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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevetion
Editor in Chief :
Malcolm A Moore
Volume & Issues
Volume 13, Issue 12 - Dec 2012
Volume 13, Issue 11 - Nov 2012
Volume 13, Issue 10 - Oct 2012
Volume 13, Issue 9 - Sep 2012
Volume 13, Issue 8 - Aug 2012
Volume 13, Issue 7 - Jul 2012
Volume 13, Issue 6 - Jun 2012
Volume 13, Issue 5 - May 2012
Volume 13, Issue 4 - Apr 2012
Volume 13, Issue 3 - Mar 2012
Volume 13, Issue 2 - Feb 2012
Volume 13, Issue 1 - Jan 2012
Selecting the target year
The Socioeconomic Burden of Cancer in Member Countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) - Stakeholder Meeting Report
Jan, Stephen ; Kimman, Merel ; Kingston, David ; Woodward, Mark ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 407~409
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.407
The ACTION (Asean CosTs In ONcology) Study will be one of the largest observational studies of the burden of cancer ever conducted in Asia. The study will involve 10,000 newly diagnosed patients with cancer and will be carried out across eight low- and middle income countries within the ASEAN region (Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Cambodia, Myanmar, Viet Nam, Laos and the Philippines). Patients will be interviewed three times over 12 months to assess their health, use of health care services, out of pocket costs related to their illness, social and quality of life issues. The project is a collaboration between the George Institute for Global Health, the ASEAN Foundation and Roche. The aim of the study is to assess the health and socioeconomic impact of cancer on patients in ASEAN communities, and the factors that may impact on these outcomes.
The Burden of Cancer in Member Countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
Kimman, Merel ; Norman, Rosana ; Jan, Stephen ; Kingston, David ; Woodward, Mark ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 411~420
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.411
This paper presents the most recent data on cancer rates and the burden of cancer in the ASEAN region. Epidemiological data were sourced from GLOBOCAN 2008 and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) lost were estimated using the standard methodology developed within the World Health Organization's Global Burden of Disease study. Overall, it was estimated there were over 700,000 new cases of cancer and 500,000 cancer deaths in ASEAN in the year 2008, leading to approximately 7.5 million DALYs lost in one year. The most commonly diagnosed cancers were lung (98,143), breast (86,842) and liver cancers (74,777). The most common causes of cancer death were lung cancer (85,772), liver cancer (69,115) and colorectal cancer (44,280). The burden of cancer in terms of DALYs lost was highest in Laos, Viet Nam and Myanmar and lowest in Brunei, Singapore and the Philippines. Significant differences in the patterns of cancer from country to country were observed. Another key finding was the major impact played by population age distribution on cancer incidence and mortality. Cancer rates in ASEAN are expected to increase with ageing of populations and changes in lifestyles associated with economic development. Therefore, ASEAN member countries are strongly encouraged to put in place cancer-control health care policies, focussed on strengthening the health systems to cope with projected increases in cancer prevention, treatment and management needs.
Socioeconomic Impact of Cancer in Member Countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN): the ACTION Study Protocol
Kimman, Merel ; Jan, Stephen ; Kingston, David ; Monaghan, Helen ; Sokha, Eav ; Thabrany, Hasbullah ; Bounxouei, Bounthaphany ; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala ; Khin, Myo ; Cristal-Luna, Gloria ; Khuhaprema, Thiravud ; Hung, Nguyen Chan ; Woodward, Mark ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 421~425
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.421
Cancer can be a major cause of poverty. This may be due either to the costs of treating and managing the illness as well as its impact upon people's ability to work. This is a concern that particularly affects countries that lack comprehensive social health insurance systems and other types of social safety nets. The ACTION study is a longitudinal cohort study of 10,000 hospital patients with a first time diagnosis of cancer. It aims to assess the impact of cancer on the economic circumstances of patients and their households, patients' quality of life, costs of treatment and survival. Patients will be followed throughout the first year after their cancer diagnosis, with interviews conducted at baseline (after diagnosis), three and 12 months. A cross-section of public and private hospitals as well as cancer centers across eight member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) will invite patients to participate. The primary outcome is incidence of financial catastrophe following treatment for cancer, defined as out-of-pocket health care expenditure at 12 months exceeding 30% of household income. Secondary outcomes include illness induced poverty, quality of life, psychological distress, economic hardship, survival and disease status. The findings can raise awareness of the extent of the cancer problem in South East Asia and its breadth in terms of its implications for households and the communities in which cancer patients live, identify priorities for further research and catalyze political action to put in place effective cancer control policies.
Natural Products for Cancer-Targeted Therapy: Citrus Flavonoids as Potent Chemopreventive Agents
Meiyanto, Edy ; Hermawan, Adam ; Anindyajati, Anindyajati ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 427~436
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.427
Targeted therapy has been a very promising strategy of drug development research. Many molecular mechanims of diseases have been known to be regulated by abundance of proteins, such as receptors and hormones. Chemoprevention for treatment and prevention of diseases are continuously developed. Pre-clinical and clinical studies in chemoprevention field yielded many valuable data in preventing the onset of disease and suppressing the progress of their growth, making chemoprevention a challenging and a very rational strategy in future researches. Natural products being rich of flavonoids are those fruits belong to the genus citrus. Ethanolic extract of Citrus reticulata and Citrus aurantiifolia peels showed anticarcinogenic, antiproliferative, co-chemotherapeutic and estrogenic effects. Several examples of citrus flavonoids that are potential as chemotherapeutic agents are tangeretin, nobiletin, hesperetin, hesperidin, naringenin, and naringin. Those flavonoids have been shown to possess inhibition activity on certain cancer cells' growth through various mechanisms. Moreover, citrus flavonoids also perform promising effect in combination with several chemotherapeutic agents against the growth of cancer cells. Some mechanisms involved in those activities are through cell cycle modulation, antiangiogenic effect, and apoptosis induction.Previous studies showed that tangeretin suppressed the growth of T47D breast cancer cells by inhibiting ERK phosphorylation. While in combination with tamoxifen, doxorubicin, and 5-FU, respectively, it was proven to be synergist on several cancer cells. Hesperidin and naringenin increased cytotoxicitity of doxorubicin on MCF-7 cells and HeLa cells. Besides, citrus flavonoids also performed estrogenic effect in vivo. One example is hesperidin having the ability to decrease the concentration of serum and hepatic lipid and reduce osteoporosis of ovariectomized rats. Those studies showed the great potential of citrus fruits as natural product to be developed as not only the source of co-chemotherapeutic agents, but also phyto-estrogens. Therefore, further study needs to be conducted to explore the potential of citrus fruits in overcoming cancer.
Psychological Impact of Health Risk Appraisal of Korean Women at Different Levels of Breast Cancer Risk: Neglected Aspect of the Web-based Cancer Risk Assessment Tool
Kye, Su-Yeon ; Park, Kee-Ho ; Park, Hyeong-Geun ; Kim, Myung-Hyun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 437~441
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.437
Objective: Health risk appraisal is often utilized to modify individual's health behavior, especially concerning disease prevention, and web-based health risk appraisal services are being provided to the general public in Korea. However, little is known about the psychological effect of the health risk appraisal even though poorly communicated information by the web-based service may result in unintended adverse health outcomes. This study was conducted to explore the psychological effect of health risk appraisal using epidemiological risk factor profile. Methods: We conducted a randomized trial comparing risk factor list type health risk appraisal and risk score type health risk appraisal. We studied 60 women aged 30 years and older who had no cancer. Anxiety level was assessed using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory YZ. Results: The results of multivariate analysis showed that risk status was the independent predictors of increase of state anxiety after health risk appraisal intervention when age, education, health risk appraisal type, numeracy, state anxiety, trait anxiety, and health risk appraisal type by risk status interaction was adjusted. Women who had higher risk status had an odd of having increased anxiety that was about 5 times greater than women who had lower risk status. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that communicating the risk status by individual health risk appraisal service can induce psychological sequelae, especially in women having higher risk status. Hospitals, institutes, or medical schools that are operating or planning to operate the online health risk appraisal service should take side effects such as psychological sequelae into consideration.
Reduced Telomere Length in Colorectal Carcinomas
Feng, Tong-Bao ; Cai, Lei-Ming ; Qian, Ke-Qing ; Qi, Chun-Jian ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 443~446
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.443
Purpose: Telomeres play a key role in the maintenance of chromosome integrity and stability, and telomere shortening is involved in initiation and progression of malignancies. The aim of this study was to determine whether telomere length is associated with the colorectal carcinoma. Patients and methods: A total of 148 colorectal cancer (CRC) samples and corresponding adjacent non-cancerous tissues were evaluated for telomere length, P53 mutation, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mutation detected by fluorescent immunohistochemistry. Telomere length was estimated by real-time PCR. Samples with a T/S>1.0 have an average telomere length greater than that of the standard DNA; samples with a T/S<1.0 have an average telomere length shorter than that of the standard DNA. Results: Telomeres were shorter in CRCs than in adjacent tissues, regardless of tumor stage and grade, site, or genetic alterations (P=0.004). Telomere length in CRCs also had differences with COX-2 status (P=0.004), but did not differ with P53 status (P=0.101), tumor progression (P=0.244), gender (P=0.542), and metastasis (P=0.488). There was no clear trend between T/S optimal cut-off values (<1 or > 1) and colorectal tumor progression, metastasis, gender, P53 and COX-2 status. Conclusion: These findings suggesting that telomere shortening is associated with colorectal carcinogenesis but does not differ with tumor progression, gender, and metastasis.
Video-assisted Thoracic Surgery Versus Thoracotomy for Non-small-cell Lung Cancer
Pan, Tie-Wen ; Wu, Bin ; Xu, Zhi-Fei ; Zhao, Xue-Wei ; Zhong, Lei ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 447~450
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.447
Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) has been recommended as more optimal surgical technique than traditional thoracotomy for lobectomy in lung cancer, but it is not well defined. Here, we compared VATS and traditional thoracotomy based on clinical data. From November 2008 to November 2010, 180 patients underwent lobectomy for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCL) identified by computerized tomography. Of them, 83 cases were performed with VATS and 97 by thoracotomy. Clinical parameters, consisting of blood loss, operating time, number of lymph node dissection, days of pleural cavity drainage, and length of stay were recorded and evaluated with t test. No significant difference was observed between the VATS and thoracotomy groups in the average intraoperative blood loss, number of lymph node dissections, and days of pleural cavity drainage. While the average operating time in the VATS group was significantly longer than that in thoracotomy group, recurrence was only present in one case, as opposed to 7 cases in the thoracotomy group In conclusion, similar therapeutic effects were demonstrated in VATS and thoracotomy for NSCL. However, VATS lobectomy was associated with fewer complications, recurrence and shorter length of stay.
