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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevetion
Editor in Chief :
Malcolm A Moore
Volume & Issues
Volume 13, Issue 12 - Dec 2012
Volume 13, Issue 11 - Nov 2012
Volume 13, Issue 10 - Oct 2012
Volume 13, Issue 9 - Sep 2012
Volume 13, Issue 8 - Aug 2012
Volume 13, Issue 7 - Jul 2012
Volume 13, Issue 6 - Jun 2012
Volume 13, Issue 5 - May 2012
Volume 13, Issue 4 - Apr 2012
Volume 13, Issue 3 - Mar 2012
Volume 13, Issue 2 - Feb 2012
Volume 13, Issue 1 - Jan 2012
Selecting the target year
Risk Factors of Hepatocellular Carcinoma - Current Status and Perspectives
Gao, Jing ; Xie, Li ; Yang, Wan-Shui ; Zhang, Wei ; Gao, Shan ; Wang, Jing ; Xiang, Yong-Bing ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 743~752
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.743
Hepatocellular carcinoma is a common disorder worldwide which ranks 5th and 7th most common cancer among men and women. In recent years, different incidence trends have been observed in various regions, but the reasons are not completely understood. However, due to the great public efforts in HCC prevention and alternation of lifestyle, the roles of some well documented risk factors played in hepatocarcinogenesis might have changed. This paper summarizes both the environmental and host related risk factors of hepatocellular carcinoma including well established risk factors such as hepatitis virus infection, aflatoxin and alcohol, as well as possible risk factors such as coffee drinking and other dietary agents.
Knockdown of Radixin by RNA interference Suppresses the Growth of Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells in Vitro and in Vivo
Chen, Shu-Dong ; Song, Mao-Min ; Zhong, Zhi-Qiang ; Li, Na ; Wang, Pi-Lin ; Cheng, Shi ; Bai, Ri-Xing ; Yuan, Hui-Sheng ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 753~759
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.753
Radixin, encoded by a gene on chromosome 11, plays important roles in cell motility, invasion and tumor progression. However, its function in pancreatic cancer remains elusive. In this study, radixin gene expression was suppressed with a lentivirus-mediated short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) method. We found that radixin shRNA caused down-regulation of radixin in PANC-1 cells, associated with inhibition of pancreatic cancer cell proliferation, survival, adhesion and invasive potential in vitro. When radixin-silenced cells were implanted in nude mice, tumor growth and microvessel density were significantly inhibited as compared to blank control cells or nonsense shRNA control cells. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) and E-cadherin were up-regulated in radixin-silenced PANC-1 cells. Our results suggest that radixin might play a critical role in pancreatic cancer progression, possibly through invvolvement of down-regulation of TSP-1 and E-cadherin expression.
Identification of a Cancer Stem-like Population in the Lewis Lung Cancer Cell Line
Zhang, An-Mei ; Fan, Ye ; Yao, Quan ; Ma, Hu ; Lin, Sheng ; Zhu, Cong-Hui ; Wang, Xin-Xin ; Liu, Jia ; Zhu, Bo ; Sun, Jian-Guo ; Chen, Zheng-Tang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 761~766
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.761
Objective: Although various human cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been defined, their applications are restricted to immunocompromised models. Developing a novel CSC model which could be used in immunocompetent or transgenic mice is essential for further understanding of the biomolecular characteristics of tumor stem cells. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed murine lung cancer cells for the presence of CSCs. Methods: Side population (SP) cells were isolated by fluorescence activated cell sorting, followed by serum-free medium (SFM) culture, using Lewis lung carcinoma cell (LLC) line. The self-renewal, differentiated progeny, chemosensitivity, and tumorigenic properties in SP and non-SP cells were investigated through in vitro culture and in vivo serial transplantation. Differential expression profiles of stem cell markers were examined by RT-PCR. Results: The SP cell fraction comprised 1.1% of the total LLC population. SP cells were available to grow in SFM, and had significantly enhanced capacity for cell proliferation and colony formation. They were also more resistant to cisplatin in comparison to non-SP cells, and displayed increased tumorigenic ability. Moreover, SP cells showed higher mRNA expression of Oct-4, ABCG2, and CD44. Conclusion: We identified SP cells from a murine lung carcinoma, which possess well-known characteristics of CSCs. Our study established a useful model that should allow investigation of the biological features and pharmacosensitivity of lung CSCs, both in vitro and in syngeneic immunocompetent or transgenic/knockout mice.
Transcriptome Network Analysis Reveals Potential Candidate Genes for Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Ma, Zheng ; Guo, Wei ; Niu, Hui-Jun ; Yang, Fan ; Wang, Ru-Wen ; Jiang, Yao-Guang ; Zhao, Yun-Ping ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 767~773
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.767
The esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is an aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis. Understanding molecular changes in ESCC should improve identification of risk factors with different molecular subtypes and provide potential targets for early detection and therapy. Our study aimed to obtain a molecular signature of ESCC through the regulation network based on differentially expressed genes (DEGs). We used the GSE23400 series to identify potential genes related to ESCC. Based on bioinformatics we constructed a regulation network. From the results, we could establish that many transcription factors and pathways closely related with ESCC were linked by our method. STAT1 also arose as a hub node in our transcriptome network, along with some transcription factors like CCNB1, TAP1, RARG and IFITM1 proven to be related with ESCC by previous studies. In conclusion, our regulation network provided information on important genes which might be useful in investigating the complex interacting mechanisms underlying the disease.
Assessment of 8-isoprostane (8-isoPGF
) in Urine of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy
Johns, Nutjaree Pratheepawanit ; Johns, Jeffrey Roy ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 775~780
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.775
) is a reliable marker and considered a gold standard for lipid peroxidation. There are very few reports of 8-isoprostane levels in cancer patients, and in patients undergoing chemotherapy. Oxidative stress is however expected and has been observed in patients with cancer. This study measured 8-isoprostane levels in urine by ELISA of 25 patients undergoing chemotherapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer, at cycles 1, 2, and 3 of treatment. It considers the creatinine clearance of the patients, and correction of 8-isoprostane levels by creatinine clearance, and overnight urine volume methods. The average 8-isoprostane levels in urine increased more than 6 to 12 fold on chemotherapy treatment, from
pg/mL at cycle
at cycle 2, and
at cycle 3. Similar results were obtained if 8-isoprostane levels were corrected for overnight urine volume, giving averages of
at cycle 2, and
at cycle 3. No significant difference was seen in average total overnight urine volume or number of urinations between chemotherapy cycles except for a large variation in urine volume between cycle 2 and 3. Creatinine levels were significantly different only between cycles 1 and 2 (p=0.016). In conclusion, cisplatin therapy has been shown to induce high levels of lipid peroxidation in lung cancer patients and can be assessed from the 8-isoprostane marker in overnight urine, with or without urine volume correction.
Adenovirus-mediated Double Suicide Gene Selectively Kills Gastric Cancer Cells
Luo, Xian-Run ; Li, Jian-Sheng ; Niu, Ying ; Miao, Li ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 781~784
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.781
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the adenovirus-mediated double suicide gene (CD/TK) for selective killing of gastric cancer cells. Gastric cancer cells SCG7901 and normal gastric epithelial cell lines were infected by adenoviruses Ad-survivin/GFP and Ad-survivin/CD/TK. GFP expression and CD-TK were detected by fluorescence microscopy and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. After treatment of the infected cells with the pro-drugs ganciclovir (GCV) and/or 5-FC, the cell growth status was evaluated by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay. Cell cycle changes were detected using flow cytometry. In nude mice bearing human gastric cancer, the recombinant adenovirus vector was injected directly into the tumor followed by an intraperitoneal injection of GCV and/or 5-FC. The subsequent tumor growth was then observed. The GFP gene driven by survivin could be expressed within the gastric cancer line SCG7901, but not in normal gastric epithelial cells. RT-PCR demonstrated the presence of the CD/TK gene product in the infected SCG7901 cells, but not in the infected normal gastric epithelial cells. The infected gastric cancer SCG7901, but not the gastric cells, was highly sensitive to the pro-drugs. The CD/TK fusion gene system showed significantly greater efficiency than either of the single suicide genes in killing the target cells (P<0.01). Treatment of the infected cells with the pro-drugs resulted in increased cell percentage in G0-Gl phase and decreased percentage in S phase. In nude mice bearing SCG7901 cells, treatment with the double suicide gene system significantly inhibited tumor growth, showing much stronger effects than either of the single suicide genes (P<0.01). The adenovirus-mediated CD/TK double suicide gene driven by survivin promoter combined with GCV an 5-FC treatment could be an effective therapy against experimental gastric cancer with much greater efficacy than the single suicide gene CD/TK combined with GCV or 5-FC.
Concurrent Weekly Docetaxel Chemotherapy in Combination with Radiotherapy for Stage III and IVA-B Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma
Wei, Wei-Hong ; Cai, Xiu-Yu ; Xu, Tao ; Zhang, Guo-Yi ; Wu, Yong-Feng ; Feng, Wei-Neng ; Lin, Li ; Deng, Yan-Ming ; Lu, Qiu-Xia ; Huang, Zhe-Li ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 785~789
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.785
Background and Purpose: Cisplatin is the most common chemotherapeutic agent for loco-regionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC); however, toxicity is a limiting factor for some patients. We retrospectively compared the efficacy and toxicity of weekly docetaxel-based and cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy in loco-regionally advanced NPC. Methods and Materials: Eighty-four patients with Stage III and IVA-B NPCs, treated between 2007 and 2008, were retrospectively analyzed. Thirty received weekly docetaxel-based concurrent chemotherapy, and 43 were given weekly cisplatin-based concurrent chemotherapy. Radiotherapy was administered using a conventional technique (seven weeks, 2.0 Gy per fraction, total dose 70-74 Gy) with 6-8 Gy boosts for some patients with locally advanced disease. Results: Median follow-up time was 42.3 months (range, 8.6-50.8 months). There were no significant differences in the 3-year loco-regional failure-free survival (85.6% vs. 92.3%; p=0.264), distant failure-free survival (87.0% vs. 92.5%; p=0.171), progression-free survival (85.7% vs. 88.4%; p=0.411) or overall survival (86.5% vs. 92.5%, p=0.298) of patients treated concurrently with docetaxel or cisplatin. Severe toxicity was not common in either group. Conclusions: Weekly docetaxel-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy is potentially effective and has a tolerable toxicity; however, further investigations are required to determine if docetaxel is superior to cisplatin for advanced stage NPC.
Survival Rates of Breast Cancer: A Hospital-Based Study from Northeast of Thailand
Poum, Amornsak ; Kamsa-Ard, Supot ; Promthet, Supannee ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 791~794
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.791
A retrospective cohort study was carried out with 340 female breast cancer at a teaching university in northeast of Thailand recruited and followed-up until the end of 2006. Survival probabilities were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. 161 cases were alive after five years and 58 patients were lost to follow-up. The overall observed survival rates at 1, 3 and 5 years were 83.3%, 59.9% and 42.9%, respectively. When analysis was conducted for stage combined into 2 groups, early (stage I, II and unknown) and late (stage III and IV), the 5-year survival rate for early stage (60%; 95%CI: 0.51-0.67), was higher than for late stage (27%; 95%CI: 0.19-0.34) with high statistical significance (p<0.001). The hazard ratio of patients with stage IV was 11.6 times greater than for stage I (p=0.03). The findings indicate that the different stages of breast cancer markedly effect the overall survival rate.
