was 7.2 mm in clear surgical margins. Younger age and denser breast specifications were found as statistically significant factors for surgical margin status. Median age of the patients who had positive margins was 49.4 years where it was 56.9 years in the patients with negative margins (p=0.04). 79% of the patients with positive margins had type 3-4 pattern breast density according to BIRADS classification as compared to 48% in the patients who had negative margins (p=0.03). Some 38 patients who had positive or close surgical margins received re-excision (72%). Conclusion: Positive margin rates may be higher because of inherent biological differences and diffuse growth patterns in younger patients. There are also technical difficulties that are relevant to denser fibroglandular tissue in placing hooked wire. High re-excision rates must be taken into consideration while performing GWL biopsy in non-palpable breast lesions.
Genotoxic and Anti-Genotoxic Effects of Vanillic Acid Against Mitomycin C-Induced Genomic Damage in Human Lymphocytes In Vitro
Erdem, Merve Guler ; Cinkilic, Nilufer ; Vatan, Ozgur ; Yilmaz, Dilek ; Bagdas, Deniz ; Bilaloglu, Rahmi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 4993~4998
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.4993
Vanillic acid, a vegetable phenolic compound, is a strong antioxidant. The aim of the present study was to determine its effects on mitomycin C-induced DNA damage in human blood lymphocyte cultures in vitro, both alone and in combination with mitomycin C (MMC). The cytokinesis block micronucleus test and alkaline comet assay were used to determine genotoxic damage and anti-genotoxic effects of vanillic acid at the DNA and chromosome levels. MMC induced genotoxicity at a dose of
. Vanillic acid (
) significantly reduced both the rates of DNA damaged cells and the frequency of micronucleated cells. A high dose of vanillic acid (
) itself had genotoxic effects on DNA. In addition, both test systems showed similar results when tested with the negative control, consisting of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in combination with vanillic acid (
)+MMC. In conclusion, vanillic acid could prevent oxidative damage to DNA and chromosomes when used at an appropriately low dose.
Metabolic Syndrome and Colorectal Cancer: A Cross-Sectional Survey
Forootan, Mojgan ; Tabatabaeefar, Morteza ; Yahyaei, Mansooreh ; Maghsoodi, Nakisa ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 4999~5002
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.4999
Introduction: There is epidemiological evidence indicating that the metabolic syndrome increases the risk of colorectal cancer. Since there is little information about this issue in Iran, the present study was conducted to evaluate prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in patients with colorectal cancer. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional survey involved 200 patients with a new diagnosis of colorectal cancer. Demographic information of patients was collected through the interview with them. Components of metabolic syndrome including fasting glucose serum, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, blood pressure and waist circumference were measured for all of the patients. Results: A total of 72 colorectal cancer patients (36%) met metabolic syndrome criteria with rates of 76% for women and 24% for men. BMI in metabolic syndrome patients was higher than other colorectal cancer patients. Disease history including hypertension, diabetes and cardiovascular disease was most frequent in metabolic syndrome patients. Pathological characteristics of colorectal cancer were not significantly associated with the disease. Conclusion: The findings of present study indicated that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in CRC patients is relatively high. Therefore, further analytical and multi centric studies are needed to better understand the role of metabolic syndrome in development of CRC in Iran. If this association is confirmed in future studies, metabolic syndrome patients should be considered in CRC screening programs.
Esophageal Cancer Mortality during 2004-2009 in Yanting County, China
Song, Qing-Kun ; Li, Jun ; Jiang, Hai-Dong ; He, Yu-Ming ; Zhou, Xiao-Qiao ; Huang, Cheng-Yu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5003~5006
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5003
Objective: Yanting County is a high risk area for esophageal cancer (EC) in China. The purpose of this study was to describe the mortality and mortality change of EC from 2004 to 2009 in Yanting County. Methods: EC mortality data from 2004 to 2009 obtained from the Cancer Registry in Yanting were analyzed. Annual percentage changes (APC) were calculated to assess the trends in EC mortality. Age-standardized mortality was calculated based on world standard population of 2000. Results: The average EC mortality was 54.7/
in males and 31.6/
in females over the 6 years. A decline in EC mortality with time was observed in both genders, with a rate of -8.70% per year (95% CI: -13.23%~-3.93%) in females and -4.11% per year (95%CI: -11.16%~3.50%) in males. Conclusion: EC mortality decreased over the six years in both genders, although it remained high in the Yanting area. There is still a need to carry out studies of risk factors for improved cancer prevention and further reduction in the disease burden.
Prediction Value of XRCC 1 Gene Polymorphism on the Survival of Ovarian Cancer Treated by Adjuvant Chemotherapy
Miao, Jin ; Zhang, Xian ; Tang, Qiong-Lan ; Wang, Xiao-Yu ; Kai, Li ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5007~5010
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5007
Objective: We conducted a prospective study to test the association between three amino acid substitution polymorphismic variants of DNA repair genes, XRCC1 (Arg194Trp), XRCC1(Arg280His) and XRCC1 (Arg399Gln), and clinical outcome of ovarian cancer patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods: 195 patients with primary advanced ovarian cancer and treated by adjuvant chemotherapy were included in our study. All were followed-up from Jan. 2007 to Jan. 2012. Genotyping of XRCC1 polymorphisms was conducted by TaqMan Gene Expression assays. Results: The XRCC1 194 Trp/Trp genotype conferred a significant risk of death from ovarian cancer when compared with Arg/Arg (HR=1.56, 95%CI=1.04-3.15). Similarly, those carrying the XRCC1 399 Gln/Gln genotype had a increased risk of death as compared to the XRCC1 399Arg/Arg genotype with an HR (95% CI) of 1.98 (1.09-3.93). Conclusion: This study is the first to provide evidence that XRCC1 gene polymorphisms would well be useful as surrogate markers of clinical outcome in ovarian cancer cases undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy.
Training Program to Raise Consciousness Among Adolescents for Protection Against Skin Cancer through Performance of Skin Self Examination
Balyaci, Ozum Erkin ; Kostu, Nazan ; Temel, Ayla Bayik ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5011~5017
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5011
Background: Overexposure to sunlight in childhood and the adolescent period and associsated sunburns significantly increase the risk of skin cancer in adulthood. In Turkey, the incidence of skin cancer in the general population is 0.8%. The incidence is 0.6% and the mortality rate is 0.4% for men, while these rates are 1.0% and 0.7%, respectively, for women. If skin cancer is found early, its treatment is facilitated. Therefore, personal skin examination is important for early diagnosis. Objectives: Our aim was to determine the effects of training for raising consciousness among adolescents to protect against skin cancer by influencing skin self examination behavior. Method: This quasi experimental intervention study was conducted between February and April 2012 in Izmir. The study population consisted of students attending
classes of a primary school (n:302). No sampling was performed. Data were collected with a form developed by the researchers based on the literature. The first part of form is aimed to determine demographic characteristics of adolescents (3 questions) and their risk status of skin cancer (6 questions). The second part was prepared for skin cancer risks of adolescents (8 questions) and indications of skin cancer (12 questions). The last part was intended to determine their knowledge about skin self examination (4 questions) and behavioral stages of skin self examination (1 question). Data collection was achieved with a questionnaire form in three phases. In the 1st phase, data about demographic characteristics of students, risk status of skin cancer, knowledge level of skin cancer and behavior stages were collected. In the
phase, skin self examination training based on the transtheoretical model was performed within the same day just after obtaining preliminary data. In the
phase, adolescents were followed up three times to establish the efficacy of the training (on the
day after training program and at end of the
months). Follow-up data were evaluated by questioning skin self examination performing behavior stages through electronic mail. Results: Half of the adolescents (50.5%) are male, and 58.4% of them are 13 years old with a mean age of
years. About 29.4% of adolescents had brown hair color, 37.9% had brown/hazel eye color, 29.4% had white skin, and 47.2% had fewer than 10 moles in their body. The pretest mean score on knowledge level about risks of skin cancer was found to be
, while the post-test mean score was
(min:0, max:8).The pretest mean score about indications of skin cancer was
, while the post-test mean score was
(min:0, max:12). The increases were statistically significant (p<0.05). The behavior "I do not perform skin self examination regularly in every month and I do not think to perform it in the next 6 months" was reduced from 52.8 to 35.5% after training. Conclusion: The training program organized to raise consciousness among adolescents for protection against skin cancer increased the knowledge level about risks and indications of skin cancer and it also improved the behavior of performing skin self examination.
Predictive Role of GSTs on the Prognosis of Breast Cancer Patients with Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy
Bai, Yun-Lu ; Zhou, Bing ; Jing, Xiao-Yue ; Zhang, Bin ; Huo, Xiao-Qing ; Ma, Chao ; He, Jian-Miao ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5019~5022
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5019
Objective: To evaluate the predictive value of GST gene polymorphisms with regard to prognosis of breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods: A total of 159 patients were included in our study between January 2005 and January 2007. All the patients were followed up until January 2012. Genotyping was based upon the duplex polymerase-chain-reaction with the PCR-CTPP method. Results: Patients with null GSTM1 and GSTP1 Val/Val genotypes had significantly had better response rates to chemotherapy when compared with non-null GSTM1 and GSTP1 Ile/Ile genotypes (OR=1.96 and OR=2.14, respectively). Patients with the GSTM1 null genotype had a longer average survival time and significantly lower risk of death than did those with non-null genotypes (HR=0.66). Similarly, those carrying the GSTP1 Val/Val genotype had 0.54-fold the risk of death of those with GSTP1 Ile/Ile (HR=0.54). Conclusion: A significant association was found between GSTM1 and GSTP1 gene polymorphisms and clinical outcomes in breast cancer cases.
Specific CCND1 G870A Alleles Associated with Breast Cancer Susceptibility: a Meta-analysis of 5,528 Cases and 5,353 Controls
Cui, Jing ; Shen, Liang ; Wang, Yu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5023~5025
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5023
Background: The Cyclin D1(CCND1) G870A polymorphism may be associated with breast cancer, but the evidence from individual studies is inconclusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the CCND1 G870A polymorphism and breast cancer risk in a meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: We searched Pubmed and analysed 11 articles on 5,528 cases and 5,353 controls before February 1, 2012. Results: we found there are significant association for AA versus GG and AA versus GA/GG. No significant associations were found for GA versus GG, GA/AA versus GG. There are significant association for AA versus GG, and AA versus GA/GG in Caucasians. We didn't find any significant main effects for G870A polymorphism on breast cancer risk either in recessive or dominant models in Asians. Conclusion: This meta-analysis suggests that AA of the CCND1 G870A polymorphism is associated with breast cancer susceptibility.