CpG Island Methylation Profile of Estrogen Receptor Alpha in Iranian Females with Triple Negative or Non-triple Negative Breast Cancer: New Marker of Poor Prognosis
Ramezani, Fatemeh ; Salami, Siamak ; Omrani, Mir Davood ; Maleki, Davood ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 451~457
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.451
One decade early onset of the breast cancer in Iranian females was reported but the basis of the observed difference has remained unclear and difference in gene silencing by epigenetic processes is suggested. Hence, this study was sought to map the methylation status of estrogen receptor (ER) gene CpG islands and its impact on clinicopathological factors of triple negative and non-triple negative ductal cell carcinoma of the breast in Iranian females. Surgically resected formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast tissues from sixty Iranian women with confirmed invasive ductal carcinoma were assessed by methylation-specific PCR using primer sets encompassing some of the 29 CpGs across the ER gene CpG island. The estrogen and progesterone receptors, Her-
overexpression, and nuclear accumulation of P53 were examined using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Methylated ER3, ER4, and ER5 were found in 41.7, 11.3, and 43.3% of the samples, respectively. Significantly higher methylation of ER4 was found in the tumors with nuclear accumulation of P53, and significantly higher methylation of ER5 was found in patients with lymph node involvement and tumor with bigger size or higher grades. Furthermore, significantly higher rate of ER5 methylation was found in patients with Her-
tumors and in postmenopausal patients with
tumors. However, no significant difference in ERs methylation status was found between triple negative and non-triple negative tumors in pre- and postmenopausal patients. Findings revealed that aberrant hypermethylation of the ER-alpha gene frequently occurs in Iranian women with invasive ductal cell carcinoma of the breast. However, methylation of different CpG islands produced a diverse impact on the prognosis of breast cancer, and ER5 was found to be the most frequently methylated region in the Iranian women, and could serve as a marker of poor prognosis.
Breast Cancer Subtypes Identified by the ER, PR and HER-2 Status in Thai Women
Chuthapisith, Suebwong ; Permsapaya, Watthanasak ; Warnnissorn, Malee ; Akewanlop, Charuwan ; Sirivatanauksorn, Vorapan ; Osoth, Poramaporn Prasarttong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 459~462
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.459
Expression of estrogen-receptor (ER), progesterone-receptor (PR) and HER-2 has recently been linked with various breast cancer subtypes identified by gene microarray. This study aimed to document breast cancer subtypes based on ER, PR and HER-2 status in Thai women, where expression of these subtypes may not be similar to those evident in Western women. During 2009 to 2010, histological findings from 324 invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC) at Siriraj Hospital were studied. Various subtypes of IDC were identified according to expression of ER, PR and HER-2: luminal-A (ER+;PR+/-;HER-2-), luminal-B (ER+;PR+/-;HER-2 +), HER-2 (ER-;PR- ;HER-2+) and basal-like (ER-;PR-;HER-2-). As well, associations of tumor size, tumor grade, nodal status, angiolymphatic invasion (ALI), multicentricity and multifocality with different breast cancer subtypes were studied. Of 324 IDCs, 143 (44.1%), 147 (45.4%), 15 (4.6%) and 12 (3.7%) were T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively. Most tumors were grade 2 (54.9%) and had no nodal involvement (53.4%). According to ER, PR and HER-2 status, 192 (59.3%), 40 (12.3%), 43 (13.3%) and 49 (15.1%) tumors were luminal-A, luminal-B, HER-2 and basal-like subtypes. HER-2 subtype presented with large tumor (p=0.04, ANOVA). Luminal-A IDC was associated with single foci (p<0.01,
). HER-2 and basal-like subtypes were likely to have high tumor grade (p<0.01,
). In addition, HER-2 subtype had higher number of nodal involvement (p=0.048,
). In conclusion, the luminal-A subtype accounted for the majority of IDCs in Thai women. Percentages of HER-2 and basal-like IDCs were high, compared with a recent study from the USA. The HER-2 subtype was related with high nodal invasion. The findings may highlight biological differences between IDCs occurring in Asian and Western women.
Efficacy and Toxicity of Gemcitabine Plus Docetaxel Combination as a Second Line Therapy for Patients with Advanced Stage Soft Tissue Sarcoma
Ali Osman, Kaya ; Suleyman, Buyukberber ; Metin, Ozkan ; Necati, Alkis ; Alper, Sevinc ; Nuriye Yildirim, Ozdemir ; Suleyman, Alici ; Onur, Esbah ; Veli, Berk ; Celalettin, Camci ; Arife, Ulas ; Ugur, Coskun ; Mustafa, Benekli ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 463~467
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.463
Purpose: To assess the safety and efficacy of a gemcitabine plus docetaxel regimen as a second line therapy for patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS) resistant to doxorubicin and ifosfamide-based therapy. Patients and Methods: Medical records of 64 patients with advanced STS who received gemcitabine plus docetaxel regimen as a second line treatment between May 2006 and June 2011 were examined. All patients had been previously treated with doxorubicin plus ifosfamide-based regimen at first line setting. Patients received gemcitabine 900
on days one and eight intravenously over 90 minutes, followed by docetaxel 75
on day eight intravenously over one hour. Cycles were repeated every 3 weeks. Results: The male-to-female ratio was 37/27 and the median age was 44 years (range; 19-67 years). Objective responses were observed in 13 (20.3 %) patients (2 CR, 11 PR) and stable disease in 21 (32.8 %). Total clinical benefit (CR+PR+SD) was observed in 34 (53.1 %). Median overall survival (OS) was 18 months (95% confidence interval (CI):12.1-23.9) and Median time to progression (TTP) was 4.8 months (95% CI: 3.6-6). A total of 243 cycles of chemotherapy were administered. The median number of cycle was 3 (range;1-11). The most common grade 3-4 hematologic toxicity was neutropenia (35.9 %). The most common nonhematologic toxicities consisted of nausea/vomiting (37.5 %), mucositis (32.8 %), peripheral neuropathy (29.7%), and fatigue (26 %). There was no toxicity-related death. Conclusion: The combination of gemcitabine plus docetaxel is an active and tolerable regimen as a second line therapy for patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma who have failed doxorubicin and ifosfamide-based therapy.
is a Useful Marker of Human Papillomavirus Integration Allowing Risk Stratification for Cervical Malignancies
Cheah, Phaik-Leng ; Looi, Lai-Meng ; Teoh, Kean-Hooi ; Mun, Kein-Seong ; Nazarina, Abdul Rahman ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 469~472
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.469
The present study was conducted to assess utility of
immunopositivity as a surrogate marker for genomic integration of high-risk human papillomavirus infection (hrHPV). A total of 29 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cervical low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs), 27 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) and 53 invasive squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), histologically-diagnosed between 1st January 2006 to 31st December 2008 at the University of Malaya Medical Centre were stained for
(CINtec Histology Kit (REF 9511, mtm laboratories AG, Heidelberg, Germany). Immunopositvity was defined as diffuse staining of the squamous cell cytoplasm and or nucleus (involving > 75% of the intraepithelial lesions or SCCs). Staining of basal and parabasal layers of intraepithelial lesions was pre-requisite. One (3.4%) LSIL, 24 (88.9%) HSIL and 46 (86.8%) SCC were
immunopositive. All normal squamous epithelium did not express
expression was significantly lower (p<0.05) in LSIL compared with HSIL and SCC with no difference in expression between HSIL and SCC. The increased
immunopositivity in HSIL and SCC appears in line with the integrated existence of the hrHPV and may provide more insightful information on risk of malignant transformation of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions than mere hrHPV detection.
HiF-1α siRNA and Cisplatin in Combination SuppressTumor Growth in a Nude Mice Model of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Liao, Hong-Ying ; Wang, Gui-Ping ; Gu, Li-Jia ; Huang, Shao-Hong ; Chen, Xiu-Ling ; Li, Yun ; Cai, Song-Wang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 473~477
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.473
Introduction: The esophagus squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most deadly malignances, and a current challenge is the development of effective therapeutic agents. Our present work addressed the effect of HIF-
siRNA alone or in combination with cisplatin on the growth of ESCC in nude mice. Materials and Methods: Xenografts were established by inoculating ESCC TE-1 cells in nude mice, and transplanted tumors were treated with HIF-
siRNA, cisplatin alone or together. Growth was assessed by measuring tumor volume. HIF-
mRNA and protein expression were detected using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Apoptosis of ESCC TE-1 cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: In our nude mice model, HIF-
siRNA effectively inhibited the growth of transplanted ESCC, downregulating HIF-
mRNA and protein expression, and inducing ESCC TE-1 cell apoptosis. Notably when combinated with cisplatin, HIF-
siRNA showed synergistic interaction in suppressing tumor growth. Furthermore, the proportion of apoptotic cells in HIF-
siRNA plus cisplatin group was significantly higher than that in cisplatin or HIF-
siRNA-treated groups (P<0.05). Conclusions: Down-regulated HIF-
expression induced by siRNA could effectively suppress the growth of transplanted ESCC
siRNA could enhance the cytotoxicity of cisplatin, which suggests that a combination of these two agents may have potential for therapy of advanced ESCC.
Positive Effects of Soy Isoflavone Food on Survival of Breast Cancer Patients in China
Zhang, Ya-Feng ; Kang, Hong-Bin ; Li, Bi-Li ; Zhang, Rui-Ming ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 479~482
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.479
Aim: Soy foods are the major source of isoflavones, which are believed to play important roles in genesis of breast cancer and its progression. We here conducted a prospective study to evaluate the association of soy isoflavone food consumption with breast cancer prognosis. Methods: A prospective study was performed from January 2004 and January 2006 in China. Trained interviewers conducted face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire to collect information on dietary habits and potential confounding factors. The relative risk [hazard ratio (HR)] and 95% CI were calculated from the Cox regression model for all significant predictors from cancer diagnosis to the endpoint of the study (event). Results: After a median follow up of 52.1 months (range, 9-60 months), a total of 79 breast cancer related deaths were recorded in our study, risk being inversely associated with a high intake of soy isoflavone. With an average intake of soy isoflavone above 17.3 mg/day, the mortality of breast cancer can be reduced by about 38-36%. We also found the decreased breast cancer death with high soy protein intake, with a HR (95% CI) of 0.71 (0.52-0.98). Stratified analysis with reference to the ER status, further demonstrated a better prognosis of ER positive breast cancer with a high intake of soy isoflavone (HR 0.59, 0.40-0.93). Conclusion: Our study shows the soy food intake is associated with longer survival and low recurrence among breast cancer patients. A cohort study with a larger sample size and long term follow-up is now needed.