Effect of Self-Efficacy on Turkish Children's Perceptions of the Advantages/Disadvantages of Smoking
Ulgen, Hanife ; Ozturk, Candan ; Armstrong, Merry ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 795~798
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.795
Objective: This descriptive, cross sectional study was conducted to examine the effect of levels of self-efficacy on children's perceptions of pros and cons of smoking. Methodology: The sample was 233 fifth-grade students. Data were collected in September 2010 using the Socio-Demographic Data Collection Form, Self Efficacy Scale Child Form and Child Decision Balance Scale and analyzed via percentage calculations and t test with the SPSS 11.00 statistical package program. Results: Average age of the students participating in the research was
, 49.8 % (n: 116) being female and 50.2 % (n:117) male. The difference between the score averages of the pros of smoking perceptions of children with a high self-efficacy level and of those with a low self efficacy level (t=2.117, p=.042) and the difference between the score averages of the cons of smoking perceptions of children with a high self-efficacy level and of those with a low self-efficacy level (t=2.206, p=.035) were found to be statistically significant. Conclusions: Children's positive perceptions of smoking were low and negative perceptions high when their self efficacy levels were high. Conversely, children's positive perceptions of smoking were high when their self efficacy levels were low.
Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus and Co-Existent Sexually Transmitted Infections among Female Sex Workers, Men having Sex with Men and Injectable Drug abusers from Eastern India
Ghosh, Ishita ; Ghosh, Pramit ; Bharti, Alok Chandra ; Mandal, Ranajit ; Biswas, Jaydip ; Basu, Partha ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 799~802
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.799
Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a very common sexually transmitted disease affecting both men and women and is responsible for different ano-genital cancers in either sex. Co-existing sexually transmitted infections (STI) including HIV have been considered as important co-factors for carcinogenesis induced by HPV. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of any HPV, HPV 16 and HPV 18 and also concomitant STIs among female sex workers (FSW), men having sex with men (MSM) and injectable drug users (IDU). Material and Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 45 FSWs, 26 MSMs and 58 IDUs who attended the STI or de-addiction clinics. Genital scrape samples collected from glans penis and coronal sulcus in males and cervical squamo-columnar junction in females were tested for HPV DNA by PCR using HPV L1 consensus primer. Type specific PCR to detect HPV 16 and 18 was done on the samples positive on consensus PCR. All participants were tested for associated STIs including HIV and hepatitis B and cervical cytology was done on all females. Results: Among the FSWs, HPV was detected in 73.3% and HPV 16 and 18 was detected in 25.7%. Though the HPV prevalence was similarly high among MSMs (69.2%) and IDUs (72.4%), the prevalence of HPV 16 and 18 was much lower in these groups compared to the FSWs. Prevalence of cervico-vaginal infection with Trichomonas vaginalis and syphilis was significantly higher in the HPV positive women compared to the HPV negative women. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of other STIs among HPV positive and negative women and men. Conclusion: HPV infection is highly prevalent among FSW, MSM and IDUs. Trichomonas vaginalis infection is more frequent in HPV positive women.
Efficacy Analysis of Simplified Intensity-modulated Radiotherapy with High or Conventional Dose and Concurrent Chemotherapy for Patients with Neck and Upper Thoracic Esophageal Carcinoma
Zhu, Wei-Guo ; Zhou, Ke ; Yu, Chang-Hua ; Han, Ji-Hua ; Li, Tao ; Chen, Xiao-Fei ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 803~807
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.803
For patients with neck and upper thoracic esophageal carcinoma, it is difficult to control lymph node metastases with conventional dose therapy. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of simplified intensity-modulated radiotherapy (sIMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy for 44 patients and boosted high-dose to metastatic lymph nodes. Three radiation treatment volumes were defined: PGTVnd, with which 68.1Gy was delivered in high dose group (hsIMRT group), and 60Gy in the conventional dose group (csIMRT group); PTV1, featuring 63.9Gy in the hsIMRT group and 60Gy in the csIMRT group; PTV2, with 54Gy given to both groups. The sIMRT plan included 5 equi-angular coplanar beams. All patients received the cisplatin and 5-FU regimen concurrently with radiotherapy. The treatment was completed within six weeks and one case with grade three acute bronchitis was observed in hsIMRT group. For esophageal lesions, 80% complete response (CR) and 20% partial response (PR) rates were found in the hsIMRT group, and 79.2% CR, with 20.8% PR, in the csIMRT group; for lymph node lesions, 75% CR and 25% PR rates were observed in the hsIMRT group, with 45.8% and 37.5% respectively in the csIMRT group (P<0.05). The differences in 1-, 2- and 3-year relapse-free survival rates were all statistically significant (P<0.05). The major toxicity observed in both groups was Grade I~II leucopenia. sIMRT can generate a desirable dose distribution in treatment of neck and upper thoracic esophageal carcinoma with a better short-term efficacy. Boosted high dosing to metastatic lymph nodes can increase the relapse-free survival rate.
Breast Cancer Scenario in a Regional Cancer Centre in Eastern India over Eight Years - Still a Major Public Health Problem
Datta, Karabi ; Choudhuri, Maitrayee ; Guha, Subhas ; Biswas, Jaydip ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 809~813
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.809
In spite of screening and early diagnostic tests, the upward trend of breast cancer has become a matter of great concern in both developed and developing countries. The data collected by Population Based Cancer Registry in Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, a regional cancer centre in Kolkata, from 1997 to 2004 gives an insight about the scenario of Breast Cancer in this part of Eastern India.The total no of female breast cancer cases were steadily increasing from 1997 to 2001 and only slightly lower from 2002 to 2004. and majority were in the 40-49 year old age group during this period. The next most commonly affected age group was 50-59 years. Regarding the distribution according to treatment, the main modality was surgery and radiotherapy followed by combined surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy and then combined surgery and chemotherapy. The commonest type was ductal followed by lobular cancer. In this eight year study in CNCI, status of patients on last day of the respective year was assessed. Number of patients alive was 43.5% in 1997. The percentage gradually increased up to 2000 and then gradually decreased to 47.4% in 2004. Also with every passing year, percentage mortality gradually decreased from 25.7% in 1997 to 16.8% in 2004. Better pattern of care (diagnosis and treatment) was reflected in this picture. However, lost to follow up, which also implies non compliance to treatment, increased to 30.8% in 1997 to 35.8% in 2004. Due to the small number of male breast cancers, only female cases were considered. In conclusion, breast cancer continues to be a major problem in Kolkata, India.
Meta-analysis of the Association Between GSTM1 and GSTT1 Gene Polymorphisms and Cervical Cancer
Zhang, Zhen-Yong ; Jin, Xue-Ying ; Wu, Rong ; Wu, Li-Na ; Xing, Rui ; Yang, Shu-Juan ; Xie, Yao ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 815~819
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.815
Aim: We conducted a meta-analysis to analyze the influence of GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene polymorphisms on cervical cancer risk, and explore gene-environment interactions. Methods: Identification of relevant studies was carried out through a search of Medline and the EMbase up to Oct. 2011. All case-control studies that investigated the association between GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene polymorphisms and risk of cervical cancer were included. The pooled odds ratio (OR) was used for analyses of results and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. Results: A total of 21 case-control studies were included in the meta-analysis of GSTM1 (2,378 cases and 2,639 controls) and GSTT1 (1,229 cases and 1,223 controls) genotypes. The overall results showed that the GSTM1 null was related to an increased risk of cervical cancer (OR=1.50, 95% CI=1.21-1.85). Subgroup analysis were performed based on smoking and ethnicity. Our results showed that smokers with null GSTM1 genotype had a moderate increased risk of cervical cancer (OR=1.85, 95% CI=1.07-3.20). For the ethnicity stratification, moderate significantly increased risk of null GSTM1 genotype was found in Chinese (OR=2.12, 95% CI=1.43-3.15) and Indian populations (OR=2.07, 95% CI=1.49-2.88), but no increased risk was noted in others. Conclusion: This meta-analysis provided strong evidence that the GSTM1 genotype is associated with the development of cervical cancer, especially in smokers, and Chinese and Indian populations. However, no association was found for GSTT1 null genotype carriers.
Role of Centromere Protein H and Ki67 in Relapse-free Survival of Patients after Primary Surgery for Hypopharyngeal Cancer
Wang, Jun-Xi ; Zhang, Ying-Yao ; Yu, Xue-Min ; Jin, Tong ; Pan, Xin-Liang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 821~825
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.821
Purpose: Centromere protein H (CENP-H) and Ki67 are overexpressed in some malignancies, but whether they are predictors of survival after primary resection for hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HSCC) remains unknown. Methods: We assessed immunohistochemical expression of CENP-H and Ki67 in 112 HSCC specimens collected between March 2003 and March 2005 for analysis by clinical characteristics. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze relapse-free survival and logistic multivariate regression to determine risk factors of relapse-free survival. Cholecystokinin octapeptide assays and flow cytometry were used to examine cell proliferation and apoptosis after siRNA inhibition of CENP-H in HSCC cells. Results: Overall, 50 (44.6%) HSCC specimens showed upregulated CENP-H expression and 69 (61.6%) upregulated Ki67. An increased CENP-H protein level was associated with advanced cancer stage and alcohol history (P=0.012 and P=0.048, respectively) but an increased Ki67 protein level only with advanced cancer stage (P=0.021). Increased CENP-H or Ki67 were associated with short relapse-free survival (P<0.001 or P=0.009, respectively) and were independent predictors of relapse-free survival (P=0.001 and P=0.018, respectively). siRNA knockdown of CENP-H mRNA inhibited cell proliferation and promoted cancer cell apoptosis in vitro. Conclusions: Upregulated CENP-H and Ki67 levels are significantly associated with short relapse-free survival in HSCC. These factors may be predictors of a relapsing phenotype in HSSC cases.
Comorbidity Relationship to Outcome of Radical Cystectomy in Chinese: a Single Institution Study with the ACE-27 Comorbidity Index
Xuan, Zhu ; Zhong, Zhao-Hui ; Zhang, Xuan-Zhi ; Zhang, Lei ; Zhao, Xiao-Kun ; Lv, Chen ; Xu, Ran ; Ren, Wei-Gang ; Li, Song-Chao ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 827~831
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.827
To determine the relationship between comorbidity and outcome after radical cystectomy in Chinese patients by using the Adult Comorbidity Evaluation (ACE)-27 index. Two-hundred-and-forty-six patients treated with radical cystectomy at the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Hunan Province, China between 2000 and 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Medical records were reviewed for age, gender, delayed time of radical cystectomy, urinary diversion type, pelvic lymphadenectomy status, TNM stage, and pathological grade. Comorbidity information was assessed by the ACE-27 index. The outcome measurement was overall survival. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to determine the association between comorbidity and outcome. The study population consisted of 215 (87.40%) males and 31 (12.60%) females with a mean age of
years. Median duration of follow-up was
months. A total of 151 (61.38%) patents died during follow-up. Of those, 118 (47.97%) had at least one comorbidity. According to the ACE-27 scores, 128 (52.03%) patients had no comorbidity, 79 (32.11%) had mild, 33 (13.41%) had moderate, and 6 (2.45%) had severe comorbidities. Multivariate analysis indicated that moderate (p=0.002) and severe (p<0.001) comorbidity was significantly associated with decreased overall survival. In addition, age
years (p=0.002), delayed time of radical cystectomy >12 weeks (p=0.044), pelvic lymphadenectomy status (p=0.014), and TNM stage >T3 (p<0.001) were determined to be independent risk factors of overall survival. Increasing severity of comorbidity statistically correlated with decreased overall survival after radical cystectomy.