Expression of Survivin and Caspase 3 in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Peritumoral Tissue
Li, S.X. ; Chai, L. ; Cai, Z.G. ; Jin, L.J. ; Chen, Y. ; Wu, H.R. ; Sun, Z. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5027~5031
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5027
This study was conducted to investigate the expression of survivin and caspase 3 in oral squamous cell carcinoma and peritumoral tissue, and possible pathogenesis mechanisms. We used ELISA and western blotting to detect the protein expression levels of survivin and caspase 3 in tissue. In situ hybridization and real-time PCR were applied to assess mRNA expression levels. In this study, 13 tumor samples and 13 peritumoral tissue samples were collected from oral squamous cell carcinoma patients and 10 normal tissue samples obtained from patients without tumor. The result showed that the protein and mRNA expression of survivin in carcinoma was the highest among three types of tissue; following was that in peritumoral tissue. No difference in caspase 3 zymogen between peritumoral tissue and normal tissue could be found, while it was evidently decreased in carcinoma tissue. Activated caspase 3 was detected in normal tissue but could not be identified in peritumoral or carcinoma tissue. Our results indicate that the expression of survivin is apparently elevated in tumoral and peritumoral tissue. Expression of activated caspase 3 was not detected in tumoral tissue and the expression of caspase 3 zymogen was decreased in tumoral tissue. Our findings suggest that survivin may inhibit both synthesis and activation of caspase 3, hence inhibiting cell apoptosis and facililitating eventual development of oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Clinical Implications of p57
Expression in Breast Cancer
Xu, Xiao-Yin ; Wang, Wen-Qian ; Zhang, Lei ; Li, Yi-Ming ; Tang, Miao ; Jiang, Nan ; Cai, Shou-Liang ; Wei, Liang ; Jin, Feng ; Chen, Bo ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5033~5036
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5033
Objective: To study the relationship between expression of
and prognosis and other clinicopathological parameters in invasive breast cancers. Methods: We assessed the expression of
in 89 cases of invasive breast cancer and 20 cases of normal breast tissue by immunohistochemical methods and analyzed the results with SPSS software (ver. 16.0). Result: The positive expression rates of
protein in the invasive breast cancers and surrounding normal tissue were 30.3% (27/89) and 65% (13/20), respectively. Cases with no
expression exhibited a significantly higher post-operative distant metastasis rate than those with
expression (37.9% vs. 14.8%; P = 0.01). DFS analysis showed that
-/C-erbB-2+ tumors also exhibited a significantly higher post-operative distant metastasis rate than the other groups (66.7% vs. 29.2%; P = 0.007), as did
-/p53+ tumors (64.3% vs. 22.7%; P = 0.001). Survival analysis revealed that
was associated with breast cancer-specific survival overall (P = 0.045, log-rank test). Subgroup analysis demonstrated that individuals with
-/C-erbB-2+tumors experienced significantly worse post-operative survival than those with
-/C-erbB-2- or other tumors (P = 0.006, log-rank test).
-/p53+ tumors were associated with significantly worse post-operative survival than
-/p53- or other tumors (P = 0.001, log-rank test). Cox regression analysis showed that
was a non-independent prognostic factor for breast cancer (P = 0.303). Conclusions:
is expressed at low levels in invasive breast cancer and is associated with better overall survival rate and disease-free survival in breast cancer patients, but it was a non-independent prognostic factor for breast cancer. Thus, the connection between
/C-erbB-2 may provide biomarkers for breast cancer.
Impact of Tobacco on Glutathione S Transferase Gene Loci of Indian Ethnics
Senthilkumar, K.P. ; Thirumurugan, Ramasamy ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5037~5042
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5037
Background: Tobacco contains agents which generate various potent DNA adducts that can cause gene mutations. Production of DNA adducts may be neutralized by glutathione S transferase (GST) along with other phase I and phase II enzyme systems. The existence of null type of GST among the population increases the susceptibility to various disorders and diseases. The present study focuses on the impact of high tobacco usage and possible null type mutation in GST loci. Methods: Genotypes of GST were detected by multiplex polymerase chain reaction in unrelated 504 volunteers of high tobacco using natives of Gujarat. Allelic frequencies were calculated using Statistical Package for Social Studies-16 software. Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) was calculated using Chi square test. Two sided Fisher's significance test was used to compare allelic frequencies of different populations. Results: The frequency of homozygous null genotype of GSTM1 and GSTT1 were 20% (95% CI 16.7-23.9) and 35.5% (95% CI 31.4-39.9) respectively. The GSTM1 and GSTT1 null allele frequency distribution in the Gujarat population was significantly deviating from HWE. GSTT1 null frequency of Gujaratians was significantly higher and different to all reported low tobacco using Indian ethnics, while GSTM1 was not differing significantly. Conclusion: Tobacco usage significantly influences the rate of mutation and frequency of GSTT1 and M1 null types among the habituates. The rate of mutation in GSTT1 loci was an undeviating response to the dose of tobacco usage among the population. This mutational impact of tobacco on GSTT1 postulates the possible gene - environment interaction and selection of null genotype among the subjects to prone them under susceptible status for various cancers and even worst to cure the population with GSTT1 dependent drugs.
Serum Zinc Status and Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Gastric Disease Patients
Zhang, Wen-Hua ; Wu, Xiao-Jing ; Niu, Jing-Xiu ; Yan, Hao ; Wang, Xin-Zhuo ; Yin, Xiao-Dong ; Pang, Yan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5043~5046
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5043
The role of Helicobacter pylori status and serum zinc value in gastric disease patients and healthy controls were investigated. Cases used in this work were 45 gastric cancer patients, 44 with peptic ulcers, 52 suffering gastritis and 64 healthy controls, all diagnosed histologically with the controls undergoing medical checkups. Helicobacter pylori status and serum levels of Zn were determined by 13C-urea breath test and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer, respectively. Our study showed that Helicobacter pylori infection has no change in gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric cancer group, on the contrast, serum levels of Zn were significantly reduced in gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric cancer group, compared with healthy controls, and the higher the Zn levels are, the more increased risk of gastric cancer. Helicobacter pylori infection is a cause of gastritis, peptic ulcers and even gastric cancer, while serum zinc level is an indicator of protection of gastric membranes against damage.
Estrogen Receptor and Progesterone Receptor Status in Breast Cancer in Relation to Age, Histological Grade, Size of Lesion and Lymph Node Involvement
Sofi, Gulam Nabi ; Sofi, Junaid Nabi ; Nadeem, Raja ; Shiekh, Rayees Yousuf ; Khan, Faroze Ahmad ; Sofi, Abid Ahmad ; Bhat, Hillal Ahmad ; Bhat, Rayees Ahmad ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5047~5052
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5047
Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy of women in Kashmir. This study was conducted with the objective of assessing hormone receptor positivity and its correlation with age at diagnosis, tumor size, histological grade and lymph node metastasis. Materials and Methods: 132 newly diagnosed cases of invasive breast cancer diagnosed at the Department of Pathology, SKIMS, Srinagar, J&K, were included after excluding biopsies, in-situ lesions and recurrence cases. Results: Mean age of the patients was 48.2 years, 59.1% being
years of age. Mean duration of symptoms was 6.32 months. Most lesions (65.1%) were 2-5 cm and 16.7% were
cm in greatest dimension. The predominant (80.3%) morphology was IDC-NOS. The majority of the cases presented as grade II (52.1%) lesions and lymph node involvement was present in 65.2%. ER and PR were positive in 66.3% and 63.4% cases, respectively, increasing with rising age. High grade lesions and larger size tumors were more likely to be ER and PR negative. No correlation was found between ER/PR status and lymph node metastasis. Conclusions: ER and PR expression in breast cancers in the current study was found to be higher than studies done in India/Asia but lower than studies conducted in the West, even on Indian/Asian immigrants. Markedly lower receptor expression in Indian/Asian studies is likely due to preanalytic variables, thresholds for positivity, and interpretation criteria. American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists Guideline Recommendations for Immunohistochemical Testing of Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors in Breast Cancer are strongly advocated for standardization of receptor evaluation and for clinical management of breast cancer patients to provide best therapeutic options.
Epidemiologic and Socioeconomic Status of Bladder Cancer in Mazandaran province, Northern Iran
Ahmadi, Mohammad ; Ranjbaran, Hossein ; Amiri, Marzeih Momeninejad ; Nozari, Jamshid ; Mirzajani, Mohammad Reza ; Azadbakht, Mohammad ; Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5053~5056
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5053
Background: Bladder cancer is one the most common malignancies of the genitourinary tract. The present study aimed to assess the epidemiology, of bladder cancer in Mazandaran, a large province in northern Iran as high-incidence cancer area, during a 2-year period. Methods: The data for this study were obtained from the population-based cancer registry of the Vice-Chancellory for Health Affairs of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences and Mazandaran hospitals between March 1, 2010 and March 1, 2011. Demographic data, including sex, age, residency and symptoms were investigated through careful review of medical records. Using a questionnaire protocol, several variables were assessed for these cases such as smoking, history of opium, vegetable consumption habits, and history of other cancers. Results: A total of 112 cases were analyzed, 98 (87.5%) in men and 14 (12.5%) in women (mean age of
years). Urban and rural residence were 60.7% and 39.3%. Tobacco and opium use were found in 45.5% and 21.4% of patients, respectively. Approximately 60% consumed vegetables an average of fewer than one time per day. Hematuria was the first symptom in these cases which were mainly diagnosed as having bladder cancer by ultrasonography. Conclusion: The results showed that bladder cancer tends to be found in the elderly and the male to female ratio is high. Macroscopic hematuria is a very important symptom for indicating probably urothelial tumor that should be followed up patients with transabdominal ultrasonography as a routine modality.
Factors Potentially Associated with Chemotherapy-induced Anemia in Patients with Solid Cancers
Cheng, Ke ; Zhao, Feng ; Gao, Feng ; Dong, Hang ; Men, Hai-Tao ; Chen, Ye ; Li, Long-Hao ; Ge, Jun ; Tang, Jie ; Ding, Jing ; Chen, Xin ; Du, Yang ; Luo, Wu-Xia ; Liu, Ji-Yan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5057~5061
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5057
Purpose: Chemotherapy-induced anemia (CIA) is one of the most important causes of anemia in cancer patients. This study was conducted to describe the prevalence and characteristics of CIA in solid cancer patients in the Chinese population, and to explore the relationship of white blood cell (WBC) or platelet decrease with CIA. Methods: Data on age, gender, tumor diagnosis, anti-cancer treatment and blood cell analyses were available from 220 untreated non-anemic cancer patients who received at least 2 cycles of chemotherapy, and the data were analyzed to assess their relationship with CIA or its severity. Results: 139 patients (63.2%) presented anemia, most being Grade 1 or 2. Esophageal and lung cancers were associated with a high prevalence. G3/4 leucopenia and decrease of platelets were identified as independent risk factors for the occurrence of CIA. Moreover, G3/4 leucopenia, decrease of platelet and G3/4 thrombocytopenia were found to be also associated with the severity of CIA. Cisplatin-containing regimens were a main potential factor in causing CIA, although significant association was only found on univariate analysis. Conclusion: Anemia or decrease in hematoglobin are common in Chinese cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Cisplatin-containing regimens might be an important factor influencing the occurrence of CIA. Our analysis firstly described some risk factors, such as decrease of platelets or WBCs, severity of leucopenia or thrombocytopenia, associated with the occurrence and severity of CIA.
Synaptic Vesicle Protein 2 (SV2) Isoforms
Bandala, Cindy ; Miliar-Garcia, A. ; Mejia-Barradas, C.M. ; Anaya-Ruiz, M. ; Luna-Arias, J.P. ; Bazan-Mendez, C.I. ; Gomez-Lopez, M. ; Juarez-Mendez, S. ; Lara-Padilla, E. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5063~5067
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5063
New molecular markers of cancer had emerged with novel applications in cancer prevention and therapeutics, including for breast cancer of unknown causes, which has a high impact on the health of women worldwide. The purpose of this research was to detemine protein and mRNA expression of synaptic vesicle 2 (SV2) isoforms A, B and C in breast cancer cell lines. Cultured cell lines MDA-MB-231, SKBR3, T47D were lysed and their protein and mRNA expression analyzed by real-time PCR and western blot technique, respectively. SV2A, B proteins were identified in non-tumor (MCF-10A) and tumor cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and T47D) while SV2C only was found in the T47D cell line. Furthermore, the genomic expression was consistent with protein expression for a such cell line, but in MDA-MB-231 there was no SV2B genomic expression, and the SV2C mRNA and protein were not found in the non tumoral cell line. These findings suggest a possible cellular transdifferentiation to neural character in breast cancer, of possible relevance to cancer development, and point to possible use of SV2 as molecular marker and a vehicle for cancer treatment with botulinum toxin.