Long-term Prognosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients after Hepatectomy
Zhou, Lei ; Liu, Chang ; Meng, Fan-Di ; Qu, Kai ; Tian, Feng ; Tai, Ming-Hui ; Wei, Ji-Chao ; Wang, Rui-Tao ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 483~486
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.483
Background: The hepatocellular carcinoma is very common in China. Our aim in this report was to investigate clinical and pathological factors based on the current decade data that could influence prognosis of HCC patients after hepatectomy. Methods: Between 2002 and 2009, all patients undergoing hepatectomy for HCC were followed up and reviewed retrospectively. Prognostic factors were studied by univariate and multivariate analysis, with Kaplan-Meier and Cox multivariate survival analyses. Results: Complete clinicopathologic and follow-up data were available for 114 patients. The estimated cumulative survival rates at 1, 3, and 5 yr were 84.6%, 60.2% and 51.8%, respectively. On univariate analysis, key prognostic factors were AFP level, GGT level, tumor size, number of tumors, portal vein invasion, liver cirrhosis status and TNM stage. In the multivariate analysis, tumor size, GGT level, liver cirrhosis status and portal vein invasion were significantly associated with patients' prognosis. Conclusion: Through follow-up of a relatively large cohort of Chinese patients, tumor size, GGT level, liver cirrhosis status, portal vein invasion were revealed as important factors for long-term survival after hepatectomy. Early diagnosis for tumor and the improvement of liver function before surgery are important ways to improve the prognosis.
Zinc and Zinc Related Enzymes in Precancerous and Cancerous Tissue in the Colon of Dimethyl Hydrazine Treated Rats
Christudoss, Pamela ; Selvakumar, R. ; Pulimood, Anna B. ; Fleming, Jude Joseph ; Mathew, George ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 487~492
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.487
Trace element zinc deficiency or excess is implicated in the development or progression of some cancers. The exact role of zinc in the etiology of colon cancer is unclear. To cast light on this question, an experimental model of colon carcinogenesis was applied here. Six week old rats were given sub cutaneous injections of DMH (30 mg/kg body weight) twice a week for three months and sacrificed after 4 months (precancer model) and 6 months (cancer model). Plasma zinc levels showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) at 4 months and a greater significant decrease at 6 months (p<0.01) as compared with controls. In the large intestine there was a significant decrease in tissue zinc levels (p<0.005) and in CuZnSOD, and alkaline phosphatase activity (p<0.05) in the pre-cancerous model and a greater significant decrease in tissue zinc (p<0.0001), and in CuZnSOD and alkaline phosphatase activity (p<0.001), in the carcinoma model. The tissue zinc levels showed a significant decrease in the small intestine and stomach (p<0.005) and in liver (p<0.05) in the cancer model. 87% of the rats in the precancer group and 92% rats in the cancer group showed histological evidence of precancerous lesions and carcinomas respectively in the colon mucosa. This study suggests that the decrease in plasma zinc, tissue zinc and activity of zinc related enzymes are associated with the development of preneoplastic lesions and these biochemical parameters further decrease with progression to carcinoma in the colon.
Hepatic Angiomyolipoma: Contrast Patterns with SonoVue-enhanced Real-time Gray-scale Ultrasonography
Wei, Rui-Xue ; Wang, Wen-Ping ; Ding, Hong ; Huang, Bei-Jian ; Li, Chao-Lun ; Fan, Pei-Li ; Hou, Jun ; He, Nian-An ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 493~497
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.493
This study was conducted to retrospectively evaluate the pattern of contrast enhancement with SonoVue on gray-scale ultrasonography of hepatic angiomyolipoma (HAML). Imaging features of 33 pathologically proven HAML lesions in 33 patients who underwent baseline ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) were assessed retrospectively. All lesions were enhanced in the arterial phase and showed whole-tumor filling in. Thirty-two of 33 (97%) lesions showed early positive enhancement in the arterial phase. Twenty-three of these exhibited isoechoic or hyperechoic features in the portal phase. HAML demonstrate characteristic manifestations with SonoVue-enhanced real-time gray-scale ultrasonography.
Norcantharidin Anti-Angiogenesis Activity Possibly through an Endothelial Cell Pathway in Human Colorectal Cancer
Yu, Tao ; Hou, Fenggang ; Liu, Manman ; Zhou, Lihong ; Li, Dan ; Liu, Jianrong ; Fan, Zhongze ; Li, Qi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 499~503
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.499
The present study was based on the unexpected discovery that norcantharidin exerted anti-angiogenesis activity when effects on growth of human colon cancer were studied. The aim was to further verify this finding and explore possible mechanisms using a tumor xenograft model in nude mice. We confirmed that norcantharidin (5 or 15 mg/kg) could inhibit angiogenesis of human colon cancer in vivo. In vitro, crossing river assay, cell adhesion assay and tube formation assay indicated that NCTD could reduce the migration, adhesion and vascular network tube formation ability of HUVECs. At the same time, the expression levels of VEGF and VEGFR-2 proteins which play important roles in angiogenesis were reduced as examined by western blotting analysis. Taken together, the results firstly showed NCTD could inhibit angiogenesis of human colon cancer in vivo, probably associated with effects on migration, adhesion and vascular network tube formation of HUVECs and expression levels of VEGF and VEGFR-2 proteins.
Application of MMP-7 and MMP-10 in Assisting the Diagnosis of Malignant Pleural Effusion
Cheng, Daye ; Liang, Bin ; Li, Yun-Hui ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 505~509
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.505
Background: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are proteolytic enzymes that are essentially involved in turnover of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The aim was to investigate the diagnostic value of MMP-7 and MMP-10 as tumor markers in pleural effusion (PE) and evaluate the value of combining MMP-7, MMP-10 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) assays as diagnostic aids for malignant cells. Materials and Methods: A total of 179 patients with PE (87 malignant and 92 benign) were included in this study. The levels of MMP-7 and MMP-10 were measured using ELISA. Results: Values for MMP-7 and MMP-10 were significantly higher in malignant PE than those in benign PE (P<0.01). Among all variables evaluated, logistic regression found that MMP-7 and MMP-10 were significantly correlated with the presence of malignant disease (P<0.01). Analysis of receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves showed that the area under the curve of MMP-10 (0.806) was significantly larger than that of MMP-7 (0.771) and CEA (0.789) (P<0.01). With parallel interpretation, the combination of MMP-10 and CEA achieved the higher sensitivity of 94.6%. The combination of MMP-7 and CEA in serial interpretation was able to boost the specificity to 95.7%. The combination of MMP-7, MMP-10 and CEA produced better sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV than MMP-7 and MMP-10 alone. Conclusion: MMP-7 and MMP-10 in PE may represent helpful adjuncts to conventional diagnostic tools in ruling out malignancy as a probable diagnosis, thus guiding the selection of patients who might benefit from further invasive procedures.
p53 Exon 4 (codon 72) Polymorphism and Exon 7 (codon 249) Mutation in Breast Cancer Patients in Southern Region(Madurai) of Tamil Nadu
Vijayaraman, Kiruthiga Perumal ; Veluchamy, Mohanasundari ; Murugesan, Pravina ; Shanmugiah, Karutha Pandian ; Kasi, Pandima Devi ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 511~516
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.511
Background: We investigated the association between polymorphisms in the
tumor suppressor gene and breast cancer risk in women especially in the Southern part of India. Methods: Genotyping was performed for 50 breast cancer women and 50 controls to determine the status of
exon 4 codon 72 polymorphism and exon 7 codon 249 mutation and their possible role in breast cancer risk. Results: Frequency of Arg/Arg at codon 72 was 18% in controls and 28% in patients, Arg/Pro frequency was 56% and 66%, Pro/Pro genotype was 8% in controls and 8% in patients. No significance was observed for breast cancer risk with either Arg/Arg or Pro/Pro genotype in codon 72 polymorphism. Similarly, mutation analysis of exon 7 codon 249 revealed that 72% of breast cancer patients have mutation, which is not statistically significant. However, there is a strong association between increase in exon 7 codon 249 mutation and exposure to pollution. Conclusion: The results suggested that there is no risk for exon 4 with Arg/Arg or Pro/Pro polymorphisms in the
gene and there is no strong correlation between breast cancer patients and mutation in exon 7 codon 249 in South Indian women.
Outcome of Single Agent Generic Gemcitabine in Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer and Primary Peritoneal Adenocarcinoma
Suprasert, Prapaporn ; Cheewakriangkrai, Chalong ; Manopunya, Manatsawee ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 517~520
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.517
Single original gemcitabine is commonly used as salvage treatment in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer, fallopian tube cancer and primary peritoneal adenocarcinoma (PPA) with a satisfactory outcome. However, efficacy data fro this regimen are limited. We therefore conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the outcome of patients who received single-agent generic gemcitabine (GEMITA) after development of clinical platinum resistance. The study period was between May 2008 and December 2010. Gemcitabine was administered intravenously in two different schedules: 1,000
on day 1,8, and 15 every 28 days; and on days 1 and 8 every 21 days with the same dosage. Administration was until disease progression was noted. The response rate was evaluated using the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG) criteria while toxicity was evaluated according to WHO criteria. Sixty-six patients met the inclusion criteria in the study period. Two-thirds of them received gemcitabine as the second and third line regimen. The overall response rate was 12.1%. The median progression free survival and overall survival was 2 and 10 months, respectively. With the total 550 courses of chemotherapy,the patients developed grades 3 and 4 hematologic toxicity as follows: anemia, 1.5%; leukopenia, 13.7%; neutropenia, 27.3%; and thrombocytopenia, 3.0%. In conclusion, single agent generic gemcitabine revealed a modest efficacy in patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer, fallopian tube cancer and PPA without serious toxicity.