Epidemiology of Esophageal Cancer in Kazakhstan
Igissinov, Saginbek ; Igissinov, Nurbek ; Moore, Malcolm A. ; Kalieva, Zhansaya ; Kozhakhmetov, Saken ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 833~836
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.833
The incidence of esophageal cancer in Kazakhstan was analysed for the period of 1989-2010 years, with a focus on trends by age, gender and region. The highest rates of incidence were evident in the Western regions. The dynamics for cancer of the esophagus in the Republic demonstrated decrease, except in the Karaganda region, where a tendency for increase was noted. Considerable variation between regions pointed to differences in risk factor exposure which need to be targeted for future control efforts.
CYP2W1, CYP4F11 and CYP8A1 Polymorphisms and Interaction of CYP2W1 Genotypes with Risk Factors in Mexican Women with Breast Cancer
Cardenas-Rodriguez, N. ; Lara-Padilla, E. ; Bandala, C. ; Lopez-Cruz, J. ; Uscanga-Carmona, C. ; Lucio-Monter, P.F. ; Floriano-Sanchez, E. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 837~846
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.837
Breast cancer (BCa) is the leading type of cancer in Mexican women. Genetic factors, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of P450 system, have been reported in BCa. In this report, and for the first time in the literature, we analyzed the rs3735684 (7021 G>A), rs11553651 (15016 G>T) and rs56195291 (60020 C>G) polymorphisms in the CYP2W1, 4F11 and 8A1 genes in patients with BCa and in healthy Mexican women to identify a potential association between these polymorphisms and BCa risk. Patients and controls were used for polymorphism analysis using an allelic discrimination assay with TaqMan probes and confirmed by DNA sequencing. Links with clinic-pathological characteristics were also analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed using the standard
or Fisher exact test statistic. No significant differences were observed in the distributions of CYP2W1 (OR 8.6, 95%CI 0.43-172.5 P>0.05; OR 2.0, 95%CI 0.76-5.4, P>0.05) and CYP4F11 (OR 0.3, 95%CI 0.01-8.4 P>0.05) genotypes between the patients and controls. Only the CYP8A1 CC genotype was detected in patients with BCa and the controls. All polymorphism frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) in the controls (P>0.05). We found a significant association between BCa risk and smoking, use of oral contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy (HRT), obesity, hyperglycemia, chronic diseases, family history of cancer and menopausal status in the population studied (P<0.05). Tobacco, oral contraceptive or HRT, chronic diseases and obesity or overweight were strongly associated with almost eight, thirty-five, nine and five-fold increased risk for BCa. Tobaco, obesity and hyperglycemia significantly increased the risk of BCa in the patients carrying variant genotypes of CYP2W1 (P<0.05). These results indicate that the CYP2W1 rs3735684, CYP4F11 rs11553651 and CYP8A1 rs56195291 SNPs are not a key risk factor for BCa in Mexican women. This study did not detect an association between the CYP2W1, 4F11 and 8A1 genes polymorphisms and BCa risk in a Mexican population. However, some clinico-pathological risk factors interact with CYP2W1 genotypes and modifies susceptibility to BCa.
Expression of Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha-induced Protein 8 in Pancreas Tissues and its Correlation with Epithelial Growth Factor Receptor Levels
Liu, Ke ; Qin, Cheng-Kun ; Wang, Zhi-Yi ; Liu, Su-Xia ; Cui, Xian-Ping ; Zhang, Dong-Yuan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 847~850
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.847
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8 or TIPE) is a recently identified protein considered to be associated with carcinogenesis. To investigate its expression pattern in pancreatic cancer patients and to analyse its correlation with clinicopathological significance and the expression levels of epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR), immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the TNFAIP8 and EGFR proteins in pancreatic cancers, pancreatitis tissues, and healthy controls. The results showed stronger staining of TNFAIP8 protein in pancreatic cancer tissues compared with normal pancreas tissue. Furthermore, in 56 patients with pancreatic cancer, the expression levels of TNFAIP8 in patients with low tumor stage was higher than that with high tumor stage, and correlated with tumor staging and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05). Furthermore, TNFAIP8 expression positively correlated with EGFR levels (r=0.671135, P<0.05). These results indicate that TNFAIP8 may play important roles in the progression of pancreatic cancer.
Genetic Variants of NBS1 Predict Clinical Outcome of Platinum-based Chemotherapy in Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer in Chinese
Xu, Jia-Li ; Hu, Ling-Min ; Huang, Ming-De ; Zhao, Wan ; Yin, Yong-Mei ; Hu, Zhi-Bin ; Ma, Hong-Xia ; Shen, Hong-Bing ; Shu, Yong-Qian ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 851~856
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.851
Objective: NBS1 plays a key role in the repair of DNA double-strand break (DSB). We conducted this study to investigate the effect of two critical polymorphisms (rs1805794 and rs13312840) in NBS1 on treatment response and prognosis of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with platinum-based chemotherapy. Methods: Using TaqMan methods, we genotyped the two polymorphisms in 147 NSCLC patients. Odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidential intervals (CIs) were calculated as a measure of difference in the response rate of platinum-based chemotherapy using logistic regression analysis. The Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests were used to assess the differences in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Cox proportional hazards model was applied to assess the hazard ratios (HRs) for PFS and OS. Results: Neither of the two polymorphisms was significantly associated with treatment response of platinum-based chemotherapy. However, patients carrying the rs1805794 CC variant genotype had a significantly improved PFS compared to those with GG genotype (16.0 vs. 8.0 months, P = 0.040). Multivariable cox regression analysis further showed that rs1805974 was a significantly favorable prognostic factor for PFS [CC/CG vs. GG: Adjusted HR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.39-0.99; CC vs. CG/GG: Adjusted HR = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.32-0.97). Similarly, rs13312840 with a small sample size also showed a significant association with PFS (CC vs. CT/TT: Adjusted HR = 25.62, 95% CI: 1.53-428.39). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that NBS1 polymorphisms may be genetic biomarkers for NSCLC prognosis especially PFS with platinum-based chemotherapy in the Chinese population.
Relationships among Serum CA15-3 Tumor Marker, TNM Staging, and Estrogen and Progesterone Receptor Expression in Benign and Malignant Breast Lesions
Atoum, Manar ; Nimer, Nisreen ; Abdeldayem, Sawsan ; Nasr, Hamzah ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 857~860
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.857
Serum tumor marker CA15-3 is widely used in follow-up for assessment of breast cancer prognosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate levels among healthy females and patients, to assess differences with tumor stage and grade, and to determine the relationship with estrogen and progesterone receptor expression. One hundred and thirty six Jordanian females were enrolled in this study: Forty-five were healthy females; seventy-two were diagnosed with breast cancer and nineteen diagnosed with benign breast lesions. Elevated serum CA15-3 level was significantly observed among breast cancer patients (
) compared to both healthy (
) and benign females (
), but no significant association was detected between serum CA15-3 level and age of cancer onset, menarche age, menopause age, parity and BMI. Decreased CA15-3 level was significantly associated with hormone therapy and oral contraceptive consumption among breast cancer patients. Significantly elevated CA15-3 serum levels were found among grade II, III and stage II and III breast cancer females compared to normal healthy females. Elevated CA15-3 serum levels were also found among ER+/PR+(
) and ER+/PR-(
) compared to healthy control females.
Effectiveness of Interventions to Increase the Participation Rate of Gastric Cancer Screening in the Republic of Korea: a Pilot study
Lee, Myung-Ha ; Lee, Yoon-Young ; Jung, Da-Won ; Park, Bo-Young ; Yun, E-Hwa ; Lee, Hoo-Yeon ; Jun, Jae-Kwan ; Choi, Kui-Son ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 861~866
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.861
This study assessed the effectiveness of three intervention strategies to improve the participation rate of gastric cancer screening among people who had never undergone such screening, and those who had been screened for the disease, but not recently. It was conducted in the Ilsandong-gu District of Goyang City, Korea. The population for the current study was restricted to male residents, aged 40-65 years, who received an invitation letter to undergo gastric cancer screening from the National Health Insurance (NHI) Corporation at the beginning of 2010. The subjects were divided into two categories according to their screening history: never-screened, and ever-screened. A total of 2,065 men were eligible: 803 never-screened and 1,262 ever-screened. In each screening category they were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups: 1) tailored telephone counseling; 2) tailored postcard reminder after tailored telephone counseling;and 3) tailored telephone counseling after tailored postcard reminder. At 3 months post-intervention, never-screened men with any intervention were more likely to undergo gastric cancer screening (OR=2.75, 95% CI: 1.22-6.18) compared to those in the reference group (no intervention). However, there was no statistically significant intervention effect in ever-screened men (OR=1.21, 95% CI: 0.65-2.27). Examination of the intervention effects by intervention group among never-screened men showed that those in the postcard reminder after telephone counseling group to be statistically significantly more likely to undergo gastric cancer screening (OR=4.49, 95% CI: 1.79-11.29) than the reference group (no intervention). Our results highlight that use of tailored postcard reminders after tailored telephone counseling is an effective method to increase participation in gastric cancer screening among men who had never been screened.
Presence of Tumour-infiltrating FOXP3
Lymphocytes Correlates with Immature Tumour Angiogenesis in Renal Cell Carcinomas
Zhan, Hai-Lun ; Gao, Xin ; Zhou, Xiang-Fu ; Pu, Xiao-Yong ; Wang, De-Juan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 867~872
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.867
regulatory T cells (Tregs) inhibit effector T cell functions and are implicated in tumour progression. However, together with microvessel density (MVD) they remain controversial prognostic predictors for renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and potential associations have yet to be determined. The objective of this study was to determine the prognostic significance of Tregs and MVD and their potential relationship in RCCs. Design: Paraffin-embedded tissues from 62 RCC patients were analysed using immunohistochemistry to detect
lymphocytes, and double immunohistochemistry to detect different microvessel types in the tumour interior, rim and normal kidney tissue, and their correlation with clinicopathological characteristics. Survival analysis was also performed. Results: The presence of
cells in the tumour interior or the rim showed no correlation with death from RCC and other pathological characteristics. Negative correlations were noted between the immature MVD in the tumour interior or the rim and tumour size, tumour stage and overall survival; however, there was no correlation with the nuclear grade or pathological type. A positive correlation between
Tregs and immature MVD (r=0.363, P=0.014) and mature MVD (r=0.383, P=0.009) was confirmed in the tumour interior. However, there was no correlation between
Tregs and mature MVD (r=0.281, P=0.076) or immature MVD (r=0.064, P=0.692) in the tumour rim. Conclusions: In this study, a positive correlation between the presence of
Tregs and immature and mature MVD in RCC was confirmed, which suggests a link between suppression of immunity, tumour angiogenesis and poor prognosis.