Relationships among MTHFR a1298c Gene Polymorphisms and Methylation Status of Dact1 Gene in Transitional Cell Carcinomas
Cheng, Huan ; Lu, Meng ; Mao, Li-Jun ; Wang, Jun-Qi ; Li, Wang ; Wen, Ru-Min ; Chen, Jia-Cun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5069~5074
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5069
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between methylation status of the Dact1 gene and MTHFR a1298c polymorphic forms in transitional cell carcinoma tissues in a Chinese population. Methods: Polymorphisms of folate metabolism enzyme gene MTHFR were assessed by restrictive fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) methods and PCR-based DNA methylation analysis was used to determine the CpG island methylation status of the Dact1 gene. Associations between the methylation status of the Dact1 gene and clinical characteristics, as well as MTHFR a1298c polymorphisms, were analyzed. Results: aberrant methylation of the Dact1 gene was found in 68.3% of cancer tissues and 12.4% of normal tissues,. The methylation rate of the Dact1 gene in cancer tissues was significantly higher in patients with lymph node metastasis than in those without lymph node metastasis (46.3% vs. 17.2%, P = 0.018). No association was found between aberrant DNA methylation and selected factors including sex, age, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and green tea consumption. After adjusting for potential confounding variables, variant allele of MTHFR a1298c was found to be associated with methylation of the Dact1 gene. Compared with wild type CC, the odds ratio was 4.33 (95% CI: 1.06-10.59) for AC and 4.95 (95% CI: 1.18-12.74) for AA. The N stage in TNM staging and the occurrence of lymph node metastasis were associated with an MTHFR 1298 AA+AC genotype (P<0.05). Conclusion: MTHFR 1298 AC and AA genotypes might help maintain a normal methylation status of the Dact1 gene, aberrant CpG island methylation of which is closely related to the genesis and progression of transitional cell carcinoma.
Lack of Association Between Interleukin-8-251 T>A Polymorphism and Colorectal Cancer Risk: a Meta-analysis based on 3,019 Cases and 3,984 Controls
Hu, Li-Xia ; Du, Ying-Ying ; Zhang, Ying ; Pan, Yue-Yin ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5075~5079
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5075
Purpose: The results of recent published studies focusing on IL-8 polymorphism in colorectal cancer susceptibility have often been inconsistent. We therefore carried out a meta-analysis based on independent studies to assess the association. Methods: Nine case-control studies with 7,003 individuals (3,019 cases and 3,984 controls) were included in this meta-analysis through searching the databases of PubMed, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM; Chinese) (up to Aug 1st, 2012). The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were used to assess the strength of the association. Meta-analysis was conducted in a fixed/random effect model. Results: No obvious associations were found for all genetic models when all studies were pooled into the meta-analysis (for A vs. T: OR = 1.084, 95% CI = 0.971-1.209, P = 0.019; for TA vs. TT: OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 0.943-1.475, P = 0.001; for AA vs. TT: OR = 1.155, 95% CI = 0.916-1.456, P = 0.014; for AA+TA vs. TT: OR = 1.170, 95% CI =0.953-1.437, P = 0.001; for AA vs. TT+TA: OR = 1.044, 95% CI = 0.886-1.230, P = 0.097). In the subgroup analyses by ethnicity (Caucasian) and source of controls (population based), also no significant associations were found for all genetic models. Conclusions: Result suggests that the IL-8-251T>A polymorphism is not associated with colorectal cancer risk. Because of the limitations of this meta-analysis, this finding demands further investigation.
Clinical Characteristics and Survival Analysis of Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes with Hepatic Metastases
Ge, Qi-Dong ; Lv, Ning ; Kong, Ya-Nan ; Xie, Xin-Hua ; He, Ni ; Xie, Xiao-Ming ; Wei, Wei-Dong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5081~5086
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5081
Background: The liver is one of the most common metastatic sites of breast cancer, hepatic metastases developing in 6%-25% of patients with breast cancer and being associated with a poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to analyze the survival and clinical characteristics of patients with hepatic metastases from breast cancer of different molecular subtypes and to investigate the prognostic and predictive factors that effect clinical outcome. Methods: We retrospectively studied the charts of 104 patients with breast cancer hepatic metastases diagnosed at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center from December 1990 to June 2009. Subtypes were defined as luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) enriched, triple-negative (TN). Prognostic factor correlations with clinical features and treatment approaches were assessed at the diagnosis of hepatic metastases. Results: The median survival time was 16.0 months, and the one-, two- three-, four-, five-year survival rates were 63.5%, 31.7%, 15.6%, 10.8%, and 5.4%, respectively. Median survival periods after hepatic metastases were 19.3 months (luminal A), 13.3 months (luminal B), 18.9 months (HER2-enriched), and 16.1 months (TN, P=0.11). In multivariate analysis, a 2 year-interval from initial diagnosis to hepatic metastasis, treatment with endocrine therapy, and surgery were independent prognostic factors. Endocrine therapy could improve the survival of luminal subtypes (P=0.004) and was a favorable prognostic factor (median survival 23.4 months vs. 13.8 months, respectively, P=0.011). Luminal A group of patients treated with endocrine therapy did significantly better than the Luminal A group of patients treated without endocrine therapy (median survival of 48.9 vs. 13.8 months, P=0.003). Conclusions: Breast cancer subtypes were not associated with survival after hepatic metastases. Endocrine therapy was a significantly favorable treatment for patients with luminal subtype.
Risk Factors for Oral Cancer in Northeast Thailand
Loyha, Kulchaya ; Vatanasapt, Patravoot ; Promthet, Supannee ; Parkin, Donald Maxwell ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5087~5090
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5087
Oral cancer is a common site of head and neck cancer, and is relatively frequent in Northeast Thailand. The objective of this hospital-based, case-control study was to determine associations with risk factors. A total of 104 oral cancer cases diagnosed between July 2010 and April 2011 in 3 hospitals were matched with control subjects by age, sex and hospital. Data were collected by personal interview. There were significant associations between oral cancer and tobacco smoking (OR=4.47; 95%CI=2.00 to 9.99), alcohol use among women (OR=4.16; 95%CI=1.70 to 10.69), and betel chewing (OR=9.01; 95%CI=3.83 to 21.22), and all three showed dose-response effects. Smoking is rare among Thai women (none of the control women were smokers), but betel chewing, especially among older women, is relatively common. We did not find any association between practicing oral sex and oral cancer.
ABO and Rh Blood Groups in Relation to Ovarian, Endometrial and Cervical Cancer Risk Among The Population of South-East Siberia
Yuzhalin, Arseniy E. ; Kutikhin, Anton G. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5091~5096
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5091
Background: There is a large amount of evidence that the ABO blood group system may play a role in disease etiology. A relationship between ABO and Rhesus blood groups and cancer risk has been demonstrated in a number of studies. However, in relation to gynecological malignancies, these findings are inconsistent and contradictory. Aim: To perform a case-control study for analysis of the distribution of ABO and Rh blood antigens among women from South-East Siberia who suffered from ovarian, endometrial and cervical cancer, and to assess the potential role of these antigens in carcinogenesis. Design, Subjects and Methods: A total of 1,163 cases with ovarian cancer (n=551), endometrial cancer (n=440) and cervical cancer (n=172) were involved in the study. The control group was formed from 22,581 female blood donors. Blood groups were determined through patients medical records and blood donor records. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. The blood group O was defined as the referent group, as it has the greatest frequency in the populations of Southern Siberia. P values less than 0.05 were regarded as statistically significant. Results: We found that carriage of non-O blood types increased the risk of ovarian cancer by 40-60%, and the magnitude of this relationship was strongest in women with the AB (IV) blood group. Carriage of the A (II) blood group strongly correlated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer in premenopausal, but not in postmenopausal women. No statistically significant correlations were obtained for endometrial cancer and cervical cancer. Additionally, we did not observe a relationship between Rhesus factor and cancer risk. Conclusion: We suggest that carriage of non-O blood groups may elevate risk of ovarian cancer and can play a role in its development.
Association of Type II Diabetes Mellitus with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Occurrence - a Case Control Study from Kathmandu Valley
Jha, Dipendra Kumar ; Mittal, Ankush ; Gupta, Satrudhan Pd. ; Pandeya, Dipendra Raj ; Sathian, Brijesh ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5097~5099
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5097
Objective: To assess associations of Type II DM with hepatocellular carcinoma occurrence in Nepal. Materials and Methods: This case control study was carried out using data retrieved from the register maintained in the Department of Biochemistry of Nepalese Army Institute of Health Sciences between 1st January, 2012, and 31st August, 2012. The variables collected were age, gender, HbA1c. All biochemical parameters were analyzed in the Central Laboratory of our hospital by standard validated methods. One way ANOVA was used to examine the statistical significant difference between groups with the LSD post-hoc test for comparison of means of case groups. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated using simple logistic-regression analysis. Results: Etiological factors for HCC were HBV, HCV, alcohol and cryptogenic cirrhosis. The highest age group belonged to the etiological category of HCV with a mean of
(CI 69.3, 74.5) years and the lowest age group to the etiological category of HBV with
(CI 57.9, 65.5) years. The main imperative basis of HCC in present study was HCV (39.5%) and second most significant cause of HCC was alcohol (26%). Glycated hemoglobin was found to be more in males with HCC (7.9%) as compared to females (7.3%). The percentage of Type II diabetes mellitus was greater in HCC patients when compared to controls. This difference was statistically significant with an odd ratio of 4.63 (p<0.001). Conclusion: Type II DM influences incidence, risk of recurrence, overall survival, and treatment-related complications in HCC patients.
Colon Cancer Prevention by Detection of APC Gene Mutation in a Family with Attenuated Familial Adenomatous Polyposis
Poovorawan, Kittiyod ; Suksawatamnuay, Sirinporn ; Sahakitrungruang, Chucheep ; Treeprasertsuk, Sombat ; Wisedopas, Naruemon ; Komolmit, Piyawat ; Poovorawan, Yong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5101~5104
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5101
Background: Genetic mutation is a significant factor in colon CA pathogenesis. Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant hereditary disease characterized by multiple colorectal adenomatous polyps affecting a number of cases in the family. This report focuses on a family with attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis (AFAP) with exon 4 mutation, c.481C>T p.Q161X of the APC gene. Methods: We analyzed 20 members of a family with AFAP. Clinical and endoscopic data were collected for phenotype determination. Genetic analysis was also performed by direct sequencing of the APC gene. Result: Five patients with a phenotype of AFAP were found. Endoscopic polyposis was demonstrated among the second generation with genotype mutation of the disease (age > 50 years) consistent with delayed phenotypic adenomatous polyposis in AFAP. APC gene mutation was identified in exon 4 of the APC gene, with mutation points of c.481C>T p.Q161X. Laparoscopic subtotal colectomy was performed to prevent carcinogenesis. Conclusion: A family with attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis of APC related to exon 4 mutation, c.481C>T p.Q161X, was reported and the phenotypic finding was confirmed by endoscopic examination. Genetic mutation analysis might be advantageous in AFAP for long term colon cancer prevention and management due to subtle or asymptomatic phenotype presentation in early adulthood.
Menopausal Status Modifies Breast Cancer Risk Associated with ESR1 PvuII and XbaI Polymorphisms in Asian Women: a HuGE Review and Meta-analysis
Li, Li-Wen ; Xu, Lei ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5105~5111
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5105
Background: Published data on the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ESR1 gene and breast cancer susceptibility are inconclusive or controversial. The aim of this Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) review and meta-analysis was to derive a more precise estimation of this relationship. Methods: A literature search of Pubmed, Embase, Web of science and CBM databases was conducted from inception through September 1th, 2012. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of association. Results: A total of five studies including 1,678 breast cancer cases and 1,678 general population controls in Asian populations were involved in this meta-analysis. When all the eligible studies were pooled into the meta-analysis, the higher transcriptional activity variant allele T of ESR1 PvuII (C>T) (rs2234693) in pre-menopausal breast cancer women showed a significant relation to increased risk (OR = 1.13, 95%CI: 1.01-1.28, P = 0.040) in contrast to their post-menopausal counterparts which showed non-significant increased risk (OR = 1.01, 95%CI: 0.87-1.18, P = 0.858). Nevertheless, no significant association between ESR1 XbaI (A>G) (rs9340799) polymorphism and the risk of breast cancer was observed in pre-menopausal and post-menopausal individuals. Conclusion: Based on a homogeneous Asian population, results from the current meta-analysis indicates that the ESR1 PvuII (C>T) polymorphism places pre-menopausal breast cancer women at risk for breast cancer, while ESR1 XbaI (A>G) polymorphism is not likely to predict the risk of breast cancer.