Low Microsomal Epoxide Hydrolase Expression is Associated with Bladder Carcinogenesis and Recurrence
Zhang, Zhe ; Yu, Xiu-Yue ; Zhang, Guo-Jun ; Guo, Kun-Feng ; Kong, Chui-Ze ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 521~525
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.521
Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) plays a significant role in the metabolism of numerous xenobiotics and is associated with several forms of cancer. Here, we investigated the role of mEH expression in bladder carcinogenesis, subsequent progression and recurrence. The expression of mEH was analyzed by Western blot in 50 bladder urothelial carcinoma and 20 normal epithelial tissues. There was a significantly higher mEH expression in the normal epithelium (P<0.05) and mEH expression was lower in high stage than in low stage tumors (P<0.05). Further, immunohistochmistry in 106 bladder urothelial carcinoma demonstrated mEH expression to be negatively correlated with histological grade, pT stage and recurrence (P<0.05). These findings suggest the important role of mEH in bladder carcinogenesis, cancer development and recurrence, providing support for efforts to develop mEH-based gene therapy.
An integrated Approach to Worksite Tobacco Use Prevention and Oral Cancer Screening Among Factory Workers in Mumbai, india
Pimple, Sharmila ; Pednekar, Mangesh ; Majmudar, Parishi ; Ingole, Nilesh ; Goswami, Savita ; Shastri, Surendra ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 527~532
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.527
Background: Tobacco control and cessation interventions are among the most cost effective medical interventions but health systems in low resource countries lack the infrastructure to promote prevention and cessation among tobacco users. Workplace settings have the potential to provide opportunities and access for tobacco prevention interventions. Methods: This is a single group study evaluating tobacco use prevention and cessation through a structured three stage intervention program for tobacco users comprising education on harmful effects of tobacco, oral cancer screening and behavior therapy for tobacco cessation at the worksite. Results: All the 739 workers who were invited participated in tobacco awareness program and were screened for oral pre cancer lesions. 291 (39.4%) workers were found to be users of tobacco in some form. Education, gender and alcohol use (p<0.0001) were some of the factors associated with tobacco user status. The prevalence of clinical oral precancer lesions among tobacco users was 21.6%. Alcohol consumption (p<0.001), the type of tobacco consumed (p<0.018), personal medical history of chronic diseases (p<0.007) and combined use of alcohol and tobacco (p<0.001) were some factors found to be associated with presence of oral pre cancer lesions. Conclusion: An integrated approach for worksite based tobacco use prevention with oral cancer screening program showed good acceptance and participation and was effective in addressing the problem of tobacco consumption among the factory workers.
Predictors of Quitting Tobacco - Results of a Worksite Tobacco Cessation Service Program Among Factory Workers in Mumbai, india
Pimple, Sharmila ; Pednekar, Mangesh ; Mazumdar, Parishi ; Goswami, Savita ; Shastri, Surendra ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 533~538
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.533
Background: Tobacco cessation would provide the most immediate benefits of tobacco control to prevent tobacco related disease morbidity and mortality. Methods: A tobacco cessation program involving individual and group behavior therapy was implemented in three stages at a worksite. Tobacco quit rates were assessed at the end of each contact session. Results: Out of the 291 tobacco users identified, 224 participated in the tobacco cessation interventions. At the end of three interventions, 38 (17%) users had successfully quit tobacco use. Presence of clinical oral pre-cancer lesion was found to be associated with quitting (p=0.02). Also tobacco users with oral pre-cancer lesions were around three times more likely to quit than those with no lesions (OR= 2.70 95% C.I= 1.20 - 6.05). Conclusion: Cost effective multi-pronged tobacco cessation approaches, inbuilt into other occupational health and welfare activities, are acceptable and feasible to achieve long term sustainable tobacco cessation programs at worksites.
Global School Personnel Survey Among 5200 School Personnel in India: Comparison of the Results for the Years 2009 and 2006
Gajalakshmi, V. ; Kanimozhi, C.V. ; Sinha, D.N. ; Rahman, K. ; Warren, C.W. ; Asma, S. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 539~543
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.539
Background: The results of the Global School Personnel Survey (GSPS) conducted in India in 2009 are compared with 2006 GSPS to assess any change in 2009 on tobacco use and knowledge and attitudes to tobacco use, training and availability of tobacco control teaching material in schools and the existence of school tobacco control policies. Methods: GSPS is a cross sectional survey conducted twice (2006 and 2009) in entire India. A total of 180 schools were surveyed each time. Results: Of the participating school personnel, 2660 in 2006 and 2575 in 2009, about 95% were teachers and the balance administrators. In 2009, compared to 2006 the prevalence of current smoking of cigarettes (19.6% in 2006 and 10.3% in 2009) and bidis (21.5% in 2006 and 13.9% in 2009) was found to be significantly lower; the percentage of teachers receiving training on preventing youth tobacco use has significantly reduced (16.7% in 2006 and 10.1% in 2009); access of teachers to educational materials on tobacco use and how to prevent its use among youth had not increased (34.6% in 2006 and 37.8% in 2009); there was no change in policy prohibiting tobacco use among students and school personnel; however, ever use of any tobacco on school premises was significantly lower (15.6% in 2006 and 9.6% in 2009). Conclusions: The prevalence of current smoking (cigarettes/bidis) among school personnel and use of any tobacco on school premises were significantly decreased in 2009 as compared to 2006. Necessary action should be planned to increase the number of teachers trained and the availability of teaching materials on preventing youth tobacco use in order to have effective prevention of tobacco use among students.
Validity and Reliability of a Dish-based, Semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire for Korean Diet and Cancer Research
Park, Min-Kyung ; Noh, Hwa-Young ; Song, Na-Yeun ; Paik, Hee-Young ; Park, So-Hee ; Joung, Hyo-Jee ; Song, Won-O ; Kim, Jeong-Seon ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 545~552
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.545
This study evaluated the validity and reliability of applying a newly developed dish-based, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for Korean diet and cancer research. The subjects in the present study were 288 Korean adults over 30 years of age who had completed two FFQs and four 3-day diet records (DRs) from May 2008 to February 2009. Student's t-tests, Chi-square tests, and Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were used to estimate and compare intakes from different dietary assessment tools. Agreement in quintiles was calculated to validate agreement between the results of the second FFQ (FFQ-2) conducted in February 2009 and the DRs. Median Spearman's correlation coefficients between the intake of nutrients and foods assessed by the FFQ-1 and FFQ-2 were 0.59 and 0.57, respectively, and the coefficients between the intake of nutrients and foods assessed by the FFQ-2 and the DRs were 0.31 and 0.29, respectively. The quintile classifications of same or adjacent quintile for intake of nutrients and foods were 64% and 65%, respectively. Misclassification into opposite quintiles occurred in less than 5% for all dietary factors. Thus this newly-developed, Korean dish-based FFQ demonstrated moderate correspondence with the four 3-day DRs. Its reliability and validity are comparable to those reported in other studies.
Mandibular Reconstruction with Vascularized Osseous Free Flaps: a Review of the Literature
Kim, Bong-Chul ; Kim, So-Mi ; Nam, Woong ; Cha, In-Ho ; Kim, Hyung-Jun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 553~558
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.553
Purpose: This article reviews a few of the commonly used types of vascularized osseous free flaps in maxillofacial reconstruction, which still represents the gold standard of restoration. We also discuss the developing concepts in maxillofacial reconstruction. Recent findings: Most of the literature reconfirms the established patterns of reconstruction with the aid of vascularized osseous free flaps. This method of free-tissue transfer is also feasible in cases of osteoradionecrosis or bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. These flaps are also suitable for prosthetic restoration using osseointegrated dental implants. Summary: Vascularized osseous free flaps still remain the standard of care. Improvements upon the free-tissue transfer method employing vascularized osseous free flaps, such as distraction osteogenesis, tissue engineering, and imaging techniques, currently require further development, but these technologies could lead to improved outcomes of maxillofacial reconstruction in the near future.
Distinctions Between Clinicopathological Factors and Prognosis of Alpha-fetoprotein Negative and Positive Hepatocelluar Carcinoma Patients
Xu, Jia ; Liu, Chang ; Zhou, Lei ; Tian, Feng ; Tai, Ming-Hui ; Wei, Ji-Chao ; Qu, Kai ; Meng, Fan-Di ; Zhang, Ling-Qiang ; Wang, Zhi-Xin ; Zhang, Jing-Yao ; Chang, Hu-Lin ; Liu, Si-Nan ; Xu, Xin-Shen ; Song, Yan-Zhou ; Liu, Jun ; Zhang, Peng ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 559~562
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.559
Serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a significant marker for clinical diagnosis and prognosis evaluation in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. However, some proportion of liver cancer patients are AFP-negative (AFP
20ng/ml). In order to study the differences between clinicopathological factors and prognosis of alpha-fetoprotein negative and positive patients, a total of 114 cases (41 AFP-negative and 73 AFP-positive) were selected for our research. By systematically statistical analysis, the results demonstrated that compared with AFP-negative patients, AFP-positive examples were more likely to feature cirrhosis nodules, non-complete neoplasm capsules, and a poor Edmondson-steiner grade. Furthermore, AFP-negative patients demonstrated a favorable long-term prognosis. By univariate analysis and multivariate analysis with Cox's proportional hazards model, multiple tumors were found to be independent risk factors for worse survival of AFP negative patients; however, less tumor-free margins, multiple tumors and Edmondson-steiner grades III/IV, proved to be independent risk factors leading to a poor prognosis of AFP positive cases. Finally, we can infer that high levels of AFP signify a highly malignant tumor and unfavorable prognosis.
Novel Hydrophilic Taxane Analogues inhibit Growth of Cancer Cells
Fauzee, Nilufer Jasmine Selimah ; Wang, Ya-Lan ; Dong, Zhi ; Li, Qian-Ge ; Wang, Tao ; Mandarry, Muhammad Tasleem ; Lu, Xu ; Juan, Pan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 563~567
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.563
In our era there has been several anti-cancer drugs which have undergone both experimental and clinical trials; however, due to their poor solubilities, numerous side effects, insufficient bioavailability and poor compliance, many have resulted into poor outcomes. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the effects of novel hydrophilic taxanes analogues CQMU-0517 and CQMU-0519 on growth of A549 lung, SKVO3 ovary and MCF7 breast carcinoma cell lines. Different concentrations of original paclitaxel, CQMU-0517, original docetaxel and CQMU-0519 were utilized on three cell lines, where cell growth was assessed using cell culture kit-8 and flow cytometry analysis. The results unveiled that CQMU-0517 and CQMU-0519 suppressed cell growth in the three particular cell lines, cell cycle arrest being evident in the G2/M phase. Hence, the results showed that these new taxane analogues have potential and warrant future clinical trials.
Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene Polymorphisms as Predictive and Prognostic Biomarkers in Ovarian Cancer Risk
Gao, Song ; Liu, Ning ; Ma, Yang ; Ying, Liu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 569~573
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.569
Early diagnosis and better prognosis of ovarian cancer is still a challenge. Besides environmental risk factors, genetic factors have established a role in pathogenesis of ovarian cancer. Methods: A case-control and a prospective study design conducted in 224 ovarian cancer patients and 432 controls in Chinese population. MTHFR C677T genotyping was done by PCR-RFLP. Results: Patients with ovarian cancer is associated with a higher less number of delivery and less frequent oral contraceptive use. When potential confounding factors adjusted logistic regression analysis between cases and controls were performed, significant association was obtained for 677T/T genotype and ovarian cancer (OR=3.13, 95% CI=1.59-5.72). Cox regression survival analysis showed individuals carrying T/T genotype had significantly increased HR for death in ovarian cancer patients (HR=2.86, 95% CI=1.27-7.93). In conclusion, we observed that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism is associated with the susceptibility and survival of ovarian cancer in Chinese population.
Posttransplant Malignancies in Renal Transplant Recipients: 22-years Experience from a Single Center in Pakistan
Yunus, Mahira ; Aziz, Tahir ; Mubarak, Muhammed ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 575~578
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.575
Objective: To study the incidence, types and distribution pattern of malignant tumors in renal transplant recipients at a single center in Pakistan. Materials and methods: This retrospective study was conducted at Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT) and included all transplant patients on regular follow-up from November 1986 to December 2008. The original biopsy reports and case files of all patients who developed posttransplant malignancies were reviewed and relevant demographic, clinical, radiological, and histopathological data were retrieved and analyzed. SPSS version 10.0 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Over 22 years of study period, 1816 renal transplants were carried out at our center. Among these, 44 patients developed malignancies constituting an overall incidence rate of 2.4%. All patients in this study were males with a mean age of
years (range: 9 to 60 years). The most common type of malignancy was lymphoma (27 patients, 61.4%), followed by Kaposi's sarcoma (11 patients, 25%) and skin malignancies (3 patients, 6.8%). One case each of adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder, acute myeloid leukemia (AML), conjunctival carcinoma-in-situ and seminoma were also diagnosed. Conclusion: Posttransplant malignancies occurring in our renal transplant recipients show different incidence rates and patterns as compared with western studies.
SULT1A1 Arg213His Polymorphism and Lung Cancer Risk: a Meta-analysis
Liao, Shao-Guang ; Liu, Lu ; Zhang, Ying-Yi ; Wang, Ying ; Wang, Ya-Jie ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 579~583
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.579
Background: The SULT1A1 Arg213His polymorphism is reported to be associated with lung cancer risk. However, this relationship remains controversial. For better understanding a meta-analysis was therefore performed. Methods: An extensive search was performed to identify all case-control studies investigating association between SULT1A1 Arg213His polymorphism and lung cancer risk. The strength was assessed by odds ratio (OR) with the corresponding 95% confidence interval (95%CI). Results: A total of five publications covering 1,669 cases and 1,890 controls were included in this meta-analysis. No significant association between SULT1A1 Arg213His polymorphism and lung cancer risk was observed in overall comparisons in all genetic models (dominant model: OR=1.33, 95%CI=1.00-1.76, P=0.05; additive model: OR=1.30, 95%CI=0.93-1.81, P=0.12; recessive model: OR=1.21, 95%CI=0.89-1.66, P=0.23). However, on subgroup analysis, an elevated risk in mixed populations with variant His allele was revealed in the dominant model (OR=1.66, 95% CI=1.06-2.62, P=0.03). Furthermore, the SULT1A1 Arg213His polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in both females and males in the dominant model (females: OR=1.72, 95%CI=1.29-2.27, P=0.00; males: OR=1.46, 95%CI=1.19-1.78, P=0.00). No significant association between this polymorphism and different smoking status (smokers and non-smokers) and the other ethnicities (Asians and Caucasians) was shown. Conclusions: The results of this meta-analysis indicate that the SULT1A1 Arg213His polymorphism is not associated with lung cancer risk in Asians and Caucasians, but possible elevation for genotype (GA/AA) in mixed populations and males and females needs further investigation.
Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Among the Arab Population in israel from 1970 to 2006
Zini, Avraham ; Nasser, Nasser ; Vered, Yuval ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 585~589
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.585
Background: Israeli Arabs are considered as a developing society characterized by poverty and high levels of smoking among men. The purpose of this study was to describe their incidence, mortality and survival rates for oral and pharyngeal cancer between the years 1970-2006. Studies such as this in the Arab world, where the population is almost the same as the Arab population in Israel, are rare. Methods: The incidence and survival data were derived from all relevant registered data at the National Cancer Registry. The group of lesions included cancer of the lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, floor of the mouth, salivary glands, gums, palate and pharynx. Morphological description was according to WHO classification. Results: Most diagnosed patients were male. The mean age was 54.4 years, and mean years of survival were 3.83. The oropharynx was the most common site (28.3%) while the palate was the least frequent (3.12%). Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was the most common histological feature (66.3%), while basal cell carcinoma (BCC) was the least (3.9%). The overall 5 years survival rate was 59.4%, this being highest for BCC (82.1%), while SCC was significantly lower (56.2%) (p<0.001). Lip cancers survived better than other sites. Conclusions: Data from this society are similar to other developing societies in the majority of the results. The incidence of oral and pharyngeal cancer is lower among the Arab population, in comparison to the Jewish population in Israel.
MicroRNAs and Metastasis-related Gene Expression in Egyptian Breast Cancer Patients
Hafez, Mohamed M. ; Hassan, Zeinab K. ; Zekri, Abdel Rahman N. ; Gaber, Ayman A. ; Rejaie, Salem S. Al ; Sayed-Ahmed, Mohamed M. ; Shabanah, Othman Al ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 591~598
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.591
Aim and background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of naturally occurring small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression, cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis by targeting mRNAs for translational repression or cleavage. The present study was conducted to study miRNAs in Egyptian breast cancer (BC) and their relation to metastasis, tumor invasion and apoptosis in addition to their association with the ER and PR statuses. Methods: Real Time RT-PCR was performed to identify the miRNA expression level of eight miRNAs and eight metastatic-related genes in 40 breast cancer samples and their adjacent non-neoplastic tissues. The expression levels of each miRNA relative to U6 RNA were determined using the
method. Also, miRNA expression profiles of the BC and their corresponding ANT were evaluated. Results: The BC patients showed an up-regulation in miRNAs (mir-155, mir-10, mir-21 and mir-373) with an upregulation in MMP2, MMp9 and VEGF genes. We found down regulation in mir-17p, mir-126, mir-335, mir-30b and also TIMP3, TMP1 and PDCD4 genes in the cancer tissue compared to the adjacent non-neoplastic tissues. Mir -10b, mir -21, mir-155 and mir373 and the metastatic genes MMP2, MMP9 and VEGF were significantly associated with an increase in tumor size (P < 0.05). No significant difference was observed between any of the studied miRNAs regarding lymph node metastasis. Mir-21 was significantly over-expressed in ER-/PR-cases. Conclusion: Specific miRNAs (mir-10, mir-21, mir-155, mir-373, mir-30b, mir-126, mir-17p, mir-335) are associated with tumor metastasis and other clinical characteristics for BC, facilitating identification of individuals who are at risk.
Whole Genome Analysis of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 Multiple Infection in Cervical Cancer Patients
Chansaenroj, Jira ; Theamboonlers, Apiradee ; Junyangdikul, Pairoj ; Swangvaree, Sukumarn ; Karalak, Anant ; Poovorawan, Yong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 599~606
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.599
The characterization of the whole genome of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) from cervical cancer specimens with multiple infections in comparison with single infection samples as the oncogenic potential of the virus may differ. Cervical carcinoma specimens positive for HPV16 by PCR and INNO-LiPA were randomly selected for whole genome characterization. Two HPV16 single infection and six HPV16 multiple infection specimens were subjected to whole genome analysis by using conserved primers and subsequent sequencing. All HPV16 whole genomes from single infection samples clustered in the European (E) lineage while all multiple infection specimens belonged to the non-European lineage. The variations in nucleotide sequences in E6, E7, E2, L1 and Long control region (LCR) were evaluated. In the E6 region, amino acid changes at L83V were related to increased cancer progression. An amino acid variation N29S within the E7 oncoprotein significantly associated with severity of lesion was also discovered. In all three domains of the E2 gene non synonymous mutations were found. The L1 region showed various mutations which may be related to conformation changes of viral epitopes. Some transcription factor binding sites in the LCR region correlated to virulence were shown on GRE/1, TEF-1, YY14 and Oct-1. HPV16 European variant prone to single infection may harbor a major variation at L83V which significantly increases the risk for developing cervical carcinoma. HPV16 non-European variants prone to multiple infections may require many polymorphisms to enhance the risk of cervical cancer development.
Stimulation of Dendritic Cell Maturation and Induction of Apoptosis in Leukemia Cells by a Heat-stable Extract from Azuki bean (Vigna angularis), a Promising Immunopotentiating Food and Dietary Supplement for Cancer Prevention
Nakaya, Kazuyasu ; Nabata, Yuri ; Ichiyanagi, Takashi ; An, Wei Wei ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 607~611
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.607
Non-toxic stimulation of dendritic cells (DCs), which are central immunomodulators, may aid the prevention of cancer. Furthermore, induction of apoptosis in cancer cells by anticancer agents contributes to the induction of DC maturation. We previously reported that extracts from
Sieb. et Zucc pine cone and
seed induce differentiation of mouse bone marrow cells into mature dendritic cells and also induce apoptosis in various human cancer cell lines. In the present study, we screened 31 kinds of edible beans with biological activity similar to that of extracts from pine cone and
and found that the heat-stable extract from azuki bean (
) stimulated differentiation of bone marrow cells into immature DCs with the greatest efficacy. The level of IL-6 produced by sequential treatment of DCs with azuki extract and lipopolysaccharide was the highest among the examined beans. Azuki extract also inhibited the growth of human leukemia U937 cells, leading to induction of apoptosis. These results suggest that azuki bean and its extract are immunopotentiating foods that can be used as a dietary supplement for cancer prevention and immunotherapy.