Expression Analysis of MiR-21, MiR-205, and MiR-342 in Breast Cancer in Iran
Savad, Shahram ; Mehdipour, Parvin ; Miryounesi, Mohammad ; Shirkoohi, Reza ; Fereidooni, Forouzandeh ; Mansouri, Fatemeh ; Modarressi, Mohammad Hossein ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 873~877
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.873
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNA molecules characterized by their regulatory roles in cancer and gene expression. We analyzed the expression of miR-21, miR-205, and miR-342 in 59 patients with breast cancer. Samples were divided into three different groups according to their immunohistochemistry (IHC) classification: ER- positive and/or PR-positive group (
; group I); HER2-positive group (
; group II); and ER/ PR/ HER2- negative (
; group III) as the triple negative group. The expression levels of the 3 miRNAs were analyzed in the tumor samples and the compared with the normal neighboring dissected tumor (NNDT) samples in all three groups. The expression of miR-21 was similar in all three groups. In patients positive for P53 by IHC, positive for axillary lymph node metastasis and higher tumor stages, it appeared to have significantly elevated. However, significant increase was not found among the 18 fibroadenoma samples. Both miR-205 and miR-342 expressions were significantly down regulated in group III. We conclude that miR-21 does not discriminate between different breast cancer groups. In contrast, miR-205 and miR-342 may be used as potential biomarkers for diagnosis of triple negative breast cancer.
Knowledge Towards HPV infection and HPV Vaccines among Syrian Mothers
Alsaad, Mohammed A. ; Shamsuddin, Khadijah ; Fadzil, Fariza ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 879~883
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.879
Cervical cancer is caused by HPV infection and can be prevented by early vaccination. Objective: To assess Syrian women's level of knowledge and determinants of good knowledge of cervical cancer, HPV infection and its vaccines. Methods: A cross sectional survey was undertaken among mothers with daughters in sixth grade classes enrolled in primary schools in Aleppo city, Syria. Samples were selected through cluster sampling and data collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Less than a third of the mothers had heard of HPV infection and vaccines against cervical cancer and levels of knowledge were generally low. Good knowledge was associated with high education level, higher family monthly income, having few - less than four children, positive history of cervical cancer screening, and working or having relatives working in the medical field. The main source of information was television and few reported health care providers as a source of knowledge on HPV infection and vaccine. Conclusion: Since knowledge of HPV infection and its connection with cervical cancer and its vaccine are low, more efforts must be made to educate Syrians prior to introduction of any HPV vaccination programme. Public health efforts must focus on educating mothers, the public as well as health care providers.
Survival and Prognostic Factors of Different Sites of Head and Neck Cancer: An Analysis from Thailand
Pruegsanusak, Kowit ; Peeravut, Sumet ; Leelamanit, Vitoon ; Sinkijcharoenchai, Wattana ; Jongsatitpaiboon, Jaturong ; Phungrassami, Temsak ; Chuchart, Kanyarat ; Thongsuksai, Paramee ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 885~890
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.885
Background: Head and neck cancers are prevalent in Thailand, in particular in the southern region of the country. However, survival with a large data set has not been reported. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the survival figures and the prognostic factors in a cohort of patients treated in a university hospital located in the south of Thailand. Patients and Methods: Consecutive new cases of primary carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharyx, hypopharynx and larynx, treated at Songklanagarind Hospital during 2002 to 2004, were analyzed. The 5-year overall survival rates were obtained by the Kaplan-Meier method. Prognostic factors were identified through multivariate Cox regression analysis. Results: A total 1,186 cases were analyzed. Two-thirds (66.6%) of the cases were at advanced stage (stage III & IV) at presentation. The five-year overall survivals for the whole cohort, oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx and larynx were 24.1%, 25.91%, 19.2%, 13.4%, 38.0% respectively. Stage and treatment type were strong prognostic factors for all sites. An age
80 years was associated with poor survival in oral cavity and larynx cancer. Conclusions: The results revealed remarkably poor outcomes of the patients in the series, indicating a strong need to increase the proportion of early stage presentations and maximize the treatment efficacy to improving outcomes. Very old patients are of particular concern for treatment care of oral cavity and larynx cancer.
Human Papillomavirus Infection and Prognostic Predictors in Patients with Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Huang, Hui ; Zhang, Bin ; Chen, Wen ; Zhou, Shuang-Mei ; Zhang, Yong-Xia ; Gao, Li ; Xu, Zhen-Gang ; Qiao, You-Lin ; Tang, Ping-Zhang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 891~896
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.891
This study focused on infection rates and subtypes of human papillomavirus (HPV) in patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and the relationship between HPV status and prognosis of the disease. We evaluated sixty-six OSCC patients who met the enrollment criteria during the period from January 1999 to December 2009. The presence or absence of oncogenic HPV types in tumors was determined using the SPF10 LiPA25 assay. Overall survival (OS) and disease specific survival (DSS) for HPV positive and HPV negative patients were estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. The Cox regression model was applied for multivariate analysis. HPV-DNA was detected in 11(16.7%) of all specimens. Among them, 7 were type HPV-16, while other types were HPV-16/11, HPV-35, HPV-58/52, and HPV-33/52/54. Patients with HPV positive tumors were more likely to be female, non-smokers and non-drinkers (p=0.002, 0.001 and 0.001, respectively). After a median follow-up of 24.5 months, patients with HPV positive tumors had significantly better overall survival (HR=0.106[95%CI=0.014-0.787], p=0.016,) and disease specific survival (HR=0.121[95%CI=0.016-0.906], p=0.030). Patients with HPV positive OSCC have significantly better prognosis than patients with HPV negative tumors. HPV infection is an independent prognostic factor.
Assessment of the Knowledge and Attitude of Female Students towards Cervical Cancer Prevention at an International University in Japan
Ghotbi, Nader ; Anai, Akane ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 897~900
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.897
Cervical cancer resulting from prior infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is a significant public health threat against young Japanese women. A national immunization plan to vaccinate 13~16 year old female students against HPV infection has been started in Japan since 2010, and may reach almost full coverage by the end of 2012. Older age females who may already be sexually active are not targeted by this plan but should follow safer sex practices as well as periodic screening of the cervix cytology to reduce their risk of developing cervical cancer. HPV vaccination alone does not offer full protection either, because only some HPV types are covered by the vaccines and the long-term efficacy of the vaccines has not been determined yet. Therefore, we did a survey at an international university in Japan to study the knowledge and attitude of female college students towards prevention of cervical cancer, to examine the age when they start sexual activity and other related attributes that may influence the risk of cervical cancer. We discuss the results of our survey and what they imply for the possible impact of an HPV immunization plan on the risk of cervical cancer in Japan, and conclude by an emphasis on the need to increase awareness among Japanese female adolescents and to enhance the cervical screening rates among older females who are already sexually active.
MLH1 Polymorphisms and Cancer risk: a Meta-analysis Based on 33 Case-control Studies
Xu, Jia-Li ; Yin, Zhi-Qiang ; Huang, Ming-De ; Wang, Xie-Feng ; Gao, Wen ; Liu, Ling-Xiang ; Wang, Rong-Sheng ; Huang, Pu-Wen ; Yin, Yong-Mei ; Liu, Ping ; Shu, Yong-Qian ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 901~907
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.901
Objective: Cumulative evidence suggests that MLH1, the key component in the mismatch pathway, plays an important role in human cancers. Two potential functional polymorphisms (-93G>A and I219V) of MLH1 have been implicated in cancer risk. The aim of this meta-analysis was to summarize the evidence for associations. Methods: Eligible studies were identified by searching the electronic literature PubMed, ScienceDirect and Embase databases for relevant reports and bibliographies. Studies were included if of case-control design investigating MLH1 polymorphisms (-93G>A and I219V) and cancer risk with sufficient raw data for analysis. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used to evaluate the strength of associations. Results: Our meta-analysis from 33 published case-control studies showed the variant A allele of -93G>A polymorphism to be associated with increased risk in all genetic models (AA vs. GG: OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.03-1.44), especially among non-Asians (AA vs. GG: OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.04-1.58). For the I219V polymorphism, however, there was no main effect associated with overall cancer risk in any genetic model. Conclusions: The meta-analysis suggested that the MLH1 -93G>A polymorphism may be a biomarker of cancer susceptibility. Large sample association studies and assessment of gene-to-gene as well as gene-to-environment interactions are required to confirm these findings.
Gefitinib Alone or with Concomitant Whole Brain Radiotherapy for Patients with Brain Metastasis from Non-small-cell Lung Cancer: A Retrospective Study
Zeng, Yin-Duo ; Zhang, Li ; Liao, Hai ; Liang, Ying ; Xu, Fei ; Liu, Jun-Ling ; Dinglin, Xiao-Xiao ; Chen, Li-Kun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 909~914
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.909
Background: Gefitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), is used both as a single drug and concurrently with whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) the standard treatment for brain metastases (BM), and is reported to be effective in a few small studies of patients with BM from non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, no study has compared the two treatment modalities. This retrospective analysis was conducted to compare the efficacy of gefitinib alone with gefitinib plus concomitant WBRT in treatment of BM from NSCLC. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 90 patients with BM from NSCLC who received gefitinib alone (250mg/day, gefitinib group) or with concomitant WBRT (40Gy/20f/4w, gefitinib-WBRT group) between September 2005 and September 2009 at Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center. Forty-five patients were in each group. Results: The objective response rate of BM was significantly higher in gefitinib-WBRT group (64.4%) compared with gefitinib group (26.7%, P<0.001). The disease control rate of BM was 71.1% in gefitinib-WBRT group and 42.2% in gefitinib group (P=0.006). The median time to progression of BM was 10.6 months in gefitinib-WBRT group and 6.57 months in gefitinib group (P<0.001). The median overall survival(OS) of gefitinib-WBRT and gefitinib alone group was 23.40 months and 14.83 months, respectively (HR, 0.432, P=0.002). Conclusion: Gefitinib plus concomitant WBRT had higher response rate of BM and significant improvement in OS compared with gefitinib alone in treatment of BM from NSCLC.
Pro Variant of TP53 Arg72Pro Contributes to Gastric Cancer Risk in Asians: Evidence from a Meta-analysis
Su, Xiu-Li ; Jin, Jian-Jun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 915~921
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.915
Background: Previous studies investigating the association between TP53 Arg72Pro polymorphism and gastric cancer (GC) risk in Asian population have reported controversial results. Thus, a meta-analysis was performed. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted and 17 case-control studies were finally included, involving a total of 5,990 GC cases and 6,812 controls. Subgroup analyses were performed by the sample size. Results: Meta-analysis of all 17 studies showed variant genotypes of TP53 Arg72Pro to be associated with an elevated GC risk in three genetic comparison models (
=1.13, 95%CI 1.03-1.25,
=1.33, 95%CI 1.07-1.64,
=1.13, 95%CI 1.05-1.22,
=0.002). Besides, a more obvious association was observed after the heterogeneity was decreased (all P values less than 0.001). This association was further identified by both subgroup and sensitivity analyses. Conclusions: This meta-analysis suggests the Pro variant of TP53 Arg72Pro contributes to gastric cancer risk in Asians.