Mutational Analysis of Prohibitin - A Highly Conserved Gene in Indian Female Breast Cancer Cases
Najm, Mohammad Zeeshan ; Akhtar, Md. Salman ; Ahmad, Istaq ; Sadaf, Sadaf ; Mallick, Mohd Nasar ; Kausar, Mohd Adnan ; Chattopadhyay, Shilpi ; Ahad, Amjid ; Zaidi, Shuaib ; Husain, Syed Akhtar ; Siddiqui, Waseem Ahmad ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5113~5117
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5113
Prohibitin (PHB) is a chaperone protein which is highly conserved evolutionarily. It shows significant homology with the Drosophila cc gene which is considered important for development and differentiation of Drosophila melanogaster. Investigations have revealed an involvement of PHB in cellular proliferation and development, apoptosis, signal transduction, mitochondrial function and regulation of the estrogen and androgen receptors. Therefore, we conducted the present study to analyze mutations in the highly conserved region in Indian female breast cancer patients. Conventional PCR-SSCP and Automated DNA sequencing were performed with a total of 105 breast cancer samples along with adjacent normal tissue. Of the total, 14.2% (15/105) demonstrated a mutation status of prohibitin observed in our study population. We identified a novel missense mutation (Thr>Ser), a novel deletion of T nucleotide in an intron adjacent to intron-exon boundary and a previously determined missense mutation (Val>Ala). A statistically significant correlation was obtained which suggested that prohibitin may be associated with tumor development and/or progression of at least some proportion of breast cancers.
Gemcitabine Plus Paclitaxel as Second-line Chemotherapy in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Baykara, Meltem ; Coskun, Ugur ; Berk, Veli ; Ozkan, Metin ; Kaplan, Muhammet Ali ; Benekli, Mustafa ; Karaca, Halit ; Inanc, Mevlude ; Isikdogan, Abdurrahman ; Sevinc, Alper ; Elkiran, Emin Tamer ; Demirci, Umut ; Buyukberber, Suleyman ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5119~5124
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5119
Purpose: The aim of this retrospective study was to determine response rates, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and toxicity of gemcitabine and paclitaxel combinations with advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer patients (NSCLC) who have progressive disease after platinum-based first-line chemotherapy. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the file records of patients treated with gemcitabine plus paclitaxel in advanced or metastatic NSCLC cases in a second-line setting. The chemotherapy schedule was as follows: gemcitabine
and paclitaxel 150 mg/m2 administered every two weeks. Results: Forty-eight patients (45 male, 3 female) were evaluated; stage IIIB/IV 6/42; PS0, 8.3%, PS1, 72.9%, PS2, 18.8%; median age, 56 years old (range 38-76). Six (12.5%) patients showed a partial response (PR), 13 (27.1%) stable disease (SD), and 27 (56.3%) progressive disease (PD). The median OS was 6.63 months (95% CI 4.0-9.2); the median PFS was 2.7 months (95% CI 1.8-3.6). Grade 3 and 4 hematologic toxicities, including neutropenia (n=4, 8.4%), and anemia (n=3, 6.3%) were encountered, but no grade 3 or 4 thrombocytopenia. One patient developed febrile neutropenia. There were no interruption for reasons of toxicity and no exitus related to therapy. Conclusion: The combination of two-weekly gemcitabine plus paclitaxel was an effective and well-tolerated second-line chemotherapy regimen for advanced or metastatic NSCLC patients previously treated with platinum-containing chemotherapy. Although the most common and dose limiting toxicities were neutropenia and neuropathy, this regimen was tolerated well by the patients.
Markov's Modeling for Screening Strategies for Colorectal Cancer
Barouni, Mohsen ; Larizadeh, Mohammad Hassan ; Sabermahani, Asma ; Ghaderi, Hossien ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5125~5129
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5125
Economic decision models are being increasingly used to assess medical interventions. Advances in this field are mainly due to enhanced processing capacity of computers, availability of specific software to perform the necessary tasks, and refined mathematical techniques. We here estimated the incremental cost-effectiveness of ten strategies for colon cancer screening, as well as no screening, incorporating quality of life, noncompliance and data on the costs and profit of chemotherapy in Iran. We used a Markov model to measure the costs and quality-adjusted life expectancy of a 50-year-old average-risk Iranian without screening and with screening by each test. In this paper, we tested the model with data from the Ministry of Health and published literature. We considered costs from the perspective of a health insurance organization, with inflation to 2011, the Iranian Rial being converted into US dollars. We focused on three tests for the 10 strategies considered currently being used for population screening in some Iranians provinces (Kerman, Golestan Mazandaran, Ardabil, and Tehran): low-sensitivity guaiac fecal occult blood test, performed annually; fecal immunochemical test, performed annually; and colonoscopy, performed every 10 years. These strategies reduced the incidence of colorectal cancer by 39%, 60% and 76%, and mortality by 50%, 69% and 78%, respectively, compared with no screening. These approaches generated ICER (incremental cost-effectiveness ratios) of $9067, $654 and $8700 per QALY (quality-adjusted life year), respectively. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the influence of various scales on the economic evaluation of screening. The results were sensitive to probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Colonoscopy every ten years yielded the greatest net health value. Screening for colon cancer is economical and cost-effective over conventional levels of WTP8.
Apoptosis Induction, Cell Cycle Arrest and in Vitro Anticancer Activity of Gonothalamin in a Cancer Cell Lines
Alabsi, Aied M. ; Ali, Rola ; Ali, Abdul Manaf ; Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman ; Harun, Hazlan ; Kasim, Noor H. Abu ; Alsalahi, Abdulsamad ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5131~5136
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5131
Cancer is one of the major health problems worldwide and its current treatments have a number of undesired adverse side effects. Natural compounds may reduce these. Currently, a few plant products are being used to treat cancer. In this study, goniothalamin, a natural occurring styryl-lactone extracted from Goniothalamus macrophyllus, was investigated for cytotoxic properties against cervical cancer (HeLa), breast carcinoma (MCF-7) and colon cancer (HT29) cells as well as normal mouse fibroblast (3T3) using MTT assay. Fluorescence microscopy showed that GTN is able to induce apoptosis in HeLa cells in a time dependent manner. Flow cytometry further revealed HeLa cells treated with GTN to be arrested in the S phase. Phosphatidyl serine properties present during apoptosis enable early detection of the apoptosis in the cells. Using annexin V/PI double staining it could be shown that GTN induces early apoptosis on HeLa cells after 24, 48 and 72 h. It could be concluded that goniothalamin showing a promising cytotoxicity effect against several cancer cell lines including cervical cancer cells (HeLa) with apoptosis as the mode of cell death induced on HeLa cells by Goniothalamin was.
UHRF2 mRNA Expression is Low in Malignant Glioma but Silencing Inhibits the Growth of U251 Glioma Cells in vitro
Wu, Ting-Feng ; Zhang, Wei ; Su, Zuo-Peng ; Chen, San-Song ; Chen, Gui-Lin ; Wei, Yong-Xin ; Sun, Ting ; Xie, Xue-Shun ; Li, Bin ; Zhou, You-Xin ; Du, Zi-Wei ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5137~5142
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5137
UHRF2 is a member of the ubiquitin plant homeo domain RING finger family, which has been proven to be frequently up-regulated in colorectal cancer cells and play a role as an oncogene in breast cancer cells. However, the role of UHRF2 in glioma cells remains unclear. In this study, we performed real-time quantitative PCR on 32 pathologically confirmed glioma samples (grade I, 4 cases; grade II, 11 cases; grade III, 10 cases; and grade IV, 7 cases; according to the 2007 WHO classification system) and four glioma cell lines (A172, U251, U373, and U87). The expression of UHRF2 mRNA was significantly lower in the grade III and grade IV groups compared with the noncancerous brain tissue group, whereas its expression was high in A172, U251, and U373 glioma cell lines. An in vitro assay was performed to investigate the functions of UHRF2. Using a lentivirus-based RNA interference (RNAi) approach, we down-regulated UHRF2 expression in the U251 glioma cell line. This down-regulation led to the inhibition of cell proliferation, an increase in cell apoptosis, and a change of cell cycle distribution, in which S stage cells decreased and G2/M stage cells increased. Our results suggest that UHRF2 may be closely related to tumorigenesis and the development of gliomas.
Use of Oral Antidiabetic Drugs (Metformin and Pioglitazone) in Diabetic Patients with Breast Cancer: How Does It Effect on Serum Hif-1 Alpha and 8Ohdg Levels?
Ece, Harman ; Cigdem, Erten ; Yuksel, Kucukzeybek ; Ahmet, Dirican ; Hakan, Er ; Oktay, Tarhan Mustafa ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5143~5148
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5143
Objective: The aim was to investigate indicators related to DNA damage and cancer pathogenesis in Type II diabetes cases with breast cancer. It was planned to evaluate the relationship between these markers with oral antidiabetic drugs. Research Design and Methods: Fourty patients and 10 healthy individuals were included in the study. HIF-
and 8-OHdG are examined in blood samples taken from these individuals with an ELISA Kit. Statistical analysis of data was performed with 95% confidence using Windows package program SPSS 15.0. Results: HIF-
parameters were found to be meaningfully higher in the patient group than the controls in both pretreatment and posttreatment periods (p<0.05). No significant differences in terms of 8-OHdG between patients and controls. However, posttreatment serum HIF-
ve 8-OHdG levels was found lower than pretreatment levels in patients receiving metformin, but not with pioglitazone. Conversely, serum 8-OHdG levels decreased significantly in these patients. When patients were evaluated according to the treatment groups (pioglitazone vs. metfformin) no significant differences in terms of serum HIF-
and 8-OHdG levels between treatment groups. Conclusions: HIF-
levels decreased significantly in the patient group receiving metformin. However, there was no significant difference in terms of HIF-
levels in the patients receiving pioglitazone.
Aberrant Expression of E-cadherin in Lung Tissues of Patients with Probable Lung Cancer
Yuan, Yu-Lin ; Wang, Yu-Ming ; Liu, Hua ; Qin, Gui-Fang ; Tang, Ai-Guo ; Duan, Yong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5149~5153
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5149
Introduction: This study assessed the relationship of E-cadherin mRNA and protein expression with the diagnosis of lung cancer with the aim of providing an auxiliary diagnostic method. Methods: Semi-quantitative nested RT-PCR and western blotting were applied to detect E-cadherin mRNA transcripts and protein, respectively, in 30 cases of diagnostic lung cancer, 30 cases of clinically suspected patients with lung cancer and 30 cases of other disease. Immunohistochemical staining was also used to detect E-cadherin. Results: Remarkably decreased levels of relative E-cadherin mRNA value and increased E-cadherin protein negativity were observed in probable lung cancer, when compared with possible lung cancer and others. With a threshold of 1.45, relative E-cadherin mRNA value showed a sensitivity of 90% and a specifity of 83% for the diagnosis of lung cancer. The combination of decreased relative E-cadherin mRNA value and negative E-cadherin protein increased the specificity and sensitivity. Conclusion: These data suggest that Chinese patients with diagnostic lung cancer have similar decreased levels of relative E-cadherin mRNA and E-cadherin protein value in the lung cancer tissues as in lung cancer patients in other countries. Measurement of relative E-cadherin mRNA and protein values in lung cancer tissues has potential for lung cancer diagnosis.