Expression of Tiam1 in Lung Cancer and its Clinical Significance
Wang, Hong-Ming ; Wang, Jing ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 613~615
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.613
The aim of this study was to ana1yze T-cell lymphoma invasion and metastasis-inducing factor 1 (Tiam1) expression in 1ung cancer patients. A total of 204 patients with lung cancer tissue lesions were enrolled in the present study, along with 40 cases of normal lung tissue and 40 of normal fetal lung tissue. Tiam1 protein expression level was determined using intensity quantitative analysis, for comparison in lung cancer, metastatic, normal lung, and fetal lung tissue. The positive unit (PU) of Tiam1 was
in lung cancer,
in norma1 epithelial cells, and
in fetal lung epithelial cells. The value in the lung cancer tissue was significantly higher than that in the normal lung tissue and the fetal lung tissue (P<0.01). The Tiam1 PU values with lymph node metastasis and without 1ymph node metastasis were
, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The Tiam1 PU values in different tumor, nodes, metastasis (TNM) stages, III-IV period, and I-II phase were
(P<0.05). A correlation was found between Tiam1 expression and the age of patient, tumor size, tumor type, and tumor differentiation. Tiam1 protein expression in the lung tumor tissue is significantly higher than that in the normal lung tissue and fetal lung tissue. Tiam1 expression may be closely related to lung cancer development and metastasis.
Early Efficacy of Taxotere and Cisplatin Chemo-Radiotherapy for Advanced Cervical Cancer
Ke, Qing-Hua ; Zhou, Shi-Qiong ; Du, Wei ; Lei, Yong ; Huang, Min ; Luo, Fei ; Yang, Ji-Yuan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 617~619
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.617
The aim of this study was to investigate the early outcome of the taxotere and cisplatin chemoradiotherapy for advanced cervical cancer. Fifty-six cases (FIGO II b to IVa) were divided randomly into two groups: radiotherapy alone (28 cases) and radiation plus chemotherapy (TP) group. There was no difference in radiotherapy between the two groups. The RT+C cases who received TP regimen during the radiation, and DDP once weekly injection of vain, according to 20
and taxotere once weekly iv according to 35
. These regimens were given for 4~5weeks, and some medicines to control vomiting were available for the RT+C cases. The two groups received an oral medicine MA 160mg every day during the treatment. Regarding early outcome, the complete remission rate was 64.3% and partial remission rate was 35.7% in RT+C. The complete remission rate was 32.1% and partial remission rate was 39.3% in RT. The total response rate and complete remission in the RT+C group were higher than that in the RT group. We conclude that taxotere and cisplatin chemoradiotherapy can improve the early outcome of the advanced cervical cancer, the adverse effects being endurable.
Genetic Variants in Interleukin-2 and Risk of Lymphoma among Children in Korea
Song, Nan ; Han, So-Hee ; Lee, Kyoung-Mu ; Choi, Ji-Yeob ; Park, Sue-K ; Jeon, Su-Jee ; Lee, Yun-Hee ; Ahn, Hyo-Seop ; Shin, Hee-Young ; Kang, Hyoung-Jin ; Koo, Hong-Hoe ; Seo, Jong-Jin ; Choi, Ji-Eun ; Kang, Dae-Hee ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 621~623
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.621
To estimate the genetic susceptibility for childhood lymphoma, we conducted an association study for 23 cases and 148 controls. Total 1536 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected in 138 candidate gene regions related to immune responses, apoptosis, the cell cycle, and DNA repair. Twelve SNPs were significantly associated with the risk of lymphoma (
<0.05) in six genes (
). The most significant association was seen for
variant rs2069762 (
vs. TT=3.43 (1.29-9.11),
=0.005). These findings suggest that common genetic variants in
might play a role in the pathogenesis of childhood lymphoma.
Reversion of Multidrug Resistance by SKI-II in SGC7901/DDP Cells and Exploration of Underlying Mechanisms
Zhu, Zu-An ; Zhu, Zheng-Qiu ; Cai, Hong-Xing ; Liu, Ying ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 625~631
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.625
In order to investigate whether SKI-II could reverse drug resistance and its possible mechanisms, we treated SGC7901/DDP cells with SKI-II or SKI-II in combination with DDP. Then cell growth, apoptosis, micromorphological changes, and expression of SphK1, P-gp, NF-
, Bcl-2 and Bax were assessed by MTT assay, flow cytometry, electron microscopy, immunocytochemistry and Western blot assay respectively. SGC7901/DDP cells were insensitive to cisplatin 2.5mg/L, but when pretreated with SKI-II, their proliferation was inhibited by cisplatin 2.5mg/L significantly, the inhibition rate increasing with time and dose. The apoptosis rate was also significantly elevated. Expression of SphK1 and P-gp was decreased significantly, Pearson correlation analysis showing significant correlation between the two (r=0.595, P<0.01). Expression of NF-
and Bcl-2 was decreased significantly,while that of Bax was increased, compared to the control group. There were significant correlations between SphK1 and NF-
(r=0.723, P<0.01), NF-
and Bcl-2(r=0.768, P<0.01). All these data indicated that SKI-II could reverse drug resistance of SGC7901/DDP to cisplatin by down-regulating expression of P-gp and up-regulating apoptosis through down-regulation of SphK1. The increased apoptotic sensitivity of SGC7901/DDP to cisplatin was due to the decreasing proportion of Bcl-2/Bax via down-regulating NF-
Knockdown of a Proliferation-inducing Ligand (PRIL) Suppresses the Proliferation of Gastric Cancer Cells
Cui, Jiu-Wei ; Li, Yan ; Wang, Chang ; Yao, Cheng ; Li, Wei ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 633~636
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.633
Purpose: PRIL (proliferation-inducing ligand) is a newly identified member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family and modulates death ligand-induced apoptosis. Here, we investigated the effect of PRIL on cellular characteristics relating to tumor progression in human gastric cancer. Method: Recombinant lentivirus containing PRIL siRNA was constructed and then infected MGC803 and SGC7901 gastric cancer cells. MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] colony formation and cell cycle analysis were used to study the effect of PRIL knockdown on gastric cancer cell proliferation. Results: PRIL expression in lentivirus infected cells was significantly reduced as evidenced by quantitative real-time PCR. Cell viability and colony formation of MGC803 and SGC7901 cells were significantly hampered in PRIL knock-down cells. Moreover, the cell cycle was arrested at G2/M phase, elucidating the mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of siRNA on cell proliferation. Conclusions: Our study indicated that PRIL functions in promoting cell growth, and lentivirus-mediated PRIL gene knockdown might be a promising strategy in the treatment of gastric cancer.
Descriptive Epidemiology of Primary Brain and CNS Tumors in Delhi, 2003-2007
Manoharan, N. ; Julka, P.K. ; Rath, G.K. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 637~640
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.637
The Delhi Population Based Cancer Registry data during the period 2003-2007 were used to describe the epidemiology of primary malignant brain and central nervous system tumors in Delhi. A total of 1989 brain and CNS tumors cases in 1291 males and 698 females were registered during the period 1st January 2003 to 31st December 2007. The age adjusted (world population) incidence rates were 3.9 per 100,000 for males and 2.4 per 100,000 for females. Gliomas were the most frequently reported histology both in males (26.6%) and females (23.2%). A male predominance in incidence was observed for all histological classifications. The rates in Delhi are low compared to the incidences reported from developed countries.
Endo-sulfatase Sulf-1 Protein Expression is Down-regulated in Gastric Cancer
Gopal, Gopisetty ; Shirley, Sundersingh ; Raja, Uthandaraman Mahalinga ; Rajkumar, Thangarajan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 641~646
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.641
In our recent report on gene expression in gastric cancer we identified the endo-sulfatase Sulf-1 gene to be up-regulated in gastric tumors relative to apparently normal (AN), and paired normal (PN) gastric tissue samples. In the present report we investigate the protein expression levels of Sulf-1 gene in gastric tumors, AN and PN samples using tissue microarray (TMA) and immunohistochemistry. Expression data was collected from two sets of TMA's containing replicate sections of tissue samples. Scoring data from TMA set-1 revealed a significant difference in Sulf-1 immunoreactivity between tumors and "normals" (PN and AN) (p-value = 0.001928). Also, Sulf-1 expression in tumors was also significantly different from either PN (p-value = 0.019) or AN (p-value = 0.006) samples. Similar results were obtained from analysis of scoring data from the second set of arrays. Comparison of mRNA expression and protein expression in gastric tumor tissues revealed that in 6/20 (30%) tumor samples showed up-regulated protein expression concordant with over-expression of mRNA. However, a discord with mRNA being over-expressed relative to down regulated protein expression was observed in majority 14/20 (70%) of tumor samples. Our study indicates down regulation of Sulf-1 protein expression in gastric tumors relative to PN and AN samples which is discordant with mRNA over-expression seen in tumors.
Folate intake, Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphisms in Association with the Prognosis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Jing, Chen ; Huang, Zhijie ; Duan, Yuqin ; Xiao, Xinrong ; Zhang, Ru ; Jiang, Jianqing ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 647~651
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.647
Aim: An epidemiological study was conducted based on an esophageal cancer patient's cohort to investigate the association of folate intake and MTHFR C677T polymorphism with the prognosis of esophageal cancer in a Chinese population. Methods: 167 patients aged 37-75 years who had histological confirmed diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell cancer were collected from Jan. 2006 to Jan. 2008. MTHFR genotypes at the C677T site were analyzed by PCR-based RFLP methods, and the folate intake was computed by multiplying the food intake (in grams) and the folate content (per gram) of food in our questionnaire. Results: We found associations between the prognosis of esophageal cancer and smoking status, T and N stages. Individuals carrying the MTHFR 677CT and TT genotypes showed a shorter survival time than with the CC genotype, with adjusted HRs (95% CI) of 1.20 (0.56-2.15) and 2.29 (1.30-4.28), respectively. Similarly, those carrying MTHFR 677T allele had a 1.86-fold risk of death. A higher folate concentration showed a significant decreased risk of death, with an HR (95% CI) of 0.45 (0.18-0.87). Individuals with high folate intake and the MTHFR 677CC genotype showed a significant decreased risk of esophageal cancer (0.43, 0.25-0.89).Conclusion: Our findings supports the hypothesis that high folate intake and active MTHFR C677T polymorphism may exert protective roles in the prognosis of esophageal cancer in the Chinese population.