Early Efficacy of Endostar Combined with Chemoradiotherapy for Advanced Cervical Cancers
Ke, Qing-Hua ; Zhou, Shi-Qiong ; Huang, Min ; Lei, Yong ; Du, Wei ; Yang, Ji-Yuan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 923~926
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.923
The aim of this study was to investigate the early outcome of Endostar combined with chemoradiotherapy for advanced cervical cancer. Fifty-two cases (FIGO IIb to IVa) were divided randomly into two groups, receiving chemoradiotherapy alone (CRT group) and Endostar combined with chemoradiotherapy (CRT+E group). For the patients in the CRT+E group, Endostar was administered daily with the dosage of 7.5
, and cisplatin was administered weekly with the dosage of 20
during the radiation. The regimens lasted for 4 weeks with no difference in chemoradiotherapy between the two groups. The early outcome complete remission rate was 73.1%, partial remission rate was 23.1% and the total response rate was 96.2% in CRT+E group, a significant improvement on the 34.6%, 42.3% and 76.9%, respectively, in the CRT group. One year survive rates were 100% and 84.6% in the CRT+E group and CRT groups, the difference being significant. Endostar combined with chemoradiotherapy can improve the early outcome of the advanced cervical cancer, and adverse effects were not encountered.
Artificial Neural Network for Prediction of Distant Metastasis in Colorectal Cancer
Biglarian, Akbar ; Bakhshi, Enayatollah ; Gohari, Mahmood Reza ; Khodabakhshi, Reza ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 927~930
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.927
Background and Objectives: Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are flexible and nonlinear models which can be used by clinical oncologists in medical research as decision making tools. This study aimed to predict distant metastasis (DM) of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients using an ANN model. Methods: The data of this study were gathered from 1219 registered CRC patients at the Research Center for Gastroenterology and Liver Disease of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran (January 2002 and October 2007). For prediction of DM in CRC patients, neural network (NN) and logistic regression (LR) models were used. Then, the concordance index (C index) and the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) were used for comparison of neural network and logistic regression models. Data analysis was performed with R 2.14.1 software. Results: The C indices of ANN and LR models for colon cancer data were calculated to be 0.812 and 0.779, respectively. Based on testing dataset, the AUROC for ANN and LR models were 0.82 and 0.77, respectively. This means that the accuracy of ANN prediction was better than for LR prediction. Conclusion: The ANN model is a suitable method for predicting DM and in that case is suggested as a good classifier that usefulness to treatment goals.
Knockdown of Cdc25B in Renal Cell Carcinoma is Associated with Decreased Malignant Features
Yu, Xiu-Yue ; Zhang, Zhe ; Zhang, Guo-Jun ; Guo, Kun-Feng ; Kong, Chui-Ze ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 931~935
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.931
Cdc25 phosphatases are important regulators of the cell cycle. Their abnormal expression detected in a number of tumors implies that their dysregulation is involved in malignant transformation. However, the role of Cdc25B in renal cell carcinomas remains unknown. To shed light on influence on renal cell carcinogenesis and subsequent progression, Cdc25B expression was examined by real-time RT-PCR and western blotting in renal cell carcinoma and normal tissues. 65 kDa Cdc25B expression was higher in carcinomas than in the adjacent normal tissues (P<0.05), positive correlations being noted with clinical stage and histopathologic grade (P<0.05). To additionally investigate the role of Cdc25B alteration in the development of renal cell carcinoma, Cdc25B siRNA was used to knockdown the expression of Cdc25B. Down-regulation resulted in slower growth, more G2/M cells, weaker capacity for migration and invasion, and induction of apoptosis in 769-P transfectants. Reduction of 14-3-3 protein expression appeared related to Cdc25B knockdown. These findings suggest an important role of Cdc25B in renal cell carcinoma development and provide a rationale for investigation of Cdc2B-based gene therapy.
Patterns of Metastasis and Survival in Breast Cancer Patients: A Preliminary Study in an iranian Population
Ziaei, Jamal Eivazi ; Pourzand, Ali ; Bayat, Amrollah ; Vaez, Jalil ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 937~940
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.937
Due to lack of sufficient data on characteristics of breast cancer patients and risk factors for developing metastasis in Iran this study was designed to understand clinical aspects impacting on survival. A cross-sectional study on breast cancer patients was conducted in an oncology clinic of the university hospital between 1995 and 2010. Data were retrieved from medical records and included age, menopausal status, tumor diameter, number of involved nodes, histopathological type, estrogen and progesterone receptor expression, c-erbB-2, primary and secondary metastasis sites, overall survival, disease free interval and type of chemotherapy protocol. The results were analyzed with SPSS 13 software. The mean age of the patients was 49.2 (27-89) years. The primary tumors were mainly ER positive (48%) and PR negative (49.3%). The status of lymph nodes dissected and examined in these patients was unknown in 19 patients (25.3%) while 18 patients (24%) had positive lymph nodes with no report on the number of involved nodes. All of the patients had received antracyclin based chemotherapy in an adjuvant or metastatic setting. Adjuvant hormonal therapy was administered to receptor positive patients. In average, overall survival after recurrence was 30 months (95%CI 24.605-35.325) for non-skeletal versus 42 months (95%CI 31.211-52.789) for skeletal metastasis (P= 0.002). The median survival was also greater for receptor positive patients; 39 months (95%CI 33.716-44.284) for PR+ versus 26 months (95%CI 19.210-32.790) for PR- (P=0.047) and 38 months (95%CI 32.908-43.092) for ER+ versus 27 months (95%CI 18.780-35.220) for ER- patients (P=0.016). No relation was found between site of first metastasis and hormone receptor, age, tumor diameter, DFI and menopausal status. Sites of metastasis were independent of age, size of the tumor, menopausal and hormone receptor status in this study. Overall survival provided significant relations with respect to receptor status and bone metastasis.
Health-Related Quality of Life of Breast Cancer Patients in iran: Pooled Analysis using Generalized Estimating Equations
Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad ; Bastani, Peivand ; ibrahimipour, Hossein ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 941~944
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.941
Objective: The aim of current study was to evaluate the changes of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and its clinical, demographic and socioeconomic determinants during chemotherapy and 4 months follow-up in women with breast cancer using a repeated measures framework. Methods and Materials: A double blind cohort study was performed in 100 breast cancer patients given fluorouracil, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (FAC) or docetaxel, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide (TAC) in south of Iran. HRQoL was assessed at baseline, end of chemotherapy and four months thereafter using the QLQ-C30 questionnaire from European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC). Generalized estimating equations (GEE) was applied for statistical analysis. Results: The mean of age at baseline was
. 70% and 14% of patients were married and smokers, respectively, and 20% suffered from another disease besides breast cancer. The results of GEE showed that after control for baseline scores, the HRQoL significantly improved over time. Although, the patients in FAC group had higher scores than the TAC group, the differences also diminished over time. Smoking, marital status and having child affected some scales of HRQoL. None of other variables were significantly related to HRQoL. Conclusion: Although patients in TAC groups had lower level of HRQoL over 8 months follow up, they experienced faster improvement than the FAC group. This implies that in long-term, improvements in TAC group are higher than FAC. Having children was positively correlated with HRQoL. Generally, there were no demographic and socio-economic differences in HRQoL in these patients between the chemotherapeutic regimens.
Association Between the FAS/FASL Polymorphisms and Gastric Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis
Tian, Jing ; Pan, Feng ; Li, Jing ; Ma, Yan ; Cen, Han ; Pan, Hai-Feng ; Pan, Yue-Yin ; Ye, Dong-Qing ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 945~951
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.945
Objective: FAS/FASL gene promoter polymorphisms have been repeatedly associated with gastric cancer risk, but findings are inconclusive across studies. To address a more precise estimation of the relationship, a meta-analysis was performed. Methods: Data were collected from the Pubmed, Medline and EMBASE databases, with the last report up to 1 December, 2011. Crude ORs with 95% CIs were used to assess the strength of the association by (1) the additive, (2) the codominant, (3) the dominant, and (4) the recessive models. Results: A total of seven studies, including six studies on FAS -1377G>A polymorphism, five studies on FAS -670A>G polymorphism, and six studies on FASL -844T>C polymorphism, were identified in the current meta-analysis. Overall, an association of FAS -1377G>A (AA versus GG: OR = 1.313, 95% CI = 1.045-1.650, Ph = 0.347,
= 10.8) and FASL -844T>C (CC versus TT: OR = 1.352, 95% CI = 1.043-1.752, Ph = 0.461,
= 0.0) polymorphisms with gastric cancer was found in the codominant model. However, we did not detect any association between gastric cancer and the FAS -670A>G polymorphism. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, similar elevated risks were also observed in Asian population for FAS -1377G>A (AA versus GG: OR = 1.309, 95% CI = 1.041-1.646, Ph = 0.240,
= 27.3) and FASL -844T>C (CC versus TT: OR = 1.420, 95% CI = 1.081-1.865, Ph = 0.524,
= 0.0) polymorphisms. Conclusions: This meta-analysis indicated that FAS -1377G>A and FASL -844T>C polymorphisms might be associated with gastric cancer risk.
Smokers and Marriage: Attitude of Youth in the United Arab Emirates
Bello, Salihu Umar ; Jibril, Mohammad Awwa ; Hassam, Hessa Ali ; Haisan, Faris ; Zaabi, Jasem Al ; Daura, Hafsatu Sani Zangon ; Shaikh, Rizwana B. ; Sharbatti, Shatha Al ; Mathew, Elsheba ; Sreedharan, Jayadevan ; Muttappallymyalil, Jayakumary ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 953~956
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.953
Introduction: In order to control the tobacco scourge, an array of measures is required. Among them is focusing on adolescent relationships as it has been shown that being in a close relationship with a smoker or a non smoker will in the long run be a major factor in deciding whether the individual adopts smoking for initial non-smokers or ceases the habit for initial smokers. Objectives: To assess the attitude of youth towards other smokers and towards marrying a smoker. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 415 students from five universities in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Self-administered structured questionnaires were used for data collection. The Chi square test was used to detect significant differences between frequencies. Results: Of the 415 participants who provided their gender information, 99 (24%) were males and 314 (76%) were females. Of all the participants, 83.5% were not willing to marry smokers, while 16.5% were willing. Of those whose parents smoked (106) 68% did not like it when their parents smoked, 13.6% had no opinion, 17.5% did not mind, while the other 1% had other thoughts. Of those whose close friends smoked, 43.4% did not like it, 16.2% did not have any opinion, 36.9% did not mind while 3.5% had other thoughts. Conclusion: Most participants, both males and females are not willing to marry smokers and prefer to have non-smokers as spouses. Also, smokers are seen as less attractive by both genders in contrast to what appears as popular beliefs amongst youngsters and what is depicted in tobacco advertisements. Tobacco control activities can be undertaken in the community and colleges by incorporating students as facilitators.