Expression of Ki67 and CD105 as Proliferation and Angiogenesis Markers in Salivary Gland Tumors
Tadbir, Azadeh Andisheh ; Pardis, Soheil ; Ashkavandi, Zohreh Jafari ; Najvani, Ali Dehghani ; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad ; Taheri, Ali ; Zadeh, Maryam Asad ; Sardari, Yasaman ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5155~5159
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5155
Objective: To investigate the association between CD105 and tumor cell proliferation in salivary gland tumors. Methods: In this study, 59 samples of salivary tumors from Khalili Hospital archive, including 20 cases of pleomorphic adenoma (PA), 20 cases of mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) and 19 cases of adenoid cystic carcinoma, as well as 10 cases of normal salivary gland tissue, were reviewed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for CD105 and Ki67 staining. Results: CD105 positive vessels were absent in normal salivary gland tissue in the vicinity of tumors (51.6% of all tumors were positive). There was a statistically significant difference in frequency of CD105 staining between PA and malignant tumors and between four groups of different lesions (p<0.000) being highest in MEC. Intratumoral microvessel density was also elevated in malignant neoplasms (
) as compared to PA (
). Normal salivary glands did not express Ki67. There was a statistically significant difference in frequency and percentage of Ki67 immunoreactivity in malignant neoplasms (86.5% and
respectively) compared to PA (50% and
) and among the four groups values were highest in MEC (p<0.000). Conclusion: n this study, it was observed a higher rate of angiogenesis and cellular proliferation was noted in malignant tumors compared to benign tumors, but no correlation was observed between these two markers.
Expression of Smad7 in Cholangiocarcinoma: Prognostic Significance and Implications for Tumor Metastasis
Huang, Qiang ; Liu, Lei ; Liu, Chen-Hai ; Shao, Feng ; Xie, Fang ; Zhang, Chuan-Hai ; Hu, San-Yuan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5161~5165
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5161
Background: There are few molecular markers known to predict cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) prognosis. Smad7 has a certain relationship with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), but its relevance to CCA in unclear. Therefore expression and clinical significance of Smad7 in CCA was the focus of this study. Methods: Expression of Smad7, E-cadherin and vimentin was assessed in 41 patients with CCA by immunohistochemistry and analyzed for associations with clinical parameters. Results: Smad7 and vimentin expression in the CCA tissue was dramatically higher than that in adjacent tissues. In addition, Smad7, vimentin and E-cadherin expression was significantly associated with CCA lymph node metastasis and perineural invasion(
), but not other factors, such as gender, age, tumor location, tumor type and tumor differentiation degree (P>0.05). The overall survival and relapse-free survival rate was significantly higher in patients with negative Smad7 expression than those with positive Smad7 expression. Conclusion: EMT phenomena may occur in the process of CCA invasion and metastasis. Smad7, which was highly expressed in CCA, may be considered to be one feedback regulator in late stages and could have potential as a prognostic indicator for clinical assessment.
Aflatoxin Contamination of Red Chili Pepper From Bolivia and Peru, Countries with High Gallbladder Cancer Incidence Rates
Asai, Takao ; Tsuchiya, Yasuo ; Okano, Kiyoshi ; Piscoya, Alejandro ; Nishi, Carlos Yoshito ; Ikoma, Toshikazu ; Oyama, Tomizo ; Ikegami, Kikuo ; Yamamoto, Masaharu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5167~5170
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5167
Chilean red chili peppers contaminated with aflatoxins were reported in a previous study. If the development of gallbladder cancer (GBC) in Chile is associated with a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers, such peppers from other countries having a high GBC incidence rate may also be contaminated with aflatoxins. We aimed to determine whether this might be the case for red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru. A total of 7 samples (3 from Bolivia, 4 from Peru) and 3 controls (2 from China, 1 from Japan) were evaluated. Aflatoxins were extracted with acetonitrile:water (9:1, v/v) and eluted through an immuno-affinity column. The concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and then the detected aflatoxins were identified using HPLC-mass spectrometry. In some but not all of the samples from Bolivia and Peru, aflatoxin B1 or aflatoxins B1 and B2 were detected. In particular, aflatoxin B1 or total aflatoxin concentrations in a Bolivian samples were above the maximum levels for aflatoxins in spices proposed by the European Commission. Red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru consumed by populations having high GBC incidence rates would appear to be contaminated with aflatoxins. These data suggest the possibility that a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers is related to the development of GBC, and the association between the two should be confirmed by a case-control study.
Ten Year Literature on Psychological and Behavioral Interventions Against Cancer: a Terms Analysis
Feng, Rui ; Chai, Jing ; Wang, De-Bin ; Xia, Yi ; Cheng, Peng-Lai ; Dai, Zhao-Yang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5171~5176
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5171
We here performed a systematic review of PBIC literature using terms analysis in a hope of both identifying potential trends and patterns and exploring methods leveraging traditional literature reviews in this specific area. Articles meeting inclusion criteria were retrieved from PUBMED and translated into dichotomized article records representing presence or non-presence of MeSH terms and a metric consisting of numbers of times of co-occurrence between all pairs of terms identified using a self-designed program. The occurrence of and relations among the terms were calculated and visualized using Excel2007 and UCINET respectively. A total of 1,742 terms were identified from 997 articles retrieved. Put in a descending order, the lines representing the times of term occurrence formed a typical hyperbolic curve; when plotted along the x-axis of whole MESH terms, the lines clustered within four specific regions. Comparison of term occurrence between 2002 and 2011 revealed priority changes in population and subjects (from general groups to priority groups), intervention approaches (from medicine to exercise and psychotherapy), methodology and techniques (from cohort studies to randomized controlled trials) and outcomes (from health and mental health to quality of life, depression etc.). Networks of the terms featured a number of closely linked groups of topics including method and questionnaires, therapy and outcomes, survival management, psychological assessment and intervention, behavioral intervention (individual and community oriented). Terms analysis revealed interesting trends and patterns about PBIC publications and both the analysis methods and findings have implications for future research and literature reviews.
Comparison of the Efficacy and Safety of EFGR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Monotherapy with Standard Second-line Chemotherapy in Previously Treated Advanced Non-small-cell Lung Cancer: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Qi, Wei-Xiang ; Shen, Zan ; Lin, Feng ; Sun, Yuan-Jue ; Min, Da-Liu ; Tang, Li-Na ; He, Ai-Na ; Yao, Yang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5177~5182
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5177
Purpose: To compare the efficacy and safety of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitormonotherapy (EFGR-TKIs: gefitinib or erlotinib) with standard second-line chemotherapy (single agent docetaxel or pemetrexed) in previously treated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: We systematically searched for randomized clinical trials that compared EGFR-TKI monotherapy with standard second-line chemotherapy in previously treated advanced NSCLC. The end points were overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rate (ORR), 1-year survival rate (1-year SR) and grade 3 or 4 toxicities. The pooled hazard ratio (HR) or risk ratio (RR), with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated employing fixed- or random-effects models depending on the heterogeneity of the included trials. Results: Eight randomized controlled trials (totally 3218 patients) were eligible. Our meta-analysis results showed that EGFR-TKIs were comparable to standard second-line chemotherapy for advanced NSCLC in terms of overall survival (HR 1.00, 95%CI 0.92-1.10; p=0.943), progression-free survival (HR 0.90, 95%CI 0.75-1.08, P=0.258) and 1-year-survival rate (RR 0.97, 95%CI 0.87-1.08, P=0.619), and the overall response rate was higher in patients who receiving EGFR-TKIs(RR 1.50, 95%CI 1.22-1.83, P=0.000). Sub-group analysis demonstrated that EGFR-TKI monotherapy significantly improved PFS (HR 0.73, 95%CI: 0.55-0.97, p=0.03) and ORR (RR 1.96, 95%CI: 1.46-2.63, p=0.000) in East Asian patients, but it did not translate into increase in OS and 1-year SR. Furthermore, there were fewer incidences of grade 3 or 4 neutropenia, febrile neutropenia and neutrotoxicity in EGFR-TKI monotherapy group, excluding grade 3 or 4 rash. Conclusion: Both interventions had comparable efficacy as second-line treatments for patients with advanced NSCLC, and EGFR-TKI monotherapy was associated with less toxicity and better tolerability. Moreover, our data also demonstrated that EGFR-TKImonotherapy tended to be more effective in East Asian patients in terms of PFS and ORR compared with standard second-line chemotherapy. These results should help inform decisions about patient management and design of future trials.
Colorectal Cancer Risk Factors among the Population of South-East Siberia: A Case-Control Study
Zhivotovskiy, Alexey S. ; Kutikhin, Anton G. ; Azanov, Artur Z. ; Yuzhalin, Arseniy E. ; Magarill, Yuri A. ; Brusina, Elena B. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5183~5188
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5183
Colorectal cancer remains one of the most widespread malignancies in the world. However, there is a lack of comprehensive studies considering colorectal cancer risk factors among Russian populations, particularly in Siberia. The aim of this investigation was to determine the impact of various lifestyle, dietary, family, and socioeconomical factors on colorectal cancer risk in South-East Siberia. We recruited 185 Russian colorectal cancer cases and 210 gender-, age-, and ethnicity-matched asymptomatic controls with no history of any malignant tumor, using a specially designed questionnaire to obtain relevant information. After the statistical analysis, we defined several significant factors affecting colorectal cancer risk. Among these were smoking (OR=2.13, 95%CI=1.4-3.24, P=0.0004), being overweight (BMI between 25-30, OR=2.45, 95%CI=1.49-4.03, P=0.0004), alcohol drinking (OR=8.73, 95%CI=5.49-13.87, P<0.0001), beer drinking (OR=9.24, 95%CI=5.14-16.61, P<0.0001), consumption of hard liquor (OR=9.37, 95%CI=5.92-14.82, P<0.0001), excessive red meat consumption (P<0.0001), excessive intake of red meat products (P<0.0001), excessive intake of dairy products (P<0.0001), excessive sour cream and cheese consumption (P<0.0001 and 0.0002, respectively), spicy food consumption (OR=2.87, 95%CI=1.9-4.33, P<0.0001), family history of gastrointestinal malignant tumors (OR=3.99, 95%CI=2.09-7.59, P<0.0001), and income exceeding twice the subsistence minimum (OR=5.34, 95%CI=3.35-8.53, P<0.0001). Certain factors, such as high concentration of salt in the food and precancerous colonic lesions, demonstrated borderline significance (OR=3.45, 95%CI=1.68-7.1, P=0.0008, and OR=5.25, 95%CI=1.94-14.22, P=0.001, respectively). Some factors were established as protective, like consumption of rye bread and both rye and wheat bread (OR=0.32, 95%CI=0.21-0.5, P<0,0001, and OR=0.07, 95%CI=0.02-0.21, P<0.0001, respectively), and also low concentration of salt in the food, although this was of borderline significance (OR=0.43, 95%CI=0.26-0.69, P=0.0006). ABO and Rhesus blood antigens were not associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. These results should be definitely applied for elaboration of programs of colorectal cancer prevention in Russia, particularly in Siberia.