Eryngium foetidum Suppresses Inflammatory Mediators Produced by Macrophages
Mekhora, Chusana ; Muangnoi, Channarong ; Chingsuwanrote, Pimjai ; Dawilai, Suwitcha ; Svasti, Saovaros ; Chasri, Kaimuk ; Tuntipopipat, Siriporn ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 653~664
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.653
Objective: This study assessed anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of
leaf extract on LPS-activated murine macrophages. Methods: RAW264.7 cells were pretreated with or without
extract for 1 h prior to incubation with LPS for 24 h. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated with reference to iNOS, COX-2, TNF-
and IL-6 gene expression. In addition, NO and intracellular ROS generation were determined by Griess method and fluorescence intensity and activation of MAPKs and
by Western blotting. Results: Prior treatment with
leaf extract inhibited elevation of IL-6, TNF-
, iNOS and COX-2, together with their cognate mRNAs in a dose-dependent manner. NO and intracellular ROS contents were similarly reduced. These effects were due to inhibition of LPS-induced phosphorylation of JNK and p38 as well as
ethanol extract were shown to contain lutein,
-carotene, chlorogenic acid, kaempferol and caffeic acid, compounds known to exert these bioactive properties. Conclusions:
leaf extract possesses suppressive effects against pro-inflammatory mediators. Thus,
has a high potential to be used as a food supplement to reduce risk of cancer associated with inflammation.
Genetic Polymorphisms of DNA Repair Genes XRCC1 and XRCC3 and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Chinese Population
Zhao, Yi ; Deng, Xin ; Wang, Zhen ; Wang, Qiang ; Liu, Yixia ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 665~669
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.665
Aim: The distribution of DNA repair gene XRCC1 and XRCC3 genotypes was used to assess the potential influence of genetic polymorphisms on risk of colorectal cancer, and interactions with other factors. Methods: a 1:2 matched case-control study was conducted with 485 cases and 970 controls. XRCC1 and XRCC2 genotype polymorphisms were based upon duplex polymerase-chain-reaction with the confronting-two-pairprimer (PCR-CTPP) method. Results:The XRCC1 399Cln allele polymorphism was found to be associated with an increased colorectal cancer risk, while an non-significant inversely association was noted for XRCC3 241Thr/Thr genotype. We also found that individuals with the XRCC1 399 Gln and XRCC3 241Met alleles had an elevated risk, while XRCC3241Thr/Thr was proctective. Conclusion: This study is the first to provide evidence of importance of XRCC1 and XRCC3 gene polymorphisms for risk of colorectal cancer in the Chinese population.
Oncologists Experience with Second Primary Cancer Screening: Current Practices and Barriers and Potential Solutions
Shin, Dong-Wook ; Kim, Yeol ; Baek, Young-Ji ; Mo, Ha-Na ; Choi, Jin-Young ; Cho, Ju-Hee ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 671~676
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.671
Objectives: Screening for second primary cancer (SPC) is one of the key components of cancer survivorship care. The aim of the present study was to explore oncologists' experience with promoting second primary cancer screening. Methods: Two focus group interviews were conducted with 12 oncologists of diverse backgrounds. Recurrent issues were identified and placed into thematic categories. Results: Most of the oncologists did not consider SPC screening promotion as their responsibility and did not cover it in routine care. All of the study participants had experience with unexpected SPC cases, and they were under emotional tress. There was no systematic manner of providing SPC screening. Oncologists usually prescribe SPC screening in response to patients' requests, and there was no active promotion of SPC screening. Short consultation time, limited knowledge about cancer screening, no established guideline for SPC screening, and disagreement with patients about oncologists' roles were major barriers to its promotion. An institution-based shared care model was suggested as a potential solution for promoting SPC screening given current oncology practices in Korea. Conclusion: Oncologists could not effectively deal with the occurrence of SPC, and they were not actively promoting SPC screening. Lack of knowledge, limited health care resources, and no established guidelines were major barriers for promoting SPC screening to cancer survivors. More active involvement of oncologists and a systematic approach such as shared-care models would be necessary for promoting SPC screening considering increasing number of cancer survivors who are vulnerable.
Clinical Significance of Axin and β-catenin Protein Expression in Primary Hepatocellular Carcinomas
Guan, Cheng-Nong ; Chen, Xin-Ming ; Lou, Hai-Qing ; Liao, Xiang-Hui ; Chen, Bao-Ying ; Zhang, Pei-Weng ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 677~681
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.677
The aim of the present research was to investigate clinicopathologic correlations of immunohistochemically-demonstrated axin (axis inhibition) and
-catenin expression in primary hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), in comparison with paraneoplastic, cirrhotic and normal liver tissues. Variation in Axin expression across groups were significant (P < 0.01), correlating with alpha fetoprotein (AFP), HBsAg, cancer plugs in the portal vein, and clinical stage of HCCs(P < 0.05); however, there were no links with sex, age, and tumour size (P > 0.05). Differences in cell membrane
-catenin expression were also statistically significant (P < 0.01), again correlated with AFP, HBsAg, cancer plugs in the portal vein, and clinical stage in HCCs (P < 0.05) but not with sex, age, and tumour size (P > 0.05). Axin expression levels in tissues with reduced membrane
-catenin were low (P < 0.05), also being low with nuclear
-catenin expression (P < 0.05). Axin and
-catenin may play an important role in the genesis and progression of HCC via the Wnt signal transmission pathway. Simultaneous determination of axin,
-catenin, AFP, and HBsAg may be useful for early diagnosis, and metastatic and clinical staging of HCCs.
Association Between the Ku70-1310C/G Promoter Polymorphism and Cancer Risk: a Meta-analysis
Xu, Lu ; Ju, Xiao-Bing ; Li, Pu ; Wang, Jue ; Shi, Zhu-Mei ; Zheng, Ming-Jie ; Xue, Dan-Dan ; Xu, Yan-Jie ; Yin, Yong-Mei ; Wang, Shui ; You, Yong-Ping ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 683~687
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.683
Ku70 plays an important role in DNA double-strand break repair. Studies revealing conflicting results on the role of the Ku70-1310C/G promoter polymorphism on cancer risk led us to perform a meta-analysis to investigate this relationship. Ten case-control studies with 2566 cases and 3058 controls were identified. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of associations. The overall results suggested no association between the Ku70-1310C/G promoter polymorphism and total cancer risk. However, on stratified analysis, significantly increased risks were observed among the Asian population (GG vs. CC: OR=1.50, 95%CI=1.10-2.06; GG vs. CC/CG: OR=1.47, 95%CI=1.07-2.01) and population-based case-control studies (GG vs. CC: OR=1.57, 95%CI=1.12-2.22; CG vs. CC: OR=1.35, 95%CI=1.11-1.64; CG/GG vs. CC: OR=1.37, 95%CI=1.14-1.65). Additionally, variant genotypes were associated with a significantly increased breast cancer risk (GG vs. CC: OR=1.80, 95%CI=1.26-2.56; GG vs. CC/CG: OR=1.40, 95%CI=1.01-1.95).
Clinical Application of the Adenosine Triphosphate-based Response Assay in Intravesical Chemotherapy for Superficial Bladder Cancer
Ge, Wen-Qing ; Pu, Jin-Xian ; Zheng, Shi-Ying ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 689~692
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.689
Objective: To investigate correlations between adenosine triphosphate chemotherapy response assay (ATP-CRA) and clinical outcomes after ATP-CRA-based chemotherapy for drug selection in patients receiving intravesical chemotherapy to prevent recurrence of superficial bladder cancer after surgery. Methods: The chemosensitivities of 12 anticancer drugs were evaluated, including 5-Fu ADM, and EPI, using ATP-CRA and primary tumor cell culture in 54 patients. In addition, a further 58 patients were treated according to clinical experience. Differences in post-chemotherapeutical effects between drug sensitivity assay and experience groups were compared. Results: The evaluable rate of the test was 96.3%, the clinical effective rate was 80.8%, the sensitivity rate was 97.6% (41/42), the specificity was 20%, the total predicting accuracy was 74.3%, the positive predictive value was 83.7% (41/49), the negative predictive value was 66.7% (2/3); in the drug sensitivity test group, the clinical effective rate was 80.8%, the experience group response rate was 63.8%, with a significant difference in clinical effects between the ATP-based sensitivity and experience groups (
=7.0153, P<0.01). Conclusion: ATP-CRA is a stable, accurate and potentially practical chemosensitivity test providing a predictor of chemotherapeutic response in patients with superficial bladder cancer.
Clinicopathologic Profile of Breast Cancer Patients in Pakistan: Ten Years Data of a Local Cancer Hospital
Khokher, Samina ; Qureshi, Muhammad Usman ; Riaz, Masooma ; Akhtar, Naseem ; Saleem, Afaf ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 693~698
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.693
Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer of women worldwide, with considerable geographic and racial/ethnic variation. Data are generally derived from population based cancer registries in the developed countries but hospital data are the most reliable source in the developing countries. Ten years data from 1st Jan 2000 to 31st Dec 2009 of a cancer hospital in Pakistan were here analyzed by descriptive statistics to evaluate the clinicopathologic profile of local breast cancer patients. Among 28,740 cancer patients, 6,718 were registered as breast cancer. The female to male ratio was 100:2. Breast cancer accounted for 23% of all and 41% of female cancers. Some 46% were residents of Lahore, with a mean age of
years. Less than 1% were at Stage 0 and 10%, 32%, 35% and 23% were at Stage I, II, III and IV respectively. Histopathology was unknown in 4% while 91%, 2% and 1% had invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) and mucinous carcinoma respectively. Rare carcinomas accounted for the rest. Tumor grade 1, 2 and 3 was 11%, 55% and 34% among the known. Profile of breast cancer patients in Pakistan follows a pattern similar to that of other developing countries with earlier peak age and advanced disease stage at presentation. The male breast cancer accounts for higher proportion in the local population. Local women have higher frequency of IDC and lower frequency of ILC and DCIS, owing probably to a different risk profile. Use of hospital information systems and establishment of population based cancer registry is required to have accurate and detailed local data. Promotion of breast health awareness and better health care system is required to decrease the burden of advanced disease.