Quality of Life in Malaysian Colorectal Cancer Patients : A Preliminary Result
Natrah, M.S. ; Ezat, Sharifa W.P. ; Syed, M.A. ; Rizal, A.M. Mohd ; Saperi, S. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 957~962
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.957
Objective: Rapidly increasing colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence in Malaysia and the introduction of cutting edge new treatments, which prolong survival, mean that treatment outcome measures meed to be evaluated, including consideration of patient's quality of life (QoL) assessment. There are limited data on QoL in CRC patients, especially in Malaysia. Therefore, this study was performed focusing on cancer stages and age groups. Methods: The cross sectional study was conducted from June to September 2011 at three public tertiary hospitals with the EORTC QLQ C-30 questionnaire in addition to face to face interview and review of medical records of 100 respondents. Results: The mean age was 57.3 (SD 11.9) years with 56.0% are males and 44.0% females, 62% of Malay ethnicity, 30% Chinese, 7% Indian and 1% Sikh. Majority were educated up to secondary level (42%) and 90% respondents had CRC stages III and IV. Mean global health status (GHS) score was 79.1 (SD 21.4). Mean scores for functional status (physical, emotional, role, cognitive, social) rangeds between 79.5 (SD 26.6) to 92.2 (SD 13.7). Mean symptom scores (fatigue, pain, nausea/vomiting, constipation, diarrhea, insomnia, dyspnoea, loss of appetite) ranged between 4.00 (SD 8.58) to 20.7 (SD 30.6). Respondents role function significantly deteriorates with increasing stage of the disease (p=0.044). Females had worse symptoms of pain (p=0.022), fatigue (p=0.031) and dyspnoea (p=0.031). Mean insomnia (p=0.006) and diarrhea (p=0.024) demonstrated significant differences between age groups. Conclusion: QOL in CRC patients in this study was comparable to that in other studies done in developed countries. Pain, fatigue and dyspnoea are worse among female CRC patients. Given that functions deteriorates with advanced stage of the disease at diagnosis, a systematic screening programme to detect cases as early as possible is essential nationwide.
Dietary Habits Contributing to the Cancer Prevention Among Health College Students in Turkey
Nogay, Nalan Hakime ; Akinci, Ayse Cil ; Sert, Havva ; Kurtulus, Zeynep ; Gedik, Selda ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 963~968
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.963
This descriptive study was made to evaluate the dietary habits contributing to cancer prevention of 319 health college students. Data collection form included questions about demographic characteristics and 33 statements which evaluate dietary habits contributing to cancer prevention. Among the students, 56.1% consumed fast food outside the home/dormitory twice a week or more and 47% never exercised. Moreover, 63.9% of the students reported that their dietary habits changed negatively and 69% stated that their fruit and vegetable consumption decreased after starting the health college. The students mostly paid attention to preserving food and water consumption while they paid least attention to maintaining healthy weight and whole grain consumption. Female students, those who paid attention to the amount and calorie of the food they consumed, students who did not consume fast food, and students who exercised twice a week or three times a week had better dietary habits contributing to cancer prevention (p<0.05). According to these results we recommend that interventions which will reduce fast food consumption and increase fruit and vegetable consumption and exercising in university students should be implemented. For this purpose, appropriate conditions for preparing and preserving healthy food should be provided as well as increasing the frequency of vegetable containing meals and providing fruits and salads in every meal at school cafeterias.
Predictors of Mammography Screening among Iranian Women Attending Outpatient Clinics in Tehran, Iran
Ahmadian, Maryam ; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu ; Redzuan, Ma'rof ; Emby, Zahid ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 969~974
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.969
Mammography utilization is low in Iran compared with other countries. Here a cross-sectional survey design was used to investigate psycho-social and individual factors associated with mammography among 400 women asymptomatic of breast cancer. The study was carried out at the four outpatient clinics of Tehran during the period from July through October, 2009. We found that mammography screening was related to higher self-efficacy and women's occupation. Future tailored interventions on potential psycho-social determinants and specific demographic factors are critical in increasing mammography screening rates among Iranian women.
Diagnostic Utility of p63 (Ab-1) and (Ab-4) Tumor Markers in the Squamous Cell Carcinomas of Head and Neck
Khan, Nauman Rauf ; Khan, Amna Nauman ; Bashir, Saira ; Khan, Ayyaz Ali ; Suleman, Bilquis A. ; Chaudhry, Saima ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 975~978
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.975
P63 is a gene product required in cell cycle regulation which plays vital roles in tumor differentiation. Aims of the present study were to assess the frequency, pattern, sensitivity and specificity of two p63 protein clones P63 4A4 and P63 4A4+Y4A3 in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Thirty cases of head and neck region SCC diagnosed on the basis of H&E staining were examined along with 60 cases of head and neck region biopsies other than squamous cell carcinoma, negative on H&E staining, were taken as control. Immunostaining was performed on slides according to the Thermo Scientific UltraVision LP detection System. P63 4A4+Y4A3 clone is more sensitive 96.6% in comparison to 86% in P63 4A4 with having greater NPV of 98.3%. The results signify the importance of P63 4A4+Y4A3 marker over the old markers and may be used as a confirmatory marker of squamous cell carcinoma.
Efficacy of Exemestane After Nonsteroidal Aromatase inhibitor Use in Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients
Kim, Sun-Hye ; Park, In-Hae ; Lee, Hye-Won ; Lee, Keun-Seok ; Nam, Byung-Ho ; Ro, Jung-Sil ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 979~983
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.979
Background : Previous studies have suggested a lack of complete cross-resistance between steroidal (exemestane) and non-steroidal aromatase inhibitors (nSAI). Methods : Eighty-eight metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients who received 25 mg of exemestane orally once a day at the National Cancer Center, Korea, between 2003 and 2009, were reviewed retrospectively. All patients had received nSAI for metastatic disease prior to exemestane therapy. Results : The median age was 52 years (range, 33-79), and 13 (14.8%) patients were premenopausal who concomitantly received GnRH agonist. Exemestane was given as a second- (80.7%) or third-line (19.3%) hormone therapy. The clinical benefit (CB) rate (complete response + partial response + stable disease
24 weeks) was 30.7%, with a median CB duration of 10.0 months (range, 6.3-78.7). The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 3.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.99-4.01) and the overall survival (OS) 21.5 months (95% CI, 17.96-25.04), with a median followup of 50.3 months. Patients who achieved CB had longer OS than those patients who did not (29.6 vs 17.9 months; P=0.002). On univariate analysis of predictive factors, patients who had achieved CB from previous nSAI tended to show lower CB rate (24.6% vs 44.4%, respectively; P=0.063) and shorter PFS (2.8 vs 4.8 months, respectively; p=0.233) than patients who had not. Achieving CB from previous nSAI became independent predictive factor for CBR to exemestane on multivariable analysis (Odds ratio = 2.852, P = 0.040). Conclusions : Exemestane after nSAI failure was effective in prolonging CB duration. The drug's efficacy seemed to be inferior in patients who had benefit from previous nSAI use.
Dosimetric Verification for Primary Focal Hypermetabolism of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients Treated with Dynamic Intensity-modulated Radiation Therapy
Xin, Yong ; Wang, Jia-Yang ; Li, Liang ; Tang, Tian-You ; Liu, Gui-Hong ; Wang, Jian-She ; Xu, Yu-Mei ; Chen, Yong ; Zhang, Long-Zhen ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 985~989
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.985
Objective: To make sure the feasibility with
PET/CT to guided dynamic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients, by dosimetric verification before treatment. Methods: Chose 11 patients in III~IVA nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with functional image-guided IMRT and absolute and relative dosimetric verification by Varian 23EX LA, ionization chamber, 2DICA of I'mRT Matrixx and IBA detachable phantom. Drawing outline and making treatment plan were by different imaging techniques (CT and
PET/CT). The dose distributions of the various regional were realized by SMART. Results: The absolute mean errors of interest area were
using 0.6cc ice chamber. Results using DTA method, the average relative dose measurements within our protocol (3%, 3 mm) were 87.64% at 300 MU/min in all filed. Conclusions: Dosimetric verification before IMRT is obligatory and necessary. Ionization chamber and 2DICA of I'mRT Matrixx was the effective dosimetric verification tool for primary focal hyper metabolism in functional image-guided dynamic IMRT for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Our preliminary evidence indicates that functional image-guided dynamic IMRT is feasible.
5-Aminoisoquinolinone Reduces the Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-C via the Nuclear Factor-kappa B Signaling Pathway in CT26 Cells
Wu, Wei-Qiang ; Fauzee, Nilufer Jasmine Selimah ; Wang, Ya-Lan ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 991~994
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.991
Objective: VEGF-C has recently been identified as a key molecule which is involved in tumor lymphangiogenesis. The aim of this research was to investigate the role of PARP-1 inhibition in the regulation of VEGF-C expression in CT26 cells. Methods: CT26 cells were treated with or without the PARP-1 inhibitor 5-aminoisoquinolinone (5-AIQ). The expression of PARP-1, NF-kB, and VEGF-C proteins in CT26 cells was measured by Western blot analysis and the VEGF-C mRNA level was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). CT26-secreted VEGF-C was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: The results of Western blot analysis showed that the expression levels of PARP-1, NF-kB, and VEGF-C were reduced in 5-AIQ treated CT26 cells and the levels of VEGF-C mRNA in 5-AIQ treated CT26 were significantly lower than t in 5-AIQ-untreated cells (P<0.05). The concentrations of CT26-secreted VEGF-C were also dramatically decreased (P<0.05). Conclusion: Here, we provide evidence for the first time that PARP-1 inhibition dramatically reduces VEGF-C expression via the nuclear factor NF-kB signaling pathway. We therefore propose that PARP-1 inhibition has an anti-lymphangiogenic effect and may contribute to the prevention of metastatic dissemination via the lymphatic system.
Study on Soy Isoflavone Consumption and Risk of Breast Cancer and Survival
Kang, Hong-Bin ; Zhang, Ya-Feng ; Yang, Jin-Dun ; Lu, Kuan-Liang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 995~998
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.995
Aim: Isoflavones in soy foods are part of a larger class of flayonoid compounds that have have been demonstrated to be potent dietary anti-cancer agents, and the effect of soy intake on the survival of ovarian cancer is conflicting. Therefore, we aimed to explore the whether soy intake is related to the risk of death of breast cancer. Methods: A prospective study was conducted. A total of 256 patients included in this study had breast cancer and were recruited between January 2004 and January 2006. All of them were followed up from since January 2011. A univariate Cox's regression analysis was used to assess the association between soy intake and survival. Results: The education level, menopausal status, ER/PR status and TNM stage were significant difference in the survival of breast cancer. The highest soy isoflavone was associated with a decreased death risk of breast cancer (OR=0.25, 95% CI=0.09-0.54). Moreover, the higher consumption of soy protein also presented a trend decreased breast cancer risk, and the highest consumption significantly reduced the cancer risk compared with the lowest consumption (OR=0.38, 95% CI=0.17-0.86). Conclusion: The present study suggests soy intake is associated with a significant reduced death risk of breast cancer in Chinese population. Further large sample studies are warranted to confirm the inverse association of soy consumption and breast cancer survival by menopausal status.