Analysis of Cancer Incidence and Mortality in the Industrial Region of South-East Siberia from 1991 through 2010
Kutikhin, Anton G. ; Yuzhalin, Arseniy E. ; Brailovskiy, Valeriy V. ; Zhivotovskiy, Alexey S. ; Magarill, Yuri A. ; Brusina, Elena B. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5189~5193
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5189
Kemerovo is an industrial region of the Russian Federation characterized by highly developed mining, chemical, metallurgical and power industries. Many of the factories were closed down due to the socioeconomical crisis in the early 90's, and economic potential of the survivors has also decreased significantly. Paradoxically, this has led to the improvement of the ecological situation in the region and elimination of exposure to many chemical carcinogens. This factor, in combination with the improvement of oncological care, might be expected to have lead to a decline of cancer incidence and mortality in the region. To assess trends of cancer incidence and mortality in Kemerovo Region, we therefore carried out an analysis of relevant epidemiological data during 1991-2010. In fact, a significant increase of cancer incidence overall was revealed during 2001-2010. Male cancer incidence was significantly higher than female cancer incidence. Regarding gastric cancer incidence, statistically significant differences during 2001-2010 were found only for men, and male incidence exceeded female incidence. Concerning colorectal cancer incidence, it was lower during 2001-2005 and 2006-2010 as compared to the period of 1991-1996. Lung cancer incidence was significantly higher during 1991-2000 compared to 2001-2010. Among urban populations, cancer incidence was higher in comparison with rural population, but a gradual steady convergence of trends of cancer incidence among urban and rural populations was noted. Lung cancer, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, non-melanoma skin cancer, and gastric cancer are the most prevalent cancer forms in Kemerovo Region. There were no differences in cancer mortality between 2001-2005 and 2006-2010; however, male cancer mortality exceeded female cancer mortality. A similar situation was observed for gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, and lung cancer. Cancer mortality among urban populations exceeded mortality among rural population, for both genders. We suggest that these data can be used for development of modern programs of cancer prevention and early diagnostics in industrial regions of Siberia.
Oral Cancer Awareness of the General Public in Gorakhpur City, India
Agrawal, Mamta ; Pandey, Sushma ; Jain, Shikha ; Maitin, Shipra ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5195~5199
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5195
Objectives: Global cancer statistical data show that India has one of the highest incidence rates of oral cancer worldwide. Early detection is extremely important as it results in lower morbidity and death rates. The present study was undertaken to assess awareness of oral cancer and knowledge of its early signs and risk factors in the general public of the semi-urban Gorakhpur area of Uttar Pradesh (India). It was also intended to educate the same population for early detection by increasing their ability to recognize signs and risk factors. Method: A questionnaire-based household survey was conducted over a period of one month in different parts of Gorakhpur district, a region where tobacco use is apparently very high. A total of 2,093 persons participated in the survey. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software to assess and associate oral cancer awareness with the prevalence, and abstract risk factors, as well as other confounding variables. Results: The general awareness, knowledge of signs and risk factors of oral cancer were found to be proportionate to the literacy level with the highest rate of awareness being among high school and graduates and lowest among illiterates. It was also observed that on most of these dimensions the younger age groups (<30 years) were significantly more knowledgeable. Conclusion: Overall, the awareness of oral cancer in the high-risk population of Gorakhpur was not satisfactory, pointing to a need for further dissemination of information on this issue and its associated risks. This is especially important for the youngsters, as this may possibly help them keep away from the deleterious habit of tobacco indulgence in any form. If necessary risk factor cessation counselling should be provided.
Association Between the XRCC3 T241M Polymorphism and Head and Neck Cancer Susceptibility: a Meta-analysis of Case-control Studies
Yin, Qing-Hua ; Liu, Chuan ; Li, Lian ; Zu, Xu-Yu ; Wang, Ya-Jie ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5201~5205
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5201
Background: To evaluate the role of the X-ray repair cross complementing group 3 (XRCC3) T241M polymorphism in head and neck cancer susceptibility. Materials and Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of all available studies, which included 3,191 cases and 5,090 controls. Results: Overall, a significant risk effect of the T241M polymorphism was not found under homologous contrast (MM vs TT: OR=1.293, 95% CI=0.926-1.805; TM vs TT: OR=1.148 95% CI=0.930-1.418) and recessive models (MM vs TT+TM): OR=1.170, 95% CI=0.905-1.512, but a significantly increased risk was observed under a dominant model (MM+TM vs TT): OR=1.243, 95% CI=1.001-1.544. In stratified analyses, there were no significant associations for Asians or Caucasians. Conclusion: Our meta-analysis suggested the XRCC3 241M allele (MM+TM) might act as a head and neck cancer risk factor among all subjects, and the effect of T241M polymorphism on head and neck susceptibility should be studied with a larger, stratified population.
Anti-Cell Proliferative Efficacy of Ferulic Acid Against 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a) Anthracene Induced Hamster Buccal Pouch Carcinogenesis
Prabhakar, M. Manoj ; Vasudevan, K. ; Karthikeyan, S. ; Baskaran, N. ; Silvan, S. ; Manoharan, S. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5207~5211
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5207
The present study was designed to explore the anti-cell proliferative efficacy of ferulic acid by analysing the expression pattern of cell proliferative markers, proliferating cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cyclin D1, in the buccal mucosa of golden Syrian hamsters treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). Oral squamous cell carcinomas developed in the buccal pouch of hamsters using topical application of 0.5% DMBA three times a week for 14 weeks. Immunohistochemical (PCNA) and RT-PCR (Cyclin D1) analysis revealed over expression of PCNA and cyclin D1 in the buccal mucosa of hamsters treated with DMBA alone (tumor bearing hamsters). Oral administration of ferulic acid at a dose of 40 mg/kg bw to hamsters treated with DMBA not only completely prevented the tumor formation but also down regulated the expression of PCNA and cyclin D1. The results of the present study thus suggests that ferulic acid might have inhibited tumor formation in the buccal mucosa of hamsters treated with DMBA through its anti-cell proliferative potential as evidenced by decreased expression of PCNA and cyclin D1.
Determination of the Breast Cancer Risk Levels and Health Beliefs of Women With and Without Previous Mammography in the Eastern Part of Turkey
Baysal, Hasret Yalcinoz ; Polat, Hatice ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5213~5217
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5213
Objective: This research was conducted to determine the breast cancer risk levels of women with and without previous mammography and their beliefs on breast cancer and mammography. Methods: The sample for this descriptive research consisted of women aged 50 years or older who were registered at the Family Health Center in the city center of Erzurum. The research was conducted with a total of 420 women with at least one mammography (210) and without mammography (210) who presented to the center on Wednesdays and Thursdays for any reason between 1 January 2010 and 1 January 2011. Research data were collected using the personal information "Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Form" accepted and recommended by the Turkish Ministry of Health, and the Champion's Health Belief Model Scale for Breast Cancer and Screening (CHBMS). Data were evaluated using percentages and means with the t-test. Results: According to the research data, 89.8% of the women were found to be in the low risk group, 87.6% with and 91.9% without mammography. When the health beliefs of women with and without mammography were compared, it was found that susceptibility, seriouness, motivation, mammography benefit scores were higher among those with mammography (p<0.01). The mammography barrier score average was higher in the group without mammography (p<0.01). Conclusion: Knowing women's health beliefs, which have positive and negative effects on participating in mammography screening, may increase the rate of mammography uptake among women. Moreover, women with high breast cancer risk may be determined by increasing society's level of knowledge on breast cancer and risk factors.
Expression and Clinical Significance of Osteopontin in Calcified Breast Tissue
Huan, Jin-Liang ; Xing, Li ; Qin, Xian-Ju ; Gao, Zhi-Guang ; Pan, Xiao-Feng ; Zhao, Zhi-Dong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5219~5223
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5219
Osteopontin (OPN) is an integrin-binding protein, believed to be involved in a variety of physiological cellular functions. The physiology of OPN is best documented in the bone where this secreted adhesive glycoprotein appears to be involved in osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. In our study, we used semi-quantitative RT-PCR of osteopontin in calcification tissue of breast to detect breast cancer metastasis. The obtained data indicate that the expression of osteopontin is related to calcification tissue of breast, and possibly with the incidence of breast cancer. The expression strength of OPN by RT-PCR detection was related to the degree of malignancy of breast lesions, suggesting a close relationship between OPN and breast calcification tissue. The results revealed that expression of OPN mRNA is related to calcification of breast cancer tissue and to the development of breast cancer. Determination of OPN mRNA expression can be expected to be a guide to clinical therapy and prediction of the prognosis of breast cancer patients.
Complications of Completion Versus Total Thyroidectomy
Gulcelik, Mehmet Ali ; Kuru, Bekir ; Dincer, Halil ; Camlibel, Mithat ; Yuksel, Ulvi Murat ; Yenidogan, Erdinc ; Reis, Erhan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5225~5228
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5225
Introduction : The objective of this study was to analyze the complication rates after completion thyroidectomy and compare them with primary total benign and malign thyroidectomy causes in total of 647 patients. Patients and Methods: Among 647 patients, there were 159 receiving completion thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroiud cancer (DTC) (Group 1); 217 patients receiving total thyroidectomy for DTC (Group 2) and 271 given total thyroidectomy for benign diseases (Group 3). Results: When groups were compared for complications, there were no significant difference except temporary hypocalcemia between completion thyroidectomy and total thyroidectomy for DTC. When the total thyroidectomies were compared (Group 2 and 3), there were no significant difference observed except unilateral temporary RLN palsy. Conclusion: With improvements in surgical technique and experience, complication rates of thyroidectomy performed for benign or malign diseases are reduced. In spite of the improvement in surgical experience, temporary RLN palsy and hypoparathyroidism are the main complications in completion thyroidectomies which need special attention. To evaluate the patients more carefully in preoperative period and performing adequate thyroidectomy appears more logical.
Relationships between Malignant Melanoma and Chromosome Damage in Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes
Narin, Abdullah ; Tuncay, Orta ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5229~5232
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5229
The incidence of malignant melanoma increases with age. One significiant effect of aging processes is an accumulation of oxidative damage in the genetical material. In this study, the relationship between malignant melanoma and damage in chromosomes and proliferative effectiveness of human peripheral lymphocytes were investigated by the micronucleus (MN) technique. A total of 15 malignant melanoma patients and appropriately matching 15 healthy controls were involved in the study. MN frequencies and proliferative indexes (PI) after non toxic levels of hydrogen peroxide treatment were also measured to determine damaging effect of oxidative stress in genome in addition to measuring the spontenous levels of micronuclei and PI. The patient group had a significantly higher rate of spontaneous MN than the control group (p<0.01). After treatment with
, MN frequencies in the patient group was significantly decreased (p<0.01) although there was no difference between the treated and untreated results of control group (p=0.29). There was also difference (p<0.01) between the MN frequencies of the patient and the control group either in the spontaneous levels or in the
treated groups. The same significant difference persisted when the PI values were compared between patient and control groups. Increase in the MN frequency in patients could mean the alterations in the chromosomal structure which may lead to the chromosome instability and therefore genetic susceptibility to cancer. This increased number of micronuclei can also be used for cytological marker in identifying high risk cases for malignant melanoma.
CK2 Enzyme Affinity Against c-myc
Substrate in Human Lung Cancer Tissue
Yaylim, Ilhan ; Ozkan, Nazli Ezgi ; Isitmangil, Turgut ; Isitmangil, Gulbu ; Turna, Akif ; Isbir, Turgay ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5233~5236
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5233
CK2 is a serine threonine kinase that participates in a variety of cellular processes with more than 300 defined substrates. This critical enzyme is known to be upregulated in cancers, but the role of this upregulation in carcinogenesis is not yet fully understood but c-myc, one of the defined CK2 substrates, is a well-known proto-oncogene that is normally essential in developmental process but is also involved in tumor development. We evaluated the optimal enzyme and substrate concentrations for CK2 activity in both neoplastic and non-neoplastic human lung tissues using the c-
peptide (EQKLISEEDL) as a substrate. The activities measured for the neoplastic tissue were 600-750 U/mg protein while those for the control tissue was in the range of 650-800 U/mg.
value for c-myc peptide was determined as
in non-neoplastic tissue and
in neoplastic tissue. In this study, we did not observe an increased activity in the neoplastic tissue when compared with the non-neoplastic lung tissue, but we recorded two times higher affinity for c-
in cancer tissue. Considering the metabolic position of c-
, our results suggest that phosphorylation by CK2 may be important in dimerization and thus it might affect the regulation of c-myc in cancer tissues.