Quantitative Assessment of the Relative Antineoplastic Potential of the n-butanolic Leaf Extract of Annona Muricata Linn. in Normal and immortalized Human Cell Lines
George, V. Cijo ; Kumar, D.R. Naveen ; Rajkumar, V. ; Suresh, P.K. ; Kumar, R. Ashok ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 699~704
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.699
Natural products have been the target for cancer therapy for several years but there is still a dearth of information on potent compounds that may protect normal cells and selectively destroy cancerous cells. The present study was aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic potential of n-butanolic leaf extract of
L. on WRL-68 (normal human hepatic cells), MDA-MB-435S (human breast carcinoma cells) and HaCaT (human immortalized keratinocyte cells) lines by XTT assay. Prior to cytotoxicity testing, the extract was subjected to phytochemical screening for detecting the presence of compounds with therapeutic potential. Their relative antioxidant properties were evaluated using the reducing power and
radical scavenging assay. Since most of the observed chemo-preventive potential invariably correlated with the amount of total phenolics present in the extract, their levels were quantified and identified by HPLC analysis. Correlation studies indicated a strong and significant (P<0.05) positive correlation of phenolic compounds with free radical scavenging potential. The results revealed that the extract was moderately cytotoxic to normal cells with a mean IC50 value of 52.4
when compared with those obtained for cancerous cells (IC50 values of 29.2
for MDA-MB-435S and 30.1
for HaCaT respectively). The study confirms the presence of therapeutically active antineoplastic compounds in the n-butanolic leaf extract of
. Isolation of the active metabolites from the extract is in prospect.
Factors Associated With Smoking, Quit Attempts and Attitudes towards Total Smoking Bans at University: A Survey of Seven Universities in England, Wales and Northern ireland
Ansari, Walid El ; Stock, Christiane ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 705~714
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.705
Objectives: This study assessed the associations between socio-demographic, health and wellbeing variables (independent variables) and daily smoking, attempts to quit smoking, and agreement with smoking ban (dependent variables). Methods: Data from 3,706 undergraduate students were collected from seven universities in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland using a standardised questionnaire. Results: About 15.8% of the whole sample reported daily smoking, while 12% were occasional smokers. Smoking was significantly more prevalent among males, but the difference was due to a higher rate of occasional smokers. About every second smoker (55%) had attempted to quit smoking. Almost 45% of the whole sample agreed or strongly agreed with implementing a total smoking ban on campus. Daily smoking was more likely among students with not sufficient income, students whose fathers had at least a bachelor degree; and, students who reported binge drinking. Conversely, daily smoking was less likely among students who rated their health as very good/ excellent, those who ate
portions of fruit or vegetables, and those who had never taken illicit drugs. Previous attempt/s to quit smoking were more likely among students who have never taken illicit drugs and those who agreed with a total smoking ban; and less likely among those with not sufficient income. Daily smokers were less likely to report quit attempts as compared to occasional smokers. An agreement with smoking ban was more likely among students who rated their health as very good/excellent, those who ate
portions of fruit or vegetables daily, and those who had never taken illicit drugs, but less likely among daily smokers. Conclusion: Favourable health practices and positive attitudes towards smoking ban were associated with each other. Interventions would need to comprise multi-component programmes that do not solely focus on smoking prevention/cessation, but also on other health promoting practices as well.
Clinico-Pathological Significance of MHC-I Type Chain-associated Protein A Expression in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Wang, Jie ; Li, Chao ; Yang, Dan ; Jian, Xin-Chun ; Jiang, Can-Hua ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 715~718
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.715
The current research concerns the clinicopathological significance of MHC class I chain-related protein A (MICA) expression in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). The expression and location of MICA protein in 14 normal oral mucous and 45 cancerous and para-cancerous tissues were assessed by immunohistochemistry and levels of MICA mRNA expression in 29 cancerous and para-cancerous tissues were determined by the real-time polymerase chain reaction. Data were analyzed with the SPSS16.0 software package. MICA was found to be located in the cytoplasm and plasma membrane. Expression was higher in para-cancerous than in cancerous tissues (P < 0.05). However, no statistical difference was found between the following: 1) para-cancerous tissue with normal mucosa; 2) normal mucosa with cancerous tissue;and 3) among different clinicopathological parameters in OSCC (P > 0.05). The level of MICA mRNA was higher in OSCCs than in para-cancerous tissues, and was correlated with the regional lymph node status and disease stage (P < 0.05). The levels of MICA protein and mRNA expression differ among normal oral mucosa, para-cancerous tissue, and cancerous tissue. MICA may contribute to the tumorigenesis and progression of OSCC.
Clinical Significance of Expression and Amplification of the DcR3 Gene in Pancreatic Carcinomas
Zhou, Jian ; Song, Shi-Duo ; Li, De-Chun ; Zhou, Jin ; Zhu, Dong-Ming ; Zheng, Shi-Ying ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 719~724
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.719
This study aimed to investigate the clinical significance of expression and amplification of decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) in pancreatic carcinomas (PC). mRNA expression was detected by PQ-PCR, and amplification was determined. DcR3 protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry and ELISA. Correlations between DcR3 expression and clinical pathological factors were analyzed. The relative amount of DcR3 in PC tissues and non-cancerous tissues showed a statistically significant difference, 21 cases displaying more than two fold DcR3 amplification, while no such amplification was found in normal pancreatic tissues. DcR3 positive cell staining was located in the cytoplasm. The positive rate of DcR3 in PC and non-cancerous tissues showed a significant difference. DcR3 mRNA expression was correlated with clinical staging, size of the tumor, lymph node metastasis and histological staging, while protein expression was correlated with clinical data like tumor size. DcR3 gene amplification only correlated with tumor size. The level of DcR3 in serum of the PC resectable group before operation was
pg/ml, showing a significant difference compared to gallbladder carcinoma group (GC) or pancreatic benign tumor (PBT) group (P < 0.01). In conclusion, DcR3 amplification is correlated with DcR3 expression in PC tissues, especially those clinical pathological factors which reflect tumor progression. Assessment of DcR3 level in sera of PC patients may be helpful for the early diagnosis and prognostic judgement.
Diagnosis and Cure Experience of Hepatolithiasis-Associated Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma in 66 Patients
Li, Hong-Yang ; Zhou, Shi-Ji ; Li, Min ; Xiong, Ding ; Singh, Akanand ; Guo, Qing-Xi ; Liu, Chang-An ; Gong, Jian-Ping ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 725~729
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.725
Background: The management of hepatolithiasis combined with intrahepatic cholangicarcinoma (IHHCC) remains a challenge due to poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to summarize our diagnosis and cure experience of IHHCC over the recent 10 years. Methods: From January 1996 to January 2006, 66 patients with IHHCC were reviewed retrospectively. Results: Of the 66 patients, 52 underwent surgical resection (radical resection in 38 and palliative in 14) and 8 patients abdominal exploration, while the other 6 cases received endoscopic retrograde biliary internal drainage and stent implantation. In this series, correct diagnosis of advanced stage was made during operation in 8 cases (8/60, 13.3%) and all of them (underwent unnecessary abdominal exploration, among them the positive rate of CA19-9 was 100%, and the positive rate of CEA was 87.6% (7/8), incidence rate of ascites was 100% and short-term significant weight loss was 100%, with median overall survival of only 4 months. Conclusion: Radical resection is mandatory for IHHCC patient to achieve long-term survival, the CT and MR imaging features of IHHCC being concentric enhancement. Patients with IHHCC have significant higher CA199 and significant higher CEA and short-term significant weight loss and ascites should be considered with advanced stage of IHHCC and unnecessary non-therapeutic laparotomies should be avoided.
Factors Associated with Attending the National Cancer Screening Program for Liver Cancer in Korea
Noh, Dai-Keun ; Choi, Kui-Son ; Jun, Jae-Kwan ; Lee, Hoo-Yeon ; Park, Eun-Cheol ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 731~736
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.731
Background and Aims: The National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) for liver cancer was initiated in 2003 in Korea. The objective of this study was to evaluate the participation rate of the program and to provide preliminary information on its results based on data collected by the NCSP in 2009. Methods: The target population of the NCSP for liver cancer in 2009 was comprised of 373,590 adults aged
years at high risk for liver cancer. Participation rates and positivity rates were assessed in this population. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the factors associated with participation in the NCSP for liver cancer. Results: The overall participation rate was 37.9% and 1,126 participants were positive at screening. The highest participation rates were observed in women, those in their 60s, National Health Insurance beneficiaries, and individuals positive for hepatitis B surface antigen. Positivity rates for men, those in their 70s, Medical Aid Program recipients and individuals with liver cirrhosis were the highest in the respective categories of gender, age, health insurance type, and risk factor for liver cancer. Conclusions: The participation rates of the NCSP for liver cancer are still low, despite the fact that the program targets a high-risk group much smaller than the general population. Efforts to facilitate participation and to reduce disparities in liver cancer screening among Korean men and women are needed. These results provide essential data for evidence-based strategies for liver cancer control in Korea.
Microwave Ablation Treatment of Liver Cancer with a 2,450-MHz Cooled-shaft Antenna: Pilot Study on Safety and Efficacy
Jiao, De-Chao ; Zhou, Qi ; Han, Xin-Wei ; Wang, Ya-Feng ; Wu, Gang ; Ren, Jian-Zhuang ; Wang, Yan-Li ; Ding, Peng-Xu ; Ma, Ji ; Fu, Ming-Ti ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 2, 2012, Pages 737~742
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.2.737
To evaluate efficacy of microwave ablation in a primary clinical study, sixty patients (44 men, 16 women; mean age 53 years) with 96, 1-8 cm (mean
cm) liver cancers were treated with 2,450-MHz internally cooled-shaft antenna. Complete ablation (CA) and local tumor progression (LTP) rates as well as complications were determined. CA rates in small (< 3.0 cm), intermediate (3.1-5.0 cm) and large (5.1-8.0 cm) liver cancers were 96.4% (54/56), 92.3% (24/26) and 78.6% (11/14), respectively. During a mean follow-up period of
months, LTP occurred in five (5.21%) treated cases. There was no significant difference in the CA and LTP rates between the HCC and liver metastasis patient subgroups (P<0.05). Microwave ablation provides a reliable, efficient, and safe technique to perform hepatic tumor ablation.