Prostate Cancer Epidemiology in a Rural Area of North Western Greece
Grivas, N. ; Hastazeris, K. ; Kafarakis, V. ; Tsimaris, I. ; Xousianitis, Z. ; Makatsori, A. ; Raptis, P. ; Aspiotis, S. ; Ioachim, E. ; Ntemou, A. ; Kitsiou, E. ; Malamou-Mitsi, V. ; Sofikitis, N. ; Kordela, V. ; Papandreou, C. ; Agnantis, N.J. ; Stavropoulos, N.E. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 999~1002
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.999
Epirus is a rural area of North-Western Greece. We reviewed data from 4 hospitals for 4.975 patients who underwent prostate biopsy in Epirus in the twelve year period from 1999 to 2010. Two six -year periods were compared (1999-2004 and 2004-2010). All cases of prostate cancer confirmed by biopsy were recorded and age-standardized incidence rates per 100,000 males were calculated. We also recorded the clinical stage for patients diagnosed in our hospital and correlated this with PSA and Gleason scores. Percentage of positive prostate biopsies was also calculated. There were a total of 1714 new cases during 1999-2010 and the mean annual age-adjusted incidence was 34/100.000. The mean incidences during 1999-2004 and 2005-2010 were 26/100,000 and 42/100,000, respectively. The mean age at diagnosis was 74. The most common Gleason score was 6 and the prevalent clinical stage was T2. Median PSA at diagnosis was 10.8 ng/ml. There was a significant difference between stage cT4 and all other stages regarding PSA value (p=0.000). A positive correlation was found between Gleason score and PSA (p=0.013). These results are in accordance with the incidence rise recorded in neighboring countries of South-East Europe. However we should keep in mind the risk of overdiagnosis and the detection of low-risk cancers that would not have caused morbidity or death during a man's lifetime anyway.
Relationship Between BMI, Body image, and Smoking in Korean Women as Determined by Urine Cotinine: Results of a Nationwide Survey
Jang, So-Young ; Kim, Jin-Hyeong ; Lim, Min-Kyung ; Kim, Hee-Jin ; Jee, Sun-Ha ; NamKoong, Kee ; Cho, Woo-Hyun ; Park, Eun-Cheol ; Lee, Sang-Gyu ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 1003~1010
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.1003
Background: This study examined the influence of body mass index (BMI), subjective body perception (SBP), and the differences between BMI and SBP influence on smoking among women. Methods: This study used the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV-2, 3 2008-2009. A urinary cotinine test was administered to 5485 women at least 19 years of age. Individuals whose cotinine level was at least 50 ng/mL were categorized as smokers. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the extent to which body-related variables affect female smoking. Results: Women with a lower BMI who perceived themselves to be normal or very fat were 2.09 times (1.14-3.83) more likely to smoke than women with a normal BMI and SBP. Women who were never married with a low BMI and thin SBP were 3.11 times (1.47-6.55) more likely to smoke than women with a normal BMI and SBP. Married women with a high BMI who considered themselves very fat were 0.63 times (0.43-0.94) less likely to smoke than women with a normal BMI and SBP. In contrast, divorced and widowed women with a low or normal BMI who considered themselves very fat were 26.1 times (1.35-507.3) more likely to smoke. Conclusions: Discrepancies between the objective physical condition (BMI) and the subjective body image (SBP) influence the female smoking rate. To reduce the number of female smokers, public education on the association between smoking behavior and weight issues is needed, especially among women with low BMI and distorted weight perception.
Mobile Phone Use does not Discourage Adolescent Smoking in Japan
Osaki, Yoneatsu ; Ohida, Takashi ; Kanda, Hideyuki ; Kaneita, Yoshitaka ; Kishimoto, Takuji ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 1011~1014
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.1011
Objective: The possibility that smoking prevalence among junior and senior high school students may decrease with increasing mobile phone bill was reported by the mass media in Japan. We conducted a nationwide survey on adolescent smoking and mobile phone use in Japan in order to assess the hypothesis that mobile phone use has replaced smoking. Methods: A total of 70 junior high schools (response rate; 71%), and 69 high schools (90%) from all over Japan responded to 2005 survey. Students in the responding schools were asked to fill out an anonymous questionnaire about smoking behavior, mobile phone bill, and pocket money. Questionnaires were collected from 32,615 junior high school students and 48,707 senior high school students. Results: The smoking prevalence of students with high mobile phone bill was more likely to be high, and that of students who used mobile phones costing 10,000 yen and over per month was especially high. When "quitters" were defined as students who had tried smoking but were not smoking at the time of survey, the proportion of quitters decreased as the mobile phone bill increased. The proportion of students who had smoking friends increased with the increase in the mobile phone bill per month. Conclusion: The hypothesis that the decrease in smoking prevalence among Japanese adolescents that has been observed in recent years is due to a mobile phone use can be rejected.
Prognosis and Management for Gallbladder Cancer with Hepatic Invasion: Long-term Results of 139 Patients from a Single Center in China
Qu, Kai ; Chang, Hu-Lin ; Liu, Si-Nan ; Liu, Chang ; Xu, Xin-Sen ; Wang, Rui-Tao ; Zhou, Lei ; Tian, Feng ; Wei, Ji-Chao ; Tai, Ming-Hui ; Meng, Fan-Di ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 1015~1018
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.1015
Objective: To improve the diagnosis of primary gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) with/without hepatic metastases by analyzing our experience of different GBC treatment in our patients. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out to analyze the clinical data of the 139 patients with GBC who underwent hepatic resection in our unit from January 2003 to December 2007. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether they demonstrated hepatic invasion. Tumor presentation, surgical modes, and prognosis of each patient were retrospectively reviewed. Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank tests were employed to compare the survival rates of those patients undergoing different surgical procedures. Results: Of the 139 patients, 46 were men and 93 were women with the male to female ratio of 1:2.0. Their ages were ranged from 35 to 86 years with a mean age of
years. There were 73 patients complicated with hepatic invasion (group A), and no hepatic invasion occurred in the other 66 patients (group B). Compared with the group B, the patients with hepatic invasion suffered lower differentiation of tumor (p=0.000), more advanced Nevin staging (p=0.008) and poorer prognosis (p=0.013). Radical resection were more frequently performed in group B (75.76%) than in group A (45.20%) with better outcomes (p=0.000). Conclusion: GBC patients complicated with hepatic invasion had poorer prognosis than those without invasion in long-term follow-ups. Radical resection might result in a satisfied prognosis in patients without hepatic invasion, but appears less favorable than palliative resection in those who were complicated with hepatic invasion.
Type-Specific Incidence and Persistence of HPV Infection among Young Women: A Prospective Study in North India
Datta, Palika ; Bhatla, Neerja ; Pandey, R.M. ; Dar, Lalit ; Patro, A. Rajkumar ; Vasisht, Shachi ; Kriplani, Alka ; Singh, Neeta ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 1019~1024
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.1019
Background: Infections with human papillomavirus (HPV) are highly prevalent among sexually active young women in India. However, not much is known about the incidence of type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and their patterns of persistence, especially in the Indian context. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the rate of acquisition and persistence of HPV types in young women. Methods: Women residing in an urban slum in Delhi (n=1300) were followed for 24 months at 6 monthly intervals. Exfoliated cervical cells collected at each visit were tested for the presence of HPV DNA. Genotyping was performed using the reverse line blot assay. Results: The incidence rate for any HPV type was calculated to be 5 per 1000 women-months. Among high risk HPV types, HPV16 had the highest incidence rate followed by HPV59, HPV52 and HPV18, i.e., 3.0, 0.58, 0.41 and 0.35 women per 1000 women-months respectively. The persistence rate was higher for high-risk than low-risk HPV types. Among low-risk types, HPV42, HPV62, HPV84 and HPV89 were found to persist. Whereas almost all high risk types showed persistence, the highest rate was found in women with HPV types 16, 45, 67, 31, 51 and 59. The persistence rate for HPV16 infection was 45 per 1000 women-months. Conclusion: Incident HPV infections and high risk HPV type-specific persistence were found to be high in our study population of young married women. Understanding the patterns of HPV infection may help plan appropriate strategies for prevention programs including vaccination and screening.
Killing Effects of Different Physical Factors on Extracorporeal HepG2 Human Hepatoma Cells
Zhang, Kun-Song ; Zhou, Qi ; Wang, Ya-Feng ; Liang, Li-Jian ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 1025~1029
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.1025
Objective: To determine the killing effects on extracorporeal HepG2 cells under different temperatures, pressures of permeability and lengths of treatment time. Method: According to different temperatures, pressures of permeability and lengths of treating time, extracorporeal HepG2 cells of human hepatoma cell-line were grouped to 80 groups. Cell index (CI) as the measurement of killing effect were calculated by monotetrazolium (MTT) methods, i.e., CI =1- (the OD value in treated group - the OD value in blank control group) / (mean of untreated control group - mean of blank control group). According to the factorial design, data were fed into SPSS 10.0 and analyzed by three-way ANOVA (analysis of variance). Result: Temperature, pressure of permeability and length of treating time all had effects on the CI (cell index) level. Length of treating time was the most influential factor of the three. Additionally, any two of them all had statistically significant interactive effects on the CI level. When treated for 5-30 min, destilled water at
stably generated the highest CI. Conclusion: The "
-destilled water-60 min" was considered as the optimal combination of conditions which lead to highest CI. We suggest exerting celiac lavage for 15 min with stilled water at
in surgical practice as a hyperthermia treatment to achieve ideal killing effects on free cancer cells, which is feasible, practical, and clinically effective.
Chemopreventive Potential of an Ethyl Acetate Fraction from Curcuma Longa is Associated with Upregulation of p57
and Rad9 in the PC-3M Prostate Cancer Cell Line
Rao, K.V.K. ; Samikkannu, T. ; Dakshayani, K.B. ; Zhang, X. ; Sathaye, S.S. ; Indap, M.A. ; Nair, Madhavan P.N. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 1031~1038
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.1031
Background: Turmeric (
) has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antitumor properties. However, despite the progress in research with
, there is still a big lacuna in the information on the active principles and their molecular targets. More particularly very little is known about the role of cell cycle genes
and Rad9 during chemoprevention by turmeric and its derivatives especially in prostate cancer cell lines. Methods: Accordingly, in this study, we have examined the antitumor effect of several extracts of
rhizomes by successive fractionation in clonogenic assays using highly metastatic PC-3M prostate cancer cell line. Results: A mixture of isopropyl alcohol: acetone: water: chloroform: and methanol extract of
showed significant bioactivity. Further partition of this extract showed that bioactivity resides in the dichloromethane soluble fraction. Column chromatography of this fraction showed presence of biological activity only in ethyl acetate eluted fraction. HPLC, UV-Vis and Mass spectra studies showed presence three curcuminoids in this fraction besides few unidentified components. Conclusions: From these observations it was concluded that the ethyl acetate fraction showed not only inhibition of colony forming ability of PC-3M cells but also up-regulated cell cycle genes
and Rad9 and further reduced the migration and invasive ability of prostate cancer cells.
Prospective Study on the Survival of HCC Patients Treated with Transcatheter Arterial Lipiodol Chemoembolization
Mao, Ying-Min ; Luo, Zu-Yan ; Li, Bo ; Hu, Ting-Yang ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 1039~1042
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.1039
Aim: Tanscatheter arterial embolization irrespective of with or without an anticancer agent and lipiodol has been controversial with regard to survival benefit. Therefore, we conducted a prospective study to analyze the effect of transcatheter arterial lipiodol chemoembolization (TACE) on the survival of HCC. Methods: A prospective study was conducted, and a total of 326 patients with primary liver cancer who were newly diagnosed were collected from January 2004 to January 2005 in Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital of China. A univariate Cox's regression analysis was used to assess the survival of the HCC cases receiving TACE. Results: The duration of follow-up for the HCC patients treated with TACE ranged from 3 months to 60 months. For the overall patients, survival rate at 5 years was 42%. Both HBV Ag and HCV Ab positive patients showed significantly low survival rate at 5 years. The multivariate analysis revealed The IV TNM stage was related to an heavy increased risk of death of HCC patients, and Child C grade group showed a significant moderate increased risk. Conclusion: Our study showed TACE is associated with a better prognosis of HCC patients, and the HBV infection, TNM stage, Child-Pugh grade and number of TACE may influence the survival probability. Further TACE studies should be assess the quality of life of HCC patients, so as to provide more information for treatment of HCC.
Silencing of the COPS3 Gene by siRNA Reduces Proliferation of Lung Cancer Cells Most Likely via induction of Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis
Wang, Xue-Mei ; Cui, Jiu-Wei ; Li, Wei ; Cai, Lu ; Song, Wei ; Wang, Guan-Jun ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 1043~1048
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.1043
The COPS3 gene has stimulating effect on cell proliferation and progression of osteosarcomas and related cells. However, the features of COPS3 and its potential application as a therapeutic target in other cancers has not yet been studied. In this study, therefore, the effect of COPS3 silencing via COPS3 siRNA on lung cancer cell proliferation was examined. Expression levels of COPS3 gene in COPS3 siRNA infected cells and control siRNA infected cells were compared with real time PCR and Western blot analysis. Cell proliferation levels were comprehensively analyzed by MTT, BrdU incorporationy, and colony formation assays. For mechanistic assessment the effects of COPS3 silencing on cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed using flow cytometry. Results showed that successful silencing of the COPS3 gene at both translational and transcriptional levels significantly reduced the proliferation and colony formation by lung cancer cells (p<0.01). Flow cytometry showed cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase after COPS3 silencing, and more importantly, apoptosis was induced as a result of COPS3 knockdown, which negatively affected cell survival. Therefore, these results provide another piece of important evidence that the COPS3 gene expressed in lung cancer cells may play a critical role in stimulating proliferation. Down-regulation of COPS3 could significantly inhibit lung cancer cell growth, which was most likely mediated via induction of cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and apoptosis.
Expression and Prognostic Value of Matrix Metalloproteinase-7 in Colorectal Cancer
Yang, Bo ; Su, Ke ; Gao, Jianfei ; Rao, Zhiguo ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 1049~1052
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.1049
The purpose of this study was to evaluate expression and prognostic value of matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. CRC tissues and corresponding distal normal mucosa tissues of 118 CRC patients were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Correlations between MMP-7 expression, patients' clinic pathological features, and overall survival rate were analyzed. We found that positive expression of MMP-7 in CRC tissues was significantly higher than that in distal normal mucosa (61.0% vs. 39.8%, p =0.001). Poor histological differentiation, advanced clinical stage and lymph node metastasis were significantly correlated with MMP-7 expression in CRC. The overall survival rate was significantly higher in the MMP-7 negative group than the positive group (Log-rank test= 9.957, p= 0.002). MMP-7 appeared as a significant independent prognostic factor through multivariate survival analysis. Collectively, we found MMP-7 expression to be correlated with progression and metastasis of CRC and thus could be used as a predictive marker of prognosis in CRC patients.
Activating Transcription Factor 1 is a Prognostic Marker of Colorectal Cancer
Huang, Guo-Liang ; Guo, Hong-Qiang ; Yang, Feng ; Liu, Ou-Fei ; Li, Bin-Bin ; Liu, Xing-Yan ; Lu, Yan ; He, Zhi-Wei ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 1053~1057
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.1053
Objective: Identifying cancer-related genes or proteins is critical in preventing and controlling colorectal cancer (CRC). This study was to investigate the clinicopathological and prognostic value of activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1) in CRC. Methods: Protein expression of ATF1 was detected using immunohistochemistry in 66 CRC tissues. Clinicopathological association of ATF1 in CRC was analyzed with chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. The prognostic value of ATF1 in CRC is estimated using the Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression models. Results: The ATF1 protein expression was significantly lower in tumor tissues than corresponding normal tissues (51.5% and 71.1%, respectively, P = 0.038). No correlation was found between ATF1 expression and the investigated clinicopathological parameters, including gender, age, depth of invasion, lymph node status, metastasis, pathological stage, vascular tumoral emboli, peritumoral deposits, chemotherapy and original tumor site (all with P > 0.05). Patients with higher ATF1 expression levels have a significantly higher survival rate than that with lower expression (P = 0.026 for overall survival, P = 0.008 for progress free survival). Multivariate Cox regression model revealed that ATF1 expression and depth of invasion were the predictors of the overall survival (P = 0.008 and P = 0.028) and progress free survival (P = 0.002 and P = 0.005) in CRC. Conclusions: Higher ATF1 expression is a predictor of a favorable outcome for the overall survival and progress free survival in CRC.
Prognostic Factors for Overall Survival in Patients With Metastatic Colorectal Carcinoma Treated With Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-Targeting Agents
Cetin, Bulent ; Kaplan, Mehmet Ali ; Berk, Veli ; Ozturk, Selcuk Cemil ; Benekli, Mustafa ; Isikdogan, Abdurrahman ; Ozkan, Metin ; Coskun, Ugur ; Buyukberber, Suleyman ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 1059~1063
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.1059
Objective: Angiogenesis represents a key element in the pathogenesis of malignancy. There are no robust data on prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-targeted therapy. The present study was conducted to establish a prognostic model for patients using an oxaliplatin-based or irinotecan-based chemotherapy plus bevacizumab in metastatic colorectal cancer. Methods: Baseline characteristics and outcomes on 170 patients treated with FOLFIRI or XELOX plus anti-VEGF therapy-naive metastatic colorectal cancer were collected from three Turkey cancer centers. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to identify independent prognostic factors for OS. Results: The median OS for the whole cohort was 19 months (95% CI, 14.3 to 23.6 months). Three of the seven adverse prognostic factors according to the Anatolian Society of Medical Oncology (ASMO) were independent predictors of short survival: serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) greater than the upper limit of normal (ULN; p<0.001); neutrophils greater than the ULN (p<0.0014); and progression free survival (PFS) less than 6 months (p =0.001). Conclusion: Serum LDH and neutrophil levels were the main prognostic factors in predicting survival, followed by PFS. This model validates incorporation of components of the ASMO model into patient care and clinical trials that use VEGF-targeting agents.
Trends in Incidence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma, 1990 - 2009, Khon Kaen, Thailand
Wiangnon, Surapon ; Kamsa-Ard, Supot ; Suwanrungruang, Krittika ; Promthet, Supannee ; Kamsa-Ard, Siriporn ; Mahaweerawat, Suwannee ; Khuntikeo, Narong ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 1065~1068
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.1065
Background: Liver cancer is the most frequent cancer among Thais especially people in northeastern Thailand, but there has as yet been no assessment of trend. The data of all cancers in Khon Kaen can be retrieved from data base of the Khon Kaen Cancer Registry (KKCR) which was established in 1984. Objective: To assess the incidence trend of hepatocellular carcinoma in Khon Kaen, Thailand, between 1990 and 2009. Methods: Population-based cases of liver cancer registered between 1985 and 2009 were retrieved from the KKCR data base and cases with diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with the coding C22.0 according to ICD-O were selected. Incidence trends were calculated using the Jointpoint analysis. Results: There were 7,859 cases of HCC during the study period. Males were affected two times more frequently than females. The most common age group of cases was 50 and 69 years (60.3%). Most patients were diagnosed based on radiology imaging (40.6%) while the morphology verification was 7%. The age-standardized rates (ASR) were 13.1 to 49.8 per 100,000 among males and 4.8 to 38.4 per 100,000 among females depending on year of diagnosis since 1985. Remarkably, the ASRs were clearly low during first few years of starting the registration. The overall ASRs of HCC were 30.3 per 100,000 in males (95% CI: 25.9 to 34.6) and 13.1 per 100,000 (95% CI: 10.4 to 15.8) in females. During 1990-2009, the trends in incidences have been decreasing significantly with the annual percent change (APC) of 6.2% per year (95% CI: -7.6 to -4.8) in males and by 6.5% per year in females (95% CI: -8.4 to -4.9). Conclusions: The incidence trends have been decreasing in both sexes. The recent decline in incidence may represent a falling risk.
Improving Quality of Life Among Cancer Patients in Malaysia
Ezat, W.P. Sharifa ; Noraziani, K. ; Sabrizan, O. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 1069~1075
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.1069
There are an almost infinite number of states of health, all with differing qualities that can be affected by many factors. Each aspect of health has many components which contribute to multidimensionality. Cancer and its' related issues surrounding the treatment plan contribute to the variety of changes of quality of life of cancer patients throughout their life. The objective of this article was to provide an overview of some of the issues that can affect their quality of life and initiatives towards successful care in Malaysia by reviewing relevant reports and articles. The current strategies can be further strengthened by prevention of cancer while improving quality of service to cancer patients.
N-Nitrosodimethylamine in the Kashmiri Diet and Possible Roles in the High Incidence of Gastrointestinal Cancers
Chikan, Naveed A. ; Shabir, Nadeem ; Shaffi, Sheikh ; Mir, Manzoor R. ; Patel, Trupti N. ;
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , volume 13, issue 3, 2012, Pages 1077~1079
DOI : 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.1077
The Kashmiri population is culturally distinct with special dietary features owing to the temperate climatic conditions of Kashmir valley. This has habituated the population to preserve food in smoked, pickled and sundried forms which include considerable amounts of
-nitroso compounds (NOCs). These are known to cause cytotoxicity, DNA damage, mutation, unscheduled DNA synthesis and DNA methylation. All of these changes at molecular level are known to contribute to the pathogenesis of cancer. One of the prominent NOCs found in Kashmiri food is
-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). Here we review the occurrence of NDMA in sundried foods, dried fish, kehwa, traditional pickle,
. We also discuss its possible role in the high prevalence of gastrointestinal cancers in Kashmir.