Midline Involvement as a Risk Factor for Vulvar Cancer Recurrence
Stankevica, Jekaterina ; Macuks, Ronalds ; Baidekalna, Ieva ; Donina, Simona ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5237~5240
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5237
Objective: This observational study was to identify risk factors for vulvar cancer recurrence. Materials and Methods: In the study 107 patients with primary vulvar cancer were analyzed. Surgical treatment consisted of radical excision of the primary tumor in combination with unilateral or bilateral superficial and deep inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy through separate incisions. Patients with deeper tumor invasion >1 mm or wider than 2 cm and/or groin lymphnode metastases were referred for adjuvant radiotherapy. Those with large privary vulvar tumors received neoadjuvant radiotherapy of 30Gy followed by surgical treatment and adjuvant radiotherapy. Results: Most of patients had only primary radiotherapy to the vulva and inguinal lymph nodes and only 34.5% of patients were eligible for surgical treatment. In 5 year follow-up period 25.2% (27) patients were alive without the disease, 15.0% (16) were alive with the disease and 59.8% (64) were dead. 60.7% (65) patients experienced local recurrence and 2.8% (3) patients had distant metastases. Median survival for patients without recurrent disease was
months with no statistically significant difference. Patients with early stage vulvar cancer had longer mean survival rates-for stage I
months for stage II and
months for patients with stage III and stage IV vulvar cancer, respectively. The only signifficant prognostic factor predicting vulvar cancer recurrence was involvement of the midline. Conclusions: Patients having midline involvement of vulvar cancer has lower recurrence risk, probably because of receiving more aggressive treatment. There is a tendency for lower vulvar cancer recurrence risk for patients over 70 years of age and patients who are receiving radiotherapy as an only treatment without surgery, but tendency for higher risk of recurrence in patients with multifocal vulvar cancer.
Association Between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the XRCC1 Gene and Susceptibility to Prostate Cancer in Chinese Men
Zhou, Yun-Feng ; Zhang, Guang-Bo ; Qu, Ping ; Zhou, Jian ; Pan, Hui-Xin ; Hou, Jian-Quan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5241~5243
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5241
Background: Prostate cancer (Pca) is one of the most common complex and polygenic diseases in men. The X-ray repair complementing group 1 gene (XRCC1) is an important candidate in the pathogenesis of Pca. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms in the XRCC1 gene and susceptibility to Pca. Materials and Methods: XRCC1 gene polymorphisms and associations with susceptibility to Pca were investigated in 193 prostate patients and 188 cancer-free Chinese men. Results: The c.910A>G variant in the exon9 of XRCC1 gene could be detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and DNA sequencing methods. Significantly increased susceptibility to prostate cancer was noted in the homozygote comparison (GG versus AA: OR=2.95, 95% CI 1.46-5.42,
=12.36, P=0.001), heterozygote comparison (AG versus AA: OR=1.76, 95% CI 1.12-2.51,
=4.04, P=0.045), dominant model (GG/AG versus AA: OR=1.93, 95% CI 1.19-2.97,
=9.12, P=0.003), recessive model (GG versus AG+AA: OR=2.17, 95% CI 1.33-4.06,
=8.86, P=0.003) and with allele contrast (G versus A: OR=1.89, 95% CI 1.56-2.42,
=14.67, P<0.000). Conclusions: These findings suggest that the c.910A>G polymorphism of the XRCC1 gene is associated with susceptibility to Pca in Chinese men, the G-allele conferring higher risk.
Prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini Infection in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Northeast Thailand
Kaewpitoon, Soraya J. ; Rujirakul, Ratana ; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5245~5249
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5245
Background: Opisthorchis viverrini infection is a serious public-health problem in Southeast Asia especially in Lao PDR and Thailand. It is associated with a number of hepatobiliary diseases and the evidence strongly indicates that liver fluke infection is the major etiology of cholangiocarcinoma. Objectives: This study aimed to determine actual levels of Opisthorchis viverrini infection in Nakhon Ratchasima province, Northeast Thailand. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted during a one year period from October 2010 to September 2011. O. viverrini infection was determined using a modified Kato's thick smear technique and socio-demographic data were collected using predesigned semi-structured questionnaires. Results: A total of 1,168 stool samples were obtained from 516 males and 652 females, aged 5-90 years. Stool examination showed that 2.48% were infected with O. viverrini. Males were slightly more likely to be infected than females, but the different was not statistically significant. O. viverrini infection was most frequent in the 51-60 year age group and was found to be positively associated with education and occupation. Positive results were evident in 16 of 32 districts, the highest prevalence being found in Non Daeng with 16.7%, followed by Pra Thai with 11.1%, Kaeng Sanam Nang with 8.33%, and Lam Ta Men Chai (8.33%) districts. Conclusion: This study indicates that O viverrini is still a problem in some areas of Nakhon Ratchasima, the patients in this study bing suitable for the purpose of monitoring projects.
Is the MDR1 C3435T Polymorphism Responsible for Oral Mucositis in Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia?
Bektas-Kayhan, Kivanc ; Kucukhuseyin, Ozlem ; Karagoz, Gizem ; Unur, Meral ; Ozturk, Oguz ; Unuvar, Aysegul ; Devecioglu, Omer ; Yilmaz-Aydogan, Hulya ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5251~5255
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5251
Background and Aim: Although the functional consequences of MDR-1 polymorphisms have been the subject of numerous studies, to the best to our knowledge, associations with clinical side effects of anticancer drugs have yet to be assessed. Our aim was to clarify any role of the C3435T polymorphism of the MDR1 gene in oral mucositis and its relation with elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Materials and Methods: The distribution of the MDR-1 C3435T polymorphism in 47 patients with ALL was determined by RFLP and compared with that of 68 healthy controls. Results: There were no association in distribution of genotypes of MDR-1 C3435T polymorphism and the risk of ALL. Oral mucositis were detected in 78.7% (n=37) of the patients and significantly related to the MDR-1 CT genotype (p=0.042), as confirmed by logistic regression analysis. Conclusion: Our preliminary data suggest that children carrying the CT genotype are more prone to develop oral mucositis, which might mean that the heterozygous genotype leads to accumulation of more reactive oxygen species. Since a limited number of patients was investigated, further studies are needed to confirm these findings.
CA 15-3 (Mucin-1) and Physiological Characteristics of Breast Cancer from Lahore, Pakistan
Begum, Mumtaz ; Karim, Sajjad ; Malik, Arif ; Khurshid, Rukhshan ; Asif, Muhammad ; Salim, Asmat ; Nagra, Saeed Ahmed ; Zaheer, Ahmad ; Iqbal, Zafar ; Abuzenadah, Adel Mohammed ; Alqahtani, Mohammed Hussain ; Rasool, Mahmood ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5257~5261
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5257
Background: High incidence of breast cancer and its fatal effect has reached an alarming stage across the globe, including the third world countries. Many factors have been reported to be associated with the development of breast cancer but detailed structural and functional information is missing. CA 15-3 is one of the known potential tumor marker of breast cancer; however little is known about structure and functional site of this protein. Present study aims to investigate the functional role of CA 15-3 in breast cancer, especially in development and metastasis. Material and Methods: Hundred female breast cancer patients confirmed by histopathological reports were included in the study. Their physiological characters were recorded in a performa. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique was used to estimate serum CA 15-3 level. Immunohistochemistry was done for estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR) and Her2/neu receptors expression. Results: The study revealed the details of physiological characteristics of female breast cancer. Mean age was
years and serum CA 15-3 (MUC1) level was
U/ml in pre and post-menopause respectively, and both groups of women had sedentary life style. Their receptor status especially of progesterone, estrogen and HER-2/neu were positive in 50% of premenopausal women and 65% of postmenopausal women. Conclusion: There are multiple physiological factors promoting breast cancer. High serum CA 15-3 level and hormonal imbalance of ER, PR and Her2/neu appears to be the main cause of breast cancer. It may be possible that the functional sites of these proteins may be altered which may increase the chances of metastasis in breast cancer.
Chinese Patients with Gastric Cancer Need Targeted Adjuvant Chemotherapy Schemes
Shi, Wen-Tao ; Wei, Lei ; Xiang, Jin ; Su, Ke ; Ding, Qiong ; Tang, Meng-Jie ; Li, Ji-Qiang ; Guo, Yi ; Wang, Pu ; Zhang, Jing-Wei ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5263~5272
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5263
Background: Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common cancers in China. Adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) is a routine auxiliary treatment for GC recommended by the guidelines issued in 2011 by the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China, but the relevant credible consequences in China have been insufficient because of China's late start and ethical concerns. Methods: A series of databases, including Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Chinese database of the National Knowledge Infrastructure and the VIP database, were searched by 2 reviewers independently for studies investigating AC for GC through March 2012. The retrieved literature was screened according to the eligibility criteria. Results: A total of 35 randomized control trials (RCTs) were subjected to the final analysis, including 4,043 patients in treatment group and 3,884 in the control group, as well as 4 clinical-control trials (CCTs), which accessed the final analysis with 238 and 252 patients, respectively. AC reduced the risk of death as a protective treatment with statistical significance (HR=0.91, 95%CI: [0.85, 0.97], P=0.002), and it seemed more effective for Asian than non-Asian patients. The effects of AC were not influenced by the starting time (P>0.05). D2 lymphadenectomy-based chemotherapy was effective (HR=0.89, 95%CI: [0.80, 0.99], P=0.04). Oral S-1 40 mg/m2 after D2 lymphadenectomy might be a better choice for Asians with advanced GC and might result in a greater reduction of adverse events than in non-Asian patients. GRADE quality assessment determined that the strength of the evidence from foreign studies from Europe, the United States and Asian countries other than China was high, while it was moderate for Chinese studies. Conclusion: AC was effective or even curative in Chinese patients in general, although it is still necessary to optimize a targeted AC scheme for Chinese patients with GC.
Chemopreventive Potential of Coumarin in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a] anthracene Induced Hamster Buccal Pouch Carcinogenesis
Baskaran, Nagarethinam ; Manoharan, Shanmugam ; Karthikeyan, Sekar ; Prabhakar, Murugaraj Manoj ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5273~5279
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5273
The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemopreventive effect of coumarin against 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis by monitoring tumor incidence and histopathological changes as well as by analyzing the status of biochemical markers (lipid peroxidation, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, phase I and phase II detoxification enzymes). Oral squamous cell carcinomas were induced in the buccal pouch of Syrian golden hamsters by painting with 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin three times a week for 14 weeks. We noted 100% tumor formation with marked abnormalities in the biomarkers status in hamsters treated with DMBA alone. Oral administration of coumarin at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight (bw) to DMBA treated hamsters completely prevented the tumor formation as well as restored the staus of biochemical variables. The results of the present study thus suggest that the chemopreventive effect of coumarin is probably due to its anti-lipid peroxidative potential and modulating effect on carcinogen detoxification agents in favor of the excretion of ultimate carcinogenic metabolites of DMBA during DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.
Expression of the CXCL12/SDF-1 Chemokine Receptor CXCR7 in Human Brain Tumours
Tang, Tian ; Xia, Qing-Jie ; Chen, Jian-Bin ; Xi, Ming-Rong ; Lei, Ding ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5281~5286
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5281
Purpose: Receptor 7 (CXCR7) has recently been characterized as a novel receptor for CXCL12/SDF-1 (stromal cell derived factor-1). Given the demonstrated importance of CXCL12/SDF-1 in angiogenesis and tumour metastasis, we hypothesized that CXCR7 may also play a role in tumour pathogenesis. Located in the limited space of the intracranial cavity, any brain tumours can be inherently serious and life-threatening. However, the expression of CXCR7 in pituitary adenoma, neurilemmoma or hemangioblastoma remains to be elucidated. Therefore, we aimed to determine the potential contribution of CXCR7 in the development of brain tumours. Methods: In this study we examined and quantified the mRNA expression of CXCR7 in four different human brain tumours - 27 patients with neurilemmoma (8 patients), pituitary adenoma (7 patients), hemangioblastoma (6 patients), or meningioma (6 patients) undergoing surgical resection in the West China Hospital of Sichuan University. There were 15 females and 12 males aged from 28 to 70 years old. Total RNA was isolated and mRNA was measured by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed using SPSS 11.0 statistical software to compare the mRNA levels of CXCR7 among four groups. Results: We found that CXCR7 mRNA was detected in all tumour samples. Quantitative results showed that the levels of CXCR7 mRNA in brain tissues from patients with neurilemmoma or meningioma were significantly higher than those with pituitary adenoma or hemangioblastoma. Conclusions: The results suggest that the CXCR7 may play a role in progression, metastasis and angiogenesis of brain tumours.
Evaluating the Role of Curcum Powder as a Protective Factor against Bladder Cancer - An Experimental Study
El-Mesallamy, Hala ; Salman, Tarek M. ; Ashmawey, Abeer M. ; Osama, Nada ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5287~5290
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5287
Throughout human history, plant products have been used for many purposes including as medicines. Herbal products and spices can be used as preventive agents against cancer due to their antimicrobial, antioxidant and antitumorigenic properties. This study was designed to evaluate the potential protective effect of curcum in rats administered nitrosamine precursors; dibutylamine (DBA) and sodium nitrate (NaNO3); and infected with Escherichia coli (E. coli) and also to monitor changes in nuclear factor the Kappa B p65 (NF-
p56) pathway and its downstream products, Bcl-2 and interleukin-6 (IL-6), in parallel with nitrosamine precursors, E. coli and curcum treatment. Rats were divided into three groups (n=25 each; except of control group, n+20). Group I a normal control group, group II administered DBA/NaNO3 in drinking water and infected with E. coli and group III was administered DBA/NaNO3 in drinking water, infected with E. coli and receiving standard diet containing 1% curcum powder. Histopathological examination reflected that the curcum treated group featured a lower incidence of urinary bladder lesions, and lower levels of NF-
, Bcl-2 and IL-6, than the group receiving nitrosamine precursor and infected with E. coli. These findings suggested that curcum may have a protective role during the process of bladder carcinogenesis by inhibiting the NF-
pathway and its downstream products.
Beta-asarone Induces LoVo Colon Cancer Cell Apoptosis by Up-regulation of Caspases through a Mitochondrial Pathway in vitro and in vivo
Zou, Xi ; Liu, Shen-Lin ; Zhou, Jin-Yong ; Wu, Jian ; Ling, Bo-Fan ; Wang, Rui-Ping ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5291~5298
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5291
Beta-asarone is one of the main bioactive constituents in traditional Chinese medicine Acorus calamu. Previous studies have shown that it has antifungal and anthelmintic activities. However, little is known about its anticancer effects. This study aimed to determine inhibitory effects on LoVo colon cancer cell proliferation and to clarify the underlying mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. Dose-response and time-course anti-proliferation effects were examined by MTT assay. Our results demonstrated that LoVo cell viability showed dose- and time-dependence on
-asarone. We further assessed anti-proliferation effects as
-asarone-induced apoptosis by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide assay usinga flow cytometer and observed characteristic nuclear fragmentation and chromatin condensation of apoptosis by microscopy. Moreover, we found the apoptosis to be induced through the mitochondrial/caspase pathway by decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and reducing the Bcl-2-to-Bax ratio, in addition to activating the caspase-9 and caspase-3 cascades. Additionally, the apoptosis could be inhibited by a pan-caspase inhibitor, carbobenzoxy-valyl-alanyl-aspartyl-[O-methyl]-fluoromethylketone (Z-VAD-FMK). When nude mice bearing LoVo tumor xenografts were treated with
-asarone, tumor volumes were reduced and terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays of excised tissue also demonstrated apoptotic changes. Taken together, these findings for the first time provide evidence that
-asarone can suppress the growth of colon cancer and the induced apoptosis is possibly mediated through mitochondria/caspase pathways.
Case-Control Study of Diet in Patients with Cervical Cancer or Precancerosis in Wufeng, a High Incidence Region in China
Jia, Yao ; Hu, Ting ; Hang, Chuan-Ying ; Yang, Ru ; Li, Xiong ; Chen, Zhi-Lan ; Mei, Ye-Dong ; Zhang, Qing-Hua ; Huang, Ke-Cheng ; Xiang, Qun-Ying ; Pan, Xiu-Yu ; Yan, Yu-Ting ; Wang, Xiao-Li ; Wang, Shao-Shuai ; Hang, Zhou ; Tang, Fang-Xu ; Liu, Dan ; Zhou, Jin ; Xi, Ling ; Wang, Hui ; Lu, Yun-Ping ; Ma, Ding ; Wang, Shi-Xuan ; Li, Shuang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5299~5302
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5299
Purpose: To investigate the diet of patients with cervical cancer and precancerosis in the Wufeng area, a high-incidence region in China. Methods: In the case group, 104 patients diagnosed with cervical cancer or cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CINII/III) were recruited from the Wufeng area. Nine hundred thirty-six healthy women were selected from the same area as the matched controls. A questionnaire, which included questions about general lifestyle conditions, smoking and alcohol status, source of drinking water, green tea intake, and diet in the past year, was presented to all participants. Results: Green tea intake (P=0.022, OR=0.551, 95% CI=0.330-0.919) and vegetable intake (P=0.035, OR=0.896, 95% CI=0.809-0.993) were identified as protective factors against cervical cancer or CINII/III. There was no indication of any associations of other lifestyle factors (smoking status, alcohol status, source of drinking water) or diet (intake of fruit, meat/egg/milk, soybean food, onion/garlic, staple food and pickled food) with cervical cancer. Conclusions: The results suggest that eating more fresh vegetables and drinking more green tea may help to reduce the risk of cervical cancer or CINII/III in people of the Wufeng area.
Aberrant DNA Methylation of P16, MGMT, and hMLH1 Genes in Combination with MTHFR C677T Genetic Polymorphism and Folate Intake in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Chen, Jing ; Huang, Zhi-Jie ; Duan, Yu-Qin ; Xiao, Xin-Rong ; Jiang, Jian-Qing ; Zhang, Ru ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5303~5306
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5303
Aim: The present case-control study was conducted to explore the association of MTHFR gene polymorphism and relations of P16, MGMT and HMLH1 to MTHFR and folate intake. Methods: A total of 257 cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma confirmed by histopathological examination were collected. Genotyping of P16, MGMT and HMLH1 was accomplished by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) after sodium bisulfate modification of DNA and the MTHFR C677T genetic polymorphism was detected by PCR-restriction fragment-length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Results: The proportions of DNA hypermethylation in P16, MGMT and hMLH1 in cancer tissues were significantly higher than in paracancerous normal tissue. The proportion of hypermethylation in at least one gene was 88.5% in cancer tissue, and was also significantly higher than that in paracancerous normal tissue. Our finding showed individuals with homozygotes (TT) of MTHFR C677T had significant risk of DNA hypermethylation of MGMT in cancer tissues, with an OR (95% CI) of 3.15 (1.12-6.87). Similarly, patients with high intake of folate also showed a slight high risk of DNA methylation of MGMT, with OR (95% CI) of 2.03 (1.05-4.57). Conclusion: Our study found the P16, MGMT and hMLH1 demonstrate a high proportion of hypermethylation in esophageal squamous cell cancer cancer tissues, which might be used as biomarkers for cancer detection.
Serum Levels of G-CSF and IL-7 in Iranian Breast Cancer Patients
Bordbar, Elahe ; Malekzadeh, Mahyar ; Ardekani, Mehdi Taghipour Fard ; Doroudchi, Mehrnoosh ; Ghaderi, Abbas ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5307~5312
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5307
Introduction: Breast cancer cells and tumor stroma produce different cytokines and soluble factors. Cytokines, while playing crucial roles in immune responses to tumors, also favour tumor growth and progression. IL-7 and G-CSF are two cytokines that may exert influences on the pathophysiology of breast cancer. Materials and Methods: Sera were collected from 136 females with breast cancer before receiving chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The control group comprised of 60 healthy age-matched females without any acute or chronic diseases with no family history of breast cancer. Serum levels of IL-7 and G-CSF were measured by commercial enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results: While there was no significant difference in the level of G-CSF between patients (
pg/ml) and controls (0.00 pg/ml), G-CSF level in sera of patients with advanced stages of breast cancer was elevated compared to early stages (p=0.0001). Moreover, the highest level of G-CSF was seen in patients with N3 phase tumors (p=0.0001). IL-7 was slightly but not significantly higher in the control group (
pg/ml) in comparison with patients (
pg/ml). Interestingly, a significant increase in the level of IL-7 in patients with skin involvement was observed (p=0.001). Conclusion: Our results showed an elevation of G-CSF in sera of patients with advanced stages of tumor, while IL-7 elevation correlated with skin involvement of breast cancer. IL-7 can be produced by keratinocytes in skin tissue and may be involved in the pathologic establishment of metastatic tumor cells in skin.
Psychoeducation Intervention to Improve Adjustment to Cancer among Turkish Stage I-II Breast Cancer Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Dastan, Nihal Bostanci ; Buzlu, Sevim ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5313~5318
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5313
Psycho-educational interventions are not a substitute for analgesics, but they may serve as adjuvant therapy. Nurses can provide psychoeducational programmes to cancer patients to assist them in optimizing behavior that strengthen adjustment. The aim here was to determine the effects of psychoeducation on levels of adjustment to cancer in stage I-II breast cancer patients who met the study criteria (experimental group: 38 women, control group:38 women). The psychoeducational program consisted of eight 90 minute weekly sessions and data were collected using a questionnaire and the Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale three times: before, six weeks and six months after the intervention. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistical methods as well as the Chi square test, the Mann Whitney U test, repeated measures analysis of variance, the matched pairs t test and the Post Hoc Bonferroni test. The results at 6 weeks and 6 months after the program revealed that the experimental group had higher levels of "fighting spirit", lower levels of "helplessness/hopelessness, anxious preoccupation and fatalism" but there was no significant change in levels of "avoidance/denial" compared to the control group with regard to adjustment to cancer. In this study, psychoeducation was shown to cause positive changes in levels of adjustment to cancer in breast cancer patients
Clinical Safety and Efficacy of Kanglaite
(Coix Seed Oil) Injection Combined with Chemotherapy in Treating Patients with Gastric Cancer
Zhan, Yi-Ping ; Huang, Xin-En ; Cao, Jie ; Lu, Yan-Yan ; Wu, Xue-Yan ; Liu, Jin ; Xu, Xia ; Xiang, Jin ; Ye, Li-Hong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5319~5321
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5319
Objective: To observe efficacy and side effects, as well as the impact on quality of life, of Kanglaite
(Coix Seed Oil) injections combined with chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced gastric cancer patients. Method: A consecutive cohort of 60 patients were divided into two groups: the experimental group receiving Kanglaite
Injection combined with chemotherapy and the control group with chemotherapy alone. After more than two courses of treatment, efficacy, quality of life and side effects were evaluated. Results: The response rate and KPS score of experimental group were significantly improved as compared with those of the control group (P<0.05). In addition, gastrointestinal reactions and bone marrow suppression were significantly lower than in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusions: Kanglaite
Injection enhanced efficacy and reduced the side effects of chemotherapy, improving quality of life of gastric cancer patients; use of Kanglaite
injections deserves to be further investigated in randomized control clinical trails.
Bhopal Methyl Isocyanate Affected Population and Cancer Susceptibility: Where Do We Stand Now?
Senthilkumar, Chinnu Sugavanam ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5323~5324
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5323
Same Topic of Systematic Review, Same Conclusion?
Tian, Jin-Hui ; Li, Lun ; Liu, Ai-Ping ; Yang, Ke-Hu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 10, 2012, Pages 5325~5325
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